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PUNJAB PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION

SYLLABUS PMS (OPTIONAL SUBJECTS)

AGRICULTURE
PAPER- I Total Marks: 100

1. Natural Resources of Pakistan (land, water, and biodiversity), problems and


challenges to natural resources and measures to conserve them.Green revolution and its
basis.

2. Farming and cropping systems of Pakistan; scope and challenges in conservation,


intensive and organic farming in the country.Dryland farming, types and associated
problems.Measures to improve the sustainability of dryland farming systems.

3. Agro-ecological zones of Pakistan, types of climate in the country, and their


relationship with crop and livestock production.

4. Role of agricultural extension in current and future agriculture in Pakistan. Issues and
challenges in the agricultural extension system and measures to improve. Agricultural
research system of Pakistan; strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.Use of
information and communication technologies in Agriculture.

5. Role of Indus Basin Irrigation systems in the development of agriculture in


Pakistan.Indus-Basin Water Treaty and associated pros and cons. Irrigation methods;
advantages and limitations.Current and future scope of farm mechanization in Pakistan.

6. Use of bio-fertilizers, biopesticides and natural products in crop production systems,


associated challenges and ways forward. Weeds-crop interference.Competition and
allelopathicinteractions.

7. Biological N2 fixation and factors affecting biological N2 fixation. Transgenic plants,


opportunities and risks involved.

8. Potential and future threat to agro-forestry. Comparison of various agro-forestry


systems used in Pakistan. National forest policy and other land use policies.

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9. Different methods of food processing and preservation.Value addition in food and its
impacts. Food tests, contamination and its control measures. Basic nutrition requirements
and diseases associated with nutrition. Sustainable livestock production, scope of livestock
in agriculture.

10. Reasons of decline in agriculture production in Pakistan.Land tenure systems and


land reforms in Pakistan.

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Bohlen, P.J. and G. House. 2010. Sustainable Agroecosystem Management:


Integrating Ecology, Economics, and Society, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.
2. Byerlee, D. and T. Hussain. 1992. Farming Systems of Pakistan. Vanguard Books,
Lahore, Pakistan.
3. Chauhan, B.S. and G. Mahajan.2015. Recent Advances in Weed Management, LLC,
233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013, USA.
4. Cheema, Z.A. and M. Farooq. 2007. Agriculture in Pakistan: Ideological and
Pragmatic Perspective. Allied Book Centre, Urdu Bazar Lahore, Pakistan.
5. Cheema, Z.A., M.Farooq and A. Wahid. 2013. Allelopathy: current trends and future
applications. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg 69121, Germany.
6. Farooq , M. And K.H.M. Siddique. 2016. Innovations in Dryland Agriculture. Springer
International Publishing Switzerland.
7. Farooq, M. and K.H.M. Siddique. 2015. Conservation Agriculture. Springer
International Publishing Switzerland.
8. Khan, S.R.A. 2001. Crop Management in Pakistan with focus on soil and water.
Directorate of Agricultural Information, Lahore, Pakistan.
9. Napier, T.A . 2000. Soil and Water Conservation Policies: Successes and Failures.
CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.
10. Nazir, M.S. 1994. Crop Production. National Book Foundation, Islamabad, Pakistan.
11. Rafique, M. 2005. Irrigation and Drainage Practices. University of Agriculture,
Faisalabad, Pakistan.
12. Steward, G.F., M.A. Amerine, B.S. Schweigert and J. Hawthorn. 2001. Introduction to
Food Science and Technology. 3rdEdition . Academic Press, NY, USA.

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PUNJAB PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION
SYLLABUS PMS (OPTIONAL SUBJECTS)

AGRICULTURE
PAPER-II Total Marks: 100

1. Soil formation and soil profiles. Management practices to improve the soil
health.Types of problem soil and their management.Significance of soil organic matter in
agriculture.Reasons of low soil fertility in Pakistan and measures to improve that.
Integrated plant nutrition management systems.Application of GIS and remote sensing in
soil survey.

2. Principle of field crop production. Major field crops of Pakistan. Concept and
perspective of seed technology in modern agriculture.Seed multiplication and distribution
systems in Pakistan.Seed legislation in Pakistan. Tillage: its objectives and types.
Sustainable agriculture. Integrated weed management systems for field crops. Crop
rotations; principles and types.

3. Crop improvement tools.Types of breeding methods and strategies.Process of varietal


development and approval.Role of biotechnology in crop improvement programs.
Techniques of developing transgenic plants and scope of transgenic approach in plant
breeding.

4. Major insect pests of important agricultural crops.Principles and methods of insect-


pest control.Impact of climate change and transgenic plants on the beneficial insects and
biodiversity.Entomological industries; apiculture, sericulture and Lac-culture.Types of
agriculture pollution and its management.Hazards and safety measures of
insecticides.Integrated insect-pest management.

5. Causes, nature of losses and economic importance of plant diseases. Integrated


disease management.Requirements and problems in mushroom cultivation in
Pakistan.Classification, propagation, management practices and post-harvest handling of
fruits and vegetables. Flower industry in Pakistan; its scope and strategies to improve it.
Production of medicinal plants in Pakistan, associated challenges and
opportunities.Management practices and marketing of fruit and ornamental plant nurseries.

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SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Acquaah, G. 2008. Horticulture: Principles and Practices, 4thEdition. Pearson


Education, New York, USA.
2. Anonymous. 2002. Soil Survey Manual. USDA, University Press of the Pacific,
Washington DC, USA.
3. Basra, A.S. 2006. Handbook of Seed Science and Technology. Food Products
Press, New York, USA
4. Ezlinga, R.T. 2003. Fundamentals of Entomology. Prentice Hall, London, UK.
5. Farooq, M. and K.H.M. Siddique. 2015. Conservation Agriculture. Springer
International Publishing Switzerland.
6. Martin, J.H., R.P. Waldren and D.L. Stamp. 20016. Principles of Field Crop
Production, 4th Ed., the Macmillan Co., New York.
7. Mengel, K and E.A. Kirkby. 2001. Principles of Plant Nutrition. 5 th Edition. Kluwer
Academic Publication, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.
8. Nazir, M.S. 1994. Crop Production. National Book Foundation, Islamabad,
Pakistan.
9. Singh, B.D. 2003. Plant Breeding: Principles and Methods. Kalyani Publishers, New
Delhi, India.
10. Singh, S . S. 2008. Principles and Practices of Agronomy. 3 rd Ed., Kalyani Pub.,
New Delhi.
11. Soil Survey of Pakistan Reports, Pakistan.

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ANTHROPOLOGY

Total Marks: 100

1. INTRODUCTION
a. Definition of Anthropology, its historical development and recent trends
b. Relationship of Anthropology with other social disciplines

2. SUB-FIELDS OF ANTHROPOLOGY
a. Archaeology
b. Ethnology
c. Linguistic Anthropology
d. Sociocultural Anthropology
e. Biological Anthropology

3. MAIN FOCUS OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL STUDIES

Social Anthropology
a. Culture
Definition of culture, its characteristics and functions
b. Institutions of Family and Marriage
Definitions, Types, Structures, Functions, Incest Taboo & its theories,Family
Organization, Residence Rules
c. Kinship and Social Organization
Definitions, Kinship Terminology, Types, Functions, Systems of Descent, Kin
Naming Systems
d. Economic Organization
Definitions, Evolution of Economic systems e.g. Durheims organic and
Mechanical solidarity, Formalist and Substantivist approaches, Reciprocity and
Gift, Cultural construction of economic system, The anthropology of corporate
capitalism, Barter system, Primitive economic system, Neo-Substantivism and
capitalism as a cultural system, Modernization theory, World system analysis.

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e. Political Organization
Definitions, Evolution of Political system, Characteristics of {Clan, Band,
Phratry, Chiefdom, Tribal and State Societies}, Theories of origin of State
Societies {Internal and External conflict theories, Population and irrigation
theories, Global system theories}, Origin of Civilization, Politics of Identity,
Ethnicity and Ethnic relations, Nationalism, Modernism, Post-modernism
f. Religion
Definitions and Theories, Anthropology of belief, Religious entities, Religious
Symbols, Myth, Religious ritual, Rites of passage, World Religions, The
diversity of religious violence, Fundamentalisms in cross-cultural perspective,
Comparison of Divine Religions.
g. Contemporary Human Problems
Poverty, Social Inequality, Political instability, Population problems, Ethnic
violence and Terrorism.

4. SOCIO-CULTURAL CHANGE
Definitions, difference between social and cultural change, Various dimension
of cultural change, Barriers to cultural change including {culture, psychological and
political}, Internal and External dynamics of change, Population increase and change,
Diffusion of innovations, Socio-religious barriers in accepting the innovations and new
ideas, Media and cultural change, Dynamics of change in Pakistan (Trends and
prospects)

5. ANTHROPOLOGICAL THEORIES
a. Classical Theories:
Degenerations, Evolutionism, Neo-Evolutionism, Diffusionism
b. Modern Theories:
Functionalism,Structural-Functionalism, Class struggle, Structuralism, Historical
Particularism, Feminism, Culture and Personality
c. Current Trends in Anthropological Thoughts:
Post Modernism, Romanticism, Poetics and Politics of Ethnography

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d. Contributors:
Akbar S. Ahmad, Alfre Reginal Radcliffe-Brown, Alfred L. Krobber, Bronislaw
Kasper Malinowski, Clifford Geertz, Edmund Leach, Edward BurnettTaylor,
Franz Boas, Ibn-e-Khaldun, James Jorge Frazer, Karl Marx, Lewis Henry
Morgan, Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict, TalalAsad

6. ANTHROPOLOGICAL RESEARCH METHODS


a. Meaning, Definitions, Types and Aims of Anthropological Research
b. Qualitative and Quantitative Research
c. Purpose of Research, Research question, Variables, Hypothesis, Research
Objectives, Research design, Sampling, Field Data collection, Tools of
Data collection, (Questionnaire, Interview, Participant Observation), Data
classification, Data analysis and reporting.

7. ANTHROPOLOGY OF HERITAGE
a. World Heritage sites in Pakistan
b. Convention for the Safeguarding of the Cultural Heritage by UNESCO
c. Nominating process of Cultural Heritage
d. Legal status of designated sites. Antiquities Act.

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Ahmed, Akbar S. (1986). Pakistan Society: Islam, Ethnicity and Leadership in


South Asia. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
2. Asad, Talal (editor). (1973).Anthropology & the Colonial Encounter. London:
Ithaca Press.
3. Barnard, Alan. (2000).History and Theory in Anthropology. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
4. Benedict, Ruth. (1934).Patterns of Culture. Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin
Company.
5. Bernard, H. Russell (update edition), (2002) Research Methods in anthropology.
Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.
6. Bernard, H. Russell (update edition). (2002)Research Methods in
Anthropology.Third edition. Walnut Creek, CA: Alta Mira Press.
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7. Boas, Franz. (1940).Race, Language and Culture. New York: Macmillan. Edition.
[orig. 1922]
8. Eriksen, Thomas Hylland. (2004). What is Anthropology? London: Pluto Press.
9. Evans-Pritchard, E.E. (1964).Social Anthropology and Other Essays, combining
Social Anthropology and Essays in Social Anthropology. New York: Free Press of
Glencoe.
10. Geertz, Clifford. (1973).The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books.
11. Guest, Kenneth J. (2016). Essentials of Cultural Anthropology, New York: W. W.
Norton & Company, Inc.
12. Haviland, Prins, Walrath. (2007).Introduction to Anthropology. Mc Bride.
13. Kottak, Onrad Phillip. (2008). Cultural Anthropology, McGraw-Hill.
14. Levi-Strauss, Claude. (1963).Structural Anthropology. New York: Basic Books
[orig. 1958].
15. Lewellen, Ted C. (2003). Political Anthropology: An Introduction, New York:
Praeger Publishers.
16. Malinowski, Bron is law. (1961).Argonauts of the Western Pacific: An Account of
Native Enterprise and Adventure in the Archipelagoes of Melanesian New
Guinea.Waveland reprint
17. Mauss, Marcel, (1954)TheGift: Forms and Functions of Exchange in Archaic
Societies.Glencoe, IL: Free Press. [orig. 1925].
18. Mead, Margaret. (1928).Coming of Age in Samoa: A Psychological Study of
Primitive Youth for Western Civilization. New York: W. Morrow & Co.
19. Moore, Jerry D. (2009), Visions of Culture: An Introduction to Anthropological
Theories and Theorists: New Yark: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Ine.
20. Murdock, George. (1949).Social Structure. New York: The Macmillan Co. Radcliffe-
Brown, A.R. (1952).Structure and Function in Primitive Society; Essays
andAddresses.Glencoe, IL: The Free Press.
21. Scup in, Raymond &De Corse, Christopher R. (2012). Anthropology: A Global
Perspective, 7th ed. New York: Nancy Roberts.
22. Scupin, Raymond & Decorse, Christopher R. (2012). Anthropology: A Global
Perspective, 7thed. New York: Naney Roberts.
23. Turner, Victor. (1967).Forest of Symbols.Cornell University Press.

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ARABIC Total Marks:100

HISTORY OF ARABIC LITERATURE ( )

1. The Pre-Islamic Arabic Literature and its salient features.



2. Al-Quran and its influence on Arabic Literature.
3. Literary Movement, Classical Background, Socio-Culture Influences and Modern Trend
in Abbasid period.

4. Literary Movements in Undlus Period.
5. Origin of Modern Literary Style and its Development, including Drama, Novel, Short
Story and Essay with Special Emphasis on the Literature of Al-Mahjer and its
Outstanding Representatives, Jabran Khalil Jabran, Mustafa Lutfi Al Manfaluti, Mikhail
Naimah


6. A Short Introduction to Indo-Pak Arabic Literature in the Fields of Prose, Poetry and
Extensive Study of the Works of Ghulam Ali Azad Bilgrami and Shah Wali Ullah.


RHETORIC

7. Define and explain the following with examples:-


(1) Al-Tashbeeh (2) Al-Istiarah (3) Al-Haqiqah Wal-Majaz (4) Al-Kinayah
)(

LINGUISTICS (Arabic Grammar)

8. Define and explain the following with examples:-


-:
(Mufrad, Musana, Jama, Marifah, Nakrah, Jumlah Ismiyah, Jumlah Faeliyah, Marfooat,
Mansoobat, Majroorat).

9. Write Essays on: Islam, Al-Quran, Serat-un-Nabi, Quaid-e-Azam
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10. Write Applications: For Sick Leave, For Marriage Leave, Leave for Urgent Piece of
Work, For Fee Concession.

POETRY

1. Explain in brief two Maullqat complete.


(1) Imro-ul-Qais ( 2) Antra Bin Shaddad Al-abasi
2. Hazrat Hassaan Bin Sabbit: One Qaseedah from his Dewan:

No.1 Ma Balu Aine La tanam
3. Write down the Qasidah from Dewan Hazrat Kaab-Ibn Zuhair: Banat Suaad

4. Write down the brief study of following Qasidahs of Abu-Tamam

PROSE

1. Brief study on Khutbah Hajjat ul Wada. ( Al Iqd-ul-Fareed).



2. Brief study on Khutbah Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq and Khutbah-Hazrat Ali (Albayan
wal tabyeen / Al-Jahiz)

3. Brief study on Mustafa Lutfi Al-Manfaluti, with reference to his novel Al-Haviya from
his book Al-Abrat


4. Describe the literary services of Dr. Taha Hussain, with reference to his book
Alwad-al-haq

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SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Boer, De, Dr. The History of Philosophy in Islam

2. Chawala, Khan Muhammad. Arabic Grammar Composition and Translation

3. Gibbs, An Introduction to the Arabic Literature

4. Jazim, Ali. Al-Nahwul Wazeh

5. Khan, Saleem Tariq Dr. Al-Lugha Al-Arbia (I.U.B). B.A /

6. Malik, Khaliq Dad. Al-Insha wal Muhadsa /

7. Niclson, A History of Arabic Literature

8. Rabeh, Ibn Abad. Al Iqd-ul-Fareed

9. Zaif, Shouqi. Tareekh Adb-e-Arabi

10. Zayyat, Ahmed Hassan. Tareekh Adb-e-Arabi

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BOTANY
PAPER-I Total Marks:100

1. Algae:
Classification of Algae; Origin, evolution, distribution, cell structure, thallus
organization, methods of reproduction, modes of nutrition, patterns of life cycle, ecology
and economic importance of Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Charophyta, Bacillariophyta,
Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta; Lichen association: types, nomenclature and ecology.
2. Fungi:
Structure of plant body;Development of ascus, basidium and conidium; Reproduction,
classification; phylogeny, physiology and economic importance of the main groups of
fungi;Fungal diseases of economically important plants and their control.
3. Bryophytes:
Distribution, general characters, reproduction, life cycles and classification of
Bryophyts;Evolution of gametophytes and sporophytes;Structure, reproduction, classification
and economic importance of various members of Liverworts, Mosses and Hornworts.
4. Pteridophytes:
Introduction, origin, characteristic features, alternation of generation and
evolutionary tendencies of the following phyla: Psilopsida (Psilotum), Lycopsida
(Lycopodium, Selaginella), Sphenopsida (Equisetum), Pteropsida (Ophioglossum,
Dryopterisand Azolla/Marsilea), Psilophyta, Lycophyta, Sphenophytam and Pterophyta;Origin
and evolution of seed habit.
5. Gymnosperms:
Origin, distribution, general characteristics, life history and evolutionary tendencies of
Bennettitales,Ginkgoales, Cycadales; Coniferales and Gnetales;Gymnosperms in Pakistan
and their economic importance; Structure of seed.
6. Angiosperms:
a. Taxonomy: Introductionto systematic botany;Historical background of
classification systems; Post evolutionary era and recent developments in
classification systems; Plant Nomenclature: Rules of Nomenclature, International
Code of Botanical Nomenclature; Concept of species. Plant collection and
preparation of herbarium; Botanic Gardens; Modern trends in taxonomy;
Biosystematics, chemotaxonomy and numerical taxonomy.

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b. Anatomy: Cell wall; Meristematic tissue; Apical meristem: delimitation of


different growth zones; Mature tissues; Origin, structure, development,
functional and evolutionary specialization of parenchyma, collenchyma and
sclerenchyma; Xylem, phloem, epidermis and epidermal emergences and
laticifers; Primary and secondary growth; Cambium; Periderm;Origin, internal
organization and development of different tissues of leaf, stem and root;
Abnormal/Anomalous secondary growth; Ecological anatomy.
c. Embryology: Introduction to Embryology; Alternation of generation; The
flower and its parts; Stamen or microsporophyll; Carpel or megasporophyll;
Male gametophyte or microgametophyte; Pollination and fertilization;
Endosperm; Embryo and its development (embryogenesis); Seed and fruit
formation; Apomixes; Polyembryony.

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Agrios, G. 2012. Plant Pathology. Elsevier, 646 pages.


2. Bennett, S. and A. W. Bennett. 2010. A Handbook of Cryptogamic Botany.
General Books, 318 pages.
3. Cutler, D. F., C. E. J. Botha and D. W. Stevenson. 2008. Plant Anatomy: An
Applied Approach. John Wiley & Sons, 302 pages.
4. Dickison, W. C. 2000. Integrative Plant Anatomy. Academic Press, 533 pages.
5. Hoek, C., D. Mann and H. M. Jahns. 1995. Algae: An Introduction to Phycology
(Eds. D. Mann and H. M. Jahns). Cambridge University Press, 623 pages.
6. Kramer, K. U. and P. S. Green. 2013. Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. In The
Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Springer Science & Business Media, 404
pages.
7. Malcolm, W. M., N. Malcolm. 2006. Mosses and Other Bryophytes: An Illustrated
Glossary. Micro-Optics Press, 336 pages.
8. Mauseth, J. D. 2008. Plant Anatomy. Blackburn Press, 576 pages.
9. Mehrotra, R. S. and K. R. Aneja. 1990. An Introduction to Mycology. New Age
International, 766 pages.

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10. Reddy, S. M. 2001. University Botany I: (Algae, Fungi, Bryophyta And
Pteridophyta), Volume 1. New Age International, 432 pages.
11. Sharma, H. P. 2009. Plant Embryology: Classical and Experimental. Alpha Science
International, 302 pages.
12. Simpson, M. G. 2011. Plant Systematics. Academic Press, 608 pages.
13. Singh, G. 2016. Plant Systematics, Third Edition: An Intergrated Approach. CRC
Press, 756 pages.
14. Singh, V. 2010. Plant Anatomy and Embryology of Angiosperms. Global Media
Publications, 132 pages.
15. Singh, V. P. 2006. Gymnosperm (naked seeds plant) : Structure and
development. Sarup& Sons, 694 pages.
16. Stevenson, R. J. M. L. Bothwell, R. L. Lowe and J. H. Thorp, 1996. Algal Ecology:
Freshwater Benthic Ecosystem. Academic Press, 753 pages.
17. Vanderpoorten, A. and B. Goffinet. 2009. Introduction to Bryophytes. Cambridge
University Press, 303 pages.
18. Watkinson, S. C., L. Boddy and N. Money. 2015. The Fungi. Academic Press, 466
pages.

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BOTANY
PAPER-II Total Marks: 100

1. Plant Physiology:
Plantwater relations; Gaseousexchange in the leaves: mechanism ofstomatal
movement; Osmoticquantities; Absorptions;Transpiration; ole of essential mineral elements,
their uptake and distribution; Growth and development; Plant hormones; Photoperiodism;
Vernalization; Dormancyand seed germination; Biochemistry of carbohydrates, proteins and
fatswith reference to plants; Enzymes; Plant pigments. Photophosphorylation; Path of
carbon in photosynthesis; Oxidative phosphorylation (respiration); Nitrogen and fat
metabolism.
2. Ecology:
Autecology; Influence of climatic, edaphic and biotic factors on plant growth;
Vegetation sampling techniques; Major formations in relation to climatic zones; Concept
of ecosystemsand their productivity; Ecological energetics, pyramids, food chains and
trophic levels; Salinity and waterlogging in Pakistan; Causes and reclamation of salinity, soil
erosion, methods of control and conservatio; Pollution and conservation of natural
resources; Vegetation of Pakistan.
3 Cytology:
Detailed study of ultra-structure of cell and its components; Chromosomes; Mitosis
and meiosis, significance;Cell cycle, analysis of the control and models of control of cell
cycle;Modern concepts of cell division and their importance to continuity in life;Cancer and
apoptosis.
4. Genetics:
a. Mandelian Genetics: Linkage; Crossing over; Sex-linked inheritance;
Mutation; Polyploidy.
b. Biochemical Genetics: Biochemical nature of hereditary material; Fine
structure of genes; Transduction and Transformation.
c. Molecular Genetics: Replication; Transcription; Genetic Codes and
Translation.
5. Evolution:
Theories of Evolution; Mechanism of Evolution; Lamarckism; Darwinism; Neo-
Darwinism; Hardy Weinberg;s Law; Systematics and phylogeny; Gene flow and genetic
drift; Selfish genes; Gene frequency; Adaptive mutations.
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SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Acquaah, G. 2009. Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding. John Wiley & Sons,
584 pages.
2. Futuyma, D. J. 2013. Evolution. Sinauer Associates,656 pages.
3. Gibson, J. P. and T. R. Gibson. 2006. Plant Ecology. Infobase Publishing, 198
pages.
4. Greig-Smith, P. 1983. Quantitative Plant Ecology. University of California Press,
359 pages.
5. Hartl, D. L. and M. Ruvolo. 2011. Genetics. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 800 pages.
6. Hendry, G. A. and J.P. Grime. 2012. Methods in Comparative Plant Ecology: A
laboratory manual. Springer Science & Business Media, 252 pages.
7. Hopkins, W. G. and N. P. A. Hner, 2008. Introduction to plant physiology. Wiley,
528 pages.
8. Kang, M. S. 2002. Quantitative Genetics, Genomics, and Plant Breeding. CABI, 432
pages.
9. Lambers, H., F. S. Chapin and T. L. Pons. 2008. Plant Physiological Ecology.
Springer Science & Business Media, 605 pages.
10. Larcher, W. 2003. Physiological Plant Ecology: Ecophysiology and Stress
Physiology of Functional Groups. Springer Science & Business Media, 513 pages.
11. Mohr, H. and P. Schopfer. 2012. Plant Physiology. Springer Science & Business
Media, 629 pages.
12. Mold, R. J. 2012.Ecology of Halophytes. Elsevier, 620 pages.
13. Naff, C. F. 2005. Evolution: Exploring science and medical discoveries. Greenhaven
Press, 222 pages.
14. Schulze, E. D., E. Beck and K. M. Hohenstein. 2005. Plant Ecology. Springer
Science & Business Media, 702 pages.
15. Taiz, L. and E. Zeiger. 2014. Plant Physiology and Development. Sinauer, 700
pages.
16. Xu, Y. 2010. Molecular Plant Breeding. CABI, 734 pages.

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BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
PAPER-I Total Marks: 100

MANAGEMENT

SECTION 1: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND INTRODUCTION

1. Historical Background of Management


a. Birth of Early Management Ideas
b. Evolution of Management Theories
c. Pre-classical Contributors: Robert Owen, Charles Babbage, Henry E. Towne
2. Classical View of Management
a. Scientific Management :Frederick Winslow Taylor, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth,
Henry L. Gantt
b. Bureaucratic Management: Henri Fayol, Max Weber
c. Administrative View of Management: Henri Fayol & 14 Principles of Management
3. Behavioral Theories of Management
Hugo Munsterbeg, Mary Parker Follett, The Hawthorne Studies, Abraham Maslow,
Douglas McGregor(Theory X&Theory Y)
4. Contemporary and Emerging Views of Management
Contemporary Viewpoints: Systems Theory, Contingency Theory Emerging Views:
Globalization, Entrepreneurship, Managing in an E-Business World, Need for Innovation and
Flexibility, Quality Management Systems, Learning Organizations and Knowledge
Management, Theory Z, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), Managerial Ethics
5. Understanding Global Environment
Regional Trading Alliances: European Union, North American Free Trade Agreement,
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), South Asian Alliance for Regional
Cooperation (SAARC), World Trade Organization
6. Management and Managers, Managerial Roles in Organizations
(Interpersonal, Informational& Decisional) Managerial Functions (POLC Framework),
Management process: Planning, Organizing, Leading, Controlling.

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7. Managerial Levels and Skills


Top Managers, Middle Managers, First-Line Managers, Difference in Functions of
Management within the Hierarchy, Management Skills (Technical skills, Human skills,
Conceptual skills), Organizational Performance (Effectiveness&Efficiency)

SECTION 2: ORGANIZATIONAL PERSPECTIVE

1. Systems View of Management and Organization


Closed Systems&Open Systems, Systems Theory(Inputs, Transformation processes,
Outputs, Feedback), Organizational Environment and Organizational Culture, External
Environment&Internal Environment, Task Environment& its Elements,The Organizational
Culture.
2. Decision Making
Decision-Making Process, Descriptive decision-making models, Normative decision-
making, rational decision making,Programmed decisions, Non-programmed
decisions.Decision-Making Styles: Directive style, Analytic style, Conceptual style, Behavioral
style.Non-Rational Decision Making :Non Rational Model,Satisficing Model, Incremental
Model,Garbage-Can Model, Group Decision Making, Role of Physical Intelligence, Cognitive
Intelligence, Emotional Intelligence and Spiritual Intelligencein Decision Making.
3. Planning
Planning,Purposes of Planning, The Role of Goals in Planning, Linkage of goals and
plans, Strategic plans, Tactical plans, Operational plans, SMART Goals, Management by
Objective (MBO) Environment Assessing Techniques: Environmental Scanning, SWOT
analysis, Competitor intelligence, Forecasting, BenchmarkingResource Allocation
Techniques: Budgeting, Scheduling, Gantt Chart, PERT Network, Breakeven Analysis, Linear
Programming Contemporary Planning Techniques: Project Management, Scenario planning,
Queuing or waiting-line models, Simulation Models, Decision Trees.
4. Organizing
Nature of Organization Structure, Job Design/Specialization and Departmentalization,
Building Blocks of Organizing, Job design, Work specialization, Types of
Departmentalization, Assessing Structural Alternatives (Functional structure, Divisional
structure, Hybrid structure, Matrix structure, Process structure and thenetworkedstructure),
Span of Command, Centralization vs. Decentralization, Line vs. Staff Authority,
Organizational Design and Organic vs. Mechanistic vs. Virtual Structure, Job rotation, Job
enlargement, Job enrichment.

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5. Leadership and Motivation


Nature of Motivation, Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation, Maslows Needs
Theory, McGregors Theory X and Theory Y, Motivation-Hygiene Theory, ERG Theory,
Acquired-Needs Theory, Equity Theory, Expectancy Theory, Goal-Setting Theory,
Reinforcement Theory, Open Book Management, Pay-for-performance programs,
Integrating Contemporary Theories of MotivationLeadership, Managers versus Leaders,
Leader Behaviors, Autocratic, Democratic, Laissez-faire, Situational Theories, Fielders
contingency model, Normative leadership model, Situational leadership theory, Path-goal
theory, Transactional Leaders, Transformational leaders, Charismatic-Visionary Leadership,
6. Controlling
The control process, types of controls, controlling for organizational performance,
tools for monitoring and measuring organizational performance, establishing quality
management systems.
SECTION 3: MANAGEMENT DIMENSIONS

1. Human Resource Management


Definition and functions of HRM, Challenges of managing human resource in present
era, management and its relationship with HRM, Organizational behavior, Personnel
management to HRM, Work force diversity, Functions of HRM, External environmental
factors, Legal context of HR decisions, Human resource planning, Strategic planning and
human resource information system, job analysis, Sources of recruitment, Selection process,
Socialization, Training and development, Career management, Performance appraisal, Job
evaluation and pricing, compensation system, occupations, health & safety, Stress
management, communication in organization,Trade unions, Conflict and negotiation, Power
and politics,Employee rights and discipline.
2. Strategic Management
Concept of Strategic Management, Importance, Purpose and Components, Strategic
management process, The Role of Competitive Analysis in Strategy Formulation, Levels of
Strategies, Porters 05 Forces Model and Strategy Development (BCG) & Implementation,
Formulating corporate-level strategy, Formulating Business-level strategy, Formulating
functional-level strategy, Strategy Implementation.
3. Knowledge Management
Knowledge, Dimensions of knowledge, Tree of knowledge and its types, Knowledge
innovation and Hierarchy of Knowledge, Perspectives of knowledge and KM model, Impact
of Knowledge in different dimensions, Human capital and social capital, Types and

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characteristics of knowledge communities and Knowledge economy, Need & Importance of
KM in Pakistan.
4. Entrepreneurship Management
Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurial ventures vs. small businesses, The Entrepreneurial
Process, Types of start-ups, The nature of international entrepreneurship, Direct foreign
investment, Barriers to international trade, Sources of new ideas, Methods of generating
new ideas, E-commerce and business start-up and growth, Business plan, The marketing
plan, The organizational plan, the financial plan: Sources of capital, Capital sources in
Pakistan, preparing for the new venture launch, New venture expansion strategies and
issues, Acquisitions, Mergers, Entrepreneurship & Pakistan.

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Bergeron, Bryan. Essentials of Knowledge Management: 2003.


2. Carpenter, Mason. Bauer,Talya and Erdogan, Berrin. Management Principles. V.1.0.
3. Davenport, Thomas H. Thinking for a Living: 2005.
4. David, Fred R. Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases: 2002.
5. Decenzo, David A. Robbins, Stephen P. & Verhulst, Susan L. Human Resource
Management (International Student Version). 10th Ed.
6. Dessler, Gary. Human Resource Management. 13th Ed.
7. Drucker, Peter F. Innovation & Entrepreneurship: 1st Ed.
8. Hisrich, Robert D., Peters, Michael P. Shepherd, Dean A. Entrepreneurship: 7th Ed.
9. Mondy, Wayne. Human Resource Management. 13th Ed. by R.
10. Robbins, Stephen P. & Coulter, Mary. Management: 11th Ed..
11. Stankosky, M., Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann. Creating the Discipline of Knowledge
Management: 2005, Publisher Elsevier.

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BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
PAPER II Total Marks: 100

SECTION-I
MARKETING
1. Historical Perspective
History of Marketing, Marketing Management Philosophies.
2. Challenges in 21st Century
Porter 5 forces model of competition, Globalization, Changing the world economy,
Ethics and world economy, E-Marketing.
3. Marketing
Marketing, Simple marketing system, CreatingCustomers,Companys mission,
Company objectives and goals, Designing business portfolio.
4. Marketing Functions & Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
Marketing functions, Customer Relationship Management and its benefits, Goal of
customer relationship management, Building profitable customer relationships.
5. Strategic Planning and Marketing Process
Product/market expansion grid, Strategic planning, implementation and control
process.
6. Marketing Process
Marketing Process, Content of Marketing Plan, Marketing Plans Implementation,
Marketing Control, Micro-Environment: Company, Suppliers, Marketing Intermediaries,
Customers, Competitors, PublicMacro-Environment: Demographic Environment, Economic
Environment, Natural Environment, Technological Environment, Political Environment,
Cultural Environment.
7. Analysis of Marketing opportunities and developing strategies
Working of Marketing Information System, Subsystems of MIS, Marketing Research.
8. Consumer Buying Behavior
Model of consumer behavior, Factor influencing consumer behavior (Personal and
Psychological), Types of buying behavior, Buyer decision process, Business market,
Characteristics of business market, Factor influencing on business buyers, Business buying
process
9. Business Markets and Buying Behavior
Target marketing, Mass marketing, Niche marketing, Segmenting consumer
market
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10. Market Segmentation
Segmenting business market, Target market, Market coverage strategy, Positioning
strategy, Level of products and services, Consumer products, Industrial products.
11. Marketing Mix 4Ps
Product attributes, Branding, Packaging&Labeling, Product support services.
12. Individual Product Decisions
Steps for development of product, Test marketing, Commercialization, Selecting
positioning strategy.
13. New Product Development:
Consumer adoption process, Stages of product life cycle.
14. Price
Factors Affecting Pricing Decisions, Internal Factors, External Factors, Price
Adjustment and Price Changes, Price Adjustment Strategies (Segmented, Psychological,
Promotional, International), Pricing Policy,General pricing approaches, Cost-based pricing,
Value-based pricing, New product pricing strategies, Product mix pricing strategies,
Initiating and Responding to Price Changes.
15. Place, Distribution Channel, Marketing Channel
Market Intermediaries, Distribution channel functions, Vertical marketing system,
Horizontal marketing system, Hybrid market system, Channel management decision.
16. Logistic Management
Push versus pull strategy, Physical distribution, Major logistic function, Cross-
functional teamwork inside the company, Retailing and Whole-selling.
17. Marketing Communications
Marketing communication mix, Integrated marketing communication, Communication
Process, Steps in developing effective communication, Promotional budget, Promotional
tools.
18. Advertising &Promotion
Five Ms of the advertising, Advertising decisions, Selecting advertising media,
HandlingAdvertising, Sales promotion program

Personal Selling, Sales Force Management, Direct Marketing

19. Competitive Advantage


Competitor Analysis, Competitive Intelligence System, Competitive Strategies,
Balancing Customer and Competitor Orientations.
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20. Global Marketing


International Marketing, Global Marketing Environment (Globalization, International
Trade System, Economic Environment, Political/Legal Environment, Cultural Environment),
International Marketing Program, Global Strategy Framework, Basic Competitive Strategy
Profiles
21. E-Marketing
Internet Marketing, Rules of E- Marketing, Virtual Business, Key Success Factors,
Internet Marketing Objectives
22. Marketing and Society
Social Criticism of Marketing, Marketing Ethics (Consumerism, Environmentalism),
Enlightened Marketing, Consumer Oriented Marketing, Innovative Marketing, Value
Marketing, Sense-of-mission marketing, Societal Marketing.

SECTION-II
FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
Basic Concepts
1. Basic terminologies and concept of accounting
2. Flow of transactions, classification of accounts, rules of debit and credit and
recording procedure
3. Vouchers and Posting to Ledger Accounts and Trial balance
4. Accounting equation
5. Recording of stock
6. Cost of goods sold and valuation of stock (FIFO, LIFO and Weighted average
method)
7. Fixed Assets and Depreciation: Fixed assets and cost, Methods of Charging
Depreciation (Straight line & Diminishing balance method), Depreciation on Purchase and
Disposal of Fixed Assets, Policies to charge the depreciation, Revaluation of Fixed Assets
8. Capital Expenditure & Revenue Expenditure
9. Bank Reconciliation Statement
10. Control accounts
11. Rectification of Errors: Error of Omission, Error of Commission, Error of Principle,
Error of Original Entry, Error of Reversal Entry.

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12. Types of Business Entities: Non-Commercial Organization, Commercial Organizations


(Sole proprietorship, Partnership, Limited Company).
13. Introduction to Financial Statements: Profit & Loss Account, Balance Sheet, Cash
Flow Statement.
14. Basic financial ratios: Profitability Ratios (GP ratio, NP ratio), Stock Turnover Ratio (in
days and in times), Debtors Turnover Ratio (in days and in times), Creditors Turnover Ratio
(in days and in times), Returned on capital employed ratio, Earnings Per share, Price
Earnings Ratio, Debt Equity Ratio, Current Ratio, Acid Test Ratio, Mark Up Cover Ratio
Financial Management
Major Areas & Concepts of Financial Management, Organizational Structure, Business
Legal Entities, Internal and External Business Environment, Financial Markets, Objectives of
financial management, financial assets, Real Assets, Securities, Bonds, Difference between
Shares & Bonds, Types of Stocks, Value
Analysis of financial statements
Key Financial Ratios, Limitation of Financial Statements Analysis, Market value added
& Economic value added
Time Value of Money
Interest Theory and its determinants, Yield curve theory and its dynamics
Financial Forecasting & Financial Planning
Methods of forecasting
Present Value &Discounting
Discounting Cash Flows of a Business, Investment, or Project
Discounted Cash Flow Analysis, Annuities and Perpetuities
Capital Budgeting and Capital Budgeting Techniques
Net Present Value & Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
Project Cash Flows, Project Timing, Comparing Projects and Modified Internal
Rate of Return
Capital Budgeting and Interpretation of IRR and NPV with Limited Capital
Bonds and Classification of Bonds, Bonds valuation
Long Bond - Risk Theory, Bond Portfolio Theory, Interest Rate Tradeoff, Bond
valuation & yield on bonds, Interest Rate Tradeoff, Bond Yield to Maturity (YTM).

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Stocks and Stock Valuation


Types of Stocks, Share Price Valuation - Preferred Stock, Common Stock pricing,
Dividend Growth Models, Common Stocks Rate of Return, Dividends Pricing Models,
Earnings per Share (EPS) Pricing Model.

Risk and Return for Single Stock Investment


Diversification, Risk and Return for Single Stock Investment, Probability Graphs and
Coefficient of variation, Comparison of Different Investments, 2-Stock Portfolio Theory,
Portfolio Risk & Return, Portfolio Rate of Return, Portfolio risk analysis, Efficient Portfolios,
Efficient Portfolios, Market Risk & Portfolio Theory, Beta Concept & CAPM, Stock Betas and
Risk, SML & Required Returns (CAPM), Stock Prices in Efficient Markets,Criticisms of CAPM &
Alternatives.

Debt, Efficient Market &Cost of Capital


Capital Markets, Debt and Equity Markets, Efficient Markets Assumption, Capital
Structure, Cost of Capital & Required ROR, WACC (Weighted Average Cost of Capital),
Dividend Growth Model, CAPM Theory (SML for Efficient Markets) & NPV.
Business Risk,Operating Leverage (OL), Break-Even Point & ROE
Financial Leverage (FL) & Operating Leverage (OL), Financial Risk,Capital Structure
Theory, Modigliani Miller, Tradeoff Theory of Capital Structure with Tax & Bankruptcy.
Management of Capital Structure
Traditionalist Theory - Effect of Capital Structure on Firm Value & Share Price, Effect
of Capital Structure on Earnings and Risk, Weaknesses of Capital Structure Mathematical
Models.
Dividend Payout
Dividend Theories: MM Irrelevance (Miller Modigliani) Theory, Bird in the Hand
(Gordon &Lintner) Theory, Tax Preference Theory, Residual Dividend Model.
Working Capital Management
Working Capital Policies, Impact of working capital on Firm Value, Cash Management,
Cash Management Policies.
Cash Management & Working Capital Financing
Cash Dividend Payout Decision, Inventory Management, Accounts Receivables
Management, Credit Policy.
Short Term Financing, Long Term Financing and Lease Financing
Working Capital Financing, Long-term Debt Financing, Lease Financing and Types of
Lease Financing,Leasing of Fixed Assets (Financing of Capital Expenditure), Lease Analyses
& Calculations, Lease Analysis (WACC).
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Mergers & Acquisitions
Leveraged Buy-Outs (LBOs), Numerical Valuation of Target Firm Market Multiple
Analysis (MMA), Impact of Merger Price on Value of the Firm.

International Finance (Multinational Finance)


Issues of International Finance & Multinationals, International Financial Management,
Foreign Exchange Rate, Relationship between Foreign Exchange Rate, Interest Rate &
Inflation Rate.

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Brassington, Frances and Pettitt, Stephen. Principles of Marketing, 2006. Publisher


Prentice Hall.
2. Brigham, Eugene F. and Gapenski, Louis C. Financial Management Theory and
Practice.
3. Kotler, Philip and Armstrong, Gary. Principles of Marketing, 14th Ed.
4. Meigs, Robert F. Meigs, Walter B.. Financial and Managerial Accounting: 15th Ed.
5. Van Horne, James C. and Wachowicz, John M. Jr. Fundamental of Financial
Management.
6. William, D. & McCarthy, E. Jerome P Jr. Basic Marketing: A Global-Managerial
Approach, 15th Ed.

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CHEMISTRY
PAPER-I Total Marks: 100

Physical Inorganic
Chemistry Chemistry

Quantum
Modern Theory of
Mechanics and
Chemical Bonding
Atomic Structure

Thermodynamics Chemistry of Main


and Equilibrium Groups Elements

Kinetics and Coordination


Mechanisms Chemistry

Industrial
Chemistry
Nuclear Chemistry

Chemistry and
Mathematics

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PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY

Topic: Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Structure


1. Brief discussion of result of Bohrs model and defects
2. Sommerfields modification and evolution of azimuthal quantum numbers
3. Dual nature of matter
4. Detail of Heisenbergs uncertainty principle
5. Postulates of quantum mechanics
6. Quantum mechanical operators
7. Schrodinger equation
8. Wave function and their properties
9. Quantum mechanical systems
a. Particle in a 1-D box
b. Harmonic oscillator
c. Rigid rotator
d. Hydrogen atom
e. Variation principle
f. Huckel method

Topic: Thermodynamics and Equilibrium


1. Laws of thermodynamics and their applications
2. Concept of entropy
3. Helmholtz and Gibbs energy functions
4. Spontaneity and equilibrium
5. Chemical potential
6. System of variable composition
7. Interrelationship of thermodynamic function

Topic: Kinetics and mechanisms


1. Rate of reaction. Rate law, order and molecularity of the reactions. Zero, first
and second order reactions and mechanism.

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2. Effect of temperature on the reaction rate. Concepts of chemical equilibrium.
Law of mass action, equilibrium constant, Le-Chatelier principle and its
applications.
3. Surface Chemistry:
a. Adsorption
b. Chemisorption
c. Heterogeneous catalyst
Topic: Nuclear Chemistry

1. Radioactivity decay
a. Mass defect and binding energy
b. Nuclear stability and nuclear equation
c. Types of decay
d. Writing nuclear equation for , and decay
e. Half-life and carbon dating
f. Half- life plot
g. Exponential decay formula proof( can skip, Involves calculations)
h. Introduction to Exponential decay
i. Exponential decay and semi-log plots
2. Uses of radioactive isotopes and nuclear reactors
3. Nuclear waste and arms control related to national security.
4. Medical imaging, radiocarbon dating of archaeological findings and isotopic
analysis associated with climate studies, mineral extraction and cosmology
Topic: Chemistry and Mathematics (essential for students)
1. Number and their properties
2. Number in Science
3. Ratio and proportions
4. Units, dimensions and conversions
5. Percents
6. Simple statistics
7. Logarithms
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SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Atkins, Peter. Paula, Julio de . Physical Chemistry, 9th Edition 9th Edition.
2. Bhatti, H.N. and K. Hussain, Principles of Physical Chemistry Carwan Book house
Lahore.
3. Caldin, E-F. An introduction of Chemical Thermodynamics
4. Steiner, Erich. The Chemistry Maths Book. 2nd Edition. University of Exeter.

5. Introductory Physical Chemistry


David Ronis
Online | NA Pages | English
This book covers the following topics: Probability and Statistics, The Maxwell-
Boltzmann Distribution, Collision Rates, Diffusion and Viscosity, Collision Theory of
the Rate Constant, First Law of Thermodynamics, Thermochemistry, Ideal Gas Carnot
Engines and Efficiency, The Second Law of Thermodynamics, The Clausius Inequality
and the Mathematical Statement of the Second Law, Entropy and the Third Law, The
Chemical Potential, Maxwell Relations, The Free Energy, Eigenvalues and
Thermodynamic Stability, Entropy of Mixing, Thermodynamics of Electrochemical
Cells.

6. Thermodynamics and chemistry second edition


Howard DeVoe, Associate Professor Emeritus, University of Maryland
PDF | 533 Pages | English
This book in PDF format is available completely free of charge. It is a revised and
enlarged version of the first edition published in hard-cover format in 2001 by
Prentice Hall. Thermodynamics and Chemistry is designed primarily as a textbook for
a one-semester course in classical chemical thermodynamics at the graduate or
undergraduate level.

7. Physical Chemistry Lecture Notes


Colby College
Online | NA Pages | English
This note covers the following topics: Thermodynamics: First Law, Entropy and Free
Energy, Phase Equilibria, Solutions and Chemical Equilibrium, Electrochemistry,
Electrolyte Solutions and Kinetics.

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8. Physical Chemistry I and II (PDF 352P)


Darin J. Ulness
PDF | 352 Pages | English
This book explains the following topics: Basic Quantum Mechanics, Quantum
Mechanics of Atoms and Molecules, Statistical Mechanics and The Laws of
Thermodynamics, Basics of Thermodynamics, Quantum Mechanics and Dynamics,
Symmetry and Spectroscopy, Kinetics and Gases. Essentials of Physical Chemistry by
ArunBahl and B.S. BahlIntroductory Maths for Chemists Chemistry Maths 1 J. E.
Parker

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ONLINE CALCULATORS

1. Redox Calculator
2. Kinetics Arrhenius Calculator
3. Thermodynamics Calculator
4. Nuclear Decay Calculator
5. Linear Least Squares Regression
6. Newton's Method Equation Solver
7. Compressibility Calculator
8. Units Conversion Calculator
9. Nomenclature Calculator

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Topic: Modern theory of Chemical bonding


1. Introduction to Bonding Theories
2. Valence Bond Theory
3. Hybrid Orbitals
4. Pi Bonding
5. Conformations and Isomers
6. Molecular Orbital Theory
7. VSEPR (with lone pairs and without lone pairs)
8. Metallic Bonds

Topic: Chemistry of main groups elements


1. Structural Characteristics
2. Reactivities
3. Simple Compounds
4. Coordination Compounds
5. Metal Crowns
6. Organometallic Compounds of s and p Block Elements
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7. Noble Gases and their Compounds


8. Interhalogens
9. Psuedohalogens and Polyhalides
10. Anomalies in Periodicity
11. The Use of d-orbitals by Non-metals, Reactivity and d-orbital participation
12. P--d bonds, multicenter bonding in electron deficient molecules
13. Three-center-two electron and three-center four-electron bonds
Topic: Coordination Chemistry
1. Introduction to Coordination Chemistry
2. Nomenclature and stability
3. Geometry of complexes having coordination number 2 to 9
4. Properties of coordination complex
5. Common legends

Topic: Industrial Chemistry


1. Introduction: An overview of the Chemical process Industry and primary raw
materials
2. Safety considerations in Chemical processes
3. Efficiency and yield, common chemical industries with special reference to
Pakistan including Cement, surfactants, paper and pulp, glass and ceramics,
leather
4. Metallurgies of important metals
5. Liquid crystals and inorganic polymers

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SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Badar-ud-Din and Ali S. M. Inorganic Chemistry Ferozsons Pvt. Ltd.


2. Cotton, F, Albert, Geoffry Wilkinson and Paul L Gaus, basic Inorganic Chemistry,
John Wiley and sons Inc (latest edition)
3. Introduction to Coordination Chemistry Geoffrey A. Lawrance (e-book online
available)
4. McGill University Montreal Canada
5. Oxford University United Kingdom
6. https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/education/resources/highschool.html
7. http://www.edb.gov.hk/attachment/en/curriculum-development/kla/science-
edu/Chem_C&A_Guide_updated_e.pdf
8. http://www.p12.nysed.gov/ciai/mst/pub/chemist.pdf
9. https://www.chemie-biologie.uni-
siegen.de/igs/studium/mastercourse.html?lang=de
10. http://www.bachelorsportal.eu/studies/24650/chemistry.html
11. http://www.arp.harvard.edu/innovative-curricula/ps11-course-content)

ONLINE DATA:

1. Chem Wiki Inorganic Chemistry


Chemistry department, UC Davis
Online | NA Pages | English
This note covers the following topics in inorganic chemistry: Molecular Geometry,
Main Group Elements, Electronic Configurations, d-block Transition Metals, Crystal
Field Theory, Ligand Field Theory-block Transition Metals, Organometallic Chemistry
and Coordination Complexes.

2. Basic Inorganic Chemistry Lecture Notes


Dr. Mark J. Fink
Online | NA Pages | English
This note covers the following topics: Atomic Properties, Covalent Bonding,
Symmetry and Molecular Orbitals, Solid State Chemistry and Descriptive Chemistry.

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3. Inorganic Chemistry
Jim Clark
Online | NA Pages | English
This book explains essential ideas about redox reactions, and covers the trends in
Period 3 and Groups 1, 2, 4 and 7 of the Periodic Table. Also explains the lengthy
sections on the chemistry of some important complex ions, and of common transition
metals, Extraction and uses of aluminium, copper, iron, titanium and tungsten.
4. Advanced Inorganic Chemistry
5. Available online
Free download
A Comprehensive Text, Third Edition is written by F. Albert Cotton and Geoffrey
Wilkinson and published by Interscience Publisher A division of John and Wiley
SonsInc.
6. A Textbook of Inorganic Chemistry Volume XI , Part I By J. Newton Friend
7. Advanced Inorganic Chemistry A Comprehensive Text, Third Edition By F.
Albert Cotton and Geoffrey Wilkinson

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CHEMISTRY
PAPER -II Total Marks:100

Organic Applied Environmental Green


Chemistry Chemistry Chemistry Chemistry

Basic Tools of Material 12 Principles of


Pollution
Organic Chemistry Chemistry Green Chemistry

Biological Sustainable
Stereochemistry Ecotoxicology
Macromolecules Environment

Nucleophilic
substitution and Petroleum and
Future of World
Elimination Petro-Chemicals
Reactions

Chemicals in
Chemistry of
Service of
Hydroxyl Group
Mankind

Chemistry of
Carbonyl
Compounds

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ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Topic: Basic tools of Organic Chemistry:


1. Electron count, Lewis structures, Formal Charge, Electronegativity, Dipole
moment, Hybridization, Covalent bond, shapes and angles, Resonance,
Inductive effect, Hyper conjugation, tautomerism; hydrogen bonding.
2. Acid-base Chemistry

Topic: Stereochemistry
1. Introduction to chirality, Stereoisomers, Enantiomers and Chirality centres
2. R, S (Cahn-Ingold-Prelog) system for naming enantiomers
3. Stereo isomeric relationships: Stereoisomers, enantiomers, diastereomers,
constitutional isomers and meso compounds
4. Fischer-Projection introduction
5. Optical isomerism: optical activity chirality, symmetry elements and optical
inactivity
6. Geometrical isomerism: Determination of configuration of geometrical isomers,
Z, E convention cis- and trans- isomerism in cyclic systems; Conformational
isomerism: Conformational analysis of monosubstituted cyclohexanes,
disubstituted cyclohexanes

Topic: Nucleophilic substitution and Elimination reactions


1. Introduction to Nucleophiles and electrophiles
2. SN1-SN2 Mechanism: Detailed mechanism along with stereochemistry, SN1vs
SN2 Solvent effect
3. Elimination Reactions: E1- Regioselectivity and Stereoselectivity, Carbocations
rearrangement, E2 elimination: Regioselectivity and Stereoselectivity,
stereospecifity, E2 elimination: substituted cyclohexanes
4. Nucleophilicity and basicity, SN1, SN2, E1, E2 primary and tertiary Alkyl halides,
SN1, SN2, E1, E2 secondary Alkyl halides

Topic: Chemistry of Hydroxyl group


Alcohols: Nomeclature Physical properties, Preparation of alcohols by the
reduction of carbonyl compound, Reactions of alcohol with metals, organic and
inorganic acids, Oxidation of alcohols, Distinction between primary, secondary and
tertiary alcohols, Preparation of diols, triols and their important reactions and uses.

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Phenols: Physical properties, Synthesis of phenols, Reactions of phenols such as
acylation, Friedel-Crafts reaction, nitration, sulfonation, carbonation, formylation
and diazo coupling.
Ethers: Physical properties, Preparation of ether from alcohols, alkyl halides and
alkenes, Reactions of ethers.

Topic: Chemistry of Carbonyl compounds


1. Structure and reactivity of carbonyl group. Aldehydes and ketones: Aldol
condensation and related reactions, Cannizaro's reaction, Wittig reaction,
oxidation reactions,
2. Chemical properties, like salt formation nucleophilic acyl substitution, reduction
of carboxylic acids, decarboxylation, Hunsdicker reaction, Koehl reaction,
substitution at a-carbon. Preparations, properties and reactions of acids
chlorides, acids anhydrides, amides, cyanides, and esters, Malonic and
acetoacetic esters syntheses.

APPLIED CHEMISTRY:
Topic: Material Chemistry
1. Properties & Reactions of Matter or Materials Chemistry
2. Introduction to Polymers and their applications
3. Electronic, Molecular and Crystal Structure of Materials
4. Semi-conductors
5. Composites and liquid crystals

Topic: Biological Macromolecules


1. The Molecules of Life
2. Most macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers
3. Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material
4. Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules
5. Proteins have many structures, resulting in a wide range of functions
6. Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary information
7. Brief review of The Structure and Function of Macromolecules

Topic: Petroleum and petro-chemicals


1. Composition, properties and classification of crude oils, oil shale and tar sands.
2. Preparation, structure and properties of cracking and reforming catalysts.
3. Mechanism of cracking and reforming. Effect of operating conditions on
cracking and reforming products.
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4. Hydroforming and desulphurization of petroleum products.
5. Refining of gasoline, Reforming, Chemical structure of fuel and knocking.
6. Octane Rating of fuels, Cetane Rating, Diesel engine fuel, Kerosene, LPG as a
fuel
Topic: Industrial sector of Pakistan

1. Survey of chemical industrial potential of Pakistan


2. Important industries: Food, Ceramics detergents, fertilizers, glass, poultry,
diary cosmetics, pesticides.
3. Future impact and socio-economic development
ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY
Topic: Pollution
1. Air pollution
2. Soil pollution
3. Water pollution
4. Noise pollution
5. Visual pollution
6. Emotional pollution
7. Light pollution
8. Radioactive Pollution
9. Thermal Pollution
10. Personal pollution
Topic: Ecotoxicology
1. Definitions
2. Toxicological studies
3. Dose-response correlations
4. Threshold limit values

GREEN CHEMISTRY

Topic: Introduction to Green Chemistry

Topic: 12 Principles of Green Chemistry

Topic: Sustainability:
1. Human
2. Social
3. Economic
4. Environmental
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SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Allcock, Harry R. Introduction to Materials Chemistry. ISBN: 978-0-470-29333-1


2. Bhatia, S.C. Wealth from Waste New Delhi, Atlantica Pub., 2007, 2 Vols, ISBN 81-
269-0828-8
3. Bhatia, S.C. Environmental Chemistry, New Delhi, CBS, 2002, ISBN 81-239-0826-1
4. Brown, William H. Christopher, Foote, S. Brent L. Iverson, Anslyn, Eric V. Organic
Chemistry, Sixth Edition.
5. Clark , James. Handbook of Green Chemistry and Technology.
6. David, M. Stereochemistry (Tutorial Chemistry Texts), Royal Society of Chemistry,
(2002).
7. Devol, Havard. Oil and gas production handbook: An introduction to oil and gas
production, transport, refining and petrochemical industry.
8. Dicks, Andrew P. (Editor). Green Organic Chemistry in Lecture and Laboratory. CRC
Press, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada,
9. Eliel, E. L., Wilen, S. H. and Doyle, M. P., Basic Organic Chemistry, JohnWiley& Sons,
Inc., (2001).
10. Liljas, Anders. Liljas, Lars. Piskur, Jure. GranLindblom, Nissen, Poul.
and Kjeldgaard, Morten. Textbook of Structural Biology. 2009. World Scientific
Publishing, Singapore.
11. McMurry, John. Organic Chemistry eight edition.
12. Morris, D. G. Stereochemistry (Basic Concepts in Chemistry), Wiley-RSC, (2002).
13. Rana, S.V.S., Environmental Pollution, Health and Toxicology, Narosa Publishing
Hhouse, Dehli, ISBN 81-&319-651-6.
14. Rehmen. A. 2000. Text Book of Organic Chemistry, Carvan Book House Pakistan.
15. Roesky, Herbert W. (Editor), Dietmar Kennepohl (Editor), Jean-Marie
Lehn (Foreword by), Wiley-VCH Experiments in Green and Sustainable
Chemistry. 2009 ISBN: 978-3-527-32546-7
16. Rossmann, Michael . Textbook of Structural Biology Reviewed.
17. Smith, M. B. and March, J. 2006. Advance Organic Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons (6 th
Ed) USA.

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18. Speight, Handbook of Petroleum Product Analysis, Second Edition. 2014. ISBN
9781118369265 and ISBN 1118369262.
19. Younas, M.2003. Text Book of Organic Chemistry, IImi Kutab Khana Pakistan.

ONLINE RESOURCES:

1. Online web learning; OWL-UMassAmherst


2. https://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/reusch/virttxtjml/intro1.htm
3. http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/carey/etext_demo/preface.pdf
4. General Chemistry: Principles, Patterns, and Applications. Saylor Foundation, 2011.
[A free online textbook]
5. Materials Chemistry Lecture Notes University of California
6. This note covers the following topics: Introduction, Lattices, Symmetry, Crystal
Chemistry, Diffraction, Materials Synthesis, Phase Diagrams, Electronic Models and
Semiconductors.
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/materials-science-and-engineering/3-091sc-introduction-
to-solid-state-chemistry-fall-2010/organic-materials/
7. https://www.course-notes.org/Biology/Outlines/Chapter_5_The_Structure_and_
Function_of_Macromoleculs
8. https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-best-textbooks-to-help-me-learn-about-
petroleum-engineering
9. http://elibrary.bsu.az/azad/new/2472.pdf
10. http://www.meduniv.lviv.ua/files/kafedry/tokshim/English/Toxicological/Manuals_Tox
chem/Toxicological%20Chemistry%20-%20Manual.pdf

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY E-BOOKS:

1. Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry


by William Reusch

Publisher: Michigan State University 1999


Description:

An interactive textbook covering the usual topics treated in a college sophomore-


level course. Links are offered to advanced discussions of selected topics. The
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practice problems provided as part of this text are chiefly interactive, and should
provide a useful assessment of the reader's understanding at various stages in the
development of the subject.
2. Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry, 2ed
by John D. Roberts, Marjorie C. Caserio

Publisher: Addison-Wesley 1977

Description:

This is a classic introductory textbook to organic chemistry, written for chemists,


biologists, medical scientists, physicians, engineers, and so on. The authors
introduce the elements of the language of organic chemistry and some important
basic concepts, then show how these are used in connection with various
compounds. Considerable attention is given to the application of thermodynamics,
kinetics, quantum mechanics, and spectroscopy. The most important subjects are
covered in detail.
Download link:http://authors.library.caltech.edu/25034/

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COMMERCE ACCOUNTING

PAPER I Total Marks: 100

1. What is Accounting, Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Financial Statements,


Effects of transactions upon Balance Sheet and Accounting Equation, Journal and its
relationship to the ledger, preparing journal entries, Ledger accounts, Trial Balance, Income
statement, balance sheet and statement of owners equity, closing entries, accrual and cash
basis of accounting, Adjusting entries, principle of materiality, Work Sheet, Operating cycle
of a merchandising company, subsidiary ledgers and control accounts, sale and purchase
account, perpetual/periodic inventory system, Voucher system, Bank reconciliation
statement, petty cash fund, estimating cost of goods sold(CGS) and ending inventory by
gross profit(GP) method and retail method, Determine the cost of plant asset, capital and
revenue expenditures, matching principle, alternative methods of depreciation, Disposal of
plant asset, nature of goodwill, depletion of natural resources, impairment of long-lived
assets, MACRS, related numerical problems, Cash Flow Statements, Preparation of financial
Statement,

2. Introduction of contract accounts, accounting for completed contract, accounting for


incomplete contract, (profit and loss account and balance sheet),introduction of lease and
their importance, difference between operating and financial lease, accounting for operating
and financial lease, depreciation of leased assets by lessee, bargain purchase and bargain
renewal option, Classification of cost, cost of goods manufactured and sold statement,
Income Statement and Balance Sheet, Process Costing, Job order costing, Standard costing,
Material variance, Labor variance, Factory Overheads Variance Analysis, Absorption Costing
vs. Variable Costing techniques for internal and external reporting, Gross Profit Analysis,
Differential cost Analysis, Activity Based Costing,

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SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Drury, Colin. Management & Cost Accounting.


2. Garrison, Ray H. Managerial Accounting.
3. Ghani, M. A. Advanced Accounting.
4. Ghani, M.A. Principles of Accounting, Pak Imperial Book Depot, Lahore.
5. Gupta, R.R. Advanced Accounting.
6. Horngren, Cost Accounting, A Managerial Emphasis
7. Lucy, T. Costing, Hemkep, Cost Accounting
8. Matz., A. Usry, M.F. Cost Accounting. South-Western Publishing Company
9. Meigs & Meigs, Accounting the basis for business decisions, McGraw Hill
Publishing Company.
10. Nisar-ud-Din, Cost Accounting.
11. Shukla and Grewal, Advanced Accounting.

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COMMERCE ACCOUNTING
PAPER II Total Marks: 100

1. Introduction and Scope of Auditing, Internal Check, Internal Audit and working of
Internal control in various departments, Continuous, Final and Interim audit, Audit Working
Paper, Audit Note Book, audit planning, Vouching, Audit techniques and its applications,
Appointment of auditor, their rights, duties and liabilities, Audit Report Statutory,
Prospectus, Annual, Unqualified and Qualified report,

2. Introduction to Management, Importance, Managerial Levels, Management


Functions, Management Roles, Management Skills, Industrial Revolution, Scientific
Management, General Administrative theories, Quantitative Approach to management,
Behavioral Approach, Systems Approach, Contingency Approach, Current Trends,
Organizational Culture and Environment, Managing in a global Environment, Introduction to
Planning , Importance, Types of plans, Establishing goals, decision making process,
planning tools. Introduction to Organizing, organizational structure, elements of
organizational structure, organizational design. Organizational culture and its ingredients.
Introduction to staffing and Leading, Understanding groups, group development, group
structure, groups vs. teams, motivation, early theories of motivation (Maslow, Herzberg,
McGregors), and introduction to leadership. Controlling, Introduction to control,
importance of controlling for organizations, the control process, Business Feasibility
Study, Location, Planning and Analysis Objectivity of Location, Factors influencing the
Location, Best possible choice of plant location , Professional decision-making through
weighted index, Job Design, Ergonomics, Workload Balancing & Job Stress, Improving
Resource Utilization, Operations &Risk Management,

3. Sole Proprietorship: Features, Importance, Merits and Demerits. Partnership:


Features, Merits and Demerits, Co-ownership Vs. Partnership; Classification of Partners,
Rights, Duties and Liabilities of Partners, partnership deed, minor partner, registration of
partnership, Joint Stock Company: Features, Merits and Demerits, Formation,
Memorandum of Association; Articles of Association and Prospectus, Kinds of companies
Meetings and resolution, Kinds of Capital, Capital Management, debenture and its types,
Winding up.

4. Letter of credit, its definition, parties, types, opening procedure of L/C & importance,
Islamic mode of finance, Role and function of commercial banks, Central banking its
functions, monetary policy, its objectives & methods of control Banker- customer

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relationship, duties & rights of banker & customer, refusal of payment on cheque, Inflation
& deflation and their social and moral consequences.

5. Introduction to the economy of Pakistan, Review of Economic Development in


Pakistan: Economic growth and development, Characteristics of developed and developing
countries, Characteristics of Pakistans Economy, Economic Resources of Pakistan,
Agriculture and Industrial Sector, Exports and Imports, Economic Planning & Budgeting,

6. History of Income Tax Laws in Pakistan, Definitions of terms under Income Tax
Ordinance 2001, Calculation of total income, tax liability under the head of salary, Income
from house property, Income from business and profession, Income from capital gains,
Income tax authorities, Appeals. History of sales tax laws in Pakistan, Registration of firm
under the Sales Tax Act 1990, Appointment of officers of sales tax and their powers, Legal
provisions regarding furnishing of returns, Offences and penalties, Appeals, Calculation of
sales tax.

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SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Adam, Ronald & Ebart, Production & Operation Management.


2. Ahmad, Waqar & Amjad, Rashid. The Management of Pakistan Economy.
3. Alam, Hassan Mobeen Dr. Money Banking & Finance.
4. Cheema, Khalid Mehmood. Introduction to Business, Syed Mobin Mahmood &
Company, Lahore.
5. Irshad , Muhammad. Auditing. Naveed Publication, Lahore.
6. Irshad, Muhammad. Introduction to Business, Naveed Publications Lahore.
7. Koontz, Weihrich. Management: A Global Perspective. Latest Edition.
8. Mughal, Muhammad Muazzam. Income Tax: Principles and Practice., Syed
Mobin Mahmud & Co, Lahore.
9. Mughal, Muhammad Muazzam. Sales Tax: Sales Tax., Syed Mobin Mahmud &
Co, Lahore
10. Nasir, M. Saeed. Economic Problems of Pakistan.
11. Richard, N. Owen. Management Industrial Enterprises.
12. Robbins, Cuolte & Vohrar. Management. Latest Edition
13. Saeed, Khawaja Amjad. Economy of Pakistan. Allmi Book House, Lahore
14. Saeed, Khawaja Amjad. Auditing. Accountancy & Taxation Services Institute, P.O.
Box 1164, Lahore.
15. Govt. of Pakistan, Pakistan Economics Survey, Income Tax Ordinance 2001 Sales
Tax Act.

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CONSTITUTIONAL LAW

Total Marks: 100


1. Scope of Constitutional Law
2. Forms of Government, Unitary, Federal Parliamentary, Presidential.
3. Federalism and Federations
4. Principles and Theories of Constitutional Interpretation.
5. Natural, Basic and Fundamental Rights.
6. Human Rights and Their Enforcement.
7. Independence of Judiciary and Judicial Review.
8. Separation of Powers.
9. Constitutional Law of USA. UK, Australia, Canada, France, Turkey, India, Malaysia,
South Africa.
10. Constitutional History of Pakistan from Govt. of India Act 1935.
11. 1973 Constitution and Amendments to the Same.
12. Leading Constitutional Cases in Pakistan from 1947 till date.

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Ahmad, Justice Munir Constitution of Pakistan


2. Brohi, A.K. Fundamental Law
3. Chaudhry, A.G. Leading Cases in Constitutional Law
4. Dicey, A.v. Introduction to the study of the Law of the Constitution
5. Khan, Hamid. Comparative Constitutional Law
6. Khan, Hamid. Constitutional and Political History of Pakistan
7. Mahmood, Safdar. Constitutional Documents of Pakistan
8. Smits, J.S. Elger Encyclopedia of Comparative Law
9. Watts, Rowland. Federations

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DISASTER MANAGEMENT
Total Marks: 100
1. Introduction to Disasters
a. Understanding disasters
b. Types of disasters
c. Some of the disasters around the globe and in Pakistan (facts and figures)
d. Need of Studying Disaster management
e. Authorities responsible for disaster management in Pakistan
f. Institutional Arrangements concerning the industrial sector in Pakistan

2. Disaster Management
a. Disaster Management
b. Disaster Risk Management (DRM)
c. Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR)
d. Paradigm shifts in understanding and managing disasters
e. Approaches for disaster management
f. Relevant Proposed System for disaster management
g. Rescue and relief work (post Disaster)
h. Community involvement and disaster mitigation
i. Role of communities and NGOs (self-help)

3. Information, Geographic Information & Communication Management


Systems
a. Information & Communication Management System
(1) Introduction and Background
(2) Information Management
(3) Information and communication management strategy
(4) Working with communication media
(5) Improve Communications to Maximize Success and Minimize Risk
(6) The Communications Gap. Language Challenges.

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b. Geographic Information system


(1) GIS (Geographic Information Systems)
(2) GIS as a tool for improving the city environment and services
(3) Issues in developing GIS Systems in Pakistan
(4) Use of GIS in Urban Planning and Management (Master Palanning)

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Beach, Michal Disaster Preparedness and management


2. Coppole, Damon P. Introduction to International Disaster
Management

3. Haddow, George and Bullock, Introduction to Emergency Management


Jane
4. Healtherly, Michhal C. Disaster Management: Local Roles and
Importance of International Cooperation
5. McEntire Disaster Response and Recovery: Strategies
and Tactics
6. National Academies and Disaster Resilience A National Imperative
committee on Science,
Engineering and Public Policy
7. Soundra, K. Dealing With Disaster Public Management in
crisis situation
8. Sylves, Richard Disaster Policy and Politics
9. Valcik, Nicolas A. and Tracy, Case Studies in Disaster Response and
Paul E. Emergency Management Series in Public
Administration and Public Policy

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ECONOMICS
PAPER-I Total Marks: 100

MICROECONOMIC THEORY

1. Consumers Equilibrium
Introduction to Microeconomics, Demand and Supply Analysis, Elasticities of
Demand Price, Income and Cross Elasticities and their use in Taxation and Fixing Prices
and Wages. Utility Analysis, Cardinal and Ordinal Approaches of Consumers Equilibrium,
Marginal Rate of Substitution (MRS)
2. Theory of Production and Cost
Production Function, Factors of Production, Laws of Production, Equilibrium of Firm,
Marginal Rate of Technical Substitution (MRTS), Maximization of Output and Minimization of
Cost. Types of Cost and their relationship, Traditional and Modern Theories of Cost.
3. Market Structure and Price Determination
a. The perfectly competitive market
Assumptions, Short-Run vs Long-Run, Profit and Loss situations in the Short-Run,
Equilibrium of a Competitive Firm in the Long-Run
b. Monopoly and Monopsony
Assumptions of Monopoly, Price and Output Determination under Monopoly, Price
Discrimination, Multiplant Monopoly, Bi-lateral Monopoly, Social Cost of Monopolies,
Public Utilities and Marginal Cost Pricing.
c. Monopolistic Competition and Oligopoly
Characteristics of Monopolistic Competition, Short-Run and Long-Run Equilibrium,
Comparison of Perfect Competition and Monopolistic Competition, Comparison of
Monopoly and Monopolistic Competition , Non-collusive Oligopoly, Cournot Duopoly
Model, Sweezy Kinked Demand Model, Collusive Oligopoly, Cartels, Price Leadership
Model.
4. Pricing of Factorsand Market Structure
The Demand for a Factor, Marginal Revenue Product Curve (MRP), Value of Marginal
Product (VMP), Marginal Factor Cost (MFC),Input Price Elasticity, The Demand for
Labour in Perfectly Competitive Markets, Formal Derivation of the Equilibrium of a Firm.

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5. General Equilibrium Theory


Assumption of 2x2x2 Model, Statistic Properties of a General Equilibrium State,
EdgeworthBox Diagram, Equilibrium Conditions, Preto Optimality, General Equilibrium and
the Allocation of Resources.

6. Welfare Economics
Meaning of Welfare Economics, Criteria of Social Welfare, Welfare Maximization,
Externalities in the Production.

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Frank, Robert H. Bernanke, Ben. S. and McGraw-Hill Irwin. Principles of Economics.


2. Hal, R. Microeconomic Analysis Varian, 3rd Edition, National Book Foundation, Islamabad
3. Henderson, James M. and Quandt, Richard E. Microeconomic Theory 3rd Edition,
McGraw-Hill
4. Koutsoyiannis, A. Modern Microeconomics. 2nd Edition Mac Millan USA.
5. Nicholson, Walter. Microeconomic Theory, Basic Principles and Extensions Latest Edition
South-Western

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Part II

MACROECONOMIC THEORY Total Marks: 100

1. Framework of Macroeconomics
Scope of Macroeconomics, Macroeconomic Variables and their Functional
Relationship. The Bird Eye View of Pakistan Economy.
2. Measuring Economic Activity
Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Nominal Gross Domestic Product (NGDP) vs. Real
Gross Domestic Product (RGDP), Gross Domestic Product vs. Gross National Product (GNP),
Measurement of Growth Rate of the Economy, Concept of GDP Per Capita, National Income
and its Measurement.
3. Dynamics of Inflation and Unemployment
a. Unemployment
Unemployment and its Measurement. The Concept of Population and Labour Force.
Types of Unemployment: Frictional, Cyclical, Disguised, Structural and Seasonal
Unemployment. Concept of Full Employment and Natural Rate of Unemployment.
b. Inflation
Inflation and its Measurement, Consumers Price Index (CPI) vs. GDP Deflator
Methods. Types of Inflation: Demand Pull Inflation, Cost Push Inflation, Stagflation.
Policy Dilemma: What is desirable Inflation or Unemployment.
4. The Basic Keynesian Model
Major Assumptions, Components of Aggregate Demand. Consumption and its types,
Concept of Marginal Propensity to Consume (MPC) and Marginal Propensity to Save (MPS),
Concept of Multiplier. Government Spending Multiplier, Tax Multiplier. Investment and its
types, Determination of National Income and Employment. The use of Fiscal and Monetary
Policy in Controlling Inflationary and Recessionary Gaps.
5. Classical and Keynesian Macroeconomics
The Quantity Theory of Money, The Classical Theory of Interest Rate, Policy
Implications of the Classical Equilibrium. Money in the Keynesian System. The IS-LM Model,
Money Market Equilibrium, Product Market Equilibrium
6. Business Cycle Theory
Meaning, Phases and Theories of Business Cycle, Policy Measures to Control Business
Cycle.

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7. International Aspects of Macroeconomics
a. Exchange Rate
Determination of Exchange Rate, The Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) Theory.
Controversy on Fixed vs. Flexible Exchange Rate.

b. Balance of Payments (B.O.P)


Meaning, Causes and Kinds of Balance of Payments Disequilibrium, Various
Approaches of Balance of Payments Adjustments.

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Dornbusch, R., Fischer, S. and Startz, Richard. Macroeconomics (New Delhi: Tata
McGraw-Hill Publishing Co.,) Latest Edition
2. Frank, Robert H. and Bernanke, Ben. S. Principles of Macroeconomics. McGraw-Hill
Irwin
3. Froyen, R.T. Economics: Theories and Policies (2008), 9thEdiction, Prentice Hall
4. Mankiw, N. Gregory. Macroeconomics 5th edition Worth Publisher.
5. McConnel, C. Brue, S. and Flynn, S. Economics; Principles, Problems and Policies
(2009) - McGraw-Hill Irwin
6. Samuelson N, and Nordhaus W. Economics (2010) McGraw-Hill Irwin

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ECONOMICS
PAPER-II Total Marks: 100

1. Major Issues in Pakistan Economy


An Overview of Pakistan Economy, Issues Related to Agricultural and Industrial
Sector in Pakistan, Human Resource Development and Emerging Issues, Manpower,
Planning and Rising Trend of Unemployment in Pakistan, Governance and the Role of
Institutions in the Development Process of Pakistan, Need for Debt Management and
Domestic Resources Mobilization in Pakistan, Deteriorating Trade Performance and its
Impact on Pakistan Economy.

2. Income Distribution and Economic Development


Meaning and Measurement of Economic Development, Basic Theories of Economic
Development, Role of Education, Human Capital Agricultural and Industrial Sector in
Economic Development of Pakistan Economy. Importance of Rural Development in Pakistan,
Meaning, types and Measurement of Poverty, Pattern of Income Distribution, Critical Review
of Social Action Plan in Pakistan.

3. The International Economy


International Trade and Capital Flows, Mercantilist Point of View about International
Trade, Absolute Advantage Theory, Comparative Advantage Theory, Capital Flows and
Balance of Payments, Exchange Rates and the Open Economy, Determination of Exchange
Rate, Purchasing Power Parity, Supply and Demand Analysis, Role of Monetary Policy in
Exchange Rate.

4. The Economics of Public Policy


State Ownership and Management, State Regulation of Private Monopolies,
Enforcement of Antitrust Laws, Marginal Cost Pricing of Public Services, Use of Cost Benefit
Criterion in Health Care Delivery, Government Provision of Public Goods, The Optimal
Quantity of Public Goods, Externalities and Property Lights, Internalizing Externalities.

5. Public Finance and Pakistan Economy


Tax Revenues and the Incidence of Taxation, The Traditional Cannon of Taxes,
Types of Taxes Collected by Provincial and Federal Government in Pakistan, Tax Reforms in
Pakistan and their Impacts. Public Expenditures and their Components. Development and
Non-Development Budget and their Pattern. Deficit Financing and their Impact on Pakistan
Economy.

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6. Monetary Policy in Domestic and International Perspective


Structure and Functions of Central Bank, Independence of Central Bank, Major Tools
of Monetary Policy, Monetization of Public Debt, Targeting Interest Rate and Inflation,
Current Issues of Monetary and Financial Sector Reforms, Conduct of Monetary Policy in
Fixed and Flexible Exchange Rates, Mobility of Capital and Money Control.

7. Political Economy of Economic Development


Concept of Political Economy, Economic and Political Integration. Key Social &
Economic Indicators. Political and Economic Institution and their role in Decision Making.
Conceptualizing the Changing Global Order. International Politics and Transfer of
Technology. Issues Related to Governance in Pakistan. Emerging Economic and Political
Issues in Pakistan and their Linkages. SAARC its Political & Economic Aspects.

8. Islamization Process in Pakistan

Islamization of the Banking and Financial System: The role of Financial Institutions in
Private Sector, Implementation of Zakah and Usher System: Prospects and Problems,
Islamic Banking Practice and the role of the State Bank of Pakistan.

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SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Don, Patinkin. Money, Interest and Prices, (Latest Edition). Harper & Row
Publishers.
2. Govt of Pakistan, Economic Survey, Yearly Publication. Ministry of Finance,
Economic Advisory Wing, Islamabad.
3. Holinder, Peter & Pugel, Thomas A. International Economics (Latest Edition)
McGraw Hill.
4. Kardar, Shahid. The Political Economy of Pakistan (Latest Edition): Progressive
Publishers, Pakistan.
5. Krugman and Obstfeld. International Economics Theory and Practice (Latest
Edition) Addison Willey.
6. Krugman, P. R. and Obstfeld, M. International Economics : Theory and Policy
(Latest Edition). Harper Collins College Publishers.
7. Mannan, M. A. Developing a System of Financial Instruments IRTI, (1995), Islamic
Development Bank, Jeddah.
8. Meier, Gerald M. and Rauch, James E. Leading Issues in Economic Development
(Latest Edition) Oxford University Press.
9. Musgrave, R. A. and Musgrave, B. P. Public Finance: Theory and Practice (Latest
Edition) Mcgraw Hill.
10. Saeed, Khawaja Amjad. The Economy of Pakistan (Latest Edition), Oxford
University Press.
11. Salvatore, Dominick. International Economics. (Latest Edition) John Wiley
12. Sodersten, B. and Read, Geoffry. International Economics (Latest Edition) Mac
Millan Press Ltd.
13. Stiglitz, E. Economics of Public Sector (Latest Edition). W. W. Norton & Company.
14. Todaro, M. P. and Stephen C. Smith. Economic Development (Latest Edition)
Pearson Education Limited.
15. Zaidi, Akbar. Issues in Pakistan Economy. (Latest Edition) Oxford University Press,
Karachi.

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EDUCATION

Total Marks: 100


1. Education in Pakistan
a. History of Education in Pakistan
b. Aims of Education
c. System of Education
d. Educational Policies
(1) The Education Policy 1972-80
(2) National Education Policy 1979
(3) National Education Policy 1992
(4) National Education Policy 1998-2010
(5) National Education Policy 2009
2. Teaching and Learning
a. Concept of Teaching
(1) Nature of Teaching
(2) Characteristics of Good teaching
(3) Teaching Process
b. Individualized and Group Instruction
c. Process of Learning
d. Learning Theories
(1) Cognitive Theories
(2) Behaviorist Theories
(3) Socio Cognitive Theories
(4) Humanist Theories
e. Teaching Learning Strategies
(1) Expository Teaching
(2) Interactive Teaching
(3) Small-Group Teaching
(4) Inquiry Teaching
3. Philosophy and Education
a. Main Schools of General Philosophy
(1) Idealism
(2) Naturalism/Realism
(3) Pragmatism
(4) Existentialism

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b. Main Schools of Educational Philosophy


(1) Perennialism
(2) Essentialism
(3) Progressivism
(4) Reconstructionism
c. Educational Philosophy of some eminent Scholars
(1) Muslim Scholars: Imam Ghazali, Ibne Khuldun, Dr. Muhammad Iqbal
(2) Non-Muslim Scholars: John Dewey, Plato, Socrates, Russell

4. Research Method
a. Types of Research
(1) Qualitative Approach
(2) Quantitative Approach
b. Research Designs
(1) Experimental Designs
(2) Correlational Designs
(3) Survey Designs
c. Review of Literature
d. Sampling Procedures
(1) Probability Sampling Techniques
(2) Non Probability Sampling Techniques
e. Research Instruments
(1) Questionnaire
(2) Interviews
(3) Tests
(4) Observations
(5) Rating Scales
f. Data Analysis
g. Research Proposal and Report writing

5. Educational Administration
a. Administration and Supervision
b. Process of Administration
c. Administration Theories
(1) Classical
(2) Administrative

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(3) Human relations


(4) Behavioral
(5) Contingency
(6) Contemporary
d. Approaches to Educational Administration
e. Organizational Design and Structure
f. Organizational Culture and Climate
g. Leadership Styles

6. Curriculum Development
a. Elements of Curriculum
b. Foundations of Curriculum
c. Basic Principles of Curriculum Development
d. Models of Curriculum Development
(1) Rational / Objective Models
(2) Cyclical Models
(3) Dynamic / Interaction Models
f. Curriculum Development Process

7. Assessment and Evaluation


a. Introduction to Assessment and Evaluation
b. Types of Assessment
(1) Placement Assessment
(2) Diagnostic Assessment
(3) Formative Assessment
(4) Summative Assessment
c. Approaches to Classroom Assessment
(1) Tests
(2) Observations
(3) Portfolio
d. Quality of Measuring Instrument
(1) Validity
(2) Reliability
e. Grading and Reporting

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SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Chaudhry, A.S. & Ahmad, M. (2001) Rehber-Ilm-ul-Taleem. Lahore, Pakistan: Qureshi


Brothers Publishers.
2. Creswell, J., W. (2012) Educational Research Planning, Conduction, and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 4th Edition, Published by Pearson Education,
Inc, Publishing as Pearson Education Inc.
3. Davis, A., & Winch, C. (2015) Educational Assessment on Trial: Bloomsbury
Academic An Imprint of Bloomsbury Publish Plc.
4. Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., &Hyun, H. H. (1993).How to design and evaluate
research in education (Vol. 7). New York: McGraw-Hill.
5. Gutek, G. L. (2004). Philosophical and ideological voices in education. NY: Pearson.
6. Hoy, W., & Miskel, C. (2013). Educational administration: Theory, research and
practice.9thed.NY: McGraw-Hill
7. Kalaiyarasan Dr., G. (2015) Curriculum Development, APH Publishing Corporation,
4435-36/7, Ansari Road, Darya Ganj New Delhi-11002
8. Kneller, G. F. (1971). Introduction to the Philosophy of Education. UK: John Wiley &
Sons Inc.
9. Linn, R. L., Gronlund, N. E., & Seraphine, A. E. (1995).Measurement and Assessment
in
10. Lunenburg, F.C. & Ornstein, A. C. (2011).Educational administration: Concepts and
practices.6th ed. UK: Woods Worth.
11. Moreno, R. (2010). Educational Psychology. NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
12. Olivia, P. F. (1992). Developing the curriculum. NY: Pearson
13. Reynolds, R., C., Livingston, B., Ronald and Willson, V. (2009) Measurement and
Assessment in Education: 2nd Ed, PHI learning Private Limited New Delhi-110001
14. Shahid, S. M. (2000). Modern approaches to teaching. Lahore: Majeed Book Dept,
Urdu Bazar.
15. Sindhu, S., I. (2012) Educational Administration and Management: Published by
Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd, Licenses of Pearson Education in South Asia.
16. Teaching. 8th ed. NY: PearsonRobbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2013).Organizational
behavior, 15th ed. NY: Pearson.
17. Zais, R. S. (1976). Curriculum: Principles and foundations. Ty Crowell Company.
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ENGLISH LITERATURE
PAPER I Total Marks: 100

1. Brief History of English Literature:


Significance of various periods in English Literature; style and content; socio-political
and intellectual developments impact on literature produced in each period like
Renaissance, Elizabethan, Restoration, Augustan, Romanticism, Victorian, Modernism (early
Twentieth century) and Post Modernism. Overview of trends in American Literature. English
literature produced by Pakistani and non-native-writers.
2. Drama
a. Sophocles - Oedipus Rex
b. William Shakespeare - Hamlet, Twelfth Night
c. G.B. Show - Arms and the Man
d. Eugene ONeil - Long Days Journey into Night
e. Arthur Miller - Death of a Salesman
f. Tennessee Williams - The Glass Menagerie
g. Samuel Beckett - Waiting for Godot
3. Poetry
a. William Shakespeare - Shall I compare thee to a summers Day Sonnet 18.
b. John Donne - The Dream
c. John Keats - La Belle Dame Sans Merci; Ode to the Grecian Urn
d. William Wordsworth - The Solitary Reaper; Tinturn Abbey
e. Robert Frost - The Road Not Taken; Mending Wall
f. Samuel Coleridge - Rime of the Ancient Mariner
g. T.S. Eliot - Love song of J. Alfred Prufrock; Wasteland
h. Walt Whitman - Ones Self I sing; Ponderd in Silence
i. Sylvia Plath - Morning Song; Poppies in October
j. Taufik Rafat - Stone Chat; The Last Visit
k. Daud Kamal - A Remote Beginning; The Reproduction
l. Alamgir Hashmi - Pakistan Movement

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4. Linguistics:
Original characteristics of Human Language; Functions; What is Linguistics;
Linguistics as a science; Branches and Concepts; Phonetics and Phonology; Morphology;
Syntax; Semantics; Socio-Linguistics; Psycholinguistics; Stylistics.

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Abrams, A.H. English Romantic Poets. Modern Essay in Criticism.


2. Betsey. The Subject of Tragedy
3. Blackwell and David Krasner: Companion to 20th Century Drama
4. Bradley, A.C. Shakespearean Tragedy
5. Chothia, Jean English Drama in the Modern Period 1890-1940
6. Dusenburgh, Winifred Theme of Loneliness in Modern American Drama
7. Ford, Boris. The New Pelican Guide to English Literature
8. Gardner, N. The Art of T.S. Eliot
9. Hudson, William Henry. An Introduction to Study of Literature
10. Kermode, F. Introduction to Shakespeare, Spencer and Donne
11. Kitto, HDF. Greek Tragedy
12. Roberts, N. A Companion to Twentieth Century Poetry
13. Wilson, J. Shakespearean Happy Comedies
14. Wood, Golden and Toliver Perspectives on Drama

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ENGLISH LITERATURE

PAPER II Total Marks: 100


1. Novels
a. Thomas Hardy - Jude the Obscure
b. Jonathan Swift - Gulliver Travels
c. Jane Austen - Pride and Prejudice
d. Charles Dickens - Great Expectations
e. Joseph Convad - Lord Jim
f. Bapsi Sidhwa - Ice Candy Man
g. Mohsin Hamid - Moth Smoke
h. Ahmad Ali - Twilight in Delhi
i. Chinua Ache be - Things Fall Apart
j. Ernest Hemmingway - Farewell to Arms
k. Nadine Gordimar - Julys People
2. Short Stories
a. Guy De Maupassant - Minuet
b. Edgar Allan Poe - The Purloined Letter
c. Herman Melville - Bartleby the Scrivener
d. Franz Kafka - The Judgment
e. OHenry - The Gift of the Magi
3. Prose / Literary Criticism
a. Aristotle - Poetics
b. Bertrand Russell - The Conquest of Happiness
c. T.S. Eliot - Tradition and Individual Talent
d. Charles Lamb - Chiminey Sweeper
e. Francis Bacon - On Studies; On love
f. Norman Mailer - The White Negro
g. Franz Fanon - On National Culture from The Wretched of the Earth
h. Edward Said - Introduction to Culture and Imperialism
i. George Orwell - Why are Beggers Despised
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4. Literary Theory and Criticism


Structuralism; Marxism; Deconstructionism;
Psychoanalytical; Feminist; Post-colonial

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Allen, W. English Novel: A Short Critical History


2. Atkins, J.W.G. History of Literary Criticism
3. Baker, Ernest. History of English Novel
4. Bertens, N. Literary Theory: An Introduction
5. Booker, Keith. Practical Introduction to Literary Theory and Criticism
6. Bradbury, M. Possibilities: Essays on State of Novel
7. Finch, G. How to Study Linguistics, A Guide to Understanding
8. Ford, Boris. The New Pelican Guide to English Literature
9. Hudson, William Henry. An Introduction to Study of Literature
10. Peak, J. How to study a Novel
11. Roberts, N. A Companion to Twentieth Century Poetry
12. Todd, L. An Introduction to Linguistics
13. Unterecker, J. Twentieth Century Views
14. Walter, Allen. The English Novel

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ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
PAPER-I Total Marks: 100

1. Environmental Concepts
Introduction; Concept of Biosphere; Ecology; Ecosystem; Greenhouse Gases;
Lithosphere; Hydrosphere; Atmosphere; Natural Resources; Population; Community; Biotic
Interaction; Biomes.

2. Environmental Science and its Global Relevance

3. History of Environmental Thought:


History of Environmental Movements; Industrial and Agricultural Revolutions; UN
Conference on Human Environment, 1972; Our Common Future, 1987; UN Conference on
Environment and Development, 1992; Rio Charter, 1992; World Summit on Sustainable
Development; Sustainable Development Goals SDGs, 2015.

4. Interdisciplinary Nature of Environmental Science


Orientation on convergence of various social and natural sciences to evolve a new
discipline of environmental science: Environmental Biology, Environmental Chemistry,
Environmental Physics, Environmental Microbiology, Environmental Toxicology,
Environmental Economics, Environmental Geology, Environmental Geography,
Environmental Biotechnology, Environmental Sociology.

5. Environmental Pollution
Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Soil Pollution; Noise Pollution; Solid Waste; Water
Logging & Salinity; Deforestation; Desertification; Eutrophication; Global and regional air
pollution problems (Greenhouse effect, Global Warming/Climate Change, Ozone Depletion,
Acid Rain).
6. Sustainable Development Issues
Poverty-Environment Nexus, Biodiversity Loss and its conservation; Energy security
(energy conservation and alternative energy resources); Urbanization and sustainable cities,
carrying capacity and ecological footprint; Food security and sustainable agriculture;
Ecological Restoration and ecosystem services; Water security and water issues.
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7. Ethical and Social Issues and Environment


Environmental Ethics; Problems relating to lifestyles; Consumerism and Waste
Generation and Management; Non-Sustainable Use of Policies, Plastics, Styrofoam, CFCs;
Waste Water Treatment; Factory Effluents; Noise Pollution; Hazardous Chemicals.

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Shorgen, Hanley N. and J. White B. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice


2. Botkin, D, Keeller, E. 2014. Environmental Science: Earth as a living Planet, 9th ed.
3. Erickson, J. Environmental Geology Facing the Challenges of our Changing Earth
4. Edward, Keller A. Environmental Geology
5. Qureshi, Masood A.A. Basics of Forestry and Applied Sciences, Concepts and Thoery
6. Miller, T.G. Environmental Science: Working with Earth
7. Cuny, F.C. Disaster and Development
8. Cunningham, William and Mary Cunningham. Principles of Environmental Science
9. Ghafoor, A. Murfaza, G. and Rahman, M.Z. Environmental Pollution: Types, Sources
and Management
10. Houghten, John. The Physics of Atmospheres
11. Field, B.C and M.K Field. Environmental Economics: An Introduction
12. Ashtana, D.K and M. Asthana. Environmental: Problems and Solutions
13. Asolekar, S.R and S. Gopal chandron. Preventive Environmental Management
14. Hardy, J.T. Climate Change Causes, Effects and Solutions
15. Chasek, P.S, D.L Downie and J.W Porown. Environmental Politics: Dilemmas in World
Politics Series
16. Fulekar, M.H, D. Pathak and R.K Kale (Editors). Environmental and Sustainable
Development

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ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
PAPER-II Total Marks: 100

1. Global Warming and Climate Change


Different types of climate including Tropical, Mid latitude, Polar climate; Climate
Pattern at local, regional and global level; climate change processes; Drivers and Indicators
of Climate Change; Effects of Climate Change on natural and societal systems; Carbon
Footprint; Climate Change adaptation and mitigation; Clean Development Mechanisms
(CDM); RED+; Negotiations on Climate Change particularly under Conference of Parties
(COP); COP21; Forests and Deforestation effects and reforestation; Desertification and
Soil Degradation.
2. International Initiatives
Multilateral Agreements on Environment ratified by Pakistan, convention on Biological
Diversity (CBD), Cartagena Protocol on Bio-safety, Convention on International Trade in
Endangered Species, Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), Convention on Wetlands of
International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention), Convention
on the Conservation of Migratory Species (CMS), United Nations Frame Work Convention on
Climate Change (UNFCCC), Kyoto Protocol to UNFCCC, Montreal Protocol on Substances
that Deplete the Ozone Layer, United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
(UNCCD), Climate Change Agreements (The Copprocess).
3. Environmental Governance
Policy, legal and institutional frameworks for governance of environment in Pakistan:
National Conservation Strategy of 1992, National Environmental Policy Act of Pakistan 2005,
Environmental Protection Act of 1997, Pak-EPA (Review of IEE/EIA) Regulations 2000,
Hospital Waste Management Rules 2005, Pollution Charge Rules, Sample Rules, Solid Waste
Management Plan 2005, Hazardous Substances Rules 2005, National Drinking Water Policy
2009, Sanitation Policy, National Climate Change Policy 2012; Climate Change Act, 2016;
Sustainable Development Goals, Tragedy of the Commons.

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4. Environmental Assessment and Management
Environmental Impact Assessment; Strategic Environmental Assessment;
Environmental Management Systems (ISO 14000); Occupational Health & Safety
Management Systems (OHSAS 18000), Participatory Approaches to Environmental
Management; Technological Approaches to Environmental Management; Approaches to
Solid Waste Management; Disaster Risk Management; Pollution Control Technologies;
Geographic Information System & Remote Sensing; Natural Resources Management.

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Botkin, D, Keller, E. 2014. Environmental Sciences: Earth as a living Planet, 9thed.


2. Burroughs, William James. Climate Change: A Multidisciplinary Approach.
3. Carter, N.W. Disaster Management: A Disaster Managers Handbook.
4. Cuny, F.C. Disaster and Development.
5. Edward, Keller A.. Environmental Geology.
6. Edward, Tarbuck.J. and Lutgens K. Frederick. Earth Science.
7. Enger, ED, Smith,B.F. Environmental Science: A Study of interrelationship
8. Erickson, J. Environmental Geology Facing the Challenges of our Changing Earth
9. Fischer, T.G. Environmental Impact Assessment Handbook for Pakistan.
10. Hiligenkamp, Kathryn. Environmental Health; Ecological Perspective
11. Houghton, John T. Global Warming: The Complete Briefing.
12. Jain, R.K. Rao S.S. Industrial Safety Health and Environmental Management
13. Martin, Ronald. Earth Evolving System: The History of Planet Earth
14. Mill, A. Austin r. Climatdogy.
15. Miller, T.G. Environmental Science: Working with Earth
16. Montgomery, Caria W.. Environmental Geology
17. National Conservation Strategy, Government of Pakistan IUCN
18. Newman, E.I. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management.
19. Odum, E.P and G.W Thomson. Fundamentals of Ecology.

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20. Perry, R.W. Mushkatel , A.H. Disaster Management: Warning Response and
Community Relocation
21. Qadar, S. Environmental Laws and their Implementation in Pakistan
22. Qureshi, Masood A.A. Basics of Forestry and Applied Sciences, Concepts and Theory
23. Romm, Joseph. Climate Change: What Everyone Needs to Know
24. Schumacher, Diana. Energy: Crisis or Opportunity, An introduction to Energy Studies
25. Shorgen, N. and J. White B. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice Hanley.
26. State of the Environment in Pakistan, Government of Pakistan, Latest Edition.
27. Official Website of Govt. of Pakistan www.environment.gov.
28. Official Website of UNEP
29. Official Website of UNFCC
30. Text of Main Conventions, Agreement and Declarations on Environment, Climate
Change, Biodiversity and related documents.

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Financial Management
Total Marks: 100

1. Introduction of Financial Management and Financial Environment in


Pakistan

a. Introduction to finance: Definition of finance, its importance and its types.


Definition and objectives of financial management, Financial management and
goal of a business firm, agency problem, corporate governance, corporate social
responsibility, ethics and the role of financial manager in an organization.

b. Pakistani Financial System: Definition and importance of financial system;


Functions of financial system; financial instruments; Definition and functions of
financial intermediaries, Financial brokers, allocation of funds in the economy
and interest rate fundamentals; Functions of financial market, classification of
financial markets and efficiency of financial system. Organization of stock
exchange in Pakistan and its operations, floor activity, Stock market reporting.

2. Financial Statements and Their Analysis


Definition and types of financial statements; Comparative statement and their
importance Limitations of financial statements, Constructing comparative statement;
Common size statement: Advantages of common size statement and limitations of common
size statement analysis; Trend analysis: Advantages of trend percentages analysis,
Limitations of trend percentages analysis, Method of preparation of trend percentages,
Precautions; Ratio analysis: importance, limitations and classification of ratios.

3. Short Term Financial Planning and Projected Financial Statements


Financial planning, forecasting, and budgeting- concept, need and importance of
preparation of cash budget and budgeted financial statements, estimating sales and cost for
preparation of cash budget, master budget, zero base and incremental budgeting concept,
determining the need of short term financing by preparation of cash budget, pro-forma
income statement and statement of financial position, methods for preparation and practical
use of these financial statements, sensitivity and scenario analysis in cash budget and pro-
forma financial statement.

4. Time Value of Money


Time value of money/mathematics of finance-simple interest and compound interest
concepts, time line, compounding and discounting, future value and present value concepts,

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single amount, annuity, mixed stream, and perpetuity concepts, nominal and effective
interest rates, amortizing loan, deposits to accumulate some future sum, finding missing
rate of return and time periods, practical problems relating to the above mentioned
concepts, calculating future and present value by using spread sheet.

5. Working Capital Management

a. Working Capital
Overview of working capital management- concept and practical importance,
cash and marketable securities management; Operating cycle/working capital
cycle and cash conversion cycle, Factors effecting working capital;
Importance of adequate working capital; Financing of working capital,
Determining working capital financing mix, Working capital financing
strategies; Working capital analysis, Estimation of working capital
requirements;
b. Receivables Management
Costs of maintaining receivables, Meaning and definition of receivables
management, Dimensions of receivables management. Factoring of
receivables, receivable management policies credit policy, credit terms,
collection policy, credit selection and credit standards, cost benefit analysis
and decision making.
c. Inventory Management
Inventory management, meaning of Inventory, purpose of holding inventory,
inventory management, objectives of inventory management; inventory
management techniques.
d. Cash Management Analysis
Motives for holding cash, cash management, managing cash collection and
disbarment of cash
e. Managing Trade and Other Payables and Short Term Financing
Accounts payable management in a business firm. Evaluating discount offered
by the Suppliers of merchandise and cost of giving discount, managing other
payables and accrual and short term borrowing. Evaluation of various payment
systems.
6. Valuation of financial assets
a. Bonds and Bond Valuation
Bond features and prices; Bond values and yields; Interest rate risk ;Finding the
yield to maturity: more trial and error; more about bond features; Long-term
debt.
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b. Common Stock Valuation

Cash flows, some special cases, Zero growth, Constant growth, varying growth,
two-stage growth, Components of the required return, Some features of
common and preferred stocks, Common stock features, Shareholders rights,
Proxy Voting, Classes of Stock Other, Rights, Dividends, Preferred stock
features, Stated value, Cumulative and noncumulative dividends, Preferred
stock really debt.,
7. Long Term Investment and Capital Budgeting
a. Capital Budgeting: Definition of capital budgeting, features of capital budgeting,
importance of capital budgeting.
b. Project Cash Flows: Relevant cash flows, The Stand-alone principle, Incremental
cash flows, Sunk costs, opportunity costs, side effects, tax shield, Adjustment
of noncash expenses and financing cost, Other issues.
c. Pro forma Financial Statements and Project Cash Flows Getting Started: Pro
forma financial statements, project initial incremental cash flows, Project
incremental operating cash flows, changes in Project related net working
capital.
d. Projects Analysis techniques: Traditional techniques: Pay Back Period, ARR,
Breakeven point, and Time adjusted techniques: NPV, IRR, PI, financial
breakeven point; uncertainty in capital budgeting, Risk and risk adjusted
discount rate,, Annualized NPV, Selecting projects under capital rationing.

8. Capital Structure and Dividend Policy


a. Cost of Capital and Project NPV: Elements of cost of capital, factors
influencing the cost of capital, optimal capital structure, Capital Structure:
Factors determining the Capital structure, Theories of Capital Structure; break
point, marginal weighted average cost of capital, weighted average cost of
capital, changes in capital structure and their effect on weighted average cost of
capital.
b. Leverage Analysis: Leverage and its importance, Cost of capital, EPS and
EBIT Analysis, Operating breakeven point and operating leverage, Financial
breakeven point and financial Leverage, Combined leverage;
c. Dividend Policy: Dividend decision and valuation of firm, Determinants of
dividend policy, Types of dividends, Forms of dividend, Bonus Issue. Impact of
cash dividend, stock dividend, treasury stock transaction and stock split on par
value of share, book value of share, market price per share, earnings per share,
dividend per share.

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9. Mergers and Acquisitions


Merger fundamentals: including objectives, terminology, procedures, motives for
merging, and types of mergers. Procedures used to value the target company, and discuss
the effect of stock swap transactions on earnings per share. Merger negotiation process and
analysis from the perspective of holding and subsidiary companies.

10. Internal Finance


a. Foreign Exchange orientation, International finance: Exchange rate, Arbitrage
Process as a means of attaining equilibrium. On spot markets, Arbitrage in
forward market.
b. Managing of Foreign Exchange Risk: Foreign exchange risk management,
Management of economic exposure, Management of operating exposure;
Raising foreign currency finance.

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Berk, Jonathan. Peter DeMarzo and Ashok Thampy. Financial Management.


2. Brigham, Eugene F. Fundamentals of Financial Management.
3. Chandra, Prasanna. Financial Management Theory & Practice, Publisher: TMH, New
Delhi.
4. Gitman, Lawrence J. Principles of Managerial Finance,.
5. Horne, J. Van and John M Wachowicz. Fundamentals of Financial Management.
6. Khan, M Y & P K Jain. Financial Management: Text and Problems, Publisher: TMH,
New Delhi.
7. Parasuraman, N. R. Financial Management A step-by-Step Approach.
8. Ross, tephen and Randolph Wester field. Fundamentals of Corporate Finance.

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GENDER STUDIES
Total Marks: 100
1. Gender Terms and Concepts.
2. Gender sensitivity and gender sensitization.
3. Gender discrimination.
4. Gender equality and equity; indicators of gender equality.
5. Women Empowerment.
6. Gender Mainstreaming Strategies for implementation of gender Mainstreaming in
an organization.
7. Matriarchy and Patria rely.
8. Gender and Development.
9. Gender based budgeting.
10. Feminist movements in Muslim Countries.
11. Feminist movements in South Asia.
12. Gender inequality in South Asia.
13. Gender Studies in Pakistan.
14. Women Rights in Islam.
15. Rights of Women in Pakistan. Various legislative measures for the protection and
promotion of these rights.
16. International Covenants for Gender Equality and Elimination of Discrimination
against women.
17. Gender, Human Rights and International Law.
18. Illicit trafficking of Women.
19. Girl, Child Marriages, Harmful Traditional Practices.
20. Womens Movements in Pakistan issues and challenges.
21. Status of Women in Pakistan.
22. Future Policy Agenda.

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SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Bowles, Gloria and Renake D. Khan Theory of Women Studies


2. Farzana The State of Women Studies
3. Gender USA Harrief Booklet
4. Khawar, Mumtaz and Shaheed, Foride Women of Pakistan
5. Lorber, Judith The Social Constitution of Gender
6. Saeed K, Nighat and Bahim Feminism and its Relevance in South Asia
7. Sardar, Shaheen Dr. Women Rights in Islam
8. Scheler, Marzarte Freedom from Violence
9. Tong, Rosemarie Feminist Thoughts
10. Gender Planning and Development

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GENERAL LAW
PAPER- I Total Marks: 100

1. Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1973.


2. Access to Justice, Civil and Criminal in Pakistan.
3. Establishment of Civil Courts and their Original and Appellate Jurisdictions.
4. Criminal Courts and their powers.
5. Supreme Court of Pakistan and its Jurisdiction.
6. High Courts and their Jurisdictions.
7. Civil Procedure Code.
8. Limitation Act.
9. Qanoon-e-Shahadat Order.
10. Specific Relief Act.
11. Convincing and pleadings.
12. Independence of judiciary and judicial Activism.

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Constitution of Pakistan.
2. Texts of all relevant Laws.

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GENERAL LAW

PAPER-II Total Marks: 100

All Provisions of:


1. Pakistan Penal Code.
2. Code of Criminal Procedure.
3. Punjab Public Prosecution Service Act.
4. Punjab Land Revenue Act.
5. Land Acquisitions Act.
6. Contract Act.
7. General Clauses Act.
8. Principles of Interpretations of Statutes.
9. Arbitration with and without Intervention of Courts.
10. Alternative Dispute Resolution.

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Texts of all relevant Laws.

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GEOGRAPHY
Total Marks:100
Physical & Human Geography
1. Physical Geography, Environment, and Global Change
a. Global climate change, the carbon cycle, Pollution, Air Pollution, Water
Pollution and Land Pollution.
b. The Shape of the Earth & Earth Rotation, environmental effects of earth
rotation.
c. The Earth's Revolution around the Sun, Motions of the moon, tilt of the
earth's axis, the four seasons, Equinox conditions, solstice conditions.
2. The Global Energy System
a. Solar energy losses in the atmosphere, albedo, counter-radiation and
the greenhouse effect
b. Global energy budgets of the atmosphere and surface, climate and global
change
c. Environmental contrasts: Urban and rural temperatures, The urban heat
island, High-mountain environments and Temperature inversion,
Temperature Structure of the Atmosphere
d. Troposphere, stratosphere and upper layers, Factors controlling air
temperature patterns
e. Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect, Factors influencing climatic
warming and cooling
3. Water in the Environment
a. The hydrosphere, the hydrologic cycle, Humidity, specific humidity,
dew-point temperature, relative humidity, the adiabatic process, dry
adiabatic rate, moist adiabatic rate.
b. Precipitation Formation and processes, orographic and convective precipitation,
unstable air.
c. Rain, snow, sleet and freezing rain, hail, measuring precipitation,
thunderstorms: severe thunderstorms, microbursts, mesoscale
convective systems.
d. Tornadoes: tornado characteristics, development and tornado destruction.
e. Factors Controlling Climate Temperature and Precipitation Regimes.
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4. Earth Materials and Plate Tectonics


a. The earth's interior, minerals and rocks, igneous rocks, sediments and
sedimentary rocks,
b. Metamorphic rocks, the cycle of erosion, Continental Drift theory
c. Major Relief Features of the Earth's Surface: The lithosphere and
asthenosphere, Relief features of the continents, Relief features of the
ocean, basins.
d. Plate tectonic theory, Plates and boundaries, The global system of
lithospheric plates.
e. Continental rupture and new ocean basins, Island arcs and collision of oceanic
lithosphere.
f. Arc-continent collision, continent-continent collision, the Wilson cycle and
supercontinents.
g. The power source for plate movements, continents of the past.
5. Human Geography
a. Population, Growth & Concentrations, Population Density, Components of
Change
b. Population Structure, The Demographic Transition, Malthus's Grim Forecast,
c. The Epidemiologic Transition, Global Health Threats
d. Factors of Migrate, Characteristics of Migrants,
e. National & Global Migration Patterns, Guest Workers
f. States and their structure: Defining States, Development of States, Colonies
g. Shapes of States, Boundaries Between States
h. Boundaries Inside States, Geostrategic importance, Cooperation Among States,
Terrorism
i. Human Development Index, Economic Indicators, Social Indicators, Health
Indicators, World Trade, Financing Development, Fair Trade
j. Non-renewable Energy Resources, Renewable Resources, Recycling Resources.
Mineral Resources
k. The Central Business District, Defining Urban Settlements, Fragmented
Government

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l. Models of Internal Structure, Social Area Analysis


m. Suburbanization, Inner-city Decline and Renewal
n. Central Place Theory, Multiple Nuclei Theory, Sector Theory

SUGGESTED READINGS
1. Aronoff, S. (1995). Geographic Information Systems: A Management Perspective.
(4thed.). Ottawa: Wdl Publications.
2. Barry, R. (1998). Atmosphere, Weather and Climate (7th ed.). London: Clays St.
Davis.
3. Blif, H. J. (1971). Geography, Regions and Concepts. U.S.A: John Wiley and Sons,
Inc..
4. Board, C. et. al. (1969). Progress in Geography. London: Edward Arnold Publishers
Ltd.
5. Byers, H. R. (1993). General Meteorology. New York: McGraw Hill.
6. Cotton, C.A. (1949). Geomorphology An Introduction to the Study of Landform. New
York.: John Wiley.
7. Critchfield, H.J. (1991). General Climatology. New Delhi: Prentice Hall.
8. De Blij. H. J . (2003). Human Geography Cultural Society and Space.( 5th ed.). New
York: John Wiley & Sons.
9. Dikshit, R. D. (2001). Political Geography: The Spatiality of Politics. ( 3rd ed.). New
Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited.
10. Diwan, A. P; & Arora, D. K. (1995). Origin of Ocean. New Delhi: Anmol Publisher.
11. Drwry S. A. (1990). A Guide to Remote Sensing and Image Processing. New York:
University Press.
12. Englen, O. D. V. (1942). Geomorphology. New York: Macmillan.
13. Getis, Fellman. (2005). Human Geography Landscape of Human Activities. ( 8th ed.).
New York: Mc.Graw Hill Higher Education.
14. Graedel, T. (1995). Atmosphere, Climate and Change. New York: Scientific American
Library
15. Hagett, P. (1978). Geography a Modern Synthesis.( 3rd ed.).New York: Harper &
Row.

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16. Hartshorne, R. (1949). The Nature of Geography. New York: N.T. Association of
American Geographers.
17. Hartshorne, R. (1951). Perspective on the Nature of Geography. New York: Rand
McNally. Harvey, D. (1973). Explanation in Geography. London: Edward Arnold
Publishers, Ltd.
18. Harvey, Milton E., and Holley, B. P.(ed.). (1981). Themes in Geographic Thought.
London: room Helm.
19. Haurwitz, B; & Austin, J. (1944). Climatology. New York. McGraw Hill.
20. Johnson H. (1996). An Introduction to Oceanography.
21. Kendrew, W.G. (1959). Climatology. (3rd ed.). University Press Oxford.
22. Knox Paul L. (2001). Human Geography Place and Region in Global context.( 2nd ed.)
.New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
23. Lamb, H. (1992). Climate History and the Modern World. London: Methuen & Co.
Ltd.
24. Lobeck, A. K. (1939). Geomorphology. New York: Macmillan.
25. Maclleveen. J.F. (1991). Fundamentals of Weather and Climate. London: Chapman &
Hall.
26. Miller, A. (2001). Climatology. New York: Methuen.
27. Murry. (2000). The Ocean. New York: McGraw Hill.
28. Oliver, J. (1981). Climatology: Selected applications. USA: Edward Arnold.
29. Paul J. Curran. (1985). Principles of Remote Sensing. London: Longman Group Ltd.
30. Petterson, S. (1951). Introduction to Meteorology. New York: McGraw Hill.
31. Rubenstein James M.(2010).Contemporary Human Geography. New Delhi: PHI
Learning Private Limited.
32. Sellers, A; & Henderson, A. (1986). Contemporary Climatology. London: Longman.
33. Shamshad, K.M. (1988). The Meteorology of Pakistan. Karachi: Royal Book Co.
34. Shapley, H, (1960). Climatic change: Evidence, causes & effects. Harward University
Press Cambridge.
35. Sparks, B. W. (1986) Geomorphology, Longman: London.
36. Steers, J. A. (1964). Unstable Earth. London: Methuen & Co.

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37. Strahler, A. N. (1998). Elements of physical geography. New York. John Wiley.
38. Stringer, E.T. (1989). Foundation of Climatology. New Delhi: Surjeet Publishers.
39. Thomas, M. Lillesand& Ralph W. K. (2004). Remote Sensing and Image
Interpretation. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
40. Thompson, R. (1997). Applied climatology, Principles and Practice. Canada:
Routledge.
41. Thornsbury, W. D. (1983). Principles of Geomorphology. New York: John Wiley.
42. Trenberth, K. (1992). Climate System Modeling. New York: McGraw Hill.
43. Trewartha, G.T. (1965). An Introduction to Climate. New York: McGraw Hill.
44. Wayne, K.D. (1981). The Conceptual Revolution in Geography. London: University of
London Press Ltd.
45. Whyte, I. (1995).Climatic Change and Human Society. London:Arnold Division.
46. Wooldrige S. W. (1966). An Outline of Geomorphology: Physical Basis of Geography.
London: Longman.

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GEOLOGY
PAPER-I Total Marks: 100

1. Physical Geology
Earth as a member of the solar system; its origin, age, composition and internal
structure including the composition of earth crust, mantle and core. Introduction to Moon,
Earths neighbors, meteorites, earthquakes and volcanos. Weathering and erosion and
related land forms. Glaciers and their erosional and depositional land forms. Geological work
of wind, its types, drainage pattern, stream meandering and development of flood plains.
The erosional and depositional work of river and sea, development of coastal land forms.
2. Structural Geology
Introduction of folds, faults, joints, cleavage, foliation, lineation. Introduction to plate
tectonics, mountain building processes, deformation by fracturing and folding. Introduction
to the major faults like MBT, MMT and MKT.
3. Paleontology
Fossils, fossilization, mode of fossil preservations, altered and unaltered hard parts,
trace fossils, geological significance of fossils, Index/Guide fossils, Geological Timescale,
Dating of rocks and earth history.
4. Stratigraphy and Sedimentology
Principles of Stratigraphy, stratigraphic codes and nomenclature, stratigraphy of the
Salt Range. Sedimentry rocks, weathering, transportation and deposition, types of
sedimentary rocks e.g. clastic, non clastic, chemical rocks and evaporites.
5. Minerology/Petrology
Fundamental description of Igneous and metamorphic rocks, their types,
classification, origin, rocks of earth crust and mantle. Rock forming minerals, their physical
and chemical properties, study of important members of oxides, sulfides, sulfates,
carbonates, halides, phosphates, silicates and their structural classification (crystal system).

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GEOLOGY
PAPER-II Total Marks: 100

1. Earth Resources/Economic Geology


Introduction of geological exploration / prospecting. Brief description of coal,
gemstones, copper, lead, zinc, iron, gold, chromite, manganese, salt, gypsum, bauxite,
sulfur, barite, fluorite, clays, phosphorite, industrial rocks and radioactive minerals and
rocks. Major mineral deposits in Pakistan. Hydrocarbons (Fossil fuel) and major oil fields of
Pakistan. Renewable energy resources, hydropower and geothermal energy, Dam sites of
Pakistan (elementary analysis). Construction material, aggregates, cement making and
building stones.

2. Remote Sensing and GIS


Fundamental description of remote sensing and earth satellite system, applications in
geological process like mapping, structural features, hydrology and geomorphology.
Introduction to the Geographical Information System (GIS), its principles, data types,
methods of data analysis.
3. Environmental Geology/Climate Change
Introduction to Environmental geology. Air pollution and global climatic changes,
environmental controls for erosion, desertification and coastal degradation. Geological
hazards such as floods, landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, glaciers and shoreline
processes, their remedial measures. Environmental impact of mining, dams, reservoirs, their
assessment and controls. Industrial pollution, waste disposal, groundwater contaminations,
river, lake and marine pollution and their impact on human health. Geological aspects of
human health. Trace elements and health hazards.

4. Geochemistry
Development of Geochemistry as a discipline. Composition of meteorites. Origin and
cosmic abundance of elements. Geochemical structure of the earth. Geochemical
classification of elements. Introduction to geochemistry of igneous, metamorphic and
sedimentary rocks. Geochemical anomalies and their application in mineral exploration.

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SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Aharma, V.K. Geomorphology of Earth Surface Processes and Form, 1986, McGraw
Hill.
2. Applied Sedimentology by Selly, R.C., 1988, Chapman & Hall.
3. Bell, F.A.G. Fundamentals of Engineering Geology, 1983, Butter Worth
4. Bender, F.K. & Raza, H.A, Geology of Pakistan. (eds.) 1995, Gebruder Borntraeger.
5. Best, M.G. Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology, 2002, Black Well.
6. Boggs, S. Principles of Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, 20001, Prentice Hall.
7. Cornellis Klein & Cornelius S. Hurlbut, Jr. Manual of Mineralogy (1999) after J. D.
Dana. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
8. Davis, G.H. & Reynolds, S.J. Structural Geology of Rocks and Regions. 1996, John
Wiley & Sons.
9. Demers, M.N. Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems, 2002, John Wiley &
Sons.
10. Ghauri, A.K. Laboratory Exercise Book in Structural Geology, 1989, National Centre of
Excellence in Geology, University of Peshawar.
11. Govett, G.J.S. Handbook of Exploration Geochemistry, 1995, Elsevier
12. Holmes. Principles of Physical Geology, A., 1978, Nelson.
13. Hyndmann, D.W. Petrology of Igneous and Metamorophic rocks, 1995, McGraw Hill.
14. Kazmi, A.H. & Abbas, S.G. Metallogeny and Mineral Deposits of Pakistan, 2001,
Orient Petroleum Inc.
15. Kazmi, A.H. & Jan, M.Q. Geology and Tectonics of Pakistan, 1997, Graphic
Publishers.
16. keller, E.A. Environmental Geology, Latest Ed., Chales E. Merril Publishing Co.
17. Lilles, T.M. and Kiefer, R.W. Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation, 1987, John
Wiley & Sons.
18. Montgomery, C.W. Environmental Geology, 2005, McGraw Hill.
19. Moore, R.C. Lalicker, C.G. & Fischer, A.G. Invertebrate Fossils, 1952, McGraw Hill.
20. Moores, E.M. & Twiss, R.J. Tectonics, 1995, W.H. Freeman and Co.

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21. Park, R.G. Foundation of Structural Geology, 1983, Blackie.


22. Plummer, Mcgeay & Carlson. Physical Geology, 2005.
23. Rose, A.W., Hawkes, H.H. & Webb, J.S Geochemistry in Mineral Exploration, 1983,
Whitstable Litho Ltd.,
24. Shah, S.I. Stratigraphy of Pakistan. 1977, Geological Survey of Pakistan.
25. Smith, G., and Pun, A. How does Earth work: Physical Geology and Process of
Science. 2006. Prentice Hall.
26. William, H.B. Principles of Mineralogy, 1990, Oxford University Press.
27. Zaki, A. Directory of Mineral Deposits of Pakistan, 1969. Geological survey of
Pakistan.

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HUMAN RIGHTS
Total Marks 100

1. Concepts of Natural Rights/Human Rights and Fundamental Rights.


2. International law on Human Rights
3. Humanitarian Rights versus Human Rights.
4. Human rights in Islam, Charter of Madina and Fairwell Sermon (Khutba-Hajjatul-
Wida) by Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)
5. Universal Charter and Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Quran.
6. International Entities/National Entities dealing with Human Rights.
7. Co-treaties and conventions on Human rights.
8. Rights of the Child, Urban Youth Bulge
9. Rights of women
10. Civil and Political Rights
11. Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
12. Rights of Minorities
13. Rights of Refugees
14. Genocide and Racism
15. Conflict zone
16. Universal periodic reports on Human Rights
17. Office of the United Nations Commissioner on Human Rights
18. Gender Parity Promotion and protection of Human Rights
19. Enforcement of Human rights. Violations and Denials Monist and dualist States.
20. Human Rights council in Geneva
21. Tolerance and interfaith Harmony

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SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Forsy, Daniel P. Human Rights in International Relations


2. Goodhart, Michael. Human Rights Politics and Practice
3. Griffin, James. On Human Rights
4. Hayden, Publick Philosophy of Human Rights
5. Henkin, Lois and Sara H. Cleveland Human Rights
6. Iriye, Akira and Petra Goedde The Human Rights Revolutions
7. Ishey, Micheline R. The History of Human Rights
8. Jens, Morcus Duwell. Braaving Roger Human Dignity
Brownsward and Dietmar Mieth
9. Joseph, Peter The New Human Rights Movement
10. Tutu, Desmond and Amnesty Freedom Stories Celebrating the Universal
International. Declaration of Human Rights

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INDIAN HISTORY (Ancient to 1526)


PAPER-I Total Marks:100

1. History and Sources of History


2. Historiography on Indian History
3. Pre-Aryan Indian Society
4. Indus Valley Civilization: Indicators and Salient Features. Links with other
Civilizations
5. Moenjodaro and Harrapa: Salient Features and Town planning.
6. Religious Thought and Practice: Hinduism, Jainsim, Budhism, Analysis of
Ramayana and Mahabharta,
7. Indian Society: Physical Configuration and Races of Pre-Muslim India, Caste
System, Village and Economy
8. Administrative System of Maurya Empire, (focus on Asoka 322 BC-185)
9. Gupta Empire: Art, Literature, Science, Hindu renaissance
10. Alexander the Great: Designs behind Invasion. Resistance and Raja Porus

MUSLIM RULE IN INDIA

1. Analysis of Sources on Delhi Sultanate


a. Tabqat-e-Nasiri by Qazi Minhaj Siraj
b. Tarikh-e-Ferozshahi by Zia-ud-Din Barni
c. Tarikh-e-Mubarak Shahi by Yahya Bin Ahmad Sirhindi
d. Makhzan-e-Afghani by Naimat Ullah Harwi
e. Rahila-e-Ibne Battutah by Ibne Battutah
2. Advent of Muslims in the Subcontinent
Indian Society on the eve of Muslim invasion. Administration and Religious Policy
of Muhammad Bin Qasim
3. Mahmud Ghaznavis Attacks
Impact and critique. Rise of Sufism

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4. Ghiasuddin Balban: His ideas on Kingship and actions to strengthen his


kingdom.
5. Reforms and Price control of Alauddin Khilji.
6. Rise and Downfall of Delhi Sultanate
7. Government and Political System
Sultan/Badshah: Ideological Base, Duties and Responsibilities. Central and
Provincial Administration. Revenue System. Judicial System. Architecture. Cultural
Developments. Amir Khusrau. Music. Education. Prosperity and Masses. Sufism.

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Aziz Ahmad, Muhammad. The Political History and Institutions of the Early Turkish
Empire of Delhi.
2. Baden-Powell, BH. Indian Village Community.
3. Bapat, P.V. 2500 years of Buddhism.
4. Bury, J.B and S.A. Cook. The Cambridge Ancient History.
5. Habibullah, A.B.M. The Foundation of Muslim Rule in India.
6. Haig, Wolseley. Cambridge History of India Vol. III (ed.)
7. Hardy, P. Historians of Medieval India.
8. Hasan, Agha Mehdi. The Tughluq Dynasty.
9. Havell, E.B . The History of Aryan Rule in India.
10. Hutton, J.H. The Caste in India.
11. Ikram, S.M. History of Muslim Civilization.
12. Kaey, John. India Discovered: Recovery of the Lost Civilization.
13. Lal, K.S. History of the Khaljis.
14. Mackay, Ernest. Indus Civilization.
15. Mirza, Waheed. Life and Works of Amir Khursau
16. Mortimar, Wheeler, Sir. Indus Valley Civilization.
17. Mukerjee, R.K. Men and Thought in Ancient India.
18. Nazim, Muhammad. Mahmud of Ghazna.

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19. Paul-Masson, Oursel. Ancient India and Indian Civilization.


20. Piggott, Staurt. Prehistoric India.
21. Prothero, M. History of India.
22. Qureshi, I.H The Administration of the Sultanate of Delhi.
23. Sarkar, J.N. India Through the Ages.
24. Singh, G.P. Ancient Indian Historiography.
25. Smith, V.A. Asoka.
26. Sreen, T.R. and S.R. Baksi. Ancient Culture and Civilization.
27. Stein, Burton. A History of India.
28. The Cambridge History of India, Vol. I
29. Trainor, Kevin. Budhism The Illustrated Guide.
30. Tripathi, R.S. History of Ancient India.
31. Vyasa, Veda. Ancient India.

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INDIAN HISTORY(1526-1858)
PAPER-II Total Marks:100

1. Study of Sources:
a. Tuzuk-i-Baburi by Zaheer-ud-Din Babur
b. Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh by Abdul Qadir Badayuni
c. Akbar Nama by Abul Fazl
d. Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri by Jahangir
e. Padshah Nama by Abdul Hamid
f. Maasir-i-Alamgiri by Muhammad Saqi Mustaid Khan
2. Social, Economic and Political Conditions of the Subcontinent on the Eve of
Baburs invasion
3. Humayun
Humayuns difficulties and his strategy to regain India relations with Rajputs
Relations with Iran

4. Sher Shah Suri: Reforms and administration

5. Akbar the Great:


Difficulties.Role of Bairam Khan. Rajput policy. Mansabdari System.religious
ideas and policy. Patronization of art

6. Aurangzeb Alamgir:
His comparison with Dara Shikoh. Warof Succession Aurangzebs Policy towards
non-Muslims. Relations with Rajputs, Sikhs, Safavid, Jats, and Afghans. His attitude
towards Portuguese and British

7. Government and Society


Central and Provincial Administration Mughal Badshah and his DutiesDaily
RoutineRevenue and Royal Expenditures.Judicial System .Economic SMilitary
Feudal / Landlords Female Education .Religious and Scientific Education Sufism and
Communal Harmony.Sufis and Politics. Bhakti Movement.

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8. Mughals and Mass Education, Female Education, Science and Technology, Poverty
Alleviation.

9. Mughal Patronization of Art


Architecture Cultural growth Literature, Music, Poetry, Painting. languages.

LATER MUGHAL RULE IN INDIA


1. Study of Sources
a. Muntakhab-ul-Lubab by Khafi Khan
b. Bahadur Shah Nama by Muqarrab Khan
c. Ibrat Nama by Muhammad Qasim Ibrat
d. Tarikh-i-Muzaffari by Muhammad Ali Panipati
e. Ibrat Nama by Khair-ud-Din Allahabadi
f. Siyarul Mutakhirin by Ghulam Husain Tabatabai
2. Court intrigues and Mughal downfall
3. Mughal leadership and military
4. Effects of Foreign invasions on the Subcontinent
5. Political instability and rise of Sikhs and Marhatas
6. Maharaja Ranjit Singh and his administration His strike against AfghansMuslim-
Sikh relations
7. British emergence as a political leadership in the Subcontinent. Their technological
superiority
8. East India Company
Colonial Rule in the Subcontinent. State of Governance. Rule of Law.Factors led to
Resentment in the Subcontinent.
9. War of Independence
Resistance in different areascontribution of the freedom fighters. Violent and Nonviolent
Strategy of Resistance
10. British Rule in the Subcontinent
Introduction of new political, administrative, economic, military and education
systems.
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SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Abbas, S. Ali. Socio Economic Crisis in the 18th Century.


2. Akbar, Muhammad. Punjab Under the Mughals.
3. Ali, Haider & Tipu Sultan by Habib, Irfan(ed.). Confronting Colonialism: Resistance &
Modernization.
4. Ali, Mubarak. Mughhal Court.
5. Ali, Zulfiqar, Sher Shah.
6. Ashraf, K.M. Life and Conditions of the People of Hindustan.
7. Basham, A. L. A Cultural History of India.
8. Bayly, C.A. Indian Society and the Making of the British Empire.
9. Brown, Percy. Indian Architecture.
10. Brown, Percy. Indian Painting under the Mughals.
11. Faruki, Zaheer ud Din. Aurangzeb and his times.
12. Gupta, Hari Ram. Later Mughal History of the Punjab, 1707-1793.
13. Haig, Wolesely. Cambridge History of India Vol. IV.
14. Hasan, Ibne. Central Structure of Mughal Empire.
15. Hasan, Iqtida. Later Mughals & Urdu Literature.
16. Hussaini, S. A. Q. Mughal Administration.
17. Ikram, S.M. History of Muslim Civilization in India and Pakistan.
18. Irvine, William. Later Mughal.
19. Khan, Gulfishan. Indian Muslim Perceptions of the West During the Eighteenth
Century.
20. Khan, Yar Muhammad. Iranian Influence in Mughal India.
21. Malik, Ikram Ali. A Book of Readings on History of the Punjab.
22. Percival Spear. The Oxford History of Modern India 1740-1975.
23. Qureshi, I. H. The Administration of the Sultanate of Delhi.
24. Qureshi, I. H. The Mughal Administration.
25. Richards, J.P. The Mughal Empire.
26. Roberts, P.E. British in India.
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27. Russell, Ralph & Khurshidul Islam. Three Mughal Poets: Mir, Sauda, Mir Hasan.
28. Sandhu, Akhtar Hussain. Punjab: An Anatomy of Muslim-Sikh Politics.
29. Sarkar, Jadunath. Fall of the Mughal Empire.
30. Singh, Sangat. Sikhs in History.
31. Smith, V.A. Akbar, The Great Mughal.
32. Spear, Percival. Twilight of the Mughals: Studies in Late Mughals.
33. Talbot, Ian. Punjab and the Raj.
34. Tapan, Raichaudhuri and Irfan Habib. The Cambridge Economic History of India.
35. Tripathi, R. P. Rise and fall of Mughal Empire.
36. Williams, Rushbrook. An Empire Builder of the Sixteenth Century.

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INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT)

Total Marks:100

SECTION-A

Computer and Information system Concepts, Operating Systems, Input, Output


Methods, Media and Storage Devices, Digital Devices, Mobile Computing, Embedded
Computers, Web Applications, Search Engines, Internet, Web Browsers, Web Technologies,
Protocols and Standards on web, Multimedia, Software, Software Types, Software Design
and Development, Prototyping, Intruders and Viruses, Ms Office, Programming such as
Loops, Conditional Statements.

SECTION-B

Web Applications, Cloud Computing , Web Development, Web2, Web3, Semantic


Web Networking Concepts, Networking Devices, Networking Cables, Network Installation,
Security on Network, Topologies and Protocols, Network Security Issues, OSI Model, System
Security Threats, Communication on Multimedia, Cellular System and Standards, Network
Installation.

SECTION-C

System Development Phases, System Development, Key Concepts of Database, Data


Base Models, Database Security Concerns, Date Ware Housing, Data Mining, Database
Applications, Normalization, Disaster Recovery, ER Model, Relational Data Model, Big Data,
User Authentication and Authorization and Authorization and Access Control, Query
Languages, Transaction Processing, Type of Data Storage, Data Marts, Data Encryption.

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Basandra, Suresh K.. Computers Today.


2. Capron, H I. Adison Wesley. Information Age, 8th Ed. 2003. Paul Wilton.
3. Cashman, Shelly. Discovering computers, 2012.
4. Jessup, Leonard and Joseph Valacich. Information System Today.
5. Long, Larry and Nancy Long. Computers: Information Technology in Perspective, 9/e.
Prentice Hall, 2002/ISBN: 0130929891
6. Norton, Peter. Introduction to Computers. 6th Edition, McGraw-Hill
7. Sherer. Computer Science: An overview of Computer Science,

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INTERNATIONAL LAW

Total Marks 100


1. Origins of International Law
2. International Law and domestic Law
3. Sources of International Law.
4. Subjects of International Law.
5. States and Sovereignty
6. Recognition
7. Treaties and their obligations
8. International Organizations.
UNO ICJ WHO
UNGA ICC IFC
UNSC FAO IMF
HR CNCHR NCSW
9. UN Charter
10. Settlement of International disputes.
11. Peaceful Settlement of Disputes.
12. Use of Force
13. Humanitarian Law
14. Vienna and Geneva Conventions
15. Annexation, cessations, Insurgency, Belligerency and successive to Rights and
obligations.
16. Neutrality
17. Armed Conflict Zones
18. Doctrine of Pre- emptive Strike
19. Responsible Sovereignty.
20. Extradition
21. Mutual Legal Assistance.

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SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Brouwnlie, Lan Principles of Public International Law


2. Harris, DJ Cases and Material on International Law
3. ICRC, Pariston International Humanitarian Law
4. J.G. Starke Introduction to International law
6. Oppenheim Public International Law
5. Shaw, Malcolm N. International law

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INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
PAPER I Total Marks:100

Introduction and Basic Concepts

1. Meaning and definition of International Relations


Scope; Development of International Relations; Theories of International Relations,
Classical, Realism, Idealism, Behavioural Approach, Systems Approach, Neo-Realism, Neo-
Liberalism, Post Modernism, Critical Theory, Constructivism.
2. Sovereign State System
Definition and evolution of the concept of sovereignty; Scope, Characteristics and
features; Limits of State Sovereignty; Challenges.
3. National Power
Definition; Elements of State Power; Power Projection; Power Politics and patterns;
Balance of power; Type of Balance of Power;
4. War
Definition; Total, Limited and Asymmetrical War; Justiceable War; Causes of War;
Guerilla War; War of Attrition; Civil War; Low Intensity War; Absence of War; Deterrence
and use of Deterrence to avoid war.
5. National Interest
Definition; Types of National Interest; Promotion and Protection of National Interest.
6. Nationalism
Definition and origins; Positives and negatives of Nationalism; Trans boundary
versus Territorial Nationalism; Nationalism in the modern world; Globalization.
a. Inter-State Relations
Foreign Policy; elements and Determinants; Foreign Policy Formulation;
Foreign Policy as Projection of Domestic Policy; Foreign Policy Analysis; Theory
and Practice of Diplomacy; Diplomatic and Consular immunities.
b. Approaches to Peace

Diplomacy as the first line of defence; International Law, its sources, evolution
and enforcement; International Humanitarian Law; Refugee Law; Arms
Control and Nuclear Non-Proliferation; Human Rights and International legal
framework;

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c. International Political Institutions


Evolution of the United Nations, Structure and functions; Role in maintenance
of international peace and security; Role in economic and social development;
Role in development of international norms and legal frameworks;
Environmental Protection; World Bank and IMF; International Court of Justice,
its role in dispute settlement and limitations.
d. Global Issues
Environmental Degradation, Climate Change, Global Warning; Water Scarcity;
Food Security, Sustainable Development; Population; Arms Proliferation;
Human Rights; Status of Women; Refugee problem; Terrorism and Counter
Terrorism.
e. Civil Society and international Relations
Definitions, types and scope; civil society as a pressure group and global
conscience; civil society and the United Nations; Civil Society and formulation
of International Norms.

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Ahmer, Moonis. Foreign Policy Making Process: A case study of Pakistan.


2. Balis, John and Steve Smith. Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to
International Relations.
3. Brown, Chris. Understanding International Relations (2nd Edition).
4. Burchill, Scot and Andrew Linklater. Theories of International Relations.
5. Holsti, K.J. International Politics: A Framework for Analysis.
6. Kegley Jr, Charles. and Euggene R. Witkopf. World Politics, Trends and
Transformations.
7. Mingst, Karen. Essential Readings in World Politics.
8. Morgenthau, Hans. Politics Among Nations.
9. Nester, William. International Relations, Politics and Economy in the 21st Century.
10. Spanier, John. Games Nations Play (7th Edition)

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INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

PAPER II Total Marks:100

1. Post world War I Developments:


Effects of Russian Revolution; Failure of the League of Nations; Treaty of Versailles;
Second World War; Yalta Conference and the Post war world; Emergence of Security
alliances, NATO and Warsaw Pact; Cold War period; Glasnost, Perestroika and Dismantling
of USSR; Unipolarity and New World Order; Emergence of Multipolar world; post 9/11
world.
2. Decolonization in Africa and Asia:
Declonization and emergence of new states; Effects on Global politics.
3. Emergence and Influence of International and Regional Organizations:
EU, ASEAN, AU, Arab League; OIC; NAFTA; SAARC; ECO; SCO; GCC; G-7;
MERCOSUR; OAS; ANZUS
4. Restructuring and Reform of the United Nations:
Brief history; Reform and Expansion of the Security Council and role of Pakistan.
5. Overview of Foreign Policies of China, USA, UK, Russia and EU.

6. Foreign Policy of Pakistan:


determinants; Pillars of Foreign Policy; Different Phases; Analytical view
a. Pakistans relations with major powers; Relations with neighbouring countries
(China, Iran, Afghanistan, Central Asian Status); Relations with the EU.
b. Pakistan India Relations: Historical baggage; Background of disputes
Kashmir, Siachin, Sir Creek, violations of Indus Basin Treaty; Wars 1947,
1965, 1971, Kargil; Peace making and Peace keeping; Composite Dialogue;
Accords and Agreements; way forward.
c. Afghanistan Pakistan Relations: Historical perspective; Geneva Accord;
Post Cold War scenario; Emergence of Taliban, Al Qaeeda and Warlords; 9/11
and Operation Enduring Freedom; the Bonn Process; other peace initiatives;
Pakistans stake in Afghanistans Stability; present situation.

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d. Kashmir Dispute: Genesis; Kashmir and the UN; situation in IHK since 1947;
Wars, Conflicts, Uprisings; Peace initiatives and various formulas for solution;
Kashmir related CBMS; Political Dynamics inside IHK; Prospects for the future.

7. Weapons of Mass Destruction:


Proliferation of Nuclear, Chemical and Biological weapons; Pakistan and NPT, CTBT,
Fissile Material Treaty (former FMCT), NSG; Pakistans Nuclear Doctrine; Challenges to Non-
Proliferation; Cooperation in Peaceful uses of Nuclear Energy.

8. Terrorism and Counter Terrorism:


Obstacles in negotiations on Comprehensive Convention on Terrorism; UN and
Terrorism; Pakistans position on the issue of terrorism.

9. Contemporary Issues in the Middle East:


Genesis of the Palestine Dispute; Obstacles in the establishment of a Palestinian
State; Arab Spring; Intra Arab conflicts; M.E. and the Global powers; Pakistans position.

10. International Economy:


WTO; Doha Round of Talks; Sustainable Development and SDGs; South South and
North South cooperation.

11. Environment:
Rio Charter, Convention on Climate Change and Biodiversity; Kyoto Protocol;
Negotiations in COP (Conference of Parties); Sustainable Development Goals and
Environment.

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SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Ahsen, Muhammad. Pakistan and Regional Pact.


2. Amin, Shahid M. Pakistans Foreign Policy: A Reappraisal.
3. Booth, Ken and Tim Dunne. World in Collision: Terror and Future of World Order.
4. Burke, S.M.. Pakistans Foreign policy: An Historical Analysis.
5. Carr, E.H. The Twenty Years Crises; 1919 1939: An Introduction to the Study of
International Relations.
6. Chakma, Bhumitra. Politics of Nuclear Weapons in South Asia
7. Chaudhry, Muhammad Ahsen. Pakistan and the Great Powers.
8. Cinncione, Joseph. Bomb Scare: The History and Future of Nuclear Weapons.
9. Davis, Zachary S.. Pakistan Military Standoff: Crises and Education in South Asia
10. Goldblai, Josef. Arms Control: The New Guide to Negotiations and Agreements.
11. Guelke, Adrian. The New Age of Terrorism and International Political System.
12. Hussain, Ijaz. Issues in Pakistans Foreign Policy.
13. Jaspal, Zafar Nawaz. Nuclear Risk Reduction Measures and Restraint Regime in
South Asia
14. Korbel, Josef. Danger in Kashmir.
15. Lamb, Alistair. Kashmir: The Disputed Legacy.
16. Martis, Gus. Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Persp1ectives and Issues
17. Murshed, Iftikhar. The Taliban Days.
18. Rizvi, Hassan Askari. Pakistan and the Geostrategic Environment.
19. Sattar, Abdul. Pakistans Foreign Policy 1947 to 2012: A Concise History.
20. Simpson, Gary P. The WTO and Sustainable Development.
21. Achieving Sustainable Development Goals Promoting Development UN Document

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ISLAMIC HISTORY, CIVILIZATION & CULTURE


PAPER-I Total Marks: 100

1. Pre-Islamic World.
2. The Advent of Islam.
3. Life of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). Major Events and Biography.
4. The Pious Caliphs.
5. Political System of Islam under the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and the Pious Caliphs
6. Rule of the Umayyads. (660-749 AD).
7. Advent of Islam in the Sub-Continent.

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Ahmad, Akbar Discovering Islam: Making Sense of Muslim History and Society
2. Arberry, A.J Aspects of Islamic Civilization: As depicted in the Original Texts
3. Brockelmann, Carl The History of Islamic Peoples
4. Gibb, Hamilton Studies on the Civilization of Islam
5. Gordon, Mathew S. The Rise of Islam
6. Hameedullah, Dr. Rasool-e-Akram ki Siasi Zindgi
7. Nomani, Shibli Seerat un Nabi Vol I&II
8. Nomani, Shibli Al-Farooq
9. Robenson, Chase F. Islamic Civilization
10. Rogers, Michael A History of Medieval Islam
11. Savory, R M (Ed) Introduction to Islamic Civilization
12. Thomas, T.W The Preaching of Islam A History of the Propagation of the
Muslim Faith

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ISLAMIC HISTORY, CIVILIZATION & CULTURE


PAPER -II Total Marks: 100

1. Rule of the Abbasids.


2. Spain under Muslim Rule.
3. The Crusades against Islam.
4. The Ottoman Empire.
5. Islamic Ideology and the Struggle for Pakistan.
6. Islamization in Pakistan.
7. Islam in Europe and America.
8. Islamic Movements in Asia and Africa.
9. Muslim Minorities in Non-Muslim States.
10. Organization of Islamic Cooperation.
11. Kashmir and Palestine.
12. Inter-faith Harmony.

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Armstrong, Karen Islam: A Short History


2. Dozy, R. Spanish Islam
3. Holt, Lewis, Bernard, Lambton The Cambridge History of Islam

4. Irving, T.B Islam Resurgent: The Islamic World Today


5. Lewis, Barnard Islam: From the Prophet Muhammad to the
Capture of Constantinople
6. Nadvi, Abu Hasan Ali Islam and the Modern World
7. Shaban, M.A Islamic History A New Interpretation A.D
750-1055
8. Silverstein, Adam J. Islamic History

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ISLAMIC LAW & MUSLIM JURISPRUDENCE

Total Marks: 100

1. Sources of Islamic Law: Quran, Sunnah, Ijtehad, Qiyas, Ijma, Istehsan


2. Principals of Fiqha
3. Islamic Family Laws: Marriage, Dower, Divorce , Maintenance, Custody of children,
Khula, Dissolution of Marriage (Judicial Separation), Succession.
4. Islamic Law of Contract
5. Hiba, Gifts, Wakf, Wakf-ul-Aulad.
6. Islamic Law and Human rights
7. Dissolution of Muslims Marriages Act, 1939
8. Muslim Family Laws, 1961 and 1964
9. Islamic Criminal Law: Hadd, Tazeer, Qisas and Diyat ,Arsh, Daman.
10. Hadood Orders: Prohibition, Sarqa, Zina.
11. Sources of Revenue in an Islamic State.
12. Zakat as Social Immense
13. Bait-ul-Maal
14. Ushr, Jizya, Zakat, Zariab
15. Rights of Women in Islam

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Ghazi, Mahmood Ahmad Dr. State and Legislation in Islam


2. Kamali, Muhammad Hashim Principles of Islamc Jurisprudence
3. Khan, Hamid Islamic Law of Inheritance
4. Mansuri, Mohammad Tahir Dr. Family Law in Islam
5. Mulla, D.F. Muhammaden Law
6. Nyazee, Imran Ahsan Prof. General Principle of Criminal Law
7. Nyazee, Imran Ahsan Prof. Theories of Islamic Law
8. Rahim, Abdul Mohammaden Jurisprudence

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JOURNALISM & MASS COMMUNICATION

Total Marks: 100

1. Concept, Process and Functions of Communication: Basic Models


2. Principles and Techniques of Effective Communication
3. Mass Media: Functions, Audiences and Effects
4. Media and Society:
a. Democracy
b. Human Rights
c. Women
5. Defining Journalism: Role, Principles of Journalism; Characteristics and
Responsibilities of Journalist

6. Journalism in Pakistan: An Overview of pre-partition Muslim Press and its contribution


in Pakistan Movement; Press in Pakistan after 1947; Struggle For Press Freedom;
Rise of Electronic and Online Journalism in Pakistan.

7. Press Laws & Ethics: PPO, RPPO, Slander, Defamation, Libel, Press Council, PEMRA,
Cyber Crime Act, Right To Information

8. Community Based Media

9. Development Support Communication

10. News: Principles and Techniques of News Writing: Editorial and Column Writing

11. Public Relations: Definition, Purposes and Scope, Ethics, Public Relations in Pakistan,
Duties of Public Relation Officer: Public Relations Procedures and Processes.

12. Press Release, Press Note, and Press Communication

13. Advertising: Definition, Functions, Types and Purpose. Its social and Economic
Aspects, Principles of Successful Advertising.

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SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Aggarwal, S. (1989). Media Credibility. New Dehli: Mittal Publications.


2. AIOU. (2002). Reader on development support communication, department of mass
communication. Islamabad: AIOU.
3. Aziz, Y. (2003). Prospect & Promotion of electronic Media in Pakistan.
4. Burnett, J., Moriarty, S., & Wells, W. (2000). Advertising: Principles and practice.
5. Burton, G. (2010). Media and society: Critical perspectives. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).
6. Centre, H. A. (1978). Effective Public Relations. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc.
7. Chaffee, S. H. (2000). Mass Communication Uses and Effects (3 ed.). New York: Mac
Graw Hill.
8. Dominick, J. R. (2004). The Dynamics Of Mass Communication (5 ed.). New York: Mac
Graw Hill Inc.
9. Hijazi, M. a. (2004). Mass Communication Theory and Practice. A One Publications.
10. Hijazi, M. A. Fun-e-Idarat.
11. Hohenberg, J. (1973). The Professional Journalist: A Guide to the Practices and
Principles of the News Media.
12. Jabbar, J., & Isa, Q. F. Mass Medua Laws And Regulations In Pakistan.
13. Jalandari, S. Feature Nigari.
14. Jalandari, S. Kalam Naweesi.
15. James, C., & Michea, l. G. (2000). Mass Media & Society (3 ed.). St. Martin York.
16. Jawad, H., & Syed, A. H. (2004). Media and Mass Communication Laws of Pakistan.
Lahore: Haji Hanif Printers.
17. Jefkin, F., & Long, A. (1991). Public Relations. London: Pitman Publishing.
18. McQuail, D. (2010). McQuail's mass communication theory. Sage publications.
19. MELVIN, L. D., & Dennis, E. E. (1988). Understanding Mass Communication. Houghton
Mifflin Company.
20. Naz, D. Sahafafti Ikhlaqiat. Lahore: Azeem Academi Urdu Bazaar.
21. Niazi, Z. Press in Chains.
22. Salam, D. K. Fun-e-Sahafat.

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23. Salam, D. K. Fun-e-Sahafat.


24. Salam, K. A. Journalism in Pakistan. Lahore: United Publishers.
25. Siraj, S. (1990). Taloqaat-e-Aama. Islamabad: Allama Iqbal Open University.
26. Strenzt, H. (1992). News Reporter & News Sources (2 ed.). New Dehli: Prentice Hall.

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MATHEMATICS
PAPER I Total Marks: 100

SECTION: A

Limits, Continuity, Differentiability and its Applications, General theorems (Rolle's


Theorem, Mean value theorem), Applications of Maxima and Minima, Leibnitz theorem,
Definite and Indefinite integrals and their Application. Reduction formula, partial derivatives,
homogeneous functions, Eulers theorem, total differentials, directional derivatives normal to
the surfaces and tangent planes. Quadrature, Rectification, Multiple of inertia, Ordinary
Differential Equations (O.D.Eqs) and their Applications in Rectilinear motion and
Growth/Decay problems. 2nd Order Differential Equations with Applications (Spring Mass
and Simple Harmonic Oscillator Problems).

SECTION :B

Sequences and Series, Convergence tests, Power Series, Radius and Interval of
Convergence. Complex Analysis, Function of Complex Variable, Demoivre's Theorem and its
Application. Analytic Function, Contour Integration, Singularities, Cauchy theorem, Cauchy
Integral formula. Vectors in 2-Dimnetions&3-Dimentions.Vector differentiation and
integration. Gradient, divergence and curl. Line surface and Volume integrals and
applications. Vector equation for plane and space curves. Tangents and Normals and
Binormals, Curvature and torsion, Serre Frenet's Formula.

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SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Abell, Braselton, Modem Differential Equations Ed. 2, Thomas Learning Inc. USA,
2001.
2. Anton, H, Calculus: A New Horizon, Ed. 6, John Willey, New York, 1999.
3. Curchill, R.V., Brawn J.W., Complex Variables and Applications, Ed. 5, McGraw Hill,
New York, 1989.
4. Ghori, Q.K., Mechanics. Ilmi Kitab Khan, Lahore.
5. Guggenheinerar, H.W., Differential Geometry, McGraw Hill, 1990.
6. Nawazish Ali Shah, Vector & tensor analysis A-one Publishers, 2011.
7. Thomas, G. B. Finney. A. R., Calculus, Ed. 9, John Willey, New York, 2005.
8. Weather burn, C.E., Differential Geometry, The English Languages Book Society and
Cambridge Uni. Press. 1964.
9. Yusuf, S.M. Amin. M., Calculus with Analytic Geometry, Ilmi Kitab Khana, Lahore.
10. Zill, D. G. , Cullen, M.R., Differential Equations with Boundary Value Problems, Ed. 3.
PWS Publishing Co., 1997.

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MATHEMATICS
Paper II Total Marks: 100

SECTION: A

Groups
Definition and examples of Groups, Order of a Group, Order of an element ofa
Group, Abelian and non-Abelian Groups and Cyclic groups. Lagrange theorem and
applications, Normal subgroups, Characteristic Subgroups of a group, Normalizer in a group,
Centralizer in a group. Fundamental Theorem of Homomorphism, Isomorphism theorems of
groups, Automorphisms

Rings, Fields and Vector Spaces


Examples of Rings, Subrings, Integral domains, Fields, Vector spaces, Linear
independence/ dependence, Basis and dimension of finitely generated spaces, Examples of
Field extension and finite fields, Examples of finite and infinite dimensional vector spaces.

SECTION: B
Metric Spaces and Topological Spaces
Definition and Examples of Metric spaces and topological spaces, Closed and Open
Spheres, neighborhood and neighborhood system, Interior, Exterior and Frontier of a Set,
Relative Topology, separation axioms, compactness and connectedness. Definition and
examples of Normed Spaces. Inner product spaces, Gram-Schmidt Process of
Orthonormalization.

Matrices and Linear Algebra


Linear transformations, Matrices and their algebra, Reduction of matrices to Echelon
and Reduced Echelon form. Solution of a system of homogenous and Non-Homogenous
equations, Numerical methods of solving equations (Gauss-Siedal method, Jaccobi method)
Properties of Determinants, Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors and the Diagonalization of the
Symmetric Matrices.

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SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Ahmad. F and Afzal. M, Numerical Analysis, National Book Foundation, Islamabad.


2. Atkinson, K. E., An Introduction to Numerical Analysis, Ed. 2 John Willey, New
York,1989.
3. Dar, K.H., First Step to Abstract Algebra, Feroz Sons Publishers, Lahore (1996).
4. Herstein, I.N., Topics in Algebra, John Willey and Sons (New York) 1964.
5. Kreyszig, E., Introductory Functional Analysis with Applications, John Willey and Sons,
New York, 1978.
6. Majeed, A. Elements of Topology and Functional Analysis, Ilmi Kitab Khana, Lahore.
7. Nicholson. W.K., Elementary Linear Algebra with Applications, Ed. 2,Prentice Hall,
Englewood, USA.
8. Rowen, L., Rings (I & II). Academic Press, Ins.
9. Simmons, F.J., Topology, McGraw Hill Company, New York.
10. Yusuf, S.M., Majeed A., Amin. M., Mathematical Methods, Ilmi Kitab Khana, Lahore.

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PERSIAN
Total Marks:100
1. AIMS
a. The aims of the syllabus in Persian are as follows:-
b. To acquaint the students with classical and modern Persian.
c. To familiarize them with such selection of Persian texts including those from
Iqbal, which have a value in practical life.

PART-I MARKS-50

1. Origin and Development of the Language.


Outline:

a. Elementary information about: Avesta, Old Persian and Pahlavi languages.


b. The advent of Persian prose and poetry in the present script in the Islamic era.
c. The earlier Persian prose writers and poets upto 4th century H/10th century A.C.
d. Significant features of the grammer of the language.

Outline:

a. Grammar.
The three tenses, imperative modd (Affirmative and Negative) and muzara for
present and future tenses.
b. Translation of simple English passage into Persian.
Literary History and literary criticism-Literary Movements, Classical Background, Socio-
Cultural Influences and Modern trends: Origin and Development of Modern Literary
Genres.
Emphasis:

a. The literary history should include the development of Persian language and
literature, besides Iran in Afghanistan, the Indo-Pakistan Sub-continent and
the Persian speaking areas of the Former USSR.
b. In classical background, the four styles known as Khurasani, Iraqi, Hindi and
Revivalist may be studied.

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c. In the literary movements the revivalist and purist movements, and the
modern trends, the adaptation of Western loan words in Persian language
needs to be emphasized.

2. Short Essay in Persian

PART-II MARKS:50

1. The paper will require firsthand reading of the texts prescribed and will be designed
to test the candidates critical ability.

Texts:
1. Farrukhi Seestani. (Qasida on the conquest of Soomnath)
2. Hafiz, Diwan upto radif Re
3. Iqbal. (i) Asrar-Khudi upto Murhilah-e-Siwum Niahat-e-llahi.
(ii) Javid Nama (Last chapter) Address to Javid (Dialogue with the
new generation).
4. Rumi, Masnavi: Daftar (1st half upto Dastan-e-Peer Changi).
5. Saadi, Gulistan: Chapter 7 & 8.
6. Unsar-ul-Malli Qabus (Qabus Nama) Last Chapter 44

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SUGGESTED READINGS
1. Qureshi, Wahiduz-Zaman Dr. Iranian Revaluation
2. Ahsan, A. Shakool Dr. Modern Trends in the Persian Language. .

3. ()
4. ()
5. ()
6.
7. 3 ()
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15. ()
16. ()
17. ()
18. ()

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PHILOSOPHY
Paper-I Marks:100

1. Introduction:
Definition, Nature, Scope and Value of Philosophy
2. Plato and Aristotle;
Ideas; Substance; Form and Matter; Metaphysics; Causation; Actuality and
Potentiality; Theory of Knowledge; Theory of State (Plato)
3. Rationalism
Descartes: Method of Doubt and Certain Knowledge; Mind-Body relationship; Proofs
for Existence of God.
Spinoza: Theory of Knowledge; Doctrine of Substance; God; Human Freedom,
Salvation and Ethics.
Leibniz: Idealism; Monodology; Theory of Knowledge; Optimism.
4. Empiricism
Locke: Origin of Ideas; Refutation of Ideas; Modes, Substance and Relations;
Representative Realism.
Berkeley: Subjective ; Idealism; Rejection of Abstract Ideas of Substance.
Hume: Skepticism; Impression and Ideas; Causality.
5. German Idealism
Kant: Synthetic a-Priori Judgments; Space and Time; Theory of Knowledge
Sensibility, Understanding and Reason; Antinomies; Kants Problem.
Hegel: Dialectical Method; Absolute Idealism.
6. Nectzsche:
Superman; Will to Power; Materialism; Nihilism.
7. Existentialism (Kierkegaard, Sartre, Heidegger):
Existence and Essence; Choice; Responsibility and Authentic Existence; Being and
Temporality.
8. Moore, Russell and Early Wittgenstein:
Defence of Common-sense; Refutation of Idealism; Theory of Meaning.

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9. Logical Positivism:
Verification Theory; Rejection of Metaphysics; Linguistic Theory of Necessary
Propositions.
10. Pragmatism; Richard Rorty:
Objectivity; Relativism and Truth.

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Ayer, A.J. Logical Positivism


2. Coplestone, Frederick. History of Philosophy
3. Lyotard, Jean Francois. A. Post Modern Condition: Report on Knowledge
4. Moore, Brooke Noel and Bruder, Kenneth. Philosophy:The Power of Ideas
5. OConner, D.J. A Critical History of Western Philosophy
6. Russell, Bertrand. History of Western Philosophy
7. Sartre, Jean Paul. Existentialism and Humanism
8. Scruton, Roger. Short History of Modern Philosophy
9. Sedgwick, Peter. Descartes to Derrida:An Introduction to European Philosophy

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PHILOSOPHY
Paper-II Total Marks:100

MUSLIM PHILOSOPHY
1. Introduction
Genesis and Development of Theological and Philosophical Thought in Islam
Influence of Greek Philosophy on Muslim Thinkers.

2. Mutazalites:
Five Basic Principles of Mutazalites; Naturalistic Ethics.

3. Asharites;
Concept of God and Nature of Divine Attributes; Free Will; Evil; Createdness and
Uncreatedness of the Quran

4. Origins of Sufism and its Characteristics;

Metaphysics; Wahdat al Wajud and Wahdat al Shahud.

5. Muslim Philosophers
a. Ibne Sina: Concept of Being; Theory of Knowledge; Concept of God; Mind
Body Relationship.

b. Al Ghazali: Method; Refutation of Philosophers; Causality.

c. Ibne Rushd: Reconciliation Between Philosophy and Religion; Theory of


Knowledge; Metaphysics.
d. Ibne Khuldun: Concept of History; Refutation of Metaphysics.

6. Modern Reconstructionists of Islamic Thought


a. Shah Waliullah: Metaphysics; Concept of God; Unity of Being; Mysticism; Ethics;
Socio-Economic Ideas; Philosophy of History.

b. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan: God, Man and Universe; Concept of Religion and Ethics;
Miracles; Prayers; Prophetic Consciousness; Views on Education and Morality.

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c. Allama Muhammad Iqbal: Epistemology; Doctrine of Ego; Difference between
Mystic and Prophetic Forms of Consciousness; Concept of the Ultimate Reality and
its Relations with the Phenomenal World; Ijtihad.

7. Contemporary Debates
a. Religious Modernism.
b. Religious Fundamentalism.
c. Islamization of Knowledge.
d. Social and Political Ideals: Equality, Justice; Liberty, Democracy.

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Ahmad, Aziz. Studies in Islamic Culture in the Indian Environment


2. Al Faruqi, Ismail Raji. Islamization of Knowledge: Problems, Principles and
Prospective
3. Baldjon, J.N.S. Religion and Thought of Shah Waliullah Dehlawi
4. Fakhry, Majid. A History of Islamic Philosophy
5. Husain, Sayyed., Nasr and Leaman, Oliver. History of Islamic Philosophy
6. Iqbal, Allama. Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam
7. Iqbal. Mustansir Mir
8. Khaliq, Abdul. Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan: On Nature, Man and God
9. Malik, Hafeez. Iqbal: Poet Philosopher of Pakistan
10. Moaddil, Mansoor & Tallat, Kamran. Modernist and Fundamentalist Debates in Islam
11. Sharif, M.M. A History of Muslim Philosophy
12. Smith, Wilfred Cantwell. Modern Islam in India: A Social Analysis

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PHYSICS
PAPER -I Total Marks: 100

1. Quantum Physics
Thermal Radiations (Black Body Radiation), Stefan Boltzmann, Wien and Planks law
(Consequences), Bohr Theory of Hydrogen atom, The quantization of Energy, Quantum
Numbers, Schrodinger wave Equation and its applications to one dimensional harmonic
Oscillator, Wave function and its relation to probability of particle, The Photoelectric effect,
The Compton effect, Pauli Exclusion Principle, Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, Wave
behavior of particles, de Broglie hypothesis

2. Atomic Physics
Electromagnetic radiations and photons, Electromagnetic spectrum, Reflection and
refraction of electromagnetic waves, Refractive index, Interference , Michelsons
interferometer, Diffraction Diffraction Gratings and spectroscopy, Dispersion and resolving
power, Polarization, Polarization sheets Theory of Atomic Energy Levels, Molecular Energy
levels and spectra, Rotational Energy levels, Vibrational energy levels, Spontaneous
emission, Stimulated Emission, Population inversion, Lasers, Basic properties of laser light,
The X-ray spectrum, The continues and characteristic X-rays, The Doppler effect for light,
Stark effect, Zeeman effect

3. Solid State Physics and Electronics


Band gap theory of conductors, insulators and semiconductors, Electrical conduction
in solids, Semiconductors, Doped semiconductors, The pn Junction, The diode rectifier, The
transistor, superconductors

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PHYSICS
PAPER-II
Total Marks: 100

1. Nuclear Physics
Discovering the nucleus, Nuclear properties, Radioactive decay, Alpha, Decay, Beta
Decay, gamma Decay, Nuclear Fission, Nuclear Fission, Nuclear Reactors, Nuclear Reactors
in Pakistan, Need of Nuclear Energy to overcome electricity crises, Under lying Principle of
Atomic Bomb, Underlying Principle of Hydrogen Bomb, Thermonuclear Fusion in Stars and
Sun, Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion, magnetic Confinement, Inertial Confinement,
Accelerator Physics, Nuclear Accelerators in Pakistan , Pelletron Accelerator, Cockcroft
Walton accelerators, Detection of nuclearradiations.

2. Electricity, Magnetism and Electromagnetic theory


Electric Field, Electric field of continuous charge distribution, Point charge in an
electric field Dipole in an electric field, Gausss Law (for electricity and magnetism) ,
Application of Gausss law (integral form),Faradays law, Magnetic flux, consequences of
Faradays law, Lenz law, Motional E.M.F, Bio-Savart Law Ampers Law, Integral and
differential forms, Application to solenoids and toroids (integral form) , Magnetic properties
of matter, Magnetic dipole (), Origin of atomic and nuclear magnetization, Magnetic
Materials, Paramagnetism, diamagnetism and ferromagnetism , Maxwells Equations,
Lorentz Force

3. General Physics

1-Nobel Prizes in Physics from 2010-2016

2010 (For groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material


grapheme)
2011( For the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through
observations of distant supernovae)2012(for ground-breaking experimental methods that
enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems)2013(For the theoretical
discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of
subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the
predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron
Collider)2014 (The invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright
and energy-saving white light),
2015(For the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have
mass)2016.(For theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological
phases of matter)

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2. Physics and Technology (uses of Physics in latest technology and devices)

3. Big bang Theory and Expansion of Universe

4. Dark matter

5. Detection of Gravitational waves of the universe by Laser interferometer.

6. Quran and Physics

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Beiser, A. Perspectives of Modern Physics


2. Burcham , W.E. Nuclear Physics.
3. Chen, F. Plasma Physics
4. Chen, Franis F. Introduction to Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (Plenum Press
1984)
5. Hallidya, David., Resnick, Robbert and Krane, Kenneth S. Physics (Vol 2 Extended
Version) 5th Edition. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
6. Kaplan. Nuclear Physics.
7. Silfvast, William T. Laser Fundamentals (2nd Edition). Cambridge University Press,
2004, New York

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POLITICAL SCIENCE
PAPER-I Total Marks: 100

POLITICAL SCIENCE: BASIC PRINCIPLES


PART: A - POLITICAL THEORY

This part of the course relates to the traits of Political thought as presented
historically by the Western and Muslim philosophers.

1. Western Political Thought


a. Plato
b. Aristotle
c. Machiavelli
d. Hobbes
e. Locke
f. Rousseau
g. Karl Marx
h. John Stuart Mill

2. Muslim Political Thought


a. Al-Farabi
b. Al-Mawardi
c. Al-Ghazali
d. Ibn-e-Khaldoon
e. Allama Iqba

PART: B_- STATE AND INDIVIDUAL

1. Welfare Society Perceptions


a. Western
b. Islamic

2. Basic Concepts
a. Sovereignty
b. Constitutionalism
c. Power Distribution
d. Law
e. Human Rights

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1. Modes of Participation
a. Public Opinion
b. Political Parties
c. Representation, Lobbying, Advocacy, Interest-Groups.

2. Institutions
a. Legislature, Executive, Judiciary
b. Competing Elites: Political, Military, Bureaucratic

3. Forms of Government
a. Democractic
b. Federation
c. Parliamentary
d. Presidential
e. Authoritarian
f. Unitary

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Ali, Shuakat Dr. Masters of Muslim Thought, Vol 2


2. Almond and Powell, Comparative Politics
3. Baldersheim, Harald and Womann, Hellmut. The Comparative Study of Local
Governments and Politics: Overview and Synthesis.
4. Barker, Earnest. Reflections on Government
5. Beer, Samuel and Adam Ullam, Patterns of Governments
6. Brohi, A.K. Fundamental Law of Pakistan.
7. Callard, Keith Pakistan: A Political Study
8. Chaudhry, G W. Constitutional Development of Pakistan
9. Cocker, P. G. Contemporary British Politics and Government
10. Farrelly, Collin (ed.) Contemporary Political Theory
11. Hague, Rod and Harrop, Martin. Comparative Government and Politics.
12. Harmon, Judd. Political Thought: Plato to Present
13. Key, V.O. Politics, Parties and Pressure Groups

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14. Khan, Hamid, Constitutional and Political History of Pakistan.


15. Lavery, Kevin. Smart Contracting for Local Self Government Service: Process and
Experience.
16. Macridis and Wards, Modern Political System (Asia)
17. Mehmood, Safdar Dr. Fundamental Law.
18. Patterson, Thomas. The American Democracy
19. Rodee and Anderson, Introduction to Political Science
20. Rosenthal, Political Thought in Medieval Islam
21. Sayeed, Khalid Bin. Politics in Pakistan
22. Sherwani, Haroon Khan. Muslim Political Thought and Administration
23. Watts, Rowland. Federations
24. Zaidi, S. Akber. Political Economy of Decentralization in Pakistan
25. Ziring, Lawrence. Pakistan in the Twentieth Century

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POLITICAL SCIENCE: MODERN CONCEPT
PAPER II Total Marks: 100

POLITICAL SYSTEMS

PART: A

1. Developed Political Systems: (Main Constitutional Features)


a. United States of America
b. United Kingdom
c. Canada
d. Australia
Part : B

2. Developing Political Systems: (Main Constitutional Features)


a. Turkey
b. China
c. South Africa
d. Malaysia

Part : C

3. Constitution of Pakistan 1973


a. Constitutional History 1947-1973
b. Constitution of 1973
c. Amendments till date
d. Leading Constitutional Cases.

4. Devolution of Power and Good Governance (Reference to Pakistan)


a. Third tier of Government
b. Concept of Local Self Government
c. History of Local Governments in Pakistan
d. Current Local Government in the Provinces.

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Text of Constitutions enlisted.

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PSYCHOLOGY
PAPER I Total Marks: 100

1. Introduction to Psychology
a. Definition, Historical Development, Scope of Psychology and Roles of a
Psychologist
b. Theoretical Perspectives: Structuralism, Functionalism, Psychoanalysis,
Behaviorism, Gestalt, Humanistic, Cognitive, Biomedical and Evolutionary
Perspectives
c. Areas in Psychology: Clinical, Developmental, Industrial, Educational, Forensic
Social and Biological Psychology
d. Applications of Psychology: Research, Assessment and Therapy
2. Biological Basis of Behavior
a. Kinds of Nervous System, Structure of Neurons, Transmission of Impulses,
Neurotransmitters
b. Structure and function of the brain
c. Brain and behavior
d. Endocrine system and its impact on behavior
e. Genetic influences on behavior: Family, Twin and Adoption studies
3 Sensation and Perception
Sensory Processes: Visual, Auditory, Gustatory, Olfactory and Tactile Processing
a Sensory Adaptation

b Perceptual Organization: Form, Depth Perception, Perceptual constancy

c Perceptual Interpretation: Sensory deprivation, perceptual adaptation

d Extra Sensory Perception

e Perception and Optical Illusions

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4. Learning, Memory and Intelligence


a. Different types of learning: Classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and
observational learning
b. Memory: Short term and long term
c. Information Processing theory
d. Encoding, Storage and Retrieval
e Forgetting
f. Intelligence: What is intelligence?
g. Theories of Intelligence
h. Origins of Intelligence testing
i. Psychological testing and intelligence
j. Emotional Intelligence
k. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence

5. Lifespan Development
a. Pre-natal development
b. Infancy and early childhood
c. Adolescence
d. Adulthood
e. Domains of development:
f. Biological development
(i) Cognitive development
(ii) Social development
(iii) Moral development

6. Motivation
a. Nature of motives
b. Needs, drives and motivations
c. Homeostatis
d. Types of motivation
e. Theories of motivation

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7. Emotions
a. Nature and types of emotions
b. Theories of emotions
c. Biological and Psychological changes in emotions
d. Emotions and culture

ADDITIONAL COMPONENTS:

a. Thinking and Language


(Decision making, problem solving, heuristics, structure of language, language
influences thinking, animals and language)
b. States of Consciousness
(Waking consciousness, Sleep, Dreams, Hypnosis, Drugs and consciousness, &Near
death experiences)

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Feldman, R. S. (2015). Understanding psychology.(6th Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw


Hill Publications.
2. Kalat, J. W. (2012). Biological psychology.(11th Ed.). New York: Cengage Language
3. Myers, D.G. (2013). Psychology.(10th Ed.). New York, NY: Worth Publishers.
4. Santrock, J.W. (2001). Introduction to psychology.(6th Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw
Hill Publications.
5. Weiten, W. (2013).Psychology: Themes and variations. (9th Ed.). Las Vegas: Cengage
Publishers.

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PSYCHOLOGY
PAPER II Total Marks: 100

1. Personality
a. Definition of Personality
b. Theories of Personality development
(1) Psychoanalytical Theory
(2) Humanistic Theory
(3) Behaviorist Theory
(4) Trait Perspective
2. Psychosocial Influences on Behavior
a. Social Thinking: Beliefs, Biases, Attitudes, Judgments and Opinion- Formation
b. Social Influences: Social Norms, Conformity, Group Dynamics, Prejudice and
Stereotypes.
c. Social Relations: Aggression, Love and Intimacy, Altruism, Conflict and
Peacekeeping

3. Psychopathology
a. Abnormal Behavior: Myths, realities and controversies
b. Criteria of abnormal behavior: deviation from social and statistical norms, ideal
mental health
c. Classification of disorders: DSM V vs. ICD 10; Anxiety, Mood, Psychotic, and
Neurodevelopmental disorders
4. Therapeutic Interventions
b. Psychoanalysis
c. Behavioral therapies
d. Client centered therapy
e. Cognitive behavior therapy
f. Biomedical therapies and Psychopharmacology
g. Evaluating the effectiveness of psychotherapy

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5. Psychometric Assessment
a. What is Assessment?
b. Diagnostic Assessment
c. Intelligence Assessment
d. Aptitude Assessment
e. Personality Assessment
6. Health, Stress and Coping
a. Stress and its impact on health
b. Major types of stress
c. Physiological& Psychological reactions to stress
d. Promoting Health: Coping with stress; Role of aerobic exercise, biofeedback and
relaxation, social support, spirituality and faith communities
e. Modifying Illness-related behaviors: Smoking, Obesity, Poor nutritional habits,
alcoholism
7. Research Methods in Psychology
a. The scientific process in psychology
b. Research designs in psychology
(1) Descriptive Research
(2) Correlational Research
(3) Experimental Research
c. Types of research:
(1) Experimental Research
(i) Laboratory Experiments
(ii) Field Experiments
d. Non-Experimental Research
1) Naturalistic Observation
2) Participant Observation
3) Surveys
4) Interviews
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5) Archival Research
6) Case Studies
8. Ethical Issues in Psychology
a. APA Ethical Code of Conduct
b. Concepts of:
(1) Informed Consent
(2) Confidentiality and Anonymity
(3) Deception
(4) Use of Animals in Research
(5) Use of Children in Research
(6) Dual Role Relationships
(7) Debriefing

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Corey, G. (1991). Theory and practice of counselling and psychotherapy. California:


Pacific Grove Publishers.
2. Feldman, R. S. (2015). Understanding psychology. (6th Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw
Hill Publications.
3. Koocher, G. P., & Keith-Speigel, P. (2016). Ethics in psychology and the mental
health professions: Standards and cases. (4th Ed.).London: Oxford University Press.
4. Myers, D. G. (2012). Social psychology. (11th Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill
Education.
5. Myers, D. G. (2013). Psychology. (10th Ed.). New York, NY: Worth Publishers.
6. Santrock, J. W. (2001). Introduction to psychology.(6th Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw
Hill Publications.
7. Schultz, D. P., & Schultz, S. E. (1998). Theories of personality. Boston: Brooks Cole
Publishing Company.
8. Shaughnessy, J., Zechmeister, E., & Zechmeister, J. (2014). Research methods in
psychology. (10th Ed.). New York: McGraw Hill Education.
9. Weiten, W. (2013). Psychology: Themes and variations. (9th Ed.). Las Vegas:
Cengage Publishers.

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PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
PAPER-I Total Marks: 100

1. Public Administration and Public Sector Management.


Basic Theories / Concepts and Definitions
2. Public Sector Management and Corporate Governance.
3. Strategic Management; Crises Management; Management Under Stress; Time
Management.
4. Best Management Practices.
5. Negotiations.
6. Leadership.
7. Financial Management.
8. Personnel Management, Managing Human Resources. Training and Capacity
Building of Individuals and Institutions.
9. Public Policy: Formulation, Implementation and Evaluation.
10. Public Sector Management and Citizens.
11. Public Relations.
12. Role of Press, NGOs, Donors and Interest Groups.
13. Administrative Law, Judicial Scrutiny of Executive Actions.
14. Accountability Mechanisms.
15. Motivation Theories.
SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Hkennedy, Charles Bureaucracy in Pakistan

2. Corper. Public Administration


3. Henry, Nicholas Public Administration and Public Affairs
4. Khan, Jameel ur Rehman Government and Administration in Pakistan.
5. Rosenbloom, David H. Public Administration Understanding Management.
6. Sabharwal, Meghna and Public. Administration in South Asia: India,
Berman, Evan M. Bangladesh and Pakistan.

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PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
PAPER-II Total Marks: 100

1. History of Administrative Reforms in Pakistan.

2. Civil Services Reforms: History and Current Status.

3. Federal Govt. and Provincial Government structures in Pakistan. Reorganization of


Public Sector Structures.

4. Administrative Relations between the Federation and Federating units.

5. Resource distribution/ Revenue Sharing between Federation and the Provinces, NFC
Award.

6. Devolution, Decentralization and delegation of power and Executive Authority.

7. Local Governments in Pakistan History and current systems. Third tier of


Government.

8. Planning Cycle in Pakistan and the province of Punjab.


DDWP, CDWP, NEC, ECNEC
9. Independence of judiciary and Judicial Review of Executive Actions.

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Braibanti, Ralph Evolution of Pakistan's Administrative System


2. Denhardt, Robert Public Administration
3. Osborne, David Reinventing Government

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PUBLIC POLICY
Total Marks: 100

1. Demarcation of the Public Sector


2. Concepts of Bureaucracy
3. Public Policy Models
4. Policy Analysis
5. Implementation Models
6. Models of Public Regulation
7. Public Management, Leadership and Privatization
8. Management State versus the Administrative State
9. The Public Choice Approach
10. Efficiency, effectiveness and Evaluation
11. The Logic of Public Sector Reform
12. Institutions and Efficiency in the Public Sector.
13. Ethics and Normative Policy Models

PUBLIC POLCY IN PAKISTAN


1. Foreign Policy
2. National security Policy
3. Economy Policy
4. Food Security
5. Health Care Issues
6. Education Policies
7. Social Safety Networks
8. Labour Market Issues
9. Public finance
10. Housing and infrastructure
11. Youth Issues
12. Criminal Justice Policy
13. Industrial Policy
14. Human Rights- Rights Based Approach to Development.

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15. Environment and Climate Change


16. Women Rights and Development.
17. Public Goods and Regulatory Regions.

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. E Kraft, Michael and Furlong, Scott R. Public Policy: Politics Analysis and
Alternatives
2. Fischer, Frank, Miller, G. Rald J. and Hand Book of Public Policy Analysis
Sidney, Mara S.
3. Ghaffar, Muzaffar A How Government Work
4. Hill, Michel and Hupe, Peter Implementing Public Policy Governance in
Theory and Practical
5. Kjaer, Anne Mette Governance
6. Lloyd, Sam R Accountability Managing for Maximum
Result.
7. Manski, Charles F. Public Policy in an Uncertain World; Analysis
and Decisions
8. Osborne, David & Gaebler, Ted Reinventing Government
9. Osborne, David & Plastrik, Peter Banishing Bureaucracy: The Five Strategies
for Reinventing Government.

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PUNJABI Total Marks: 100

15+15=30 ()

15
.1
.2
.3
15
: .4
.5
.6
.7

20+20 = 40 ()
20
.1
.2
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20
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() .4
() .5
( ) .6
( ) .7

15+5 () + :
15 .1
5 .2

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)SYLLABUS PMS (OPTIONAL SUBJECTS

15 ()


.3 .2 .1
.6 .5 .4

.3 .2 .1
.6 .5 .4

.3 .2 .1
.6 .5 .4


/ .1
/ .2
/ .3
/ .4
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() / 8.
/ .9
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( ) / ( )13 .11
( ) / ()13 .12
/ .13
/ .14
/ .15
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/ .17

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SOCIAL WORK
PAPER-I Total Marks: 100

1. Introduction to Social Welfare


a. Definition of Social Welfare and its Scope in Pakistan.
b. Historical Development and Introduction of Social Welfare in Pakistan.
2. Sociology for Social Workers
a. Understanding Sociology: Definition, Significance, Nature and Scope of
Sociology and its Relationship with Social Work, Society as a System of Human
Relationships; Socialization: Development of Mechanism of Socialization and
Agencies of Socialization.
b. Importance of Sociological Knowledge for Social Worker.
c. Basic Concepts, Community, Association and Institution, Social Stratification-
Meaning Class and Caste divisions; Social Groups-Primary, Secondary and
Reference group.
3. Pakistani Society
a. Definition and description of the term Society
b. Characteristics and Identity of Pakistani Society
c. Comparison of Rural ,Urban, Tribal Communities
4. Sociology of Culture
a. Definition and description of the term Culture and its Importance
b. Charact4eristics of Pakistani Culture.
c. Influence of allied cultures on Pakistani Culture
d. Separation of Pakistani Culture from Indian Culture
5. Social Norms
a. Definition of Social Norms and its Types
b. Socialization and Personality Development
c. Role of Social Norms in Socialization and Social Control

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6. Social Institution
a. Definition and description of GeneralFunctions of Social Institution.
b. Functions and Importance ofEach Institution and Changes therein.
(1) Institution of Family. (2) Institution of Religion
(3) Institution of Education (4) Institution of Economics
(5) Institution of Recreation (6) Institution of Politics and System of Government.
c. Role of Political institutions in Society: Concepts of Rights and obligation, Justice,
Equality; Power and Authority; Concept of Welfare State.

7. Social Change
a. Definition of Social Change
b. Process and effects of Social Change on Society
c. Factors which Promote and Hinder Social Change
d. Processes of Social Change, Westernization, Modernization, and Islamization
e. Engineered Social Change
8. Social Problems of Pakistan
a. Role of a Social Worker
b. Social Policy and Welfare Management
c. General causes of Social problems
d. Major Social problems of Pakistan (An Orientation)

(1) Drug Addiction (2) Over Population


(3) Juvenile Delinquency (4) Crime
(5) Child Labor (6) Child Abuse and Neglect
(7) Bonded Labor (8) Poverty
(9) Unemployment (10) Illiteracy
(11) Beggary (12) Environmental Pollution
(13) Domestic Violence

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9. Population Dynamics and Gender Issues


a. Population structure and dynamics: Population structure; Fertility The
concept, methods of measurement; Mortality the concept, method of
measurement, construction of Life Table; Migration-The concept, methods of
measuring volume and In and Out flow of migration; and Population
projections.

b. Theories of population: Malthusian and Neo-Malthusian theory; Optimum


theory of population; theory of Demographic transition; Biological and natural
theories; theory of population and economic growth; theory of surplus
population; and theory of increasing prosperity.

c. Construction of Gender: Gender vs. Biology; Women in the family


socialization, gender roles, sexual division of labour; Patriarchy as ideology of
practice; Feminist critique of sociological theories; Development policies,
liberalization and globalization and their impact on women.

d. Population and Gender Issues: Women, health and reproductive health;


Women and their reproductive rights; Development and women
empowerment; The role of the State, NGOs and Social Work.

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Social Work
Paper II Total Marks: 100

1. Nature and Philosophy of Social Work


a. Development and Education of Social Work in Pakistan.
b. Objectives of Social Work Practice.
c. Basic Principles of Social Work.
d. Social Work: Philosophy of Social Work as a profession in Pakistan; Roles and
functions of social work.
e. Professional and voluntary Social Work.
f. Social Case Work: Meaning, scope, components, processes and client worker
relationship; Social Group Work- meaning, objectives, principles.
g. Skills and role of Social Group Worker; Community Organization meaning,
Objectives, principles and Role of Community Organizer.
2. Islam and Social Work
a. Islamic concept of Social Welfare and Professional Social Work
b. Dignity of Human Individual
c. Rights and Obligations of Individuals in Islamic Society
d. Social Relationship as approved by Islam i.e. Family, Neighbourhood, Mosque
3. Personality Development
a. Personality: Concept, Stages of Development. Determinants: Heredity and
Environment.
b. Basic Socio-psychological Processes: Sensation, Perception, Attribution,
Learning and Socialization; Motivation, Attitudes, Beliefs, Prejudices, and
Stereotypes.
c. Human Behavior: Concept, Determinants and Reflectors Adjustment.
d. Concept of Normalcy and Abnormally, Management of Mental Disorders.
4. Methods of Social Work

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PRIMARY METHODS
a. Social Casework
(1) Definition and description of social case work
(2) Elements/Components of Social case work (person, problem, place,
professional person and process)
(3) Principles of Social case work
(4) Phases/steps in social case work
(5) Fields of application of social case work practice
(6) Role of Professional worker in case work practice
b. Social Group Work
(1) Definition and description of Social group
(2) Types of social groups (primary and secondary, formal and informal
groups)
(3) Stages of group development
(4) Definition of social group work and its philosophy
(5) Objectives of Social group work
(6) Components of social group work (group, agency and group workers)
(7) Principles of social group work
(8) Fields of application of group work practice
(9) Role of professional worker in-group work practice
c. Community Development (Role of Social Worker.)
(1) Definition and description of community.
(2) Definition of community organization and development
(3) Goals and Objectives of Community Development
(4) Approaches of community development.
(5) Phases/ steps of community development (study of monitoring and
evaluations)
(6) Principles of community development
(7) Role of professional worker in community

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SECONDARY METHODS
a. Social Research
(1) Definition and description of social research
(2) Phases/steps in social research
(3) Tools of data collection (questionnaire, interviewing, schedule, interview
guide and observation)
b. Social Action and Management
(1) Definition and description of social action
(2) Importance of social action in social welfare
(3) Definition and description of social welfare administration
(4) Importance of Social welfare administration in social work
5. Fields of Social Work
a. School Social Work
b. Medical Social Work
c. Child Welfare
d. Youth Welfare
e. Women Welfare
f. Welfare of the Physically disabled
g. Welfare of the mentally retarded
h. Welfare of Socially disadvantaged/destitute.
i. Welfare of Juvenile Delinquents and Adult Criminals
6. Role of Voluntary Social Welfare Agencies in Socio-Economic Development
a. Definition and description of Social Welfare Agency
b. Types of Social Welfare agencies (government, semi-government, voluntary/
NGOs, rural and urban community development.
c. Role of the Voluntary social welfare agencies, in National Development and
Sustainable development. (Orangi Development, a Model Pilot Project)
d. Economics for Social Work

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SUGGESTED READINGS

1. A.S. Livingstone. Social Work in Pakistan Lahore, West Pakistan Social Welfare Council.
2. Alexander, Jeffrey C. (1987). Twenty lectures: Sociological theory since world war New
York: Columbia University Press.
3. Arthur C. Fink, (1974, 6th Ed.)The Field of Social Work. Hold, Rinehart, New York.
4. Bogue, Donald J.: Principles of Demography.
5. Coffey, Amanda. Sociology and Social Change, University Press, Clift Court 22 Ball
moor Buckingham.
6. Collins, Randall. (1997, Indian edition).Sociological Theory. Jaipur and New Delhi:
Rawat.
7. Do Minelli, Lenda. (2009), Introducing Social Work. Polity Press, 65 Bridge Street, UK.
8. Do Minelli, Lenda. (2010), Social Work in a Globalization World. Polity Press, 65 Bridge
Street, UK.
9. Elizabeth A. Ferguson. (1969). Social Work, an Introduction, Lippincott, H. New York
10. Friedlander W.A. Introduction to Social Welfare. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs USA.
11. Ghafur, Prof. M.A., and Prof. A.K. M. A, Mannan Mollah, M.A. Social Welfare. Pubali
Prakashani, 65, Pyari Das Road, (1st Floor) Dacca-1
12. Goldstein, Howard: Social Work Practice: A Unitary Approach
13. Horton, Paul B. The Sociology of Social Problems. Prentice Hall, New York.
14. Ikramullah, Ian. and lan, Abidullah. Social Organizers. Mavra Publishers, 60 TheMall,
Lahore.
15. Khalid, Dr. Muhammad. (2012). Social Work Theory and Practice. Kifayat Academy,
370 Hamidia Mansion, Karachi.
16. Khalid, Muhammad. (1995). Social Work Methods and Practical Kifayat Academy,
Karachi.
17. Khan, Akhter H., (1985), Rural Development in Pakistan, Vanguard Books Ltd. Lahore.
18. MacIver, R.M. and C.H. Page: Society: Ali Introductory Analysis, Madras: Mac Millan,
Ltd. India.
19. Ogburn &Nimkoff. Handbook of Sociology. Rout Ledge and Kegan Paim, London.
20. Rehmatullah, Shireen. (2002). Social Welfare in Pakistan .Oxford University Press,
Karachi.
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21. Ritzer, George. (1992, 3rd Edition).Sociological Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.
22. Siddiqui, H.Y.: Working with Communities: An Introduction to Community Work.
23. Skidmore Thackeray, Introduction to Social Work, New Jersey Prentice Hall, 1964.
24. Spigelian, Mortimer. : Introduction to Demography.
25. Sturrock, John (ad.), (1979). Structuralism and since: From Levi Strauss to
Deride.Oxford University, Press.
26. Taga, Abdul Hameed.(1999), Sociology and Problems Abdul Hameed and Sons
Publisher Lahore.
27. Turner, Jonathan H. (1995, 4th Edition). The structure of sociological theory. Jaipur and
New Delhi: Rawat.
28. Zeitlin, Irving M. (1998, Indian Edition). Rethinking Sociology, A Critique of
Contemporary Theory. Jaipur and New Delhi: Rawat

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SOCIOLOGY
PAPER- I Total Marks: 100

GENERAL SOCIOLOGY
1. Introduction
a. Defining Sociology
b. Development of Concept of Sociology (Role of Muslim and European Thinkers)
c. Domain of Sociology

2. Subject Matter
Scope of sociology in a Pakistani Society. Sociology and its relevance to other Social
Sciences.

3. Sociological concepts with their general application in society


a. Social Groups
b. Social Norms
c. Social Sanctions
d. Social Norms Social Values , Beliefs and Fork moves )
e. Social Status and Social Roles
f. Role Conflict

4. Culture
a. Culture and civilization Ideal and Real Culture, Material and Non-material
Culture
b. Cultural Relativism
c. Ethnocentrism (concept its advantages and disadvantages)
d. Cultural Lag
e. Similarities and Variabilities of Pakistani Sub-Cultures Culture and Subcultures

5. Social Institutions
a. General Functions of Social Institutions
b. Basic Institutions, their Functions
(1) Family as an Institution its Forms , Functions
(2) The Institutions of Religion, its Functions and importance of Mosque in a
Muslim society
(3) The Institution of Education, its Functions and Problems of Education in
Pakistani Society.
(4) The Institution of Politics, its Functions.

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(5) The Institution of Economics, its Structures and tpes of economics

6. The Concept of Social and Cultural Change


a. Processes of Social and Cultural Change
(1) Acculturation and Amalgamation ii. Discovery
(2) Cultural Diffusion iv. Inventions and Innovations.
b. Causes of Social Change.
c. Social Change in Pakistani Society since its Inception; (14-08 1947)
7. Social Health
a. Defining Health, Illness and Disease, and Disability.
b. Sick Role as described by Rober K Merton.
c. Development of Hospitals as Institution of Health
8. Gender and Socialization
Role oriented socialization based on Gender. Movements like Feminism;
Women in Islam, Statues of women in Pakistan.
9. Mass Media and its Role in Modern Age
a. Mass Media as an Agent of socialization
b. Crime and Media
c. Mass Media as agent of Socio Change
d. Mass Behavior
10. Social Movements
a. Types of Social Movements
b. Women Emancipation

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Ahmed, Akber S. (1990). Pakistan: The Social Sciences Perspective. Oxford University
Press, Karachi.
2. Aulak, AnMafid. Criminal Justice, Martin, Ramdy, 1991. Criminological Thought-
Pioneers, Past and Present. Macmillan and Co.
3. Browne, ken. (2006). Introducing Sociology for A Level. 2nd Edition. Polity Press

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4. Chakravarti, Ashok. (2005). Aid, Institutions and Development: New Approaches to


Growth Governance and Poverty. Oxford University Press, New Delhi, India.
5. Cohen, Stephen Philip. (2005). The Idea of Pakistan. Vanguard Books (pvt.)Ltd,
Lahore.
6. Craig,Baxter.(2001). Pakistan 2000. Oxford University Press
7. Farganis, James. (2011). Readings in Social Theory. Mc Graw-Hill Companies. Inc. NY.
8. Ferrante, Joan. (2003). Sociology : A Globe Perspective. 5th Edition. Thomson
Wadswarth, Australia
9. Gardez, Hassan N. (1991), Understanding Pakistan the Colonial Factor in Social
Development, Maktab-e-Fikr-O-Danish, Lahore.
10. Gidden, Anthony. (2006) Sociology.5th Edition. Polity Press, London.
11. Haqqani, Husain . (2005). Pakistan :Between Mosque and Military. Vanguard Books
(pvt) Ltd. Lahore.
12. Khan Ahmed, Akbar S. (1986). Pakistan Society: Islam, Ethnicity and Leadership in
South Asia. Oxford University Press, New York
13. Khan and and Chaudhry Iqbal and Chaudhry (2016-17). ImraniNazria-o-Tehqeeq, AHT
Publisher, Urdu Bazar, Lahore
14. Khan, Akhter H., (1985), Rural Development in Pakistan, Vanguard Books Ltd. Lahore.
15. Kundu, Abhijit. (2012). Sociological Theory. Pearson, 11 Community Centre,
Panchsheel Park, New Delhi, India.
16. Macionis, John J. Sociology. (7th Edition). Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New
Jersey Moghissi, Haideh. (1999). Feminism and Islamic Fundamentalism: The limits of
Postmodern Analysis. Oxford University Press: New York.
17. Merton, Robert K. (1961). Contemporary social problems. Harcourt, Brace & World Inc.
18. Raza, Rafi. (2001) Pakistan in Perspective: 1947-1997. 1ST Ed. Oxford University
Press, Karachi.
19. Taga, Abdul Hameed & Abdul Aziz (2016 -2017) Imran Naazria-o-Tehqeeq, AHT
Publisher, Urdu Bazar, Lahore.
20. Talha, Naurren. (2000). Economic Factors in the Making of Pakistan (1921-1947).
Oxford University Press, Karachi.
21. Webster, Andrew (1990). Introduction to Sociology of Development. Macmillan
Education Ltd.
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SOCIOLOGY

PAPER-II Total Marks: 100

APPLIED SOCIOLOGY

1. The Sociological Contributions of Muslim Thinkers


a. Imam Ghazali (1058 1111)
b. Ibn-e-Khuldoon (1332 1406)
c. Shah Wali-Allah (1703 1763)
d. Allama Muhammad Iqbal (1877 1939)
e. Basharat Ali (1911 -
2. The Contributions of European Sociologists
a. August Comte (1798-1857)
b. Emile Durkheim (1857-1917)\
c. Karl Marx (1818-1838)
d. Max Weber (1864-1924)
3. Sociological Research Methods
a. Defining the Research Problem
b. Issues in Social Research
(1) Validity of Social Research
(2) Social Research and its Reliability
4. Sources of Data
a. Primary Sources
b. Secondary Sources
5. Types of Research
a. Qualitative Research
b. Quantitative Research
c. Merits and De-merits of Quantitative and Qualitative Research
d. Construction of Questionnaire (Open Ended and Close Ended Questionnaire)
e. Merits and De-merits of Questionnaire Conducting the Interview

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6. Sociology of Human Rights
Add contents

7. Deviance and Crime


a. Defining the Concept
b. Theories of Crime
c. Types of Crimes in Pakistan
(1) Crime against Women
(2) Youth and Crime
(3) White Collar Crime
(4) Cyber Crime
8. Pakistani Society
a. Characteristics of Pakistani Society.
b. Social Stratification, Casts, Classes and Ethnicity
c. Major Religion and Minority Religions Sectarianism.
d. Culture and Sub- Cultures
e. Social Institutions

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Ahmed, Akber S. (1990). Pakistan: The Social Sciences Perspective. Oxford University
Press, Karachi.
2. Aulak, AnMafid. Criminal Justice, Martin, Ramdy, 1991. Criminological Thought-
Pioneers, Past and Present. Macmillan and Co.
3. Browne, ken. (2006). Introducing Sociology for A Level. 2nd Edition. Polity Press
4. Chakravarti, Ashok. (2005). Aid, Institutions and Development: New Approaches to
Growth Governance and Poverty. Oxford University Press, New Delhi, India.
5. Cohen, Stephen Philip. (2005). The Idea of Pakistan. Vanguard Books (pvt.)Ltd,
Lahore.
6. Craig,Baxter.(2001). Pakistan 2000. Oxford University Press
7. Farganis, James. (2011). Readings in Social Theory. Mc Graw-Hill Companies.
Inc.NY.

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8. Ferrante, Joan. (2003). Sociology : A Globe Perspective. 5th Edition. Thomson


Wadswarth, Australia
9. Gardez, Hassan N. (1991), Understanding Pakistan the Colonial Factor in Social
Development, Maktab-e-Fikr-O-Danish, Lahore.
10. Gidden, Anthony. (2006) Sociology.5th Edition. Polity Press, London.
11. Haqqani, Husain . (2005). Pakistan :Between Mosque and Military. Vanguard Books
(pvt) Ltd. Lahore.
12. Khan Ahmed, Akbar S. (1986). Pakistan Society: Islam, Ethnicity and Leadership in
South Asia. Oxford University Press, New York
13. Khan and and Chaudhry Iqbal and Chaudhry (2016-17). ImraniNazria-o-Tehqeeq,
AHT Publisher, Urdu Bazar, Lahore
14. Khan, Akhter H., (1985), Rural Development in Pakistan, Vanguard Books Ltd.
Lahore.
15. Kundu, Abhijit. (2012). Sociological Theory. Pearson, 11 Community Centre,
Panchsheel Park, New Delhi, India.
16. Macionis, John J. Sociology. (7th Edition). Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New
Jersey Moghissi, Haideh. (1999). Feminism and Islamic Fundamentalism: The limits
of Postmodern Analysis. Oxford University Press: New York.
17. Merton, Robert K. (1961). Contemporary social problems. Harcourt, Brace & World
Inc.
18. Raza, Rafi. (2001) Pakistan in Perspective: 1947-1997. 1ST Ed. Oxford University
Press, Karachi.
19. Taga, Abdul Hameed & Abdul Aziz (2016 -2017) Imran Naazria-o-Tehqeeq, AHT
Publisher, Urdu Bazar, Lahore.
20. Talha, Naurren. (2000). Economic Factors in the Making of Pakistan (1921-1947).
Oxford University Press, Karachi.
21. Webster, Andrew (1990). Introduction to Sociology of Development. Macmillan
Education Ltd.

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STATISTICS
PAPER-I Total Marks: 100
1. Descriptive Statistics:
a. Definition, Importance and scope of Statistics, Descriptive and Inferential
Statistics, Basic concepts in Statistics: Population and sample. Variables,
Measurement scales, Methods of data collection, Presentation of the Data, Tables,
Graphs and Charts: Stem-and leaf diagram, Box and Whisker Plots.
b. Measures of Central Tendency: Arithmetic Mean, Geometric mean, Harmonic
mean, median and mode. Empirical Relation between Mean, Median and Mode.
c. Measures of Locations: Quartiles, Deciles and Percentiles.
d. Measures of Dispersion/Variability: Range, Quartile Deviation, Mean Deviation,
Variance and Standard Deviation; Properties and Interpretation of Standard
Deviation.
e. Measures of Skewness and Kurtosis.
2. Concepts of Probability:
Basic Probability Concepts: Random experiment. Sample space and events and their types.
Definition of probability, Rules of counting, Additive and Multiplicative laws of Probability, Conditional
Probability and Statistical Independence, Application of Bayes theorem.

3. Random Variable:
a. Discrete random variable. Probability function, Probability distribution its mean
and Variance. Mathematical expectation and its properties. Joint distribution of
two discrete random variables. Marginal and conditional distributions. Mean,
Variance, Covariance and Correlation of two discrete random variables. Moment
generating function and its properties.
b. Continuous random variable. Probability density function and probability
distribution function; Probability distribution of a continuous random variable.
Joint distribution of two continuous random variables. Marginal and conditional
distributions. Mathematical expectation and its properties. Moment generating
function. Mean Variance, Covariance and Correlation of two random variables.
4. Discrete Probability Distributions:
Applications of Standard discrete distributions: Uniform, Bernoulli, Binomial,
Multinomial, Hypergeometric, Poisson, Negative Binomial and Geometric distributions.

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5. Continuous Probability Distributions:


Applications of Standard Continuous Distributions: Uniform, Exponential and Normal
distributions. With properties .Normal approximation to the Binomial and Poisson
distributions.

6. a. Curve Fitting by Method of Least Squares:


Approximating Curves and the principle of least squares: Fitting a Straight line;
Fitting a second degree Curve and higher order curves. Fitting of Exponential Curves
of the type: (1) y ae (2) y ab (3) y a . Criteria for fitting a suitable curve.
bx x xb

b. Regression and Correlation Analysis


Logic of regression and correlation, Deterministic and probabilistic models. Scatter
diagram. Simple linear regression, least square estimates in simple regression
models. Properties of Least Square regression line, standard error of estimate, co-
efficient of determination. Multiple linear regression with two repressors, co-efficient
of multiple determination. Partial and multiple correlation up to three variables.
Linear correlation. Correlation co-efficient and its properties. Correlation of bivariate
frequency distribution. Partial and multiple correlation for three variables. Rank
correlation. Tied ranks.

7. Weightage

a. Time Series
Components of a time series; Decomposition of Time Series. Measurement of Trend
,Seasonal and Cyclical variations. Seasonal indices. Detrending and Deseasonalisation
of data. Forecasting by exponential smoothing. Concept of serial correlation.

b. Index Numbers
Simple and composite index numbers. Problems in construction of index numbers.
Unweighted and weighted index numbers; Methods of weighted Index numbers:
Laspayres, Paasches, Marshall-Edgworth, Fisher ideal indices. Shifting of base.
Quantity index numbers. Theoretical tests for index numbers. Consumer Price index
numbers. Construction and uses of index numbers in Pakistan. Sensitive Price
Indicator.

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STATISTICS
PAPER II Total Marks: 100

1. Sampling and Sampling Distributions


a. Basic concepts in survey sampling Advantages of sampling. Probability and non-
Probability sampling. Sampling and Non-Sampling errors.
b. Various probability sampling techniques: Simple random sample, Stratified
random sample, systematic random sample, Cluster sample and Multistage
sample.
c. Non-Probability Samples: Purposive sample, Quota sample. Convenience &
Accidental Sampling. Random numbers and their use in sampling.
d. Sampling distribution of various statistics (mean, median, proportion, difference
between two means and two proportions. Application of Central Limit Theorem in
Sampling Distribution of Mean, sampling distribution of difference between two
Means, sampling distribution of Proportion, sampling distribution of difference
between two Proportions.
e. Sampling distribution of sample variance and ratio of two sample variances.
Concept of t, 2 and F distributions.
2. Estimation
a. Estimate and estimator. Point estimation by moments and maximum likelihood
methods. Properties of a good estimators: unbiasedness, consistency, efficiency
and sufficiency.
b. Interval Estimation. Interval Estimation of Population mean and Difference
between two means for large and small samples with known and unknown
population variances. Interval Estimation for population proportion, Difference
between two population proportions for large sample size only. Determination of
sample size.
c. Interval Estimation of population variance and ratio of two population variances.
d. Interval Estimation in simple linear regression and correlation.

3. Hypothesis Testing
a. Hypothesis Testing: Null and alternative hypotheses. Simple and composite
hypotheses. Types of errors. level of significance, p-value and power of the test.
Hypothesis Testing for Population Mean and equality of two Population Means for
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large and small samples with known and unknown population variances.
Inferences for the Mean of Two Normal Populations using Independent Samples
(variances are assumed Equal). Inference for Two Populations Mean using Paired
Samples.
b. Hypothesis testing for Population Proportion and for Two Populations Proportions
c. Testing hypothesis about the variance of a normal population. Testing hypothesis
about the equality of two variances. Testing hypothesis about ps of Multinomial
distributions Goodness of fit tests. Analysis of categorized data. Contingency
tables. Test of independence in contingency tables. Fishers Exact test for 2X2
table.
d. Testing of hypothesis about regression and correlation; partial and multiple
correlation. Tests of hypothesis about regression parameters.
4. Non-Parametric Tests:
a. Parametric versus non-parametric tests, when to use non-parametric procedures,
One-sample tests: Sign test, Wilcoxan signed ranks tests, Kolmogrov-Smirnov
test, run test.
b. Tests for two related samples: sign test, Wilcoxon test, Test for two independent
samples: Mann-Whitney test, Kolmogrov-Smirnov test. Kruskal-Wallies Test.

5. Analysis of Variance and Experimental Designs:


a. Definition, importance and assumptions of Analysis of Variance. One-way and
Two-way Analysis of Variance with partitioning of sum of squares and degrees of
freedom. Testing the equality of means for one and two-way classification.
b. Design of Experiments, Concepts of Treatment, Replication, Blocking,
Experimental Units and Experimental Error, Basic Principles of Design of
Experiments, Description, Layout and Statistical Analysis of Completely
Randomized Design (CRD), Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), Multiple
comparison tests: Least significant difference test, Duncans Multiple range tests.

6. a. Official Statistics:
Official Statistics: Statistical Systems in Pakistan, Functions of Statistics Division and
Bureaus of Statistics; Main sources of Statistical Data in Pakistan, Documents
produced by Statistical Organizations in Pakistan. Census, Registration System of
Deaths and Births in Pakistan, Data on National Accounts. Applications of Statistics in
Social, Economic and Political Problems. Public health crimes, Law, social innovations,
economic development and socio-political inequality.

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b. Vital Statistics
Population and Demographic data, Sources of Demographic data, Basic Demographic
Measures: Sex Ratio, Child Women Ratio, Vital Index, Crude Specific and
standardized birth and death Rates, Gross and net reproduction rates.

SUGGESTED READINGS
1. Aggarwal, Y. P. Statistical Methods Sterling publisher, New Delhi, 1998.
2. Andrew Hinde. Demographic Methods. Oxford University Press, New York, 1998.
3. Chaudhry, S.M. and Kamal, S.Introduction to Statistical Theory, Part-I & II, 8th
Edition, 2009.
4. Clark, G.M. and Kempson, R. E. (1997), Introduction to the Design & Analysis of
Experiment, Arnold, London
5. Dixon, W.J., and Massey, F.J., Introduction to Statistical Analysis McGraw-Hill
Company, New York, Fourth Edition, 1979.
6. Graybill, I and Burdick (1998). Applied Statistics: A first course in inference. Prentice
Hall, New Jersy.
7. Larson, H.J. Introduction to Probability Theory and Statistical Inference John Wiley
and Sons, New York, Third Edition, 1982.
8. Lind, Marchal and Wathen Statistical techniques in Business and Economics
McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 13th Edition 2012.
9. Lipschutz, S and Schiller, J (1998). Introduction to Probability and Statistics, McGraw
Hill, New York.
10. Mann S. Prem Introductory Statistics John Wiley & sons Inc. New York, 7th
Edition. 2010
11. Montgomery, D.C. Design and Analysis of Experiments. John Wiley & Sons, 7 th
edition, 2009.
12. Mood, A.M., Graybill, G.A.andBoes, D.c (1974). Introduction to the Theory of
Statistics, McGraw Hill Book Company Inc. New York.
13. Publications of Federal Board of Statistics and Provincial Board of Statistics,
Pakistan. Govt. of Pakistan.
14. Speigal, M.R and Stephens. L.J. (1999). Statistics, 3rd Edition. McGraw Hill, New
York.

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15. Speigal, M.R; Schiller, J.L; Srinivasan, R.L (2000). Probability and Statistics 2nd
Edition. Schamus out line Series, McGraw Hill, New York.
16. Steel, R.G.D. and Torrie, J.H. Introduction to Statistical Analysis McGraw-Hill Book
Company, New York, Second Edition 1980.
17. Vaidyanathan, M. Latest Statistical Methods, S. Chand and Company, New Delhi,
2001.
18. Walpole, R.E., Myers, R.H., Myers, S. L. and Ye, K. (2004) Probability and Statistics
for Engineers and Scientists, 7th Edition Prentice Hall, New York.
19. Wilcox, Rand R. Fundamentals of modern Statistical methods, Springer N.Y. 2001.
20. Wonnacott, T.H. and Wonnacott, R.J (1981). Introductory Statistics, John Wily &
Sons. New York.

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URBAN DEVELOPMENT / TOWN PLANNING

Total Marks: 100

1. Urbanization and its Challenges


Urbanization
a. Introduction and Background
b. Definitions of Urban Rural and Urbanization
c. Facts and figures related to Urbanization
d. Causes of Urbanization
e. Difference in Urbanization between MDC and LDC.
f. Urbanization an inevitable reality
g. Consequence of Urbanization
2. Mega Cities & Urban Challenges
a. Introduction and Background
b. Definition of Mega cities
c. Opportunities and challenges in Mega cities
d. Problems and issues associated with urbanization
e. Urban issues and challenges specific to Pakistan
f. How to handle urban challenges
g. Conclusion and Recommendations
3. Urban Planning and Development
Introduction to Urban Planning
a. Overview. Definition of Urban Planning
b. Main Objectives of Urban Planning
c. Basic Concepts related to Urban Planning
d. Tiers of Planning in Pakistan
e. Hierarchy of Urban Areas
f. Scope of urban Planning

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4. New Concepts in Urban Planning


a. New Urbanism
b. Urban regeneration and re development
c. Smart growth
d. Vertical growth
e. Livability
f. Transit oriented development
g. Green Growth Boundary
h. Others
5. Urban Development
a. Defining Urban Development
b. Need of Urban Development
c. Departments, agencies, authorities responsible for urban planning and
development in Pakistan
d. Development plans, typology, context and forms (various types of
development plans)
e. Development plans, typology, context and forms (various types of
development plans)
f. Emergence of Sustainable Development (Social, Economic, Environmental)
6. Development Control
a. Defining Development Control
b. Objectives and need
c. Policies for development control internationally and locally
d. Planning control in Pakistan (responsible authorities, legislation, system of
working etc.)
7. Planning Process
a. The Planning Process
b. Plan Making Sequence
c. Types of plans made in Pakistan

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d. Master Plans
e. Structure Plans
f. Outline Development Plans
g. Regional Plans (missing Component in local context)
h. Existing Policy and Regulatory Framework for Plan making and its
Implementation
i. Inadequacies in Plan Implementation
j. Recommended framework for Plan Implementation
3. Urban Development Sectors
Public Spaces
a. Definition of a Public space
b. Types of Public spaces
c. Objectives and elements of public space
d. Urban design
e. Place making
f. Best international examples of public spaces
g. Situation in Pakistan
h. Public space management
4. Building Regulations / Building Control
a. Definition of building control
b. Need and Importance of Building Control
c. Role of building control in achieving consistent urban forms
d. Building control and environmental sustainability
e. Building control enforcement as a support to enhance municipal revenue
f. The different tools of Building control globally and in Pakistan
g. Zoning
h. Bye-laws
i. Regulations
j. Guidelines
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k. Development control vs. building control


l. Sample building regulations (Dubai, Das, TMAs, DHA)
m. Gaps and finding a way forward
5. Housing Sector
a. Definition of Housing
b. Formal vs informal housing
c. Slums & Squatters
d. Affordable housing
e. Low Income Housing
f. Housing condition and demand perspective in Pakistan
g. Housing finance perspectives
h. National Housing Policy
i. Institutional arrangements for housing in Pakistan
6. Solid Waste Management
a. Definition of Solid Waste
b. Types of Solid Waste
c. Generation of waste in Pakistani cities, volumes and composition
d. Current waste management practices in Pakistan
e. Issues related to Solid Waste in Pakistan
f. Some world best practices
g. Triple Rs
h. Hazardous and biological waste management issues
i. Institutional arrangements for SEM in Pakistan
j. Gaps and way forward
7. Urban Transport
a. Understanding urban transportation
b. Types of transport infrastructure
c. Public transport
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d. Transportation and the environment


e. Transit oriented development
f. Mass transit systems
g. Transportation related issues in Pakistani cities
h. Best sustainable transportation practices and initiatives
i. Policy context for sustainable transport systems
j. Institutional arrangements for transport in Pakistan
8. Water & Sanitation
a. Definition of water and sanitation
b. Water issues in Pakistani cities
c. Sustainable water management
d. Improving sanitation scenarios
e. Institutions responsible and reforms needed
f. Water conservation and recycling
g. Innovative solutions
h. Rain water Harvesting
i. Grey Water Systems
j. Water conservation in industries
k. Institutional arrangements for water and sanitation in Pakistan
9. Urban Governance & Reforms
a. Definition of Urban Governance
b. What constitutes Urban Governance?
c. Local Tiers of Urban Governance and Institutional Arrangements
d. Local Governments
e. Issues of Urban Governance in Pakistan Cities.
10. Urban Land Management
a. Urban Management
(1) Land as a precious resource; availability, use and abuse
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(2) Need of Urban Land Management
(3) Land management practices in Pakistan
(4) Patwar System
(5) Land Record Computerization
(6) Best Practices in Urban Land Management Worldwide

b. Innovations in Urban Land Management


(1) Innovations in Urban Land Management
(2) Urban Land Management System
(3) UIPT, by urban Unit
(4) Gaps and Shortcomings
(5) Managing land and Land use classification Policy
11. Environmental Management & Protection
a. Main Concepts of Urban Environment
b. Environmental problems (Effects of globalization on natural resources)
c. Ecology, Environmental Protection and Environment Management System
d. Framework / Existing Legislation / Hierarchy of Departments / Institutional
arrangements for Environmental Management & Protection
e. Urban Environment and Climate change
f. State of Urban Environment in cities of Pakistan (Bull vs Natural Environment)
g. Can better Urban Planning save Environment? How?
h. Methods and tools for strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and
environmental impact assessment (EIA)
i. Gaps and Untapped issues
12. Information, Geographic Information & Communication Management
Systems
a. Information & Communication Management System
(1) Introduction and Background
(2) Information Management
(3) Information and communication management strategy
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(4) Working with communication media
(5) Improve Communications to Maximize Success and Minimize Risk
(6) The Communications Gap. Language Challenges.

b. Geographic Information system


(1) GIS (Geographic Information Systems)
(2) GIS as a tool for improving the city environment and services
(3) Issues in developing GIS Systems in Pakistan
(4) Use of GIS in Urban Planning and management (Master Planning)

13. Cultural Heritage and Social Aspects


a. Definition of culture
b. Cultural heritage in Pakistan
c. Conservation of archaeological sites
d. Institutional arrangements
e. Social issues that affect cultural heritage in Pakistan
f. Gaps and shortcomings
g. Way forward

14. Other Urban Development Topics


a. Primary and Secondary Education
(1) Introduction and Background
(2) Definition of Education
(3) Facts and figures related to Education
(4) Importance of Education
(5) National Education Policy
(6) Institutional Arrangements concerning the education sector in Pakistan

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b. Primary and Secondary Healthcare
(1) Introduction & Background
(2) Public Health Administration
(3) Policies Emphasizing Health Care Services in Pakistan
(4) World Best Practices in Health Sector
(5) Major Health Issues

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Birch, Engene and Wachter, Susor Growing Greener Cities


2. Worth, J.B Culling and Vincent Nadin Town and Country planning in the UK
3. Stubbs, Jeffry and Giles Clarke Megacity management in the Asian and Pacific
region
4. Levy, J.M. Contemporary Urban Planning
5. Ratcliff, John Introduction to Town and Country Planning
6. Mahbub ul Haq, Dr. The Poverty Curtain
7. Lougling, Peter J. Land use, planning , and Zoning
8. Philing, R.B Urban Land Use Planning
9. Springer Hand Book on Urban Sustainability
10. Attorney's, Townsel's Small Cities

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URDU LITERATURE

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2
3
4
5
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8
9
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1

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11

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VETERINARY SCIENCE
PAPER I Total Marks: 100

1. Veterinary Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry

General terms used in Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry, Anatomy and


Physiology of integumentary system, musculoskeletal system, gastrointestinal system,
cardiovascular system, respiratory system, uro-genital system, nervous system, endocrine
system, lymphatic system, ear and eye; Anatomy of the udder and lactation physiology,
topographic anatomy, comparative aspects of anatomy and Physiology of different organs
and systems in various domestic animal species, Hematology, Embryology,carbohydrates
and carbohydrate metabolism, proteins and protein metabolism, lipids and lipid metabolism,
enzymes and co-enzymes

2. Veterinary Pharmacology, Chemotherapy and Toxicology

Historical perspectives of Pharmacology, drug sources, classification of drugs and


drug information sources, drug development and drug regulations, pharmacokinetics,
pharmacodynamics, adverse drug reactions, pharmacology of autonomic nervous system,
pharmacology of central nervous system, drugs affecting various system, endocrine
pharmacology, principles of chemotherapy, antimicrobial drug resistance and tissue residue
problem, classification and mechanism of action of antimicrobials, antifungals, antiprotozoal
and anthelmintics; antiseptics and disinfectants, antiviral agents, anticancer drugs, scope of
toxicology, sources of toxicity, toxicokinetics, toxicodynamics, factors affecting toxicosis,
handling of cases of toxicology, heavy metal toxicosis, house hold toxicosis, urea toxicity,
mycotoxins, poisonous plants, poisonous animals, environmental pollutants,maintenance
and storage of dangerous/poisonous drugs, forensic toxicology

3. Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology

Recent developments in veterinary microbiology and immunology, Prokaryotes v/s


Eukaryotes, fundamental characteristics of bacteria, classification of bacteria, bacterial
growth and multiplication, isolation and identification of bacteria, bacterial genetics,
fundamental characteristics of fungi, classification of fungi, isolation and identification of
fungi, fundamental characteristics of viruses, methods of studying viruses, Methods for
isolation and identification of viruses, algae, safety in microbiological laboratory, Microscope
and microscopy; immunity and types of immunity, Non-specific resistance and natural
barriers of defense, phagocytosis, immune response, immune system, vaccines and types of
vaccines, handling of vaccines, HACCP, Immunogenesis, immunoglobulins, immunotherapy
and its applications in viral diseases, hypersensitivity, serological tests for diagnosis of
animal diseases, polymerase chain reaction.

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4. Veterinary Pathology

Terminology used in pathology, adaptations, atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia,


dysplasia, aplasia, reversible and irreversible cell injury, cell death, necrosis, Inflammation,
repair and healing of wounds and fractures, neoplasia; causes, pathogenesis, classification,
auto-immunity, molecular pathology, slaughter house / abattoir management, Halal meat
industry, objectives of meat inspection, antemortem and postmortem examination of
animals, non-specific and specific lesions in different organs of body, conditions rendering
meat unwholesome for human consumption, disposal of condemned meat, laws regulating
meat quality in Pakistan, differentiation of meat of different animal species, importance of
forensic veterinary pathology, laws governing forensic examination of animals, Veterinary
jurisprudence

5. Veterinary Parasitology
Effects of parasites on their hosts, economic significance of parasites, Host parasite
relationship, Lifecycle of different classes of parasites, types of parasitism, ecology of
parasites, classification of parasites, parasitic zoonosis, immunity against parasites, parasite
control strategies, protozoology, classification and significance of ectoparasites, arthropods
and their economic significance, significance of arthropods in disease transmission

6. Animal Reproduction and Obstetrics

General terms used in animals reproduction and obstetrics, male and female
reproductive system, classification and role of reproductive hormones, factors influencing
reproductive cyclicity, physiology of estrous cycle, spermatogenesis, factors influencing
sperm production, selection of bull for breeding, functioning of Semen Production Units,
semen handling, artificial insemination, synchronization programs in dairy herds, Breeding
soundness examination, reproductive ultrasonography, embryo transfer technology,
reproductive disorders, clinical application of hormones in different reproductive disorders,
management of dystocia, retained placenta, and uterine prolapse, Reproductive
management in canines

7. Veterinary Medicine

History and scope of veterinary medicine, concept of animal diseases, general


terminology used in veterinary medicine, general systemic states, general
diseases/conditions of alimentary system, cardiovascular system, respiratory system,
nervous system, urinary system, musculoskeletal system, integumentary system, eye and
ear; bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic/protozoan diseases of ruminanats, equines and pets,
metabolic and deficiency diseases of ruminants equines and pets, plants and farm chemical
poisonings, common diseases of poultry, common diseases of camel, important diseases of
zoo/wild animal species, practical antimicrobial therapy, first aid procedures and emergency
medicine, ecto and endo parasite control program, vaccines and vaccination program,

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alternative medicine, animal restraint, clinical examination, methods of drug administration,


sample collection, labeling, packaging and dispatch of biological materials, hematological
evaluation and interpretation, handling vetrolegal cases, Veterinary hospital / facility
management, disposal of biomedical wastes in veterinary hospitals, ambulatory veterinary
practice, role of Veterinarian in natural calamities and Veterinary disaster preparedness ,
Veterinarians responsibility in preventing drugs residues in foods of animal origin,
Veterinary profession interactions with health authorities, use of animals in research and
training,

8. Veterinary Surgery and Radiology

Scope of large and small animal surgery, general surgical affections of large and
small animals, shoeing and its evaluation, general surgical considerations, fluid and
electrolyte therapy, management and treatment of burn wounds, lameness in large animals,
soundness examination, scope of diagnostic imaging in veterinary practice; radiographic
terminology and basic principles to study radiographs, nature and production of X-rays,
radiographic image formation, radiographic hazards and protection,X-ray machine and its
working, dark room requirements and maintenance, exposure factors and processing of
films, contrast radiography techniques, examination and evaluation of radiographs;
Diagnostic ultrasound, ultrasound artefacts, sonography of different organs, doppler
ultrasound, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), CT Scan. Veterinary Anaesthesia, types of
anaesthesia and their clinical applications, stages of general anaesthesia and patient
monitoring, anaesthesia under field conditions, anaesthetic regimens for different animals
species

9. Veterinary Epidemiology and Public Health

Introduction to epidemiology & public health, mapping, causality, determinants of


disease, descriptive epidemiology, analytical epidemiology, case-control studies, Cohort
studies, experimental epidemiology, animal disease survey, types of sampling, surveillance,
prevention, control and eradication, outbreak investigation, national and international
disease reporting, trans boundary animal diseases, international trade framework, writing
research project, zoonoses and its classification, zoonotic diseases transmitted through milk
and meat, impact of zoonotic diseases on human health and economy, global prevalence of
zoonotic diseases, role of veterinarians in preventing zoonotic diseases, food safety as
global issue, food safety monitoring, microbiological standards of milk, meat, eggs and their
by-products, intoxications associated with food products of animal origin, preventing drug
residues in food products of animal origin, role of national and international agencies in
controlling emerging and re-emerging diseases, HACCP certification, ISO 22000 and Global
Gap program for food safety.

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10. Animal Welfare and Ethics
Care and welfare of different animal species, National / Provincial Legislation for
Animal Welfare, regulations, policies and principles governing the care and use of animals,
code of practice for domestic poultry, farm, captive, laboratory and companion animals,
hazards (natural and man-made) affecting the welfare of animals and their management,
difference between hazard and disaster, ethics, animal welfare organizations, challenges to
zoo and wild animal welfare, setting standards for evaluating of captive facilities
11. Livestock Extension
Extension education, its role in enhancing livestock productivity; communication and
its application in extension, communication barriers and measure to overcome these
barriers, attitude change and factors affecting farmers attitude; extension methods, use of
print and electronic media for extension work, adoption and diffusion of livestock
innovations, demand-driven extension strategy through participatory approach, civic
management .
SUGGESTED READINGS
1. Akhtar, M.S., 2004. Introduction to Veterinary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 3rd Ed.
Agri. Livestock Bureau Pakistan, Faisalabad.
2. Aldridge, P. and L. ODwyer. 2013. Practical Emergency and Critical Care Veterinary
Nursing. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., UK.
3. Boyer, R.F., 2014. Modern Experimental Biochemistry. 3rd Ed., The Benjamin /
Cummings Publishing Co., USA
4. Cunningham, J.G. and B.G. Klein, 2007. Textbook of Veterinary Physiology. 4 th
Edition. WB Saunders Company, USA.
5. Dukes, H.H., M.J. Swenson and W.O. Reece, 2004. Dukes Physiology of Domestic
Animals. 12th Ed., Comstock Publishing, USA.
6. Fraser, D., 2008. Understanding Animal Welfare: The Science in its Cultural Context.
Wiley-Blackwell.
7. Getty, R., S. Sisson and J.D. Grossman, 1986. The Anatomy of the Domestic
Animals. W.B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia, U.S.A.
8. Hafez, E.S.E. and B. Hafez, 2000. Reproduction in Farm Animals. 7 th Ed. Lippincott,
USA
9. Hungerford. T.G., 1991, Hungerfords Diseases of Livestock 9 th Ed. McGraw-Hill Book
Company, Sydney, Australia.
10. Koenig, H.E. and H.G. Liebich, 2009. Veterinary Anatomy of Domestic Animals, Text
book and Color Atlas. Schattauer, Germany.
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11. Kuby, J., 1996. Immunology. 2nd Ed. W.H. Freeman and Co., New York, USA.
12. Memon, RA and Bashir, E. 1995. Extension Methods, National Book Foundation.
Islamabad, Pakistan.
13. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox., 2013. Principles of Biochemistry, 3 rd Edition, Worth
Publishers.
14. OIE, 2000. Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Off. Intl. Des.
Epiz., Paris. France
15. Penninck, D., and M.A d Anju, 2008. Atlas of Small Animal Ultrasonography.
Blackwell Publishing Co., Oxford. UK.
16. Quinn, P. J., 2012. Veterinary Microbiology and Microbial Disease. 1 st Ed. Blackwell
Science Ltd., USA.
17. Radostits, O.M., C.C. Gay, K.W. Hincheliff and P. D. Constable. 2007. A Text Book of
Veterinary Medicine, 10th Ed. Saunders Elsevier, PA, USA.
18. RiviereJ.E. and M.G. Papich, 2009. Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 9th
Edition. Wiley-Blackwell.
19. Roberts, S.J., 1986. Veterinary Obstetrics and Genital Diseases. 2 nd Ed., Edwards
Brothers, Inc., Ann. Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A
20. Sandhu, H.S. and R. S. Brar, 2000. Textbook of Veterinary Toxicology, 2nd Ed.
Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana, India.
21. Soulsby, E.J.L., 2006. Helminths, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated
Animals. The English Language Book Society Bailliere Tindall, London
22. Stine, K.E. and T.M. Brown, 2006. Principles of Toxicology, 2nd edition. Taylor and
Francis. USA.
23. Thrall, D.E., 2002. Textbook of Veterinary Diagnostic Radiology. 4 th Ed. W. B.
Saunders Co., Philadelphia, USA.
24. Thrusfield M., 2007. Veterinary Epidemiology. Blackwell Publisher.
25. Tortora, G.J., B.R. Funke and C.L. Case, 2012. Microbiology: An Introduction. 11th
Edition. Benjamin Cummings Publisher.
26. Urquhart G.M., J. Armour, J.L. Duncan, A.M. Dunn, F.W. Jennings, 2000. Veterinary
Parasitology. Longman Scientific and Technical, U.K.
27. Venugopalan, A. 2000. Essentials of Veterinary Surgery. 8th Ed. Oxford, New Delhi.
28. Zachary, J.F., and McGavin, 2013. Pathological basis of Veterinary Disease, 5 th Ed.,
Elsevier, USA.
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VETERINARY SCIENCES
PAPER-II Total Marks: 100

ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND TECHNOLOGY


1. LIVESTOCK AND DAIRY PRODUCTION

Role of livestock in national economy, types and breeds of farm animals, principles of
farm animal management, farm structures and equipment; Management of different types
and classes of farm animals, welfare of farm animals, transportation and marketing, present
status of dairy production in Pakistan, dairy production systems, principles of profitable
dairy farming, planning for establishing a dairy farm, management of calves, young stock,
dry, pregnant, transition and lactating animals, bull management, reproductive
management of dairy animals, farm mechanization, feeding management of dairy animals,
dairy farm hygiene and waste management, hygienic milk production and milking parlor
management, meat animal production, sheep and goat farming practices, camel as a dairy,
meat and draught animal, farm biosecurity, record keeping, data analysis, report
preparation and economic appraisal of farm.

2. POULTRY PRODUCTION

Present status and future scope of commercial poultry farming in Pakistan,


Production Systems for broiler and laying hens, village and backyard poultry production,
alternative systems of poultry production and its effects on health and disease, organic and
free-range poultry production, technology and programs for sustainable improvement of
rural poultry, quail production, ostrich farming, production and management of companion
and fancy birds, induced molting and its economics, trouble shooting in commercial poultry
farming, waste disposal, poultry farm biosecurity, vaccination of poultry, commercial
breeding programs, incubation methods, types of incubators, role of computer in modern
hatchery operations, record keeping.

3. ANIMAL NUTRITION AND FORAGE PRODUCTION

Recent developments in animal feed industry, scope of animal nutrition, classification


and functions of nutrients, importance of water in the animal bodies, structure,
classification, digestion and metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and amino acids in
animals, role of mineral and vitamins in animal nutrition: Classification and nutritional
composition of feed stuffs for ruminants, Anti-nutritional factors in feed stuffs for ruminants,
forage production systems in Pakistan and their implications, conservation of forages for
commercial livestock production operations, silage and hay making, feeding systems for
commercial dairy, calf nutrition, heifer nutrition, dairy nutrition, meat animal nutrition, feed

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additives, basics of equine nutrition, Current and future prospects of poultry nutrition,
quality control in feed processing, feed stuff laws and regulations.

4. MEAT AND DAIRY TECHNOLOGY

Status of meat and milk production in Pakistan, issues and potential of meat industry
in Pakistan, meat type breeds of farm animals, meat production systems, factors affecting
carcass and meat quality, modern abattoirs, slaughtering methods and post slaughter
changes in carcass, carcass grades and spoilage of meat, meat hygiene, meat processing,
storage and preservation of meat; Mammary system and milk synthesis, milk composition,
factors affecting milk production and composition, biotechnology and enhanced milk
production, physical and chemical properties of milk, hygienic milk production, collection,
transportation, processing and marketing of milk, manufacturing of dairy products,
planning, layout and management of dairy plant.

5. ANIMAL BREEDING AND GENETICS

Historical development and scope of genetics, genetic basis of inheritance, population


genetics, genetics selection of superior animals, genetic engineering, basic concepts of
recombinant DNA technology, gene cloning and manipulation; Its application and future,
animal breeding, role of animal breeding, breeding systems,national breeding policy,
constraints and future breeding plans, animal genetic resources, their conservation and
preservation, role of breed registry societies/associations in developed countries and its
application in Pakistan.

6. LIVESTOCK ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS MANAGEMENT

Scope & definition of economics, growth and economic development, demand &
supply, share of livestock, poultry and dairy industry in Pakistani economy, financial and
economic analysis of agro livestock business, feasibilities for livestock poultry and related
businesses, livestock & poultry products market and functions, livestock marketing systems.

194
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SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Alvi, A. S., 1991. Meat Production and Technology in Pakistan, Pakistan Agricultural
Research Council, Islamabad.
2. Banerjee, G.C., 2005. Feeds and Principles of Animal Nutrition. Oxford, IBH
Publishing Co., Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, India.
3. Banerjee, G.C., 2009. A textbook of Animal Husbandry. 8th Ed., Oxford and IBH
Publishing Co. New Delhi, India.
4. Bourdon, R.M., 2000. Understanding Animal Breeding. Prentice-Hall, Inc. Upper
Saddle River, New Jersey.
5. Donald, B., L. Frank, N. Dickinson and H.A. Tucker, 1985. Dairy cattle: Principles,
Practices, Problems, Profits. 3rd Ed., Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.
6. Downey, W.D. & S.P. Enieson, 1998. Agricultural Business Management, McGraw-Hill
Book Co; Singapore.
7. Ensminger, M. E., 1996. Beef Cattle Science. The Interstate Printers and Publisher,
Danville, Illinois, USA.
8. FAO, 2000. Manual on meat inspection for developing countries, 2 nd Ed., Vol. 119,
Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Rome, Italy.
9. Gracey, J.F., 2014. Meat Hygiene.11th Ed.,The English Language Book Society,
Bailliere Tindal, London U.K.
10. Griffiths, A.J.F., 2012. Introduction to Genetic Analysis. W.H. Freeman and Co., New
York.
11. Jadhav, N.V. and M.F. Siddiqi, 1999. Handbook of Poultry Production and
Management. Jaypee Brothers, Medical Publishers (P) Ltd. New Delhi, India.
12. Khan, B.B (ed.), 2008. Health and Husbandry of Dairy Animals. Pak. T.M. Printers,
Faisalabad, Pakistan.
13. Klug, W.S., 2010. Essentials of Genetics. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, San
Francisco, CA.
14. Lesson, S. and J. D. Summers, 2001. Broiler Breeder Production. University Book,
Guleph, Ontario, Canada.
15. Lesson, S. and J.D. Summers. 2002. Scotts Nutrition of the Chicken. International
Book Distributing Co. Guleph, Ontario, Canada.

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16. MINFAL, 1991. National Agricultural Policy. Ministry of Food, Agriculture and
Cooperatives. Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.
17. Nickels G.W., McHugh M.J. and McHugh Susan. Understanding Business. 7 th Ed.,
McGraw-Hill Irwin.
18. North, M.O. and D.D. Bell. 2001. Commercial Chicken Production Manual. Van
Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, USA.
19. NRC. 2001. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th Revised Ed., National Academy
Press, Washington, USA.
20. Pond, W.G., D.C. Church and K.R. Pond, 2006. Basic Animal Nutrition and Feeding.
5th Ed., John Willey and Sons, New York, USA.
21. Renard, C., 1997. Crop Residues in Sustainable Mixed Crop/ Livestock Farming
Systems. CAB International, UK.
22. Sandiland, V. and P. Hocking, 2012. Alternative systems for poultry: health, welfare,
and productivity. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, U.K.
23. Sreenivasaiah, P.V., 2006. Scientific Poultry Production. 3rd Ed., International Book
Distributing Co., UP India.
24. Thomas, C.K., N.S.R. Sastry and G. Ravikiran, 2012. Dairy Bovine Production. Kalyani
Publishers, New Delhi
25. Verma D.N., 2006. A Textbook of Livestock Production Management in Tropics.
Kalyani Publishers Delhi India.
26. Walstra, P., 2005. Dairy Technology; Principles of Milk Properties and Processes.
Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, USA.

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WORLD HISTORY
PAPER-I Total Marks: 100

World History (Ancient and Medieval Periods)

1. Early Civilizations
a. Mesopotamia
b. Egypt
c. India
d. China
2. Ancient World
a. Greece
b. Rome and the Hellenic World
c. China and the Silk Road
d. India
3. Medieval Christianity
a. Christian Church
b. Charlemagne and the Carolingians
c. High Middle Ages
d. Crusades
e. Byzantine Empire
4. Islamic Civilization
a. Rise and Teachings of Islam
b. Arab Empire under Umayyads
c. Abbasids
d. Muslim Spain
e. Seljuks , Safavids and Ottomans
5. India and the Far East
a. Delhi Sultanate and the Mughals
b. China under Mings and others
c. Japan, Korea and Vietnam

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WORLD HISTORY
Paper-II Total Marks: 100
World History (Modern Period)
1. Transition to Modernity
a. Renaissance and Reformation
b. Age of Expansion and Exploration
c. Development in Ideas
2. Enlightenment Era
a. Scientific Revolution
b. Philosophes and their Ideas
c. New Political Order and Global Conflict
d. French Revolution and Age of Napolean
3. Modernization, Industrialisation and Nationalism
a. Industrial Revolution and its Impact
b. Growth of Nationalism and National-States
c. Intellectual and Cultural Developments of 19th Century
4. Colonialism and Imperialism
a. Conquest of Americas
b. Colonial System
c. Colonial Empires in the East and the West
d. Anti-Colonial Struggle and Decolonisation in the Third World
5. Twentieth Century
a. World War I
b. Revolutions in Russia and China
c. World War II
d. Cold War and Global Conflicts
e. Nation-Building in the East and the West

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6. Post-Cold War Era


a. Unipolar Word and New World Order
b. War on Terror
c. 9/11Event and Its Implications
d. Rise of China and Future Prospects

SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Burstein Stanley M. and Richard Shek.World History.Hold, Rinehart and Winston,


2006.(Optional Reading)
2. Duiker, William J. and Jackson J. Spiel Vogel, World History. Boston: Wadsworth,
2010.(Compulsory Reading)
3. Encyclopedia of World History.Eds.Marsha E. Ackermann & Others. New York: Facts on
File, 2008.(Optional Reading)
4. Goucher, Candice and Linda Walton.World History: Journeys from Past to Present.
London: Routledge, 2013. (Optional Reading)
5. Harcourt, Freda and Francis Robinson, Twentieth-Century World History. New York:
Barnes & Noble, 1979. (Optional Reading)
6. Hayes, Carlton J. H. and Parker Thomas Moon.World History.The Macmillan,
1932.(Optional Reading)
7. Nehru,Jawaharlal.Glimpses of World History. New York: The John Day Company,
1942.(Optional Reading)
8. Philips Atlas of World History. Ed. Patrick K. O Brien. London: Philips, 2002.(Optional
Reading)
9. Terry, Janice J. World History. Faber and Faber, 2005.(Optional Reading)
10. Wells,H.G. A Short History of the World. New York: J.J. Littles& Ives,
1922.(Compulsory Reading)

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ZOOLOGY
PAPER: I Total Marks: 100

INVERTEBRATE AND CHORDATE ZOOLOGY


SECTION A

1. Invertebrate:
Major subdivisions of animal kingdom along with evolutionary perspective, taxonomy,
phylogeny and general organizations (Structure, function, mode of life, reproduction, life
cycles, adaptation, distribution and Economic Importance of the following groups with
special reference to the topic mentioned in each group.
2. Animallike Protists:
The Protozoa; life within a single plasma membrane; Origin and phylogenetic
relationship of protozoa; Protozoan taxonomy (up to phyla, subphyla and super classes,
wherever applicable); symbiotic life-styles; parasitism; Locomotion; Nutrition; Genetic
control and reproduction; Economic importance and harmful protozoa.
3. Multicellular and Tissue Levels of Organization:
Origins of multicellularity; animal origins. Phylum Porifera: Origin and evolutionary
perspective; Evolution of canal system; skeleton and reproductive system in Porifera.
4. Cnidaria (Coelenterata):
Body wall and Nematocysts; Polymorphism; maintenance functions; reproduction and
classification up to class; Coral and coral reefs, Economic importance of coral reefs.
5. Platyhelminthes: The triploblastic acoelomate body plan; Evolutionary
perspective; Classification up to class; Free-living flatworms and the tapeworms;
Arasitic adaptation; Life cycle of Fasciola hepatica (Liver Fluke)
6. Nematoda:
The pseudocoelomatebody plan: Aschelminthes: Evolutionary perspective; General
characteristics; Classification upto phyla with external features; Feeding and the digestive
system; Other organ systems; Reproduction and development; Economic importance.
Parasitic nematodes of humans.

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7. Annelida:
The metameric body form; Evolutionary relationship with other animals; Phylogenetic
consideration; Metamerism and tagmatization; External structure and locomotion; Feeding
and the digestive system; Gas exchange and circulation, nervous and sensory functions,
excretion, regeneration, reproduction and development in different classes.
8. Mollusca:
Relationships to other animals; Origin of coelom; Molluscan characteristics;
Classification up to class; The characteristics of shell and associated structures; Systems:
feeding, digestion, gas exchange, locomotion, reproduction and development, other
maintenance functions; Diversity in gastropods; Bivalve and cephalopods; Torsion and shell
in Mollusca, modification of foot in Mollusca
9. Arthropoda:
Blueprint for success; Evolutionary perspective; Classification up to class and
relationships to other animals; Metamerism and tagmatization; The exoskeleton;
Metamorphosis; Ecdysis; Appendages; Feeding; Respiration; Social insect; Economic
importance of insects; Larvae in various classes of arthropods.
10. Echinodermata:
Relationships to other animals; Characteristics of echinoderm; Classification up to
class; Maintenance functions; Regeneration; Reproduction and development; Skeleton,
Water vascular system, Larval forms and their evolutionary significance, Phylogenetic
consideration.
SECTION B
1. Chordata:
Origin of chordates; Basic plan of vertebrate body; Earliest known vertebrates.
2. Fishes:
Vertebrate success in water; Phylogenetic relationships; Primitive jawed vertebrates,
Evolution of jaw in vertebrata, Agnatha and Gnathostomata; Locomotory adaptations;
Nutrition and the digestive system; Circulation; Gasous exchange; Nervous and sensory

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functions; Swim bladder in fishes; Excretion and osmoregulation; Reproduction and


development; Phylogenetic considerations.
3. Amphibian:
First terrestrial vertebrates: Evolutionary perspective; Phylogenetic relationships;
Caudata, Gymnophiona, and Anura; Structure and locomotory adaptations; Nutrition and
digestive system;C irculation; Gasous exchange; Thermoregulation; Nervous and sensory
functions; Excretion and osmoregulation; Reproduction and development;
Metamorphosis; Phylogenetic considerations.
4. Reptile:
The first amniotes; Evolution of reptilia; Rise and fall of reptiles; Extinction of
dinosaurs; Cladistic interpretation of the amniotic lineage; Testudines or Chelonia,
Rhynchocephalia, Squamata, and Crocodilia; Adaptations in external structure and
locomotion; Nutrition and the digestive system; Circulation; Exchange of gases;
Thermoregulation; Nervous and sensory functions; Excretion and osmoregulation;
Reproduction and development; Poison apparatus and biting mechanism of poisonous
snakes. Remedial measures of snake bite.
5. Aves:
Birds: Feathers, Flight and endothermy; Phylogenetic relationship and evolution of
birds; Evolution of flight in Aves; Aerial adaptation; Diversity of modern birds; Adaptation
in external structure and locomotion; Nutrition and the digestive system; Circulation;
Gasous exchange; Nervous and sensory systems; Eexcretion and osmoregulation;
Reproduction and development; Migration and navigation.
6. Mammalia:
Origin of mammals; Evolutionary perspectives; Characteristic features of class
Mammalia; Mammalian diversity; Adaptations in external structure and locomotion;
Nutritionand digestive system; Circulation; Gasousexchange; Thermoregulation; Nervous
and sensory functions; Excretion and osmoregulation;Behavior; Reproduction and
development; Dentition and vertebrae; Comparative account of evolution of heart, gridles,
skull, development, nervous system, stomach and urinogenital ducts in vertebrates.

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SUGGESTED READINGS
1. Campbell, N.A. Biology, 9th Ed. 2011. Menlo Park, California: Benjamin/Cummings
Publishing Company, Inc.
2. Feldhamer, G.A., L.C. Drickamer, S.H. Vessey, J.F. Merritt and C. Krajewski. 2007.
Mammalogy: Adaptation, Diversity, Ecology. 3rd Ed. The John Hopkins University
Press, New York, USA.
3. Fryxell, J.E., R.E. Anthony and G. Sinelair. 2012. Wildlife Ecology and
Conservation. 3rd Ed. John Wiley and Sons, Nebraska City, USA.
4. Gill, F. B. 2007. Ornithology. 3rd Ed. Freeman and Co., New York, USA.
5. Hickman, C.P., Kats, H.L. 2000. Laboratory Studies in Integrated Principles of
Zoology. Singapore: McGraw Hill.
6. Hickman, C.P., Roberts, L.S., Larson, A. 2011. Integrated Principles of Zoology,
15th Ed. (International). Singapore: McGraw Hill.
7. Kent, G.C., Miller, S. 2001. Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates. New York:
McGraw Hill.
8. Lagler, K.F., J E. Baradach and R.R. Miller. 2012. Ichthyology. 2nd Ed. John Wiley
and Sons, Inc., New York, USA.
9. Lorenz, K., I.N. Barnes and C.T. Kelly. 2010. Impact of Wildlife on Earth. W. B.
Saunders. Inc., New York, USA.
10. Miller, S.A., Harley, J.B. 2011. Zoology, 8th Ed. (International), Singapore: McGraw
Hill.
11. Moyle, P.B. and J.J. Cech. 2008. Fishes: An Introduction to Ichthyology. 6th Ed.
Prentice Hall, New Jersey City, USA.
12. Pechenik, J.A. 2010. Biology of Invertebrates, 4th Ed. (International), Singapore:
McGraw Hill.
13. Quesada, S., L. Daniela, B. Judy C. Haroldo, and C. Flavia. 2009. Exploring
Biodiversity: A Guide for Educators around the World: Education Department
World Wildlife Fund, Washington DC USA.
14. Roberts, T.J. 1997. Mammals of Pakistan. Oxford University Press. Oxford, UK.
15. Ruppert, E.E.R. S, Fox, and R.D. Barnes, 2004. Invertebrate Zoology: A Functional
Evolutionary Approach, 7th Ed. Cengage Learning, New York, USA.
16. Vaughan, T.A., J.M. Ryan and N.J. Czaplewski. 2014. Mammalogy. 6th Ed. Jones &
Bartlett Learning. USA.
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ZOOLOGY
PAPER-II Total Marks: 100

GENERAL ZOOLOGY
SECTION-A
1. Cell Biology:
Generalized structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Physico-chemical properties
of protoplasm; Ultra-structure;Chemical composition and functions of cellular organelles;
Chemical composition and molecular structure of chromosomes; Enzymes catalysis,
regulation andinhibition; Metabolic pathways:glycolysis, Kreb cycle and electrons transport
chain. Nucleic acids; Mechanism of protein synthesis; Transcription and Translation; Cell
cycle and its control mechanism.
SECTION B
2 General Physiology:
Excretion and homeostasis;Membrane physiology; Ionic distribution across
membrane; Mechanism of active membrane potential and resting membrane potential;
Electrogenic pump; Donnan equilibrium; Ion channels;Synapsis; Osmoregulation in aquatic
andterrestrial animals; Vertebrate nephron as osmoregulatory organ; Thermoregulation in
animals: Temperature classification of animals; Temperature relation of ectotherms in
freezing and cold and warm and hot environment; Costs and benefits of ectothermy;
Temperature relations of heterotherms and endotherms; Dormancy: sleep, torpor,
hibernation and estivation; Movements and Muscle, Muscles: structure, types, ultra-
structure of muscle fibril, mechanism of contraction, components, muscle proteins,
molecular basis of muscle contraction: sarcoplasmic reticulum and role of calcium, muscle
action potentials, isometric and isotonic contraction, muscle fatigue; Physiological anatomy
of digestive tract, Potential and movement in gastrointestinal tract; Control of motility;
Deglutition;peristalsis, absorption, assimilation and defecation; Respiration:respiratory
mechanism, respiratory pigments, transport of O2 and CO2; Cardiovascular
mechanism:electrical activity of heart, blood pressure; Coordination in animals:nervous
coordination and chemical coordination,nervous system;Hormones and their biological
action.
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SECTION C

3. Genetics:

Mendelian principles; Multiple alleles; Interaction of genes; Linkage and crossing


over; Mapping of genes; Sex-determination and Sex-linkage; Mutations and chromosomal
aberrations;Geneconcept; DNA as a genetic material, genetic Code;DNA damage and repair;
Types of recombination; Principles of recombinant DNAtechnology; Role of recombinant
DNA technology in human society. Biotechnology and its applications; Transgenic animals.
Genome sequencing.Human Genome Project. Stem cell technology.

SECTION D

4. Evolution:

Theories about origin of Life; Evidences of evolution (molecular,embryological &


paleontological); Lamarckism, Darwinismand Neo-Darwinism; Hardy Weinberg Principle;
Mutation pressure; Selection pressure; Genetic drift;Concept of species; Mechanism of
evolution;Modern concept of natural selection: modes of natural selection; convergent and
divergent evolution; Adaptive radiation; Factors of micro and macro evolutionary changes.

SECTION E

5. Ecology:
An overview of ecosystem with special reference to ecological niche: basicconcepts
and types. Major ecosystems of the World: Marine, Estuarine,Freshwater, Wetlands,
Tundra, Forest, Grassland, Desert and Agriculturalecosystems. Biogeochemical cycles:
nitrogen, phosphorus, sulpher, water, carbon. Limiting factors: basicconcepts, temperature,
soil, water and humidity, light, fire. Animal adaptations to major habitats, Energy flow in the
ecosystem; Food chain and food web; Productivity of ecosystem. Basic population
characters: growth, growthcurves, population dynamics and regulations; Environmental
pollution: Water pollution and landpollution. Global climatic changes (ozone depletion, acid
rain, greenhouse effect and global warming, desertification,deforestation, exotic and
invasive species, radioactivityleakage, environmental laws, sixth mass extinction).

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SUGGESTED READINGS

1. Alberts, B., A. Johnson, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K. Roberts and P. Walter. 2007.


Molecular Biology of the Cell. Garland Publishing Inc., New York, USA.
2. Balinsky, B.I. 2012. An Introduction to Embryology. 5th Ed. W. B. Saunders Inc.,
New Jersy, USA.
3. Berne, R.M., Levy, M.N. 2000. Principles of Physiology, 3rd Ed. St. Lious, Mosby.
4. Bullock, J., Boyle, J., Wang, M.B. Physiology, 4th Ed. 2001. Lippincott, Williams
and Wilkins, Philadelphia.
5. Campbell, N.A. Biology, 9th Ed. 2011. Menlo Park, California: Benjamin/Cummings
Publishing Company, Inc.
6. Chapman, J.L., Reiss, M.J.1997. Ecology: Principles and Applications. Cambridge
Univ. Press, UK.
7. Cox, C.B., Morre, D. 2000. Biogeography: An Ecological and Evolutionary
Approach, 6th Ed., Life Sciences Kings College, London, UK.
8. De Robertis, E. D. P and De Robertis Jr. E. M. F. 2001. Cell and Molecular
Biology.8th Edition. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins Publishers.
9. Dugatkin, L. A. 2013. Principles of Animal behavior. 3rd Ed. W. B. Saunders Inc.,
USA.
10. Fritjoff, C. and L. Lucy. 2014. Ecology: The System of Life. John Wiley and Sons,
New York, USA.
11. Geoffrey, M. C. and R. E. Hausman. 2013. The Cell: A Molecular Approach. Sinauer
Associates Inc., New York, USA.
12. Gilbert, S.F. 2010. Developmental Biology. 9th Ed. Sinauer Associates Inc., New
York, USA.
13. Guyton, A.C., Hall, J.E. 2013. Textbook of Medical Physiology, 10th Ed. W.B.
Saunders Company, Philadelphia.Sherwood.
14. Hall B.K., B. Hallgrmsson and M.W.Strickberger. 2014. Evolution. 5th Ed. Jones and
Bartlett, New York, USA.
15. Hickman, C.P., Roberts, L.S. and Larson, A. 2004. Integrated Principles of Zoology,
th
11 Edition. Singapore: McGraw Hill.
16. Hodge, R. 2010. Developmental Biology. Facts on file, Inc. New York USA.

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17. Karp, J. 2014. Cell and Molecular Biology: Concepts and Experiments. John Wiley
& Sons Inc., New York, USA.
18. Kent, G.C. and Miller, S. Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates. 2001. New York:
McGraw Hill.
19. Kirk, D.G., T.K.N. Douglas and R. Vincett. 2013. A Handbook of Modern Ecology.
McMillan Co. Inc. Los Angelis, USA.
20. Lodisch, H., A. Berk and C. A. Kaiser. 2012. Molecular Cell Biology. Mcmillan
Education, New York, USA.
21. Miller, S.A., Harley, J.B. 2011. Zoology, 8th Ed. (International), Singapore: McGraw
Hill.
22. Molles, M.C. 2005. Ecology: Concepts and Applications. 6th Ed., McGraw Hill, New
York, USA.
23. Newman, I. 1993. Applied Ecology. Black Well Scientific Publications Oxford. UK.
24. Nicholas, B. D., J. R. Krebs and S. A. West. 2012. An Introduction to Behavioral
Ecology. 4th Ed. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, New York, USA.
25. Nielsen, C. 2012. Animal Evolution: Interrelationships of the Living Phyla. Oxford
University Press, Oxford, UK.
26. Odum, E. P. 1994. Fundamentals of Ecology. W. B. Saunders, New York, USA.
th
27. Pechenik, J.A. 2000. Biology of Invertebrates. 4 Edition. Singapore: McGraw Hill.
28. Randall, D., Burggren, W., French, K., Fernald, R. 2002. Eckert Animal Physiology:
Mechanisms and Adaptations, 5th Ed. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York
29. Ridley, M. 2004. Evolution. 3rd Ed. Blackwell Scientific Publications, London, UK.
30. Schmidt-Nelsen, K. 1997. Animal Physiology, Adaptation and Environment, 5th
Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
31. Strickberger. M.W. 2012.Evolution.Jones & Barrett Publishers, New York, USA.
32. Thomas M. S. and R. L. Smith 2012. Elements of Ecology. 8 th Ed. Benjamin
Cummings, San Francisco, USA.

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