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# CHAPTER I

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Flow measurement is the quantification of bulk fluid movement. Flow can be measured in a
variety of ways. Positive-displacement flow meters accumulate a fixed volume of fluid and
then count the number of times the volume is filled to measure flow. Other flow measurement
methods rely on forces produced by the flowing stream as it overcomes a known constriction,
to indirectly calculate flow. Flow may be measured by measuring the velocity of fluid over a
known area. There are several types of flow meter that rely on Bernoulli's principle, either by
measuring the differential pressure within a constriction, or by measuring static and stagnation
pressures to derive the dynamic pressure [2].

Flow measurement simply means quantification of the moving fluid, which may be either
liquid, gas or a mixture of liquid solid or liquid gas. Measurement of flow plays a vital role in
various field of civil engineering mainly in irrigation engineering and hydraulic engineering.
While transporting fluid over a distance through pipe, it is essential to measure the flow inside
for accurate distribution for its proper use among the users. Various techniques have been used
till now for flow measurement in conduits.

A flow meter is a device used to measure the flow rate or quantity of a gas or liquid flowing
inside a pipe. Most commonly used flow meters are orifices, venturimeter, nozzles, rota meters,
pitot tubes etc. All flow meters can be broadly classified into following categories;

## Differential Pressure Flow meters

Velocity Flow meters
Positive Displacement Flow meters
Mass Flow meters
Open Channel Flow meter

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In differential pressure flow meters, flow is measured by measuring the pressure drop in the
flow. They are mainly based on Bernoullis principle, which states that rise (fall) in pressure
in a flowing fluid must always be accompanied by a decrease (increase) in the speed, and vice
versa [3].

1.2 VENTURIMETER

Venturimeter is a well-known flow measurement device which uses differential flow meter
and Bernoullis principle to measure flow rate inside a pipe. A venturimeter mainly consist of
a short pipe which has two conical parts joined by a short uniform cross section in between
known as Throat. The two conical portions have the same diameter but one having larger
length and smaller cone angle and other having the opposite as shown. The conical parts are
called as Convergent and Divergent part. The venturimeter is always used in such a way that
the upstream flow takes place through short conical portion and the downstream through the
larger one. If h is the piezometric head difference between inlet and throat of diameter d1 and
d2 respectively.

## Figure: 1.1 A typical Venturimeter [4]

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A venturimeter constricts the flow in some fashion, and pressure sensors measure the
differential pressure before and within the constriction. This method is widely used to measure
flow rate in the transmission of gas through pipelines, and has been used since Roman Empire
times. The coefficient of discharge of Venturimeter ranges from 0.93 to 0.97. The first large-
scale venturimeters to measure liquid flows were developed by Clemens Herschel who used
them to measure small and large flows of water and wastewater beginning at the end of the
19th century [2].

1.3 OBJECTIVES

## To design and construct a venturimeter

Performance test of venturimeter

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CHAPTER II

## 2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW

The main purpose of this literature review is to get information about the project from
the reference books, magazines, journals, technical papers and web sites. In this chapter
the discussion will be made base on all the sources.
A Venturimeter is a device that allows flow rates through pipes to be calculated by
measuring the difference in pressure created by a contraction in a pipe. When the flow
goes through the contraction it must speed up, and so the pressure must drop. By
measuring the two pressures, engineers can directly calculate the velocity of the fluid.
Knowing the pipe diameter, this velocity can be converted into a flow rate [5].
The principle of the venturimeter was first demonstrated in 1797 by Italian physicist
G.B. Venturi (1746-1822), but the principle was first applied by C. Herschel (1842-
1930) in 1887, to develop the device in its present form for measuring the discharge or
the rate of flow of fluid through pipes [1].
Brook (1962) was probably the first investigator to analyze the effect of solid liquid
mixture in venturi and other meters. He carried out experiment in a non-standard type
of venturimeter with a wide throat. He used the mixture of water and crushed Bakelite
or water and basalt chippings. Results obtained from this were compared with a 900
bends flow meter. A vertical counter flow meter was also being described which
measures both concentration and velocity of the solid liquid mixture [6].
Graf (1967) carried out an experiment on venturimeter to modify it for two phase flow.
He used sand water mixture for the experiment by putting the venturimeter in horizontal
position. He analyzed the data by plotting pressure drop against flow rate and a
modified loss was correlated with sediment concentration. A theoretical model was
developed to describe the results [7].

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Robinson (1970) carried out experiment to investigate the application of the
venturimeter in the flow with solid concentration. Two different venturimeters of
diameter 3inch and 4inch were tested for observing pressure drop an energy loss. Solids
used were sand mixture of size d50 of 0.45mm, .80mm, 1.17mm and 1.70mm. Pressure
drop was correlated with mixture discharge and velocity at the throat of venturimeter.
An average value of discharge coefficient was determined for each condition and
compared with clear water. The relative energy loss due to solid concentration was
related with solid concentration and nomograms were prepared. He put forward some
generalized expressions as below:
Am = CmQm2
where Qm is the flow rate and am is the pressure drop of mixture. The solid
concentration (C) was related to relative energy loss of solids by the equation, (b-b0)/b0
= kCn , where k and n were determined from experiment. The above two equations have
to be solved simultaneously to determine the unknowns Qm and C. For faster
calculation, they had given certain nomograms [8].
Shook and Masliyah (1971) analyzed the various factors affecting the flow of slurries
through venturimeter both theoretically and experimentally. Discharge coefficients
were found to be greater than unity in absence of wall friction coefficients. Experiments
were carried out to analyze the theoretical result and to examine the combined effects
of wall friction coefficients and finite slip velocity phenomenon. Experimental result
agreed to theoretical values at extreme case and for venturimeter also it was found that
wall friction increased with increase in particle size and density [9].
Hasan et al (1982) carried out an experimental study to analyze the effectiveness of
venturimeter as a flow measuring device for slurries. A two inch black iron pipe line
containing lignite concentration varying from (0-40) % and flow velocity ranged from
(2.4 to 6) ft/sec was used. The pressure drop was measured across three venturi of throat
diameter 0.75,1 and 1.5inch. They concluded that for measurement of slurries density
must be used in the flow equation of venturimeter [10].
Gahlot (1994) investigated the characteristics of a conventional venturimeter and an
eccentric 900 sector orifice plate used for measuring flow rate in a pipe carrying slurry.

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The venturimeter used in the experiment had nominal pipe bore of 100mm and diameter
ratio 0.6. The pressure taps of the venturimeter were provided with special separation
chambers to avoid clogging due to solid particles [11].
Azzopardi (1998) derived a quasi-one dimensional model for gas or solid flows in
venturimeter. They proposed that the pressure drop in the throat of venturi and recovery
of pressure across the diffuser were the two unknowns to be solved. The model
developed allowed acceleration and deceleration of gas and solid particles and also the
change in thickness of boundary layer. The model was validated with previously
published experimental data and found to be well agreed [12].

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CHAPTER III

3.1 THEORY

A venturimeter is essentially a short pipe consisting of two conical parts with a short
portion of uniform cross-section in between. This short portion has the minimum area
and is known as the throat. The two conical portions have the same base diameter, but
one is having a shorter length with a larger cone angle while the other is having a larger
length with a smaller cone angle. A venturimeter is a device used for measuring the
rate of a flow of a fluid flowing through a pipe and is considered to be the most accurate
flow-sensing element only if it is accurately calibrated. It consists of three parts.
1. An inlet section followed by a converging cone
2. A cylindrical throat
It is based on the principle of Bernoullis equation. Bernoulli's principle states that:
An increase in the speed of a fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease
in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy.
Inside of the venturimeter pressure difference is created by reducing the cross-sectional
area of the flow passage. The pressure difference is measured by using a differential
U-tube manometer. This pressure difference helps in the determination of rate of flow
of fluid or discharge through the pipe line. As the inlet area of the venturi is large than
at the throat, the velocity at the throat increases resulting in decrease of pressure. By
this, a pressure difference is created between the inlet and the throat of the venturi.
The convergent cone of a venturimeter has a total included angle of 21 1 and its
length parallel to the axis is approximately equal to 2.7 ( D d ), where D is the diameter
of the inlet section and d is the diameter of the throat. The length of the throat is equal
to d. The divergent cone has a total included angle lying between 5 to 15 (preferably

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Figure 3.1 Flow measurement using venturimeter

Let,

## = Specific weight of the fluid

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Now applying Bernoullis equation between the inlet and throat section we get,

1 12 2 22
+ + 1 = + + 2 ()
2 2

As shown in figure 3.1 if the venturimeter is connected in a horizontal pipe or if the datum
may be assumed to be passing through the axis of the venturimeter then Z1 = Z2 = 0. So the
above equation reduces to

1 12 2 22
+ = + ()
2 2

or
1 22 12
2
= ()
2 2

In the above expression ( 1 2 ) is the difference between the pressure heads at sections 1

## and 2 which is known as venturi head and is denoted by h. That is

22 12
= ()
2 2

Further if Qth represents the discharge through the pipe, then by continuity equation

## Qth = a1V1 = a2V2

or 1 = ; and 2 = ()
1 2

## By substituting the values of V1 and V2 from equation () in equation(), we get

2
1 1
= [ 2 2]
2 2 1

or

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1 2 2
= ()
12 22

Equation () gives only the theoretical discharge because the loss of energy has not been
considered. The actual discharge will be less than the theoretical discharge given by
equation(). The actual discharge may therefore be obtained by multiplying the theoretical
discharge by a factor Cd called coefficient of discharge that is

= ; or =

where Q represents the actual discharge. Therefore, the actual discharge through the
venturimeter is given by

1 2 2
=
12 22

## The working principle of venturimeter is the following:

The venturimeter is always used in a way that the upstream part of the flow takes place
through the short conical portion while the downstream part of the flow through the
long one.

This ensures a rapid converging passage and a gradual diverging passage in the
direction of flow to avoid the loss of energy due to separation. In course of a flow
through the converging part, the velocity increases in the direction of flow according
to the principle of continuity, while the pressure decreases according to Bernoullis
theorem.

The velocity reaches its maximum value and pressure reaches its minimum value at the
throat. Subsequently, a decrease in the velocity and an increase in the pressure takes
place in course of flow through the divergent part.

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CHAPTER IV

4.1 MODELING

Venturimeter mainly has three parts: an inlet section followed by a converging cone, a circular
throat, a diverging cone followed by an outlet section. Normally the diameter of the inlet
section and outlet section remains equal. The diameter of the throat is smaller comparing to
the inlet and outlet section. The diameter of the converging and diverging section varies
through a definite angle of about 5 to 15 [1].

In the CAD model the angle in the converging and diverging section is kept equal to make the
design simpler. Also two small pipes are fitted in inlet and throat section to measure the
pressure drop in these positions. In CAD model the material for the venturimeter is taken
transparent glass and pipe material is steel. CAD model was modeled using SolidWorks 2014,
a computer aided design software published by Dassault Systmes and then rendered in
KeyShot5.5. The CAD model is given below:

## Figure 4.1 Three dimensional view of venturimeter

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Figure 4.2 Top view of venturimeter

## Figure 4.3 Front view of venturimeter

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Figure 4.4 Right side view of venturimeter

## 4.2 CONSTRUCTION PROCESS

For the construction of venturimeter the material was taken nylon polymer. A solid tube of
nylon polymer of about 8-inch length and about 1-inch diameter was taken. The solid tube was
then machined in a lathe machine.

First the two sides of the material were smoothened by facing. Then by using a drill bit of 25
mm, inlet section and outlet section was drilled. And then by using a drill bit of 12 mm the
throat section was cut. The converging-diverging section was cut using a boring tool. Thus the
inner section of the venturimeter was completed. For the outer section first by turning the outer
surface was smoothened. And then by taper turning the converging-diverging section was cut
in outer surface. Then for inserting steel tubes to measure manometer pressure difference two
holes were drilled in inlet and throat section using a drill bit of 7 mm in drill machine. Finally,
for better surface finish the surface was rubbed by an emery paper. Thus the construction
process was completed.

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The pictures of the constructed venturimeter are:

## Figure 4.6 Top view of constructed venturimeter

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Figure 4.7 Front view of constructed venturimeter

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CHAPTER V

## 5.1 EXPERIMENTAL DATA

First the venturimeter was attached in the flow bench and manometer pipes were fitted in the
steel tubes and then by varying the voltage of motor thus by varying the motor speed the
following data was taken.

Table 5.1 Data table of pressure head at inlet and throat for the constructed venturimeter

## Observation Motor Voltage Inlet Pressure Throat Pressure Venturi head,

(mm)
1. 27.5 2 6 4

2. 30 3 8 5

3. 35 3 10 7

4. 45 4 12 8

5. 50 4 15 11

6. 55 5 21 16

7. 60 5 33 28

8. 65 5 47 42

9. 70 5 55 50

10. 75 6 64 58

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Then for comparing the data taken same experiment was carried out in the venturimeter
available at the lab and data was taken. The data table is the following.

Table 5.2 Data table of pressure head at inlet and throat for the venturimeter available at fluid
mechanics lab

(mm)
1. 27.5 1 14 13

2. 30 1 15 14

3. 35 2 31 29

4. 45 2 61 59

5. 50 3 82 79

6. 55 3 101 98

7. 60 4 131 127

8. 65 4 150 146

9. 70 5 160 155

## 10. 75 6 173 167

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5.2 SAMPLE CALCULATION

## Throat diameter, d2 = 12 mm,

So, Inlet area, a1 = 4 (2510-3)2 = 0.5110-3 m2,

Throat area, a2 = 4 (1210-3)2 = 0.11 10-3 m2,

We know,

hair = hwater

## So, for observation no. 2

1000
h1 = 1.192
3 103 m

= 2.517 m

1000
h2 = 8 103 m
1.192

= 6.711 m

Again, P = hair

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So, P1 = 2.517 11.6894 Pa

= 29.62 Pa

P2 = 6.711 11.6894 Pa

= 78.97 Pa

## Now, Venturi head, h = h2 h1

= (6.71 2.517) m

= 4.193 m

1 2 2
So, discharge rate, =
12 22

## (.51103 )(.11103 )29.814.193

=
(.51103 )(.11103 )

= 1021.7610-6 m3/s

## Throat diameter, d2 = 9.5 mm,

So, Inlet area, a1 = 4 (2410-3)2 = 0.4510-3 m2,

Throat area, a2 = 4 (9.510-3)2 = 0.07110-3 m2,

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We know,

hair = hwater

1000
h1 = 1 103 m
1.2

= 0.83 m

1000
h2 = 15 103 m
1.2

= 12.5 m

Again, P = hair

## So, P1 = 0.83 11.7678 Pa

= 9.70 Pa

P2 = 12.5 11.7678 Pa

= 146.12 Pa

## Now, Venturi head, h = h2 h1

= (146.12 9.70) m

= 136.42 m

1 2 2
So, discharge rate, =
12 22

## (.45103 )(.071103 )29.81136.42

=
(.45103 )(.071103 )

= 1087.9710-6 m3/s

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5.3 RESULT

Table 5.3 Measurement of venturi head of air, inlet pressure, throat pressure and flow rate for
the constructed venturimeter

Observation Venturi head of Inlet pressure, Throat pressure, Flow rate, Q10-6
no. air, h (m) P1 (Pa) P2 (Pa) (m3/s)
1. 3.355 19.75 59.24 913.97
2. 4.194 29.62 78.97 1021.76
3. 5.872 29.62 98.72 1209.15
4. 6.711 39.49 118.47 1292.65
5. 9.228 39.49 148.09 1515.79
6. 13.422 49.36 207.31 1828.08
7. 23.49 49.36 325.79 2418.40
8. 36.235 49.36 464.00 2961.92
9. 41.946 49.36 542.98 3231.71
10. 48.657 59.24 631.82 3480.64

Table 5.4 Measurement of venturi head of air, inlet pressure, throat pressure and flow rate for
the venturimeter available at lab

Observation Venturi head of Inlet pressure, Throat pressure, Flow rate, Q10-6
no. air, h (m) P1 (Pa) P2 (Pa) (m3/s)
1. 10.837 9.70 136.38 1048.57
2. 11.67 9.70 146.12 1087.97
3. 24.163 19.49 301.94 1565.52
4. 49.163 19.49 594.17 2233.06
5. 65.83 29.22 798.74 2583.42
6. 81.667 29.22 983.86 2878.10
7. 105.837 38.93 1276.1 3276.43

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8. 121.67 38.93 1461.18 3512.52
9. 129.163 48.71 1558.55 3619.52
10. 139.167 58.45 1685.23 3757.08

Table 5.5 Comparison of flow rate between the constructed venturimeter and the venturimeter
available at lab and error

Observation Flow rate of constructed Flow rate of the venturimeter Error (%)
no. venturimeter Q10-6 (m3/s) available at lab Q10-6 (m3/s)
1. 913.97 1048.57 12.83
2. 1021.76 1087.97 6.09
3. 1209.15 1565.52 22.76
4. 1292.65 2233.06 42.11
5. 1515.79 2583.42 41.33
6. 1828.08 2878.10 36.48
7. 2418.40 3276.43 29.16
8. 2961.92 3512.52 15.69
9. 3231.71 3619.52 10.71
10. 3480.64 3757.08 7.36

## 5.4 ERROR ANALYSIS

Here we can see that the variation in flow rate between the constructed venturimeter and the
venturimeter available at the lab was very large in some observation. This might be due to the
variation in temperature during the experiment as the two experiments were carried out in two
different times. Also there was some error in constructing the venturimeter. The inner surface
was a little bit rough which may cause the drift in pressure. Also the angle in converging and
diverging part of the venturimeter was equal where it is needed to be in definite and different
angle. The angle in the converging-diverging section was larger than it was need to. That was
because it was not possible to cut the converging-diverging section in the definite angle.

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CHAPTER VI

## They can handle large flow volumes at low pressure drops.

Venturi tube flowmeters involve no moving parts.
They can be mounted in large diameter pipes via flanged, welded or threaded-end
fittings.
They can be used with nearly all liquids, as well as those containing extreme solids
content.
Venturi tubes involve no projections into the fluid and no sharp corners. Also there are
no rapid changes in contour.

## Following are some disadvantages of venturimeter:

Primary cost for installation and usage of venturi tubes proves to be very high.
Also there can be trouble in installation and inspection of venturis.
Construction of venturi tubes is very complicated as it involves certain angle at
converging and diverging section.

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CHAPTER VII

7.1 CONCLUSION

In this work, venturimeter was studied thoroughly. Venturimeter is a flow measuring device
that measures the flow rate of fluid using differential flow meter and Bernoullis principle. It
is a well-known flow measuring instrument and very important in fluid mechanics field. In this
work theory of measuring the flow rate using a venturimeter was studied. Then a CAD model
was prepared using SolidWorks 2014, a computer aided design software published by Dassault
Systmes. A venturimeter was constructed using nylon polymer and then its performance was
tested and compared with an ideal venturimeter available at fluid mechanics lab. The reasons
behind the error was analyzed too.

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REFERENCES

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[2] Flow measurement - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flow_measurement#Pressure-based_meters.
[3] Abhishek Kala, Dr. S.K Mittal, Prof M.K. Choudhary, Characteristics of Flow Meters
with Sediment Laden Flow A Review, Department of Civil Engineering, MANIT
Bhopal, International Journal of Engineering Research, Volume No.4, Issue No.5,
Page: 240-243.
[4] Venturimeter Principle - Mechanical Buzz https://mechanicalbuzz.com/venturi-meter-
principle.html.
[5] Theoretical Fluid Mechanics: Venturimeter by Mike Soltys
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venturi-meter/.
[6] Brook, N., FLOW MEASUREMENT OF SOLIDLIQUID MIXTURES USING
VENTURI AND OTHER METERS, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical
Engineers June 1962, 176 Page: 127-140.
[7] Graf, W.H., A MODIFIED VENTURIMETER FOR MEASURING TWO-PHASE
FLOW or PARTICLE DYNAMICS AND THE VENTURIMETER, Journal of
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[8] Robinson, M., Yucel, O., Graf, W.H., MODIFIED VENTURIMETER; A
MEASURING DEVICE FOR SOLID-LIQUID MIXTURES Fritz Laboratory
Reports.
[9] Shook,C.A., Malshiya, J.H., FLOW OF A SLURRY THROUGH A
VENTURIMETER, The Canadian Journal Of Chemical Engineering, Volume 52,
Issue 2, April1974,pages 228233.
[10] Hasan, R., Baria, D.N., Chowdhury, N.M., LIGNITE-WATER SLURRY FLOW
MEASUREMENT USING A VENTURIMETER, The proceedings of the 1981
symposium on instrumentation and control for fossil-energy processes 1981, 458-464.

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[11] Gahlot, V.K., Sharma, K.K., Seshadri, V., CHARACTERISTICS OF
VENTURIMETER AND SECTOR ORIFICE PLATES IN THE FLOW OF SOLID-
LIQUID MIXTURES, 4th Triennial International Symposium of Fluid Control,
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[12] Azzopardi, B.J., Teixeira S.F.C.F., Pulford, C.I., A QUASI-ONE-DIMENSIONAL
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