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Unit 2 Infancy and Toddler hood

Module 12 Physical Development of Infants and Toddlers


Cephalocaudal trend-postnatal growth from conception to 5 months when the head grow more
than the body.
Proximodistal trend-Pre-matal growth from 5 months to birth when the fetus grows from the
inside of body outwards.
Height and Weight
-Infants length increases by about 30 percent in the first five months.
-Baby's weight triples during the first year but slow down in the second year of life.
Brain Development
-dramatic change in brain in the first two years of life are the spreading connections of dendrites
to each other.
Myclination or myclinization - process by which exons are covered and insulated by layers of fat
cells.
Motor development
Reflexes
Sucking Reflex-touches the roof of an infants mouth.
Rooting Reflex-infants cheek is storked.
Startle/moro Reflex-infants middle or lower back is storked next to the spinal cord.
Tonic Neck Reflex-demonstrated in infants who are placed on their abdomes.
Gross motor skills- able to grab things off the cabinit ,chase the ball and to walk away from
parent.
Fine motor skills-The development of reaching and grasping becomes more refined.
Sensory and Peraptual Development
.Newborn's vision is about 10 to 30 times lower than normal adult vision.
.Since of hearing develops much before the birth of the body.
.Young infants showed clear preference for smelling their mother's breast pad when they were 6
years old.
.Newborns fell pain.
.Newborn can distinguish different taste.
.Ability to connect information gets sharpened considerably through experience.
Module 13 Cognitive Development of Infants and Toddlers
Cognitive development in infancy refers to development in the way baby thinks.
Sensorimotor stage has six sub-stages:
1. Simple reflexes-coordination of sensation and action through reflexive behaviors.
2.First habits and primary circular reactions phase-coordination of sensation and two types of
schemes: habits(reflex) and primary circular reactions.
3. Secondary circular reactions phase-development of habits.
4. Coordination of reactions stage secondary circular-coordination of vision and touch-hand-eye
coordination; of schemes and intentionally.
5. Tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity-infants become very intrigued by many
properties of objects and by many things they can make happen to objects.
6. Internalization of Schemes(Invention of New Means Through Mental Combination)infants
develop the ability to use primitive symbols and form an enduring mental representations.
7. Object permanence-the understanding that objects continue to exist eben when they cannot
be seen, heard, or touched
Infants do learn and remember.
Infants appear to be programmed to tune into their linguistic environment with the specific goal
of acquiring language.
Infants utters his/her first word followed by one or to more and soon after, yet a few more.
Infant uses these one-word utterances termed holophrases- to convey intentions, desires and
demands. Two-word or three-word utterances with rudimentary syntax but with articles and
preposition missing are referred to a telegraphic speech.
Language Acquisition Device (LAD)- a metaphorical organ that is responsible for language
learning.
Module 14 Socio-emotional Development of Infants and Toddlers
The formative years
-First 3 years in human learning
Attachment
-The beginnings of attachment occur within the first 6 months of a baby's life with a variety of
built-in signals that baby uses to keep her caregiver engage.
Temperament
-Captures the way people differ.
Includes:
Activity level-Some babies are placid or inactive.
The mood-Some babies are smiley and cheerful.
Child's threshold for distress-Some babies are very sensitive.
The rhythmicity of children-Some babies get hungry or sleepy on fairly regular and predictable
basis.
The intensity of response in each baby-Some babies act restless.
Approach to new situations-Some infants are very cautious.
Distraction-Some children concentrate on a toy regardless of noise.
Adaptability of each child-Some children react to strange with distress.
Child's attention span-Some children have long attention span
The Emergence of the Moral Self
-Some babies are not yet able to hold a standard in mind and evaluate situations.
The Development of Emotions
Early infancy-infants are more aware of the their environment.
Later infancy-infants begin expressing fear.
Toddler hood years-infants express emotions of shame and embarrassment and pride.
Emotional Understanding
-Toddlers acquire language and are learning to verbally express their feelings.
Erickson's Psychosocial Theory
Psychosocial crisis-Trust versus Mistrust
Virtue-Hope
Module 15 Preschoolers Physical Development
Significant Changes in Physical Growth
-Preschoolers have a more slender appearance. The trunks, arms and legs becomes longer.
Gross and Fine Motor Development
Gross motor development
-Skills that involve large muscles.
Categorized into three:
Locomotor skills-going one place to another
Non-locomotor skills-child stay in place
Manipulative skills-involves projecting and receiving objects
-Preschoolers can hop, skip, jump, turn, stand in one leg and throws a ball.
Fine motor development
-Ability to use the smaller muscles.
-Preschoolers do tasks using their hands interchangeably.
-Preschoolers consistently turns pages of a picture of a story book one page at a time, looking
at pictures with interest, copy diagonal lines, square, triangles and they can cut scissors and
bisect a cross.
Preschooler's Artistic Development
Scribbling stage-begins with zigzag lines
Preschematic stage-may include early representation
Schemetic stage-more elaborate scenes are depicte
Preschooler's Nutrition and Sleep
-10 to 12 hours of sleep each day
-The kind of nutrition a preschoolers need has far-reaching effect on his physical growth and
development.
Module 16 Cognitive Development of Preschoolers
Piaget's preoperational thought namely,
Symbolic substage an intuitive substage
Symbolic stage-Preschools show progress in cognitive abilities by being able to draw objects
that are not present.
Intuitive substage-Preschoolers use primitive reasoning and ask a litany of questions.
Brain Connections in the Preschool Years
-The child's billion cells have the ability to make almost countless connections that prepare the
child for. Intricate pathways to learn language, acquire-mathematical skills, interact with people,
grow in his feelings and emotions, and even express himself in art.
Language Development
-As children go through early childhood, their grasp of the rules of language increases.
Language and Social Interaction
-Young children use language both to communicate socially and to plan, guide, and monitor
their behavior in a self-regulatory fashion-called inner speech.
The Preschoolers' attention span lasts longer than that of toddlers.
The Young Children's Theory of Mind
-Children start to reflect on their own thought processes.