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NA 001-03-15 N 358

Oktober 2010

zur Verabschiedung als englische Norm per Voting booth bis 22. Nov. 2010

Date: 2010-10-25

DIN 45673-6
Together with DIN 45673-1:2010-08, DIN 45673-5:2010-08, DIN 45673-7:2010-08 and DIN 45673-8:2010-08
supersedes
DIN 45673-1:2000-05

Mechanical vibration Resilient elements used in railway tracks Part 6:


Laboratory test procedures for under-sleeper pads of concrete sleepers
Mechanische Schwingungen Elastische Elemente des Oberbaus von Schienenfahrwegen Teil 6: Labor-
Prfverfahren fr Besohlungen von Betonschwellen

Vibrations mcaniques lments lastiques des voies ferres Partie 6: Mthodes en laboratoire pour
essayer les semelles sous traverse en bton

Normenausschuss Akustik, Lrmminderung und Schwingungstechnik (NALS) im DIN und VDI

Dokument-Typ:
Dokument-Untertyp:
Dokumentstufe: Pub
Dokumentsprache: E

D:\Eigene Dateien\Texte\Normen\in Arbeit\45673\6\N358 DIN_45673-6_E.doc


DIN 45673-6:2010-08(E)

Contents

Page
Foreword......................................................................................................................................................... 3
1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................. 4
2 Normative references ....................................................................................................................... 4
3 Overview and general principles..................................................................................................... 5
4 Test procedures for under-sleeper pads........................................................................................ 6
4.1 Static bedding modulus ................................................................................................................... 6
4.2 Lower-frequency dynamic bedding modulus Cdyn 1(f) for determining track dynamics ............ 8
4.3 Lower-frequency dynamic stiffening ratio dyn 1(10 Hz) .............................................................. 10
4.4 Higher-frequency dynamic bedding modulus Cdyn 2(f) for determining the efficiency of
mitigating structure-borne noise .................................................................................................. 10
4.5 Higher-frequency dynamic stiffening ratio dyn 2(80 Hz).............................................................. 11
4.6 Loss factor .................................................................................................................................... 11
5 Fitness for purpose ........................................................................................................................ 12
5.1 General............................................................................................................................................. 12
5.2 Mechanical fatigue strength .......................................................................................................... 12
5.3 Measurement of bond strength by pull-off .................................................................................. 14
5.4 Shear strength................................................................................................................................. 14
5.5 Freeze-thaw resistance .................................................................................................................. 15
5.6 Material identification testing ........................................................................................................ 16
5.7 Material and component testing.................................................................................................... 17
6 Quality monitoring, quality assurance ......................................................................................... 17
Annex A (informative) Example of a concrete sleeper with a resilient under-sleeper pad................... 18
Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................. 19

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DIN 45673-6:2010-08(E)

Foreword
This standard was prepared by the task force NA 001-03-15 AA (NALS/VDI C 15) Schwingungsminderung in
der Umgebung von Verkehrswegen (Reducing vibrations in the vicinity of traffic routes) within the Standards
Committee Akustik, Lrmminderung und Schwingungstechnik (NALS) (Acoustics, Noise Mitigation and
Vibration Engineering).

It arose from the need to determine in the laboratory the parameters used to describe the static and dynamic
properties and fitness for purpose of pads placed beneath concrete sleepers (under-sleeper pads) in
ballasted track on all types of railways and to specify these parameters in product descriptions. The laboratory
testing involves analysing material samples using a test object of manageable size and paying particular
regard to the subsequent installation conditions of the products under test. The aim is to facilitate the
comparison of different products and to enable the calculation of their vibration-reducing or stress-reducing
effects.

DIN 45673 consists of the following parts, under the general title Mechanical vibration Resilient elements
used in railway tracks:

Part 1: Terms and definitions, classification, test procedures

Part 2: Determination of static and dynamic characteristics in the track under operation

Part 3: Experimental evaluation of insertion loss from artificial excitation of mounted track systems (in a
test rig and in situ)

Part 4: Analytical evaluation of insertion loss of mounted track systems

Part 5: Laboratory test procedures for under-ballast mats

Part 6: Laboratory test procedures for under-sleeper pads of concrete sleepers

Part 7: Laboratory test procedures for resilient elements of floating slab track systems

Part 8: Laboratory test procedures for continuous elastic rail supports

Part 9: Laboratory test procedures for resilient elements of rail fastening systems and for discrete rail
supports 1)

Amendments

The DIN 45673-1:2000-05 standard was amended as follows:

a) Scope of testing has been expanded and the test loads have been redefined, resulting in changes to the
values of the parameters particularly those pertaining to the static bedding modulus;

b) information on fitness for purpose and details concerning quality assurance have been included.

Previous edition
DIN 45673-1: 2000-05

1) Under preparation as a supplement to DIN EN 13146-9 which already contains a number of specifications on the
determination of stiffness in rail fastening systems.

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DIN 45673-6:2010-08(E)

1 Scope

This standard specifies the laboratory test procedures for determining the parameters used to describe the
static and dynamic properties of padding elements for concrete sleepers (hereafter referred to as under-
sleeper pads) used in ballasted track.

Testing is conducted in the laboratory on material specimens and using a test object of manageable size
rather than on entire sleepers, as this approach ensures that test results for the under-sleepers pads are
independent of the type of concrete sleeper.

The main areas of use of under-sleeper pads are:

Reduction of vibrations, structure-borne noise and secondary air-borne noise in tramways, underground
railways, suburban rapid transit and main-line rail systems;

Reduction of track stress in main-line railways and suburban rapid transit systems.

In addition to specifying the basic testing of relevant properties of under-sleeper pads, this standard also sets
out procedures for testing fitness for purpose and provides information on quality monitoring as part of quality
assurance procedures. This standard does not, however, contain requirements pertaining to the properties of
under-sleeper pads.

2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated
references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced
document (including any amendments) applies.

DIN 4102-1, Fire behaviour of building materials and building components Part 1: Building materials;
concepts, requirements and tests

DIN 45673-1, Mechanical vibration Resilient elements used in railway tracks Part 1: Terms and
definitions, classification, test procedures

DIN 53508, Testing of rubber Accelerated ageing

DIN 53509-1, Testing of rubber Determination of resistance to ozone cracking Part 1: Static conditions

(DIN) EN 1542, Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures Test methods
Measurement of bond strength by pull-off

(DIN) EN 12614, Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures Test methods
Determination of glass transition temperatures of polymers

(DIN EN) ISO 1798, Flexible cellular polymeric materials Determination of tensile strength and elongation
at break

(DIN EN) ISO 1856, Flexible cellular polymeric materials Determination of compression set

(DIN EN) ISO 10846-2, Acoustics and vibration Laboratory measurement of vibro-acoustic transfer
properties of resilient elements Part 2: Direct method for determination of the dynamic stiffness of resilient
supports for translatory motion

(DIN) ISO 815, Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic Determination of compression set

(DIN) ISO 1817, Rubber, vulcanized Determination of the effect of liquids

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DIN 45673-6:2010-08(E)

3 Overview and general principles

Refer to DIN 45673-1 for definitions, symbols, test rig requirements, measurement system requirements,
documentation requirements and classification of test procedures.

Under-sleeper pads are mainly used to:

reduce vibrations, structure-borne noise and secondary air-borne noise

Under-sleeper pads are used to increase resilience between concrete sleepers and ballast on earthwork
structures and engineering structures (e.g. bridges, track troughs and tunnels). Under-sleeper pads
reduce vibrations emitted into the environment when the frequency of the vibration lies above the
wheel/track resonance frequency. However, when the frequency lies within the resonance frequency
range, the vibrations are often amplified. Depending on the position of the resonance frequency and the
transmission characteristics of the overall mechanical system, under-sleeper pads can reduce vibration
immissions and structure-borne noise immissions in the environment, for example within buildings. This
area of use pertains to tramways, underground railways, suburban rapid transit and main-line railway
systems.

reduce track stress

Under-sleeper pads can also reduce track stress, which can, for example, lead to a decrease in ballast
wear, a reduction in the formation of long-pitch corrugations in tight curves or to an improvement in the
long-term stability of the track geometry. This use of under-sleeper pads is found primarily in main-line
railway systems, though occasionally also in suburban rapid transit systems.

To achieve the desired effects, all track components have to be matched with one another.

To assess the suitability of under-sleeper pads for particular applications, the values of the following
parameters (see DIN 45673-1) are required:

static bedding modulus Cstat and its at-rest value Cstat 0,

lower-frequency dynamic bedding modulus Cdyn 1(f),

lower-frequency dynamic stiffening ratio dyn 1(10 Hz),

higher-frequency dynamic bedding modulus Cdyn 2(f),

higher-frequency dynamic stiffening ratio dyn 2(80 Hz),

loss factor .

The test procedures, test parameters, practical implementation of the test procedures and the analysis of the
test results used to determine these quantities are described below. To guarantee the long-term functionality
of the under-sleeper pads, they shall also be subjected to defined fitness-for-purpose tests.

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DIN 45673-6:2010-08(E)

4 Test procedures for under-sleeper pads

4.1 Static bedding modulus

4.1.1 Bedding modulus Cstat

4.1.1.1 General

The parameter Cstat is used to estimate the static compression of the track or the rail under service loading
relative to a reference point located outside the track. Cstat can be determined simply either as part of the
product qualification process or during continuous quality assurance monitoring of the production process.
The static bedding modulus Cstat serves as a means of comparing different under-sleeper pads. It is used as a
reference parameter for product qualification and product description purposes. It also prescribes the test load
used in mechanical fatigue strength testing and is required for the determination of the dynamic stiffening
ratio.

NOTE As the measurement of the static bedding modulus Cstat is carried out repeatedly at the loading and unloading
rate specified in Subclause 4.1.1.2 without any recovery phase, the measured quantity is actually a quasistatic quantity.
However, the designation Cstat and the manner in which the test is carried out ensure that comparisons can be made with
existing product descriptions and earlier test procedures.

In addition, once Cstat has been determined and a full recovery phase has been completed, a further load is
applied that yields the at-rest value Cstat 0 of the static bedding modulus (see 4.1.2). This at-rest value is used
to estimate the static deflection under a dead load (e.g. a reference vehicle of known load).

4.1.1.2 Test parameters

Dimensions of test object: Under-sleeper pad 300 mm 300 mm product thickness, on top of which a
reinforced concrete block is cast (dimensions: 300 mm 300 mm 200 mm) as a substitute for the
sleeper

The concrete block shall be cast in suitable formwork (shuttering) and shall be reinforced so that it is
capable of withstanding the test loads given below. The bonding layer between the concrete block and
the pad shall correspond to that between a concrete sleeper and the pad. The pad contact surface shall
be flat and even (no more than 0,2 mm over 300 mm).

Number of test objects: Three

Conditioning: Test object shall be dry at the relevant test temperature for at least 16 h prior to the start of
the test

Test temperature: (23 3) C, (0 3) C, (20 3) C

Manner of load application: The load shall be applied to the concrete block with a sleeper pad located
beneath the block and on top of a profiled loading plate (NSP) whose face with the ballast profile is in
contact with the pad.

NOTE Information on obtaining the profiled loading plate NSP can be obtained from the NALS standards committee
(Akustik, Lrmminderung und Schwingungstechnik/Acoustics, Noise Mitigation and Vibration Engineering) at DIN,
10772 Berlin, Germany, Fax: +49 30 2601-1231, E-mail: nals@din.de.

Applied load (expressed as normal force per unit area) as given in Table 1

The product of the load to be applied (expressed as normal force per unit area) and the area of the test
object A yields the force to be applied by the test rig F = A.
2
Loading and unloading rate: Continuous, 0,01 (N/mm )/s

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Number of load cycles: Three.

Table 1 Applied loads (normal force per unit area) used in determining the static bedding modulus
Range of applied loads Evaluation range Example
2 2 2 2 a
u = 0,01 N/mm to o = 0,06 N/mm 1 = 0,01 N/mm to 2 = 0,05 N/mm Tramway
2 2 2 2
u = 0,01 N/mm to o = 0,08 N/mm 1 = 0,01 N/mm to 2 = 0,07 N/mm Underground
a
railway
2 2 2 2
u = 0,01 N/mm to o = 0,11 N/mm 1 = 0,01 N/mm to 2 = 0,10 N/mm Suburban
a
rapid transit
2 2
u = 0,01 N/mm to o = 0,25 N/mm For medium ballast compaction: Main-line
2 2 a
1 = 0,01 N/mm to 2 = 0,10 N/mm railway
For high ballast compaction:
2 2
1 = 0,01 N/mm to 2 = 0,20 N/mm
a
For typical axle loads, see DIN 45673-1.

4.1.1.3 Test implementation and evaluation

The test object shall be placed centrally on the profiled loading plate. Three load cycles shall be applied with
no rest period between cycles. Each load cycle shall consist of applying a load that increases from u up to
the maximum load of o followed by complete unloading. The third load cycle shall be recorded. On the basis
3
of the measured deflections s1 and s2, the static bedding modulus Cstat shall be calculated in N/mm as the
secant modulus between the evaluation range limits 1 and 2 using:

2 1
C stat = s2 s1
(1)

On main-line railway networks, the static bedding modulus Cstat shall also be calculated for the high ballast
compaction range.

The difference s2 s1 is the difference in the extent of deflection measured for the loads 2 and 1 during the
third load cycle.

The final result shall be recorded as the mean average of the results from the three test objects and reported
together with the respective evaluation range according to Table 1.

4.1.1.4 Reference value for quality monitoring

For an under-sleeper pad that has a smooth surface in the region of the bonding layer (i.e. no surface profile,
no studs, etc.), the static bedding modulus also represents the reference value Cstat,R = Cstat for quality
monitoring as part of quality assurance procedures (see Clause 6). If the pad surface is uneven (i.e.
structured), the reference value shall be taken to be the static bedding modulus of the under-sleeper pad after
the unevenness of the pad surface has been removed. In this case, Cstat,R Cstat and both Cstat and Cstat, R shall
be determined.

4.1.2 At-rest value Cstat 0 of the static bedding modulus

While each test object is still clamped in place and after allowing it to recover for a period of 5 min in its
unloaded state, the test object shall be subjected to further loading as follows:
2
Step 1: Apply load of 1 = 0,01 N/mm for a duration of 10 min; record value of s1
2
Step 2: Increase load to 2 at a rate of 0,01 (N/mm )/s; apply load for a duration of 10 min; record value of s2

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DIN 45673-6:2010-08(E)

The at-rest value of the static bedding modulus is then calculated from:

2 1
C stat 0 = s2 s1
(2)

The final result shall be recorded as the mean average of the results from the three test objects.

4.2 Lower-frequency dynamic bedding modulus Cdyn 1(f) for determining track dynamics

4.2.1 General

The parameter Cdyn 1(f) can be used to estimate the lower-frequency bending deformation of the rail under the
influence of the rolling wheel that results from the interplay of the bending elasticity of the rail and the padded
sleeper. The lower-frequency dynamic bedding modulus Cdyn 1 is used in determining track dynamics.

NOTE In contrast to the test of the higher-frequency dynamic bedding modulus Cdyn 2 (see 4.4), the test procedure to
measure the lower-frequency dynamic bedding modulus Cdyn 1 is carried out without static preloading but with a larger
vibrational amplitude and using a concrete block. For this reason the values of the two moduli are not the same when
measured at the same frequency, e.g. at 20 Hz, Cdyn 1(20 Hz) Cdyn 2(20 Hz).

4.2.2 Test parameters

Dimensions of test object: See 4.1.1.2

Number of test objects:


Tests at room temperature: Three
Tests at other temperatures (see Table 3): One (the test object to be used is that which lies closest to the
mean value)

Conditioning: See 4.1.1.2

Manner of load application: See 4.1.1.2

Applied load (expressed as normal force per unit area) as given in Table 2

Table 2 Applied loads (normal force per unit area)


used in determining the lower-frequency dynamic bedding modulus

Load range identical to evaluation range Beispiel


2 2 a
1 = 0,01 N/mm to 2 = 0,05 N/mm Tramway
2 2
1 = 0,01 N/mm to 2 = 0,07 N/mm Underground
a
railway
2 2
1 = 0,01 N/mm to 2 = 0,10 N/mm Suburban rapid
a
transit
2 2
1 = 0,01 N/mm to 2 = 0,10 N/mm Main-line
a
railway
a
For typical axle loads, see DIN 45673-1.

The product of the load to be applied (expressed as normal force per unit area) and the area of the test
object A yields the force to be applied by the test rig F = A.

Type of load: Harmonic excitation

Test conditions as given in Table 3

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DIN 45673-6:2010-08(E)

Table 3 Test temperatures and test frequencies


Test temperature 3 C Test frequency
Room temperature (23 C) fj = 5 Hz, 10 Hz, 20 Hz, 30 Hz
0 C, 20 C fj = 10 Hz

The relevant required temperature shall be continuously monitored and maintained during testing.

4.2.3 Test implementation and evaluation

The test object shall be placed centrally on the profiled loading plate. The load shall be reduced to 1 for a rest
period of about 3 min between the individual test frequencies. The evaluation period shall begin approximately
10 s after the application of each dynamic load. Ten complete periods shall be recorded for each test
frequency and the mean average value computed (see Figure 1). For each test frequency fj (and test
3
temperature), the lower-frequency dynamic bedding modulus Cdyn 1(fj) shall be calculated in N/mm as the
secant modulus between the evaluation range limits 1 and 2 (which are in this case equal to the loading
range limits) using:

2 1
Cdyn 1( f j ) = (3)
s2 s1

The difference s2 s1 is the difference in the extent of deflection measured for the loads 2 and 1.

Key
m Mean value of the applied load
Load amplitude
t Time (not shown to scale)
1 Evaluation range covering ten periods

Figure 1 Timing diagram for test sequence

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DIN 45673-6:2010-08(E)

4.3 Lower-frequency dynamic stiffening ratio dyn 1(10 Hz)

The lower-frequency dynamic stiffening ratio dyn 1(10 Hz) at the test frequency f = 10 Hz shall be computed as
the quotient of the lower-frequency dynamic bedding modulus at 10 Hz and the static bedding modulus as
follows:

Cdyn 1(10 Hz)


dyn 1(10 Hz) = Cstat
(4)

The values of the bedding moduli Cstat und Cdyn 1 shall have been determined on the same test objects. The
size of the test object shall be stated together with the lower-frequency dynamic stiffening ratio.

4.4 Higher-frequency dynamic bedding modulus Cdyn 2(f) for determining the efficiency of
mitigating structure-borne noise

4.4.1 General

This parameter shall be determined for under-sleeper pads that are intended for use in reducing vibrations
and particularly structure-borne noise and secondary air-borne noise. The magnitude of the dynamic bedding
modulus Cdyn 2(f) of an under-sleeper pad influences the natural frequency of the elastically supported track as
an oscillatory system and thus the insertion loss.

NOTE In contrast to the test of the lower-frequency dynamic bedding modulus Cdyn 1 (see 4.2), the test procedure to
measure the higher-frequency dynamic bedding modulus Cdyn 2 is carried out with static preloading and with a smaller
vibrational amplitude but without a concrete block. For this reason the values of the two moduli are not the same when
measured at the same frequency, e.g. at 20 Hz, Cdyn 2(20 Hz) Cdyn 1(20 Hz).

4.4.2 Test parameters

Dimensions of test object: See 4.1.1.2, but without the concrete block and the bonding layer

Number of test objects: See 4.2.2

Conditioning: See 4.1.1.2

Test temperature: See Table 3

Manner of load application:

Flat loading plate (above) Under-sleeper pad Profiled loading plate NSP (below)

The flat loading plate is made of steel with a sanding disc (K120 grit) inserted between the loading plate
and the test object. The under-sleeper pad shall be placed so that its ballast-side surface is in contact
with the profiled surface of the profiled loading plate.

NOTE 1 Information on obtaining the profiled loading plate NSP can be obtained from the NALS standards
committee (Akustik, Lrmminderung und Schwingungstechnik/Acoustics, Noise Mitigation and Vibration Engineering)
at DIN, 10772 Berlin, Germany, Fax: +49 30 2601-1231, E-mail: nals@din.de.

Preload (as force per unit area):


Tramway: v = 0,04 N/mm2
Underground railway: v = 0,06 N/mm2
Suburban rapid transit: v = 0,08 N/mm2
Main-line railway network: v = 0,12 N/mm2

NOTE 2 See DIN 45673-1 for the typical axle loads on these railway types.

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DIN 45673-6:2010-08(E)

Type of load: Harmonic excitation with a particle velocity amplitude of 7 mm/s (corresponding to a particle
8
velocity level Lv = 100 dB relative to the standard reference particle velocity of 5 10 m/s)

Test frequencies fj : 10 Hz to 160 Hz in octave intervals.

4.4.3 Test implementation and evaluation

The test object is positioned centrally on the profiled loading plate. After applying the static preload, the test
object shall be subjected to harmonic excitation at each of the test frequencies in succession so that the
relative motion between the upper loading plate and the profiled loading plate exhibits a constant particle
velocity amplitude. Measurements of force and deformation and the determination of dynamic stiffness shall
take into account the DIN EN ISO 10846-2 standard. The dynamic bedding modulus Cdyn 2(fj) is the dynamic
stiffness determined relative to the surface of the test object. For each test frequency, the arithmetic mean
shall be calculated from the individual values for the three test objects (applies to the test at room
temperature).

To demonstrate the possible existence of a significant dependence of the dynamic bedding modulus on the
size of the displacement amplitude, two values of the dynamic bedding modulus shall be recorded at the test
frequency f = 80 Hz, one of which shall have been determined using a particle velocity level whose magnitude
was 10 dB lower.

4.5 Higher-frequency dynamic stiffening ratio dyn 2(80 Hz)

The higher-frequency dynamic stiffening ratio dyn 2(80 Hz) at the test frequency f = 80 Hz shall be computed
as the quotient of the higher-frequency dynamic bedding modulus, Cdyn 2, determined at Lv = 100 dB and
80 Hz, and the static bedding modulus, Cstat, as follows:

Cdyn 2 (80 Hz)


d yn 2 (80 Hz) = Cstat
(5)

The values of the bedding moduli Cstat und Cdyn 2 shall have been determined on test objects of identical area.
The size of the test object shall be included when stating the higher-frequency dynamic stiffening ratio.

4.6 Loss factor

4.6.1 General

The magnitude of the loss factor of an under-sleeper pad influences the dynamic magnification in the region
of the natural frequency of the elastically supported track as an oscillatory system and determines the edge
steepness of the amplitude response and thus the insertion loss of the overall system. In the test procedure
described below, it is assumed that the under-sleeper pad behaves essentially linearly when the vibrational
motion is centred around the static preload.

4.6.2 Test implementation and evaluation

When excitation is harmonic as described in 4.4.2, the loss angle shall be determined as the angular phase
shift between the fundamental harmonic component of the applied force and the resulting deformation. The
loss factor can then be determined from = tan . Evaluation shall be carried out analogously to the method
described in 4.4.3.

1
NOTE The degree of damping is given approximately by tan .
2

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DIN 45673-6:2010-08(E)

5 Fitness for purpose

5.1 General

To guarantee the long-term functionality of the under-sleeper pad, the pads intended for use (including their
bonding system) shall be subjected to the tests described below. When testing fitness for purpose, the user
shall specify which additional properties are to be tested and under which conditions.

5.2 Mechanical fatigue strength

5.2.1 General

This test, which is carried out as a pulsed-load fatigue test, serves to verify fatigue strength under laboratory
conditions by simulating vertical service loading in a ballast trough.

5.2.2 Test parameters

Dimensions of test object: See 4.1.1.2

Number of test objects: One

Conditioning: Dry

Test temperature: (23 3) C

Ballast trough: Minimum dimensions 1 000 mm 1 000 mm

Manner in which load is applied in the test rig: Load applied from above via the concrete block into the
under-sleeper pad that lies on the upper surface of the ballast (see Figure 2)
6
New track ballast (class S as per DBS 918 061) is required for each test (i.e. for 8 10 load cycles). After
compaction, the ballast shall have a depth of (30 2) cm.

Load applied normal to surface as given in Table 4


6 6
Testing is performed in two consecutive load levels: 5 10 load cycles at load level 1 followed by 3 10
load cycles at load level 2.

Table 4 Load applied normal to the surface during pulsed-load fatigue testing

Static bedding modulus Upper load Fo in kN


Cstat of the under- for a preload of Fu = 1 kN
sleeper pad, Load Number of load
determined in level Under- Suburban cycles
a Main-line
accordance with 4.1.1 Tramway ground rapid a
a a railway
3 railway transit
N/mm
6
1 13 14 15 21 5 10
0,10 6
2 17 18 22 28 3 10
6
1 14 16 19 24 5 10
0,20 6
2 19 21 26 32 3 10
6
1 15 17 21 26 5 10
0,30 6
2 20 22 27 34 3 10
3
For intermediate values of the static bedding modulus (e.g. 0,15 N/mm ), the upper load Fo shall be
interpolated from the relevant neighbouring values in the table.
a
For typical axle loads, see DIN 45673-1.

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DIN 45673-6:2010-08(E)

Type of load: Harmonic excitation at f (3 to 5) Hz

Test constraint: If the temperature of the under-sleeper pad might rise above T = 40 C, the frequency
shall be reduced or the pad shall be cooled to prevent the temperature exceeding T = 40 C.

5.2.3 Test implementation and evaluation

The test shall be conducted in a ballast trough (see Figure 2). The ballast shall be poured into the trough,
evenly levelled and then compacted using a lightweight plate vibrator (e.g. a steel plate attached to a
formwork vibrator) until it has the specified depth. The test object shall be placed with the pad facing down
onto the evenly levelled surface of the compacted ballast layer in the ballast trough.

The following quantities shall be recorded and documented during testing:

Number of load cycles,

Average compression set of the concrete block as measured at regular intervals by four gauges,

Vibrational peak-to-peak amplitude of the concrete block.

Key
1 Loading plate 4 Concrete block
2 Under-sleeper pad 5 Ballast trough
3 Ballast 6 Concrete base or steel plate

Figure 2 Test rig set-up with ballast trough


6
The test object shall be removed after completing load level 1, i.e. after 5 10 load cycles, and the pad
visually inspected for evidence of perforations, cracks, crushing or other damage. If no serious damage is
apparent, the experimental set-up shall be reconstructed as described above and the test continued for the
6
3 10 load cycles at load level 2.

The test object shall be removed after completing load level 2 and the pad visually inspected for evidence of
damage (visual assessment analogous to that described above for load level 1). The vibrational peak-to-peak
amplitude throughout the two load phases and the results of the visual inspections shall be documented.

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DIN 45673-6:2010-08(E)

5.3 Measurement of bond strength by pull-off

5.3.1 General

To ensure the required degree of bonding between the concrete sleeper and the under-sleeper pad, the bond
strength between the pad and the concrete block in the normal direction shall be determined by pull-off testing
based on the procedures in DIN EN 1542. The test applies only to a full-surface bond between the sleeper
and the pad. In other cases, the test shall be adapted accordingly.

5.3.2 Test parameters

Dimensions of test object: See 4.1.1.2

Number of test objects: One

Number of times test conducted: Three

Test area: Diameter: 50 mm, test area shall be located on the surface but away from the edges of the test
object

Conditioning: Dry

Test temperature: (23 3) C

Manner of load application: Steel stud attached to the under-sleeper pad, bond between stud and pad
prepared in accordance with manufacturers instructions
2
Loading rate: 0,01 (N/mm )/s.

5.3.3 Test implementation and evaluation

The test shall be carried out vertically to the bonded surface and continues until the test area (diameter:
50 mm) detaches from the concrete block. The pull-off bond strength R shall be determined. The value of the
pull-off bond strength and the load-deformation curve shall be documented.

5.4 Shear strength

5.4.1 General

The shear strength shall be determined horizontally to the bonded surface. The double shear configuration
used in the test set-up ensures that only one shearing load is applied, thus avoiding an eccentric load
application.

5.4.2 Test parameters

Experimental set-up as shown in Figure 3

Dimensions of test object: 200 mm 200 mm 200 mm with a continuous pad positioned on both sides
of the concrete block

Number of test objects: Three

Conditioning: Dry

Test temperature: (23 3) C

Manner of load application: Test object clamped on both sides to supporting table, load applied centrally
via a 30-mm-wide loading blade

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DIN 45673-6:2010-08(E)

2
Loading rate: 1 (N/mm )/min parallel to bonded surfaces.

5.4.3 Test implementation and evaluation

The test shall continue until the pad shears off from the concrete block. The shear strength S shall be
determined. The value of the shear strength and the load-deformation curve shall be documented.

Key
1 Under-sleeper pad with the bond between the pad and the test object identical to the bond between the
pad and the sleeper; the adhesive bond between the under-sleeper pad and the thrust block is of very
high-strength
2 Thrust blocks clamped to supporting table on both sides of test object
3 Test object with a force F applied via a loading blade

Figure 3 Test rig set-up to determine the shear strength

5.5 Freeze-thaw resistance

5.5.1 General

Both the material from which the under-sleeper pad is made and the bond between the concrete sleeper and
the pad shall be resistant to the effects of freeze-thaw cycles. Freeze-thaw resistance shall be tested as
follows.

5.5.2 Test parameters

Dimensions of test object: See 4.1.1.2

Number of test objects: One

Test medium: Distilled water

Conditioning: 24 h in a water bath at room temperature, see description of test implementation.

5.5.3 Test implementation and evaluation

Before conditioning starts, the reference value of the dynamic bedding modulus Cdyn 1(10 Hz) shall be
determined at room temperature on a dry test object. The test object shall then be placed in distilled water at
room temperature for 24 h. During the first 2 h in the water bath, the test object shall be subjected to pulsed-
2 2
load fatigue testing on the profiled loading plate by applying loads from u = 0,05 N/mm to o = 0,15 N/mm at
a rate of 30 strokes per hour.

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DIN 45673-6:2010-08(E)

The profiled loading plate is then removed and the test object, while still in the water bath, placed into a
climate controlled cabinet and frozen for 11 h at 20 C. The test object is then thawed by raising the
temperature in the climate controlled cabinet again to 30 C within the space of 1 h and then maintaining this
temperature for the following 11 h. The temperature in the climate cabinet is subsequently reduced within 1 h
to 20 C and held at that temperature for the next 11 h (see Figure 4). The freeze-thaw test cycle shall be
repeated 50 times.

Key
T Temperature
t Time (not shown to scale)
1 One test cycle

Figure 4 Timing diagram for freeze-thaw resistance test sequence

Once the 50 test cycles have been completed, the dynamic bedding modulus Cdyn 1(10 Hz) shall be
determined on the statically drained test object at room temperature and compared with the reference value
determined previously. (Static draining means allowing the wet test object to drain by storing it in a dry
environment at room temperature for 24 h.) The change in the dynamic bedding modulus shall be
documented. In addition, the test object shall be assessed visually for evidence of cracking or swelling and the
results documented.

The stability of the bond shall then be determined by performing the pull-off strength test as detailed in 5.3.
The value of the pull-off bond strength R shall be determined and documented together with the load-
deformation diagram.

5.6 Material identification testing

In order to be able to identify under-sleeper pads at a later date, the following values shall be indicated:

the specific mass of the product and all its components,

the results of a suitable chemical analysis as selected by the manufacturer.

The values determined in the product qualification testing shall act as the reference values for quality
assurance and quality monitoring procedures.

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DIN 45673-6:2010-08(E)

5.7 Material and component testing

5.7.1 General

The materials used for under-sleeper pads should be resistant to typical environmental influences (e.g. water,
ozone, oil). Furthermore, storage out-of-doors should not change the properties of under-sleeper pads. The
necessary tests to be carried out shall be appropriate to the materials used (rubber, polyurethane, etc.) in the
under-sleeper pads. If an under-sleeper pad comprises several layers, the layers and, if necessary, the
bonding between the layers (e.g. adhesive bonds) shall be tested individually.

5.7.2 Low-temperature resistance

In order to assess the low-temperature resistance of a material, its glass transition temperature (glass
transition point) shall be determined in accordance with DIN EN 12614.

5.7.3 Resistance to weathering

Resistance to weathering shall be determined in accordance with DIN 53509-1.

NOTE This should involve exposing the material to an ozone concentration of 50 pphm at 40 C at a static tensile
strain of 20 % for a period of 48 h.

5.7.4 Ageing resistance

Ageing resistance shall be demonstrated appropriately for the materials used. Testing shall be conducted in
accordance with DIN 53508. The test objects shall be kept in a heating cabinet with forced ventilation and
fresh air intake for a duration of 168 h (7 days) at a temperature of (70 1) C.

The static bedding modulus shall be determined in accordance with 4.1 before and after ageing.

The percentage change in the mass shall be calculated from the mean average results of weighing the same
test object before and after the accelerated ageing process.

In addition, the change in compression set shall be determined in accordance with the relevant standard
(DIN ISO 815 or DIN EN ISO 1856) and documented as a percentage change.

5.7.5 Other quantities

a) The resistance to oil and grease shall be tested in accordance with the DIN ISO 1817 standard.

b) Flammability shall be determined in accordance with DIN 4102-1.

6 Quality monitoring, quality assurance


The static bedding modulus of the under-sleeper pads shall be checked prior to delivery. However, such
checks shall not be made immediately after the pads have been manufactured. The static bedding modulus
determined in accordance with 4.1.1.4 shall function as the reference value for the quality monitoring as part
of the quality assurance procedures. If the pads are to be used to mitigate vibrations, structure-borne noise
and secondary air-borne noise, it shall also be necessary to check the dynamic bedding modulus. This shall
involve measuring Cdyn 1 at 10 Hz without the concrete block and without the bonding layer and comparing this
value with the reference value that was also determined without the concrete block. All tests performed as part
of the quality monitoring procedures shall be carried out on material whose properties are no longer changing.
Tests shall be performed in accordance with Clause 4.
NOTE A realistic value for the permissible measurement scatter is approximately 15 % centred about the reference
value.

The number of pads to be tested shall be agreed for each project individually. As a rule, at least 0,2 % of the
pads shall be tested. It shall be ensured that tests are carried out on pads from different production batches.
At least one pad shall be tested from batches containing 500 or fewer pads.

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DIN 45673-6:2010-08(E)

Annex A
(informative)

Example of a concrete sleeper with a resilient under-sleeper pad

Key
1 Under-sleeper pad
2 Concrete sleeper
3 Ballast
4 Bonding layer

Figure A.1 Example of a resilient under-sleeper pad for ballasted track

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DIN 45673-6:2010-08(E)

Bibliography

(DIN) EN 13146-9, Railway applications Track Test methods for fastening systems Part 9:
Determination of stiffness

DBS 918 061, Technische Lieferbedingungen Gleisschotter 2) in German only

2) This Deutsche Bahn standard is available from: DB Kommunikationstechnik, Medien- und Kommunikationsdienste,
Logistikcenter (Drucksachenzentrale), Kriegsstrae 136, 76133 Karlsruhe, Germany, dzd-bestellservice@bahn.de,
Tel. +49 721 938-1435

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