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VALLIAMMAI ENGINEERING COLLEGE

SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur 603 203.

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

QUESTION BANK

SUBJECT : IT6005 DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING


SEM / YEAR : VII/ IVyear B.E.

Unit I - DIGITAL IMAGE FUNDAMENTALS


Introduction Origin Steps in Digital Image Processing Components Elements of Visual
Perception Image Sensing and Acquisition Image Sampling and Quantization Relationships
between pixels - color models.
PartA
Q.No Questions BT Level Competence
1. List the steps involved in digital image processing. BTL 1 Remembering
2. Specify the basic components of image processing system. BTL 1 Remembering
3. Illustrate the term Image. BTL 2 Understanding
4. Brief about fovea. BTL 1 Remembering
5. Mention the applications of image processing BTL 1 Remembering
6. Classify image sensing sensors and give short note BTL 1 Remembering
7. What are the primary and secondary colours. BTL 1 Remembering
8. Summarize the membranes of human eye. BTL 2 Understanding
9. Short answer about the terms: Hue, Saturation, Grey level BTL 2 Understanding
10. How a digital image can be represented? BTL 2 Understanding
11. Construct the photonic electromagnetic spectrum. BTL 3 Applying
12. Identify the various multispectral bands and their applications BTL 3 Applying
13. Differentiate brightness and contrast BTL 4 Analyzing
14. Identify the difference between regions and boundaries BTL 3 Applying
15. Develop the steps for analog to digital conversion, state its need. BTL 3 Applying
16. Examine about adjacency and connectivity. BTL 4 Analyzing
17. Compare Brightness and Contrast BTL 5 Evaluating
18. Explain the term Weber ratio. BTL 5 Evaluating
19. Discuss that how an image to be sensed by human eye? BTL 6 Creating
20. Compose about 4 connectivity, 8 connectivity and m connectivity BTL 6 Creating
in pixels
Part B

1. In detail explain the fundamental steps involved in digital image BTL 1 Remembering
processing systems.(16)
2. What are the components of digital image processing system? BTL 1 Remembering
Prepared by: V.Thirilogasundari AP(O.G),M.Selvaraj AP(OG)
Explain each in detail. (16)
3. (i)Explain the human visual perception system in detail with BTL 2 Understanding
necessary diagrams. (10)
(ii) Explain CMY and CMYK colour models (6)
4. Illustrate in detail about
i)RGB model (8) BTL 2 Understanding
ii) HIS model (8) BTL 2 Understanding
5. i) Explain in detail about image acquisition system (8) BTL 2 Understanding
ii) Illustrate how the image is digitized by sampling and
quantization process (8)
6. Describe in detail about:
i) Various sensors (8) BTL 3 Applying
ii) Image acquisition systems (8) BTL3 Applying
7. i) Conclude that how the digital image to be represented give in BTL 4 Analyzing
detail. (8) BTL 1 Remembering
ii) Write about image representation system. (8)
8. Distinguish the following terms and brief each: BTL 4 Analyzing
i) Adjacency ii) Connectivity iii) Region iv)Boundary
(4*4=16)
9. Evaluate the various colour models. Explain each of them in detail. BTL 5 Evaluating
10. Discuss in detail about:
i) Iimage sampling BTL 6 Creating
ii) Quantiztion BTL6 Creating
11. i)Identify the applications of image processing (6) BTL 1 Remembering
ii) Analyze that how the image formation takes place in eye and
state the principle of operation of brightness adaption and BTL 4 Analyzing
discrimination(10)
12. Define briefly the following terms: i) image restoration,
ii) Compression, iii) Segmentation, iv) morpological processing BTL 1 Remembering
(4*4=16)
13. i) Illustrate the principle of operation of human eye. BTL 2 Understanding
(8) BTL 2 Understanding
ii) Summarize about various chromic models.(8)
14. Analyze the various parameters of image processing
i) Band number ii) Spectrum, iii) wave lengths, iv) applications. BTL 6 Creating
(4*4=16)

UNIT II IMAGE ENHANCEMENT


Spatial Domain: Gray level transformations Histogram processing Basics of Spatial Filtering
Smoothing and Sharpening Spatial Filtering Frequency Domain: Introduction to Fourier Transform
Smoothing and Sharpening frequency domain filters Ideal, Butterworth and Gaussian filters.
Prepared by: V.Thirilogasundari AP(O.G),M.Selvaraj AP(OG)
PART A
Q.No Questions BT Level Competence

1. What is meant by image filtering. BTL 2 Understanding

2. Summarize about histogram equalization BTL 2 Understanding

3. Explain the two categories of image enhancement. BTL 2 Understanding

4. Write expression for Gray, Log and Gamma transformations BTL 1 Remembering
5. Specify the need for image enhancement. BTL 4 Analyzing
6. What is spatial domain method? BTL 1 Remembering
7. Identify the effect of under sampling process BTL 3 Applying
8. Illustrate with examples for linear and nonlinear filters? BTL 2 Understanding

9. Evaluate the 2D sampling theorem BTL 5 Evaluating


10. Define frequency domain method. BTL 1 Remembering

11. List various gray level transformation technique BTL 1 Remembering

12. Identify the IHPF, BHPF, GHPF frequency domain transfer BTL 3 Applying
functions
13. Recall the term histogram specification BTL 1 Remembering
14. Describe about Histogram? BTL 1 Remembering
15. Identify the properties of fourier transform BTL 3 Applying
16. Distinguish between smoothing and sharpening filters BTL 4 Analyzing
17. Categorize the various frequency domain filters. BTL 4 Analyzing

18. Construct the 2D fourier transform and its inverse BTL 6 Createing
19. Explain the mechanics of spatial filtering. BTL 5 Evaluateing
20. Estimate the link between spatial and frequency domain filtering BTL 6 Createing
PART B

1. Describe histogram equalization. Obtain Histogram equalization for


the following image segment of size 5 x 5? Write the inference on
image segment before and after equalization.
BTL 1 Understanding

(16)
2. i) State and explain sampling theorem in 2D (10) BTL 1 Remembering
ii) Write about aliasing in Images (6) BTL 1 Remembering

Prepared by: V.Thirilogasundari AP(O.G),M.Selvaraj AP(OG)


3. i) Explain the histogram equalization method of image BTL 2 Understanding
enhancement. (8)
ii) Explain histogram specification technique in detail with BTL 2 Understanding
equations. (8)
4. Develop the basics to explain with example: BTL 3 Applying
i) Spatial smoothening (8)
ii) Spatial sharpening (8) BTL 3 Applying
5. i) Obtain Histogram and Histogram equalization for a given image
(4 x 4) 4 bit per pixel is given by

BTL 6 Createing

(8)
ii) Find the convolution of the sequences f={ 0,0, 0,1,0,0,0},
w= {1,2,3,2,8} (8)
6. Write detail note about BTL 1 Remembering
i) Spatial domain enhancement (8)
ii) Frequency domain enhancement (8)
7. Show the various techniques in frequency domain to enhance a BTL 1 Remembering
image with necessary examples
8. Distinguish spatial correlation and convolution. Explain each with
identical example. (8+8) BTL 4 Analyzing
9. Illustrate the 2D fourier transform and its pair. State and prove their BTL 2 Understanding
properties.
10. i) Discuss the following spatial enhancement techniques BTL 5 Evaluating
a) Spatial averaging b) Median filtering (4+4)
ii) Comparet the various image transformation technique (8)
BTL 5 Evaluating
11. Compare the various filters available under frequency domain for BTL 2 Understanding
image enhancement
12. With example explain in detail about spatial averaging. (8) BTL 3 Applying
Describe in detail about various types of mean filters. (8) BTL 3 Applying
13. i) Compare smoothing & sharpening in frequency domain (4)
ii) Analyze the performance of following smoothing filters
Ideal Low Pass Filter (4) BTL 4 Analyzing
Butterworth Low Pass Filter (4)
Gaussian Low Pass Filter (4)
14. i) Distinguish between spatial & frequency domain image
enhancement (4) BTL 4 Analyzing
ii) Analyze the performance of following sharpening filters
Ideal HPF (4)
Prepared by: V.Thirilogasundari AP(O.G),M.Selvaraj AP(OG)
Butterworth HPF (4)
Gaussian HPF (4)

UNIT III IMAGE RESTORATION AND SEGMENTATION


Noise models Mean Filters Order Statistics Adaptive filters Band reject Filters Band pass
Filters Notch Filters Optimum Notch Filtering Inverse Filtering Wiener filtering Segmentation:
Detection of DiscontinuitiesEdge Linking and Boundary detection Region based segmentation-
Morphological processing- erosion and dilation.

PART A

Q.No Questions BT Competence


Level
1. Give two application of image segmentation BTL 1 Remembering

2. What are order statistics filter BTL 1 Remembering

3. What is the need of image restoration BTL 1 Remembering

4. Define is blind image restoration BTL 1 Remembering


5. Write any two differences between unconstraint and constraint BTL 2 Understanding
restoration.
6. Give the difference between Enhancement and Restoration? BTL 2 Understanding

7. What are the various methods of thresholding in image BTL 1 Remembering


segmentation?
8. How do you estimate that an image is getting over segmented? BTL5 Evaluating
9. State the condition to be met by the partitions in region based BTL 2 Understanding
segmentation.
10. What is the principle of region growing based image BTL 1 Remembering
segmentation?
11. Differentiate between local and global thresholding technique for BTL 4 Analyzing
image segmentaion

12. Describe thresholding and mention its types BTL 2 Understanding

13. Construct the image restoration model BTL 3 Applying

14. Formulate the function of inverse filtering BTL 6 Creating

15. Develop the equation for converting wiener filter into inverse filter BTL 6 Creating

16. Classify order statistic filter BTL 4 Analyzing

Prepared by: V.Thirilogasundari AP(O.G),M.Selvaraj AP(OG)


17. Identify the drawback of inverse filtering.how it can be overcome? BTL 3 Applying

18. Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using more than one BTL5 Evaluating
seed in a region growing technique.

19. Sketch the image degradation model BTL 3 Applying

20. Classify the types of edges in the digital image. BTL 4 Analyzing

PART B

1. i)Sketch the block diagram for image degradation model and BTL 3 Applying
explain(8)
(ii)Explain the use of wiener filtering in image restoration(8)
2. (i)Discuss the concept of inverse and pseudo inverse filters for image BTL 2 Understanding
restoration(8).
(ii)What are spatial transformation techniques used for image
restoration?Explain them in detail.(8)
3. Develop the algorithm for following filtering BTL 6 Creating
(i)Inverse filtering(8)
(ii)LMS filter(8)
4. (i)Classify the types of order statistic filter(4) BTL 4 Analyzing
(ii)Demonstrate the operations of order statistic filter(12)
5. Describe inverse filtering for removal of blur caused by any motion BTL 1 Remembering
and describe how it restore the image (16)
6. How weiner filter is helpful to reduce the mean square error when BTL 4 Analyzing
image is corrupted by motion blur and additive noise (16)
7. (i)Explain region based segmentation and region growing algorithm BTL 2 Understanding
(8)
(ii)Illustrate region splitting and region merging concepts.(8)
8. (i)How edge detection is performed in digital images using BTL 1 Remembering
(a)Laplacian operator(2)
(b)Sobel operator(2)
(c)Prewit oprator and compare their outcomes(2+2)
(ii)How morphological processing is applicable for image
processing(8)
9. (i)What do you mean by optimal thresholdingin detail and how do you BTL 4 Analyzing
obtain the threshold for image processing(8)
(ii)Different types of thresholding for segmentation(8)
10. Discuss the following terms BTL 2 Understanding
(i)region merging(4)

Prepared by: V.Thirilogasundari AP(O.G),M.Selvaraj AP(OG)


(ii)erosion and dilation(4)
(ii)Discuss about edge detection and edge linking method(8)
11. Describe constrained least square filtering for image restoration and BTL 1 Remembering
derive its transfer function (16)
12. (i) How do you link edge pixels through global processing? (8) BTL 1 Remembering
(ii) Describe Watershed segmentation algorithm. (8)
13. (i) Explain the concepts of geometric transformation for image BTL 2 Understanding
restoration? (8)
(ii) How weiner filtering is helpful to reduce the mean square error?
(8)
14. (i)Explain region based segmentation and region growing with BTL 3 Applying
example(10)
(ii)Discuss how to construct dams using morphological operations(6)

UNIT IV WAVELETS AND IMAGE COMPRESSION

Wavelets Subband coding - Multiresolution expansions - Compression: Fundamentals Image


Compression models Error Free Compression Variable Length Coding Bit-Plane Coding
Lossless Predictive Coding Lossy Compression Lossy Predictive Coding Compression Standards
PART A

Q.No Questions BT Competence


Level
1. Investigate the performance metrics for evaluating image BTL 6 Creating
compression?
2. What are the operations performed by error free compression? BTL 1 Remembering

3. Evaluate the performance metrics image compression? BTL5 Evaluating

4. Illustrate some important applications of wavelet transform BTL 2 Understanding

5. Formulate Compression ratio BTL 6 Creating

6. Compare contrast wavelet coding Vs DCT based coding BTL 4 Analyzing

7. List the need of image compression BTL 1 Remembering

8. Mention the various image and video compression standards BTL 1 Remembering

9. Explain the function of subband coding BTL 2 Understanding

Prepared by: V.Thirilogasundari AP(O.G),M.Selvaraj AP(OG)


10. Write the equation to find relative data redundancy BTL 1 Remembering

11. Validate the types of data redundancy? BTL5 Evaluating

12. How will you apply the Lossless predictive model in image BTL 3 Applying
compression?

13. Summarize the steps of Huffman coding BTL 2 Understanding

14. Write some image application of wavelet transform BTL 1 Remembering

15. Classify the types of lossless and lossy compression methods BTL 4 Analyzing

16. Sketch the block diagram of block transform encoder BTL 3 Applying

17. Identify the role of multiresolution analysis in image processing BTL 3 Applying

18. Categorize video compression standards BTL 4 Analyzing

19. Explain operations composed in Error-Free Compression BTL 2 Understanding

20. What are variable-Length coding and name the types of variable- BTL 1 Remembering
Length coding ?

PART B

1. Solve and find a source emits letters from an alphabet BTL 3 Applying
A={a1,a2,a3,a4,a5} with probabilities P(a1)==0.2,
P(a2)=0.4, P(a3)=0.2, P(a4)=0.1 and P(a5)=0.1
(i) Find a Huffman code for this source?
(ii) Find the average length of the code and its
redundancy?

2. Solve the tag for the sequence 1 3 2 1 for the probabilities BTL 3 Applying
P(1)=0.8, P(2)=0.02, P(3)=0.1813. How an image is compressed
using JPEG Image compression standard?
3. Write short notes on: BTL 1 Remembering
(ii) Arithmetic coding. (8)
(iii) JPEG standards. (8)
4. Evaluate the need for image compression. How run length BTL5 Evaluating
encoding approach is used for
compression? Is it lossy? Justify.
5. Design a coder which a source emits letters from an BTL 6 Creating
alphabet A={k1,k2,k3,k4,k5} with probabilities
P(k1)=p(k3)=0.2, P(k2)=0.4, P(k4)= P(k5)=0.1 entropy

Prepared by: V.Thirilogasundari AP(O.G),M.Selvaraj AP(OG)


=2.122bits/symbol
(i) Find a Huffman code for this source? (12)
(ii) Find the average length of the code and its
redundancy? (4)

6. Explain in detail about (i)Bit plane coding (8) BTL 2 Understanding

(ii)LZW coding(8)

7. (i)Explain the concepts of lossless predictive encoding(8) BTL 2 Understanding

(ii)Summarize the lossy predictive coding(8)

8. (i)Illustrate block transform coding with suitable example(10) BTL 2 Understanding

(ii) Summarize the concepts of wavelet transform coding in image


compression(6)

9. State the basic concepts of the following terms BTL 1 Remembering

(i)Haar transform(5)

(ii)Subband coding(5)

(iii)Fast wavelet transform(6).

10. Show the mathematical analysis of following Multi resolution BTL 1 Remembering
expansion

(i)Series expansion(4)

(ii)Scaling functions(6)

(iii)Wavelet functions(6)

11. Analyse the concepts of wavelet transform with mathematical support BTL 4 Analyzing

(i)Continuous wavelet transform (8)

(ii)Discrete wavelet transform(8)

12. (i)Distinguish between losseless and lossy compression BTL 4 Analyzing

(ii)Examine image compression standard with its block diagram

Prepared by: V.Thirilogasundari AP(O.G),M.Selvaraj AP(OG)


13. (i)Examine with suitable example for huffman coding scheme results BTL 4 Analyzing
with image compression.

(ii)Demonstrate block diagram of JPEG standard

14. (i)With a block diagram explain shift coding approach for image BTL 1 Remembering
compression(8)

(ii)Describe the stages in MPEG image compression standard(8)

UNIT V IMAGE REPRESENTION AND RECOGNITION


Boundary representation Chain Code Polygonal approximation, signature, boundary segments
Boundary description Shape number Fourier Descriptor, moments- Regional Descriptors
Topological feature, Texture - Patterns and Pattern classes - Recognition based on matching.

PART A

Q.No Questions BT Level Competence

1. Explain entropy?what is the relevance in image processing BTL 2 Understanding


2. Define region growing BTL 1 Remembering

3. How texture of a region is decided? BTL 1 Remembering


4. What is the use of fourier description? BTL 3 Applying
5. Name the approaches used to describe the texture of a region BTL 1 Remembering
6. Formulate the Equation of circularity ratio of regional descriptors BTL 6 Creating
7. Estimate the equation of third moment of statistical approach for BTL5 Evaluating
texture descriptor
8. Summarize convex hull and convex deficiency concepts BTL 2 Understanding

9. Define eccentricity BTL 1 Remembering


10. Determine the approaches used in image processing to describe BTL5 Evaluating
the texture of a region
11. Define polygonal image representaion BTL 1 Remembering

12. Categorize the Uses of chain code BTL 4 Analyzing


13. Discuss the method used to define skeleton. BTL 2 Understanding

Prepared by: V.Thirilogasundari AP(O.G),M.Selvaraj AP(OG)


14. Explain the features of Pattern classes BTL 2 Understanding

15. Develop the steps for Shape number in image segmentation? BTL 3 Applying

16. Classify the types of representations BTL 4 Analyzing

17. List the properties of fourier descriptors BTL 1 Remembering


18. How the first difference is calculated in chain code? BTL 6 Creating

19. How the topology is applied in image processing? BTL 3 Applying


20. Describe Topological features? BTL 4 Analyzing

PART-B

1. Explain the concepts and approach of chain code(10) BTL 2 Understanding


Boundary representation(6)
2. (i)Explain Polygonal approximation method(2) BTL 3 Applying
(ii)How the merging techniques applied in approximation and also
develop the steps involed in approximation method(14)
3. BTL 1 Remembering
State the concepts of following methods
i) Signature(5)
ii) Boundary segments(5)
iii) Skeletons(6)
4. Explain the different types of boundary descriptors with suitable BTL 2 Understanding
diagrams
5. What are all the object recognition method used in image BTL 3 Applying
processing for decision making methods?How that methods apply
in pattern classification.
6. Write in detail note about the following BTL 1 Remembering
i)Textures(4)
ii)Shape numbers(4)
iii)Fourier descriptors(4)
(iv)Pattern classes(4)
7. BTL 4 Analyzing
(i) Classify the Regional descriptors(4)
(ii) Examine the regional descriptors with basic diagrammatic
representations(12)
8. (i) Categorize Relational descriptors with examples(2)? BTL 4 Analyzing
(ii)Analase the relational descriptors with basic equations(10) ?
Prepared by: V.Thirilogasundari AP(O.G),M.Selvaraj AP(OG)
(iii)Analyse the relational descriptors with regional descriptors and
find which method is best (4)
9. (i)Elaborate the decision theoretic methods for recognition (10) BTL 6 Creating
(ii)Formulate the recognition based on matching method with
equations(6)
10. (i)Evaluate the optimum statistical classifiers and neural networks BTL 5 Evaluating
method for regonition(12)
(ii)Estimate the efficiency of the above two mentioned methods(4)

11. Explain the structural methods of object recognition BTL 2 Understanding


i)Matching shape numbers
(ii)String matching
12. i)State the different approaches of textures?(8) BTL 1 Remembering
(ii)Define the parametrs of descriptors in image representation(8)

13. Write the concepts of following methodologies BTL 1 Remembering


(i)MAT(5)
(ii)Distance versus angle signature(6)
(iii)Simple boundary descriptors (5)
14. (i)Classify the different methods of image representation (2) BTL 4 Analyzing
(ii)Analyze the properties of fourier descriptors(2)
(iii)Analyse the different approaches of pattern and pattern
classes(12)

Prepared by: V.Thirilogasundari AP(O.G),M.Selvaraj AP(OG)