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- Chapter 09 Homework
- Solution Manual for Physics for Scientists and Engineers 9th Edition by Serway and Jewett
- JJ205 Engineering Mechanic Chapter 6 Jj205
- Acceleration by Gravity SPH 3UI
- Velocity
- Curriculum+FyANVC010VT2011
- Olp Igcse Mechanics Ct 3
- Vectors
- Physics Chap 7
- Kinema Tics
- Reviewer
- Aplicaciones Derivada Cinematica -Calculo-nivel Medio
- 3-KINEMATICS
- Linear Motion
- Solutions to HC Verma-1&2 (1)
- P04 PVA Graphs
- Autonomous Forklift Final Presentation.pptx
- Review Exercise 2
- 03 Kinematics
- 03.Solutions to Concepts

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Important Points:

1. An object is said to be at rest, if the position of the object does not change with time with

respect to its surroundings.

2. An object is said to be in motion, if its position changes with time with respect to its

surroundings.

A person travelling in a bus is at rest with respect to the co-passenger and he is in motion with

respect to the person on the road.

a) Distance is actual path and displacement is the shortest distance between its initial and final

positions.

5. Speed:

a) The rate of distance travelled by a body is called speed. Its SI unit is ms-1.It is a scalar

quantity.

distance travelled

Speed = .

time taken

s ds

b) Instantaneous speed = Lt = .

t 0 t dt

Total distance

c). Average speed =

Total time

6. Velocity:

a) The rate of change of displacement of a body is called velocity. Its SI unit is ms-1.It is a vector

quantity.

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b) A body is said to move with uniform velocity, if it has equal displacements in equal intervals

of time, however small these intervals may be.

c) The velocity of a particle at any instant of time or at any point of its path is called

instantaneous velocity.

s ds

V = Lt =

t 0 t dt

Total displacement

d) Average velocity =

Total time

7. Acceleration:

v u

a=

t

8. Retardation:

9. Acceleration under earths gravity is called acceleration due to gravity (g) and it is equal to

980 cms-2 or 9.8 ms-2.

1 2 1

1) v = u + at 2) S = ut + at 3) v2 - u2 = 2as 4) Sn = u + a n

2 2

Where Sn is the distance travelled by a body in the nth second of its journey.

1 2 1

1) v = gt 2) h = gt 3) v2 = 2gh 4) Sn = g n

2 2

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1 2 1

1) v = u gt 2) h = ut gt 3) v 2 = u 2 2 gh 4) hn = u g n

2 2

13. For a body thrown up vertically from the top of a tower of height h,

1 2 1

1) v = - u + gt 2) h = - ut + gt 3) v 2 = u 2 2 gh 4) hn = u + g n

2 2

a. Maximum Height:

u2

H=

2g

b. Time of Ascent:

The time taken by a body to reach the maximum height is known as time of ascent.

u

ta =

g

c. Time of Descent:

The time in which body comes down from maximum height is known as time of descent.

u

td =

g

d. Time of Flight:

The total time for which a body remains in air before reaching the ground is known as time of

flight.

u u 2u

T = ta + td = + =

g g g

15. Time of ascent is equal to time of descent, if air resistance force is neglected.

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16. If a body is allowed to fall freely from the top of a tower of height h and another is projected

simultaneously from the foot of tower in the upwards with velocity u , then they meet after

time

h

t=

u

Velocity of one body with respect to that of another body is called relative velocity. The

velocity of `A` with respect to that of `B` is given by

VAB = VA VB

a) Position-time graph is plotted by taking time along X-axis and position of the

particle on Y-axis.

a) The graph is plotted by taking time along X -axis and velocity of the particle on

Y- axis

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A. Rest:

A body is said to be at rest if it occupies the same position for any length of time, with

respect to its surroundings.

Motion:

A body is said to be in motion if it occupies different positions at different time intervals

with respect to its surroundings.

Ex: A person travelling in a bus is at rest with respect to the co-passenger and he is in motion

with respect to the person on the road. Hence rest and motion are relative.

A. Average Velocity:

It is the ratio of its total displacement of the body and the total time taken for that

displacement.

Total displacement

Vaverage =

Total time

Instantaneous velocity:

x ds

VInst = Lt =

t 0 t dt

3. Give an example where the velocity of an object is zero but its acceleration is not zero?

A. At the highest point of a vertically projected body, velocity is zero but it is still under

acceleration due to gravity.

4. A vehicle travels half the distance L with speed v1 and the other half with speed v2.

Total time

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L L L

Vave = = =

t1 + t2 L / 2 L / 2 L 1 1

+

V1 V2 +

2 V1 V2

2VV

Vave = 1 2

V1 + V2

5. A lift coming down is just about to reach the ground floor. Taking the ground floor as

origin and positive direction upwards for all quantities, which one of the following is

correct?

6. A uniformly moving cricket ball is hit with a bat for a very short time and is turned

back. Show the variation of its acceleration with time taking the acceleration in the

backward direction as positive?

A:

7. Give an example of one-dimensional motion where a particle moving along the positive

x-direction comes to rest periodically and moves forward.

The question may be corrected like this:

Give an example of one-dimensional motion where a particle moving along the positive

x-direction comes to rest periodically.

A: A particle in simple harmonic motion comes to rest periodically at the extreme positions.

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where g is the gravitational acceleration and b is a constant. After a long time it is

observed to fall with a constant velocity. What would be the value of this constant

velocity?

A. If velocity is constant, acceleration is zero. a = g - bv = 0

g

v =

b

frame that moves with a constant velocity with respect to the first frame? If not, what

can it be?

10. A spring with one end attached to a mass and the other to a rigid support is stretched

and released. When is the magnitude of acceleration a maximum?

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1. Can the equations of kinematics be used when the acceleration varies with time? If not,

what form would these equations take?

1

V = V 0 + at ; x = V 0t + at 2 ; V 2 = V 0 2 + 2ax

2

dv

Instantaneous acceleration a =

dt

dv = a dt

v t

dv = a dt , where v 0 is velocity at time t = 0

v0 0

dv dv dx dv

Instantaneous acceleration a = = . = .v

dt dx dt dx

vdv = a dx

v x

v dv = a dx , where is velocity at the position x0

v0 x0

dx dx dv dx

Also, v = = . = .a

dt dv dt dv

v.dv = a.dx

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v x

Then, v dv = a dx

v0 x0

2. A particle moves in a straight line with uniform acceleration. Its velocity at time t = 0 is

v1 and at time t = t is v2 . The average velocity of the particle in this time interval is

Let a particle be moving with uniform acceleration a along a straight. Its velocity is v1 at

time t = 0 at origin and it reached a position in a time t and its velocity became v2 .Then,

average velocity over time intervalt is given by

x x 0 x

v ave = = =

t t 0 t

V 22 V 12 V V1

But x= and a= 2

2a t

(V 22 V12 ) t

x=

2 (V 2 V1 )

(V + V )(V V )

x= 2 1 2 1

t 2 (V 2 V1 )

Or V ave = V1 + V2

2

3. Can the velocity of an object be in a direction other than the direction of acceleration of

the object? If so, give an example?

Ex: If a body is projected vertically upwards, the velocity of body is directed vertically

upwards but the acceleration due to gravity is always directed vertically downwards

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He opens his parachute when he is about 1 km above ground. Describe his motion?

A: Assume that aeroplane is flying horizontally. Now he is like a freely falling body in

vertically downward direction and has uniform velocity equal to plane velocity in horizontal

direction till he opens parachute at a height 1 km above the ground.

After parachute is opened, air resistance (Viscous drag) and buoyancy also acts on him

along with gravitational force. In the presence of these forces the net acceleration will

become zero after falling through certain height, there he attains constant velocity called

Terminal Velocity. Further he falls on to the ground with the same terminal.

5. A bird holds a fruit in its beak and flies parallel to the ground. It lets go of the

fruit at some height. Describe the trajectory of the fruit as it falls to the ground as seen

by (a) The Bird (b) a person on the ground?

A: When the bird dropped a fruit while flying horizontally, it falls on to the ground after some

time. The path traversed by fruit depends on the choice of reference frame.

(a) The trajectory of fruit with respect to bird is a straight line vertically downward as it

appears to be falling freely for the bird.

(b)The trajectory of fruit with respect to a person on the ground is parabola.

6. A man runs across the roof of a tall building and jumps horizontally on to the

(lower) roof of an adjacent building. If his speed is 9 m s 1 and the horizontal

distance between the buildings is 10 m and the height difference between the roofs is

9m, will he be able to land on the next building? (Take g = 10 m s 2 )

(

2 h 2 h1 )

g

29

x=9 = 12.07 m

10

Since the horizontal separation is 10 m between the two buildings, which is less than

12.07 m .Thus he can safely land on to the building with his effort.

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7. A ball is dropped from the roof of a tall building and simultaneously another ball is

thrown horizontally with some velocity from the same roof. Which ball lands first?

Explain your answer?

Let h be the height of the building. For the dropped ball, time taken to reach the ground -

2h

t1 = (1)

g

For the horizontally thrown ball the initial vertical component of velocity is zero. Let the

time taken to reach the ground is t 2 .

1

From, s = ut + at 2

2

1 2

h= gt

2 2

2h

t2 = ( 2)

g

upward with some velocity. Describe the change in relative velocities of the balls as a

function of time?

A: Let ball (1) be dropped from the top edge of building and ball (2) be projected vertically

upwards with velocity u from the same point.

The relative velocity of ball (1) with respect to ball (2) after time interval t is

V 12 = u12 + a12 = u + ( 0 ) t = u = constant

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Thus the relative velocity of the balls is always constant during their motion. Hence the

change in their relative velocity is zero in course of time, which is equal to the velocity of

projection of second ball.

9. A typical raindrop is about 4mm in diameter. If a raindrop falls from a cloud which is

at 1 km above the ground, estimate its momentum when it hits the ground?

P = mass velocity = mv

4

But, mass m = volume density = r 3 and V = 2 gh

3

4

P = r 3 2 gh

3

4mm

r= = 2mm = 2 10 3 m

2

3

4 22

3 7

( ) 4 22

P = 2 10 3 10 3 2 9.8 10 3 = 8 10 6 14 10

3 7

= 0.00469 kg ms 1

10. Show that the maximum height reached by a projectile launched at an angle of 45 is

one quarter of its range?

u 2 sin 2

A. Maximum height H =

2g

u 2 sin 2

Horizontal range R =

g

H u 2 sin 2 g tan

Now, = 2 =

R 2g u sin 2 4

R

If , = 45 0 , H =

4

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Problems

1. A man walks on a straight road from his home to a market 2.5 km away with a speed

of 5 km h 1 . Finding the market closed, he instantly turns and walks back home with a

speed of 7.5 km h 1 . What is the (a) Magnitude of Average Velocity and (b) Average

Speed of the man over the time interval 0 to 50 min?

A:

S 2.5

Time taken to go from home to market is t1 = =

V1 5

1

t1 = hr = 30min

2

s 2.5 1

Time taken by him to get back from market to home is t2 = = = hr =20 min

V2 7.5 3

total displacement 0

(a ) magnitude of average velocity = = =0

total time 50

(b) average speed = = = 6 kmph

total time 1 1

+

2 3

2 A car travels the first third of a distance with a speed of 10 kmph, the second third at

20 kmph and the last third at 60 kmph. What is its mean speed over the entire

distance?

A:

S1 + S 2 + S3

Mean speed Vav =

t1 + t2 + t3

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S S S

+ +

Vav = 3 3 3

S S S

+ +

3V1 3V2 3V3

3V1V2V3 3 (10 )( 20 )( 60 )

Vav = =

V1V2 + V2V3 + V3V1 (10 20 ) + ( 20 60 ) + ( 60 10 )

Or Vav = 18kmph

3. A bullet moving with a speed of 150 ms 1 strikes a tree and penetrates 3.5 cm before

stopping. What is the magnitude of its retardation in the tree and the time taken for it

to stop after striking the tree?

Acceleration = -a

i) From, v 2 u 2 = 2 ( a ) s

2

150 150

a= 2

= 3.214 105 m / s

2 3.5 10

From, v = u + ( a ) t

150

t = = 4.667 104 s

3.214 10 5

4. A motorist drives north for 30 min at 85 km/h and then stops for 15min. He continues

travelling north and covers 130 km in 2 hours. What is his total displacement and

average velocity?

60

The magnitude of total displacement is S = S1 + S2 = ( 42.5 + 130 ) km = 172.5 km

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60 60

172.5

=

172.5

kmph

Total time 1 1 11

+ + 2

2 4 4

= 62.72 kmph

5. A ball A is dropped from the top of a building and at the same time an identical ball B

is thrown vertically upward from the ground. When the balls collide the speed of A is

twice that of B. At what fraction of the height of the building did the collision occur?

Let hA is distance travelled by A and hB is the distance travelled by B before they collide.

Let u be the initial speed of B. Let vA and vB be the speed of A and B at time of collision.

From = u + at ,

A = 0 + gt A = gt (1)

and B = u gt ( 2 )

But A = 2B

gt = 2 ( u gt )

2u

or t= ........ ( 3)

3g

1

From, s = ut + at 2

2

1 1

hA = 0 ( t ) + gt 2 = gt 2 ___ ( 4 )

2 2

1

hB = u ( t ) gt 2 ( 5)

2

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1

ut

1 2

gt ut gt 2

hB 2 = 2

=

hA + hB 1 2 1 2 ut

gt + ut gt

2 2

But, t = 2u

3g

1 g 2u 1 2

Required fractions = 1 = 1 =

2 u 3g 3 3

6 Drops of water fall at regular intervals from the roof of a building of height 16m. The

first drop strikes the ground at the same moment as the fifth drop leaves the roof. Find

the distances between successive drops?

A. Let t be the time interval between fall of two successive drops. Then from fig. and from the

given information in the problems

Time of fall of 1st drop = 4t

Time of fall of 2nd drop = 3t

Time of fall of 3rd drop = 2t

Time of fall of 4th drop = t

Total height from which drops fall is given by h

Clearly distance through which 1st drop fall is also h

So h = 0 + 1 g ( 4t )2

2

1 1 h

g ( 4t ) gt 2 = (1)

2

h=

2 2 16

2

1

h2 = 9 gt 2

2

1

g ( 2t )

2

Distance through which 3rd drop fall is h3 =

2

4h

h3 =

16

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1

Distance through which 4th drop fall is h4 = g (t )

2

7

16 = 7m

16 16 16

16 16

5 5

= h = (16 ) = 5m

16 16

16 16 16 16

16

7. A hunter aims a gun at a monkey hanging from a tree some distance away. The monkey

drops from the branch at the moment he fires the gun hoping to avoid the bullet.

Explain why the monkey made a wrong move?

A.

If there were no gravity the bullet would reach height H in the time t taken by it to travel the

horizontal distance X, i.e.

X

H = u sin t with t =

u cos

time t the bullet will reach a height

1 1

y = u sin t gt 2 = H gt 2

2 2

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1 2

This is lower than H by gt which is exactly the amount the monkey falls freely in this

2

time. So the bullet will hit the monkey regardless of the initial velocity of the bullet so long

as it is great enough to travel the horizontal distance to the tree before hitting the ground.

However, for large u lesser will be the time of motion; so the monkey is hit near its initial

position and for smaller u it is hit just before it reaches the floor. Bullet will hit the monkey

only if

1

y > 0, i.e., H gt 2 > 0

2

Or 1 2 1 x2

H> gt or H > g 2

2 2 u cos 2

or u > x g

cos 2H

But, cos = x

H 2 + x2

Or u>

g

2H

( )

x 2 + H 2 = u0

If u < u0 , the bullet will hit the ground before reaching the monkey.

8. A food packet is dropped from an aero plane, moving with a speed of 360 kmph in a

horizontal direction, from a height of 500m. Find (i) Its time of descent

(ii) The horizontal distance between the point at which the food packet reaches the

ground and the point above which it was dropped?

5

A: u x = 360kmph = 360 = 100m / s ; h = 500m ; g = 10m / s 2

18

2h 2 500

(i) t= = = 10 s

g 10

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angle of 200 below the horizontal. It strikes the ground 3s later. From what height was

the ball thrown? How far from the base of the building does the ball strike the ground?

1

i) From, s y = u y t + a y t 2

2

h = ( u sin 200 ) t +

1 2

gt

2

1

h = 8 sin 200 3 + 9.8 32 = 52.3 m

2

ii) S x = u x t

10. Two balls are projected from the same point in directions 300 and 600 with

respect to the horizontal. What is the ratio of their initial velocities if they

(a) Attain the same height? (b) Have the same range?

u 2 sin 2 u 2 sin 2

A. H= and R =

2g g

a) H1 = H 2

=

2g 2g

2

1

2

3

u = u22 u1 : u2 = 3 :1

2

1

2 2

b) R1 = R2

=

g g

3 2 3

u12 = u2 u1 : u2 = 1:1

2 2

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