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CONFERENCE

BUILDING FOR THE FUTURE

FSRU ships, will then dominate the market?


Athens, 7 June 2012

Bruno DABOUIS
Vice President Marine Business Development
Introduction

The traditional LNG chain connecting an on-shore production, liquefaction and storage
terminal to an onshore storage and re-gasification terminal via seaborne transportation of
LNG is now evolving to accommodate offshore terminals as a substitute to new on-shore
facilities.

Traditional way LNG is produced, shipped and delivered for distribution LNG:
Large production facilities,
Large liner LNG carriers,
Large receiving plants / terminals,
Large gas distribution network.

Gas Sea transport


treatment Regasification
Raw Storage Storage
gas Liquefaction Sales
entry gas

LNG LNG

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Introduction

This evolution started first in 2005


with the innovative concept of the
Exmar / Excelerate LNG RVs that are
LNG carriers with capabilities of
offloading their LNG cargo after re-
vaporisation while moored in open
seas (Gulf and North East Gateway
deepwater ports in the US).

Gas
treatment
Raw Storage
gas Sales
Liquefaction
entry gas
LNG

LNG RV
Transport, storage, re-gasification

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Introduction

It further developed with the use of LNG RVs or with the conversion of existing LNG
carriers as FSRUs (e.g. Bahia Blanca in Argentina, Mina Al-Ahmadi in Kuwait, Offshore
Livorno Terminal in Italy) or with the development of new offshore LNG import terminals
(Adriatic LNG GBS terminal, Triton Project in Italy, etc.)

Gas Sea transport


treatment
Raw Storage
gas Liquefaction Sales
entry gas

LNG LNG LNG FSRU


Storage, regasification

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Introduction

In parallel, many projects of offshore LNG production, storage and offloading


units are being actively developped (e.g. SHTOKMAN, SHELL PRELUDE,
PETROBRAS FLNG, GDFSUEZ BONAPARTE, FLEX LNG, PETRONAS FLNG)

Sea transport
Raw Regasification
Storage
gas Sales
entry gas

LNG FPSO: Treatment, LNG LNG


Liquefaction, Storage, Offloading

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FSRU ships, will they dominate the market?

Offshore LNG Regas terminals around the world

Projects
In service

13 re-gas vessels in service


6 re-gas vessels in construction (as newbuilts or conversions)

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Alexandroupolis LNG re-gas terminal project

Courtesy gastrade
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FSRU ships, will they dominate the market?

Who are the main players?


Exmar and Excelerate Energy.
They are actually the pionners of the LNG regas
vessels as they created the concept and took
delivery of the first ever Regas vessel in 2005
(built by DSME, classed with Bureau Veritas).
Golar LNG
Hoegh LNG
Gasfin

Shipbuilders involved in the building of new LNG


re- gas vessels are currently:
DSME
SHI
HHI

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Main advantages of offshore re-gas terminals

Already well established in the oil


market
Relatively easy and quick to build at
shipbuilding facilities or converted from
existing vessels
Can reduce permitting issues

Can avoid NIMBY issues.

Minimises environmental impact due to


offshore location
Minimises visual impact on & from the
coastline
Flexible and can be easily moved if
required
Can provide natural gas to isolated
users (not connected to the grid). OLT FSRU Toscana Courtesy of

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Key safety aspects & issues for consideration

There are a issues that need to be carefully


examined when considering a floating LNG
facility including:
Location & site sea conditions

Type of vessel & containment system

Mooring of the facility

Access for import vessels (tugs & pilotage)

Method of transfer of cargo (offshore LNG offloading)

Type of regas plant Marine environment impact


Reliability, availability and maintainability.
Topsides & deck congestion

Safety issues (fire and explosion, dropped objects,


collision, emergency response & evacuation,
security, in service maintenance & inspection)
What if the LNG supply vessel must leave partially
loaded?

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Terminal site selection

Selecting the location may not be as simple as it first appears


Close to user
Far enough away to be un-noticed
Local administration and permitting (safety and environmental issues)
Proper sea bed (geotechnics)
Bathymetry, tidal effects,
Prevailing weather conditions:
winds, waves and currents,
Safe sea access
Tug assistance
Logistical support to operations

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Hydrodynamic analysis
Based on recognised meteocean data, hydrodynamic analyses are necessary
for offshore gas terminals in order to determine:
Hull girder loads, unit motions and accelerations usually for 100 years
return period,
Sea keeping, heading analyses
Fatigue analyses,
Mooring forces,
Terminal and shuttle gas carrier relative motions,
Sloshing analyses.

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Selection of cargo containment systems

Membrane systems Type B systems Other systems

Type C

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Structural assessment

Finite Element Models for

Hull Primary members


Tanks supports
Specific details

Fatigue Analysis

Based on site conditions and


operating conditions
Offshore safety factors
Spectral Analysis

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Sea moorings

The control of the moorings for any floating offshore facility is of


extreme importance
There are many types of location system but they all depend upon
anchors or piles in the seabed and a spread of chain cables
They must be designed for the worst possible operational conditions

APL submerged turret mooring BV software ARIANE

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Relative motions

Relative motions between the


offshore terminal and the shuttle
gas carrier have to be considered
within the frame of the site
conditions for mooring and cargo
transfer.

BV software HYDROSTAR

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Alongside mooring

The mooring between the participating vessels must also be


considered:

Wires
Tails
Quick release hooks
Fenders

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Tandem mooring

Tandem mooring has been used for many years in the offshore oil
industry for transfer in harsh environments, so the mooring technology is
already available.

The LNG offshore industry is looking for a suitable cryogenic hose


system

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Access & pilotage

Access for berthing vessel must be safe


Water depth
Space available
Relative size of vessels
Tug availability
Tug safety

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Selection and qualification of transfer systems

Overall risk assessment (HAZID,


HAZOP)
Qualification of transfer system for
offshore use
Approval of the transfer system for
the specific operating requirements
Safety features related to :
QCDC systems
Emergency release system
devices (ERS)
Operating procedures
including testing, handling
and storage of the equipment
Type approval of components
Manufacturing and testing

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Deck congestion

This is a well known issue in gas and petrochemical plants


An explosion will accelerate through closely packed plant and pipe racks causing
more damage due to blast overpressure
Space may be severely limited on floating units
Great care will be required with the design of floating LNG units to ensure
adequate space breaks in plant and pipework are provided as well as safety
escape routes

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Qualification of unproven technologies

New technology or existing technology in new environment.

The qualification is requested at the Pre-Feed stage before


Unproven technology initial design in order to assess feasibility and identify
criticality levels.
Risk based methodology proposed in BV guidance note NI525.

F
Annual
Frequency
Definition 5 SC
-4
1 < 10 Extremely improbable: not expected in the system life
2
-4
10 - 10
-3
-3

-2
Improbable: not anticipated in the system life
4 HC

F- Factor
3 10 - 10 Extremely remote: should not happen in the system life
4
5
-2
10 - 10
> 10
-1
-1
Remote: expected few times in the system life
Reasonably probable: expected several times in the system life
3 MC

SA Severity Definition
2 LC
1 Negligible No damage to personnel, safety functions fully available
1 NC
2 Minor Light injuries to personnel and/or local damage to safety

3 Severe
functions
Serious injuries to personnel and/or large local damages to
1 2 3 4 5
safety function s
4 Critical Fatalities amongst personnel locally, impairment of safety S Factor
functions
5 Catastrophic A large number of fatalities amongst personnel also outside the
event area, total impairment of safety functions

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LNG Re-gas vessels: conclusions

Offshore LNG is happening now as floating facilities have a lot of advantages


due to their relative flexibility.
They are designed with consideration of the feedback of offshore oil units,
onshore gas terminals and LNG carrier and they also integrate new
technologies that have to be qualified specifically (e.g. LNG offloading).
New build floating gas terminals or converted units, offshore oriented projects
or ship based projects, may be selected depending on the specific features
decided by the operators and the other stake holders.
They are likely to form an important part of the LNG production and distribution
chain where normal shore based facilities are not practical.
Each installation needs to be evaluated and assessed individually taking into
account the specific nature of the operation and environment of each particular
project, a simple one size fits all approach cannot generally be used.
Comprehensive rules and advanced tools are available to help address the
technical challenges of offshore gas terminals throughout the development of
the project, from the pre-feed studies to the final design of the unit.

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Move Forward with Confidence