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Pre-Intermediate Student's Book

Jayne Wildman
O X FO RD Fiona Beddall
Pre-Intermediate Student's Book

O X FO RD Jayne W ildman Fiona Beddall


Unit A Reading and vocabulary B Gram mar and listening

p4 Everyday life p6 Around the world

1
Our world
Reading Life in a day
Strategy Scanning for specific information
Vocabulary insight Adjectives + prepositions: feelings
Grammar Present simple and present continuous
Listening Volunteer projects

Vocabulary insight Compound nouns: everyday objects

Vocabulary insight 1 p14 Using a dictionary: parts of speech Review 1 p15

p16 Ghost towns p18 The kindness of strangers

2
Places
Reading Ghost towns: then and now
Strategy Identifying paraphrase
Vocabulary insight Antonyms: describing places
Grammar Past simple and past continuous
Listening A happy ending

Vocabulary Places in town

Vocabulary insight 2 p26 Using a dictionary: synonyms and antonyms Review 2 p27 Cum ulative review Units 1-2 p28

p30 In m y fridge p32 Burger or broccoli?


Reading Food for thought: the good, the bad and the really ugly Grammar Determiners: a lot of, a little, a few, some, any,

3
Choices
Vocabulary Life cycle of food
Vocabulary insight Compound nouns and adjectives
much and many
j Listening Eating habits in the UK

Vocabulary insight 3 p40 Recording vocabulary Review 3 p41

p42 M oving house p44 A room of m y own

4
M y space
Reading The 1940s house
Vocabulary insight Adverbs of manner and comment
Vocabulary insight Compound adjectives
Grammar Comparative and superlative adjectives
(not) as... as, too, enough
: ] Listening The best room in the house

Vocabulary insight 4 p52 Phrasal verbs: literal and non-literal meanings Review 4 p53 Cumulative review Units 1-4 p54

p56 Taking risks p58 Too young, too old?

5
No limits
Reading Blame your brain
Strategy Understanding pronoun referencing
Vocabulary insight Adjective suffixes: -ing and -ed
Grammar Present perfect and past simple
Present perfect with already,just and yef
Listening At the top of the world
Vocabulary insight Noun suffixes: -merit and -ion

Vocabulary insight 5 p66 Phrasal verbs: understanding the particle Review 5 p67

p68 A hard lesson p70 Hungry to learn

6
Roads to
Reading W ar zones
Vocabulary insight Collocations: crime
Vocabulary insight Negative prefixes: un-, im-, ir- and il-
Grammar will and going to
First conditional
Listening 1want to be a teacher
education

Vocabulary insight 6 p78 Using a dictionary: verb and noun collocations Review 6 p79 Cumulative review Units 1-6 p80

p82 Big and small p84 Be an entrepreneur

7
Progress?
Reading Going global
Vocabulary Statistics
Vocabulary insight Nouns with two meanings
Grammar must, mustn't, have to, don't have to
Listening How to catch a dream

Vocabulary insight 7 p92 Using a dictionary: words with more than one meaning Review 7 p93

p94 Against all odds p96 Foul play

8
Achieve
Reading Success stories
Vocabulary insight Verbs + prepositions: success
Vocabulary insight Suffixes: -ant, -ent, -ance, -ence
Grammar Past perfect
Listening Don't believe your ears

Vocabulary insight 8 p104 Using a dictionary: dependent prepositions Review 8 p105 Cumulative review Units 1-8 p106

p 108lnthenew s p110 Multitasking

9 Reading What's in the news?


Vocabulary The press
Vocabulary insight Collocations: the media
Grammar Reported speech
say and tell
Listening A multifunctional device
Listening To multitask or not to multitask?

Vocabulary insight 9 p118 Using a dictionary: easily-confused words Review 9 p119

p120 Make a difference p122 W here does it come from?

10
M ade in ...
Reading The story of your T-shirt
Strategy Understanding the purpose of a text
Vocabulary insight Phrasal verbs: buying and selling clothes
Grammar The passive: present simple, past simple and
present perfect
Listening How much do you know ab o u t... ?
Vocabulary insight Compound nouns

Vocabulary insight 10 p130 Word families Review 10 p131 Cumulative review Units 1-10 p132
C Listening, speaking and vocabulary D Culture, vocabulary and grammar E Writing

p8 New friends p10 Immigration p12 An informal letter


Listening Couch surfers Reading Around the world on the Number 7train Strategy Preparing to write
Vocabulary insight Collocations with make and do Vocabulary insight Phrasal verbs with get
Everyday English Asking for personal information Grammar Articles Talking about similarities and
differences

Vocabulary bank p134 Routines, Free-time activities

p20 Getting around p22 Naming places p24 A travel blog


Listening An unusual traveller Reading What's in a name? Strategy Avoiding repetition
Vocabulary The senses Vocabulary insight Verbs + prepositions
Everyday English Asking for and giving directions Grammar while, as and when Vocabulary insight Collocations:
descriptive adjectives

Vocabulary bank p135 Geographical features, Prepositions of movement

p34 Eating out p36 Notes from a big country p38 Short texts: notes, invitations,
Listening Vending machines Reading Junk Food Heaven adverts and announcements
Strategy Listening for key words and phrases Vocabulary insight Containers Strategy Thinking about purpose
Gram m ar Indefinite pronouns and adverbs: some-, Grammar Relative pronouns and adverbs
any-, no-, every- Abbreviations
Everyday English Inviting

Vocabulary bank p136 Food and nutrition, Food adjectives

p46 House rules p48 Historic homes p50 An email: description of


Listening Whose house is it anyway? Reading A house with a history a room
Vocabulary insight Collocations: household chores Strategy Predicting content Strategy Writing opening sentences
Everyday English Asking permission Vocabulary insight Phrasal verbs
Grammar Verbs + infinitive or -ing form Vocabulary insight Adverbs of degree

Vocabulary bank p137 Houses and homes, Parts of a house

p60 Fears and phobias p62 Antarctic adventure p64 A letter: description of a person
Listening The fear factor Reading Eyewitness account: Scott's Hut Strategy Paragraphs and topic
Vocabulary insight Base and strong adjectives Vocabulary insight Phrasal verbs: stages in a sentences
Everyday English Describing a photo journey
Grammar Present perfect with for and since Expressing addition

Vocabulary bank p138 Generations, Personality adjectives

p72 The best things in life p74 Life goals p76 A for and against essay
Listening Playing games Reading The Geography Lesson Strategy Brainstorming ideas
Strategy Taking notes Vocabulary Adjectives in poems
Gram m ar Zero conditional Grammar Expressing probability: Expressing contrast
Everyday English Making offers and suggestions

Vocabulary bank p139 School: bad behaviour, School: compound nouns

p86 Silicon Valley p88 The English language p90 A formal email
Listening Bright ideas Reading All you need to know about English Strategy Using the correct register
Strategy Listening for statistics Vocabulary Language
Vocabulary Business Grammar Second conditional Expressing reason and result
Everyday English Asking for and giving advice 1wish ...

Vocabulary bank p140 Country facts, Electronic devices: compound nouns

p98 The greatest plOO The British honours system p102 An opinion essay
Listening What's the greatest achievement in Reading Two points of view Strategy Selecting ideas
human history? Strategy Identifying facts and opinions
Vocabulary insight Collocations: achievement Vocabulary State and society Introducing examples and conclusions
Everyday English Expressing and justifying opinions Grammar used to

Vocabulary bank p141 Sport: places, Sport: compound nouns

p112 Behind the scenes p114 The BBC story p116 A film review
Listening Inflatable crowds Reading A short history of the BBC Strategy Writing endings
Strategy Listening for main ideas Vocabulary Types of TV programme
Vocabulary Films Grammar Question tags Vocabulary Describing films
Everyday English Giving and reacting to news

Vocabulary bank p142 Parts of a newspaper, Film genres

p124 Protest p126 Eyes in the sky p128 Describing a process


Listening Blood phones Reading The big picture Strategy Checking your writing:
Vocabulary Environment Vocabulary insight Adjective suffixes: Yu/ and -less spelling and punctuation
Everyday English Persuading, agreeing and Grammar The passive: future
disagreeing Expressing sequence

Vocabulary bank p143 Materials, Protest verb phrases


Our world
A
Reading and vocabulary Everyday life

LIFE in a DAY
1 SPEAKING Which of these things are most important
to you? Which are least important? Number them
1 (most important) to 7 (least important).
education family : free time friends: happiness
health success
W h a t do you love? W h a t do you fear? W h a t s in
2 Read the article about a film called Life in a Day. y o u r p o ck et? These are the questions from the film Life
What things are important to people in the film? in a Day. D irector Kevin Macdonald asked people around
the w orld to answer the questions and send in a video
STRATEGY 5 clip from a typical day. H e was interested in creating a

Scan n in g for specific inform ation picture o f the world, a digital time capsule for the future.
O n 24 July 2 0 10, people from Africa, Europe, America,
If you need to find specific information in a text, like
Antarctica and Asia recorded events on their mobile
a name or a number, you do not need to read every
phones and digital cameras and uploaded the results
word. You can quickly scan the text for key words.
io onto YouTube. Altogether there w ere 8 1,000 video clips,
To scan a text:
o r 4,500 hours o f footage. It to o k Macdonald and a team
decide what information you want to find: a number,
o f researchers seven weeks to make them into a film.
a date, a time, a name.
move your eyes quickly down the page until you find The film starts at midnight.The m oon is high in the sky,
the information. elephants are bathing in a river in Africa and a baby is
do not read whole sentences until you have found is sleeping. A t th e same time, in other parts o f the world,
your answer people are getting up, brushing their teeth and making
breakfast. In the next minutes o f the film, which is one and
3 Read the strategy. Scan the article to complete a half hours long, w e watch everyday routines from more
sentences 1-7. You will find the information in than 140 different countries and see the connections
paragraphs 1 and 2. 20 between them. In one scene an American girl is playing
1 The film is by a director called with her hula hoop, in another a child is working as a
2 People recorded their day on shoeshine in Peru. O n e looks privileged, the other is poor;
July 2010. but then the shoeshine boy shows us his favourite thing -
3 They sent in ............................................. video clips. his laptop. He's very proud o f it because he earned the
4 There w ere..................................... hours of footage. 25 money to pay for it.
5 It took...................................weeks to make the film.
'W e all care about the same things,' says the director and
6 I he film is minutes long.
in some ways hes right. Family and friends are the things
7 There a re .................................. countries in the film.
most people love and many o f them are keen on sports,
like football. But then one man says he loves his cat and
4 Read the article. Are the sentences true (T), false (F)
3o another loves his fridge because it doesnt talk back!
or not given (NG)? Correct the false ones.
Monsters, dogs and death are the things most people fear
1 People recorded short video clips of a special day.
O n e young girl is anxious about growing up and a man
2 The film begins at the start of a new day.
3 People in the film have friends in other countries. in Antarctica says,Tm afraid o f losing this place/ But when

4 I he director thinks we worry about different things. asked,'W h a ts in your pocket?', the answers are surprising.

5 People in the film don't have typical things in their 35 W e don't see an ID card, a shopping list, o r a bus ticket.

pockets. Instead, one person has a gun, then another shows us


6 I he man with em pty pockets feels ashamed because car keys for his Lamborghini. A po orer man says he has
he hasn't got any money. nothing. He's not ashamed o f his poverty because he
7 The young woman is happy with her life. adds,'But w e are alive.
8 Most people want to be rich and famous. 40 The film ends just before midnight, with a young woman
in her car It's raining outside and she's fed up with her
life. She was excited about Life in a Day, but her day was
to o boring to film. 'I just w ant people to know that Im
here, she says.W h a t she really wants is to be different, to
45 matter; says Macdonald. In Life in a Day, that's w hat most
people want.

4 O u r w orld
V ocab ulary: adjectives + prepositions: feelings; compound nouns: everyday Sp eaking : discussing everyday life, travel and immigration;
1 A
objects; collocations: make and do; phrasal verbs: get persuading; asking for personal information
G ram m ar: present simple and continuous; articles W riting : an informal letter

5 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Discuss the questions


from the film.
W hat do you love?
W hat do you fear?
What's in your pocket?
Work with another pair and compare your answers.
The director of Life in a Day thinks people are very
similar. Is he right? Are your answers similar or
different?

nsight Adjectives + prepositions: feelings

6 Study the highlighted adjectives in questions 1-8.


Scan the article to find the missing prepositions.
Complete the questions. Then work in pairs and
answer the questions.
1 Which sports are you interested.......................?
2 Which possessions or achievements are you
proud.......................?
3 Which school subjects are you keen ?
4 W hat do you get anxious .....?
5 W hat are you afraid .?
6 W hat things might people feel ashamed....................
7 W hat do you get fed u p ....................... ?
8 W hat do you get excited ..........?

nsight Compound nouns: everyday objects

7 A compound noun is a word or phrase that has two or


more parts that combine to make a single meaning,
for example, ca rpark. Find compound nouns in the
article to match definitions 1-6.
1 a portable machine with a keyboard
2 a thing you use to open the door of a car
3 a piece of paper that lets you travel from one place
to another
4 a note of the things you want to buy
5 a document that shows who you are
6 a portable machine that lets you call people

8 Make ten compound nouns with the words below.

ring
computer
game
parking credit
centre card
shopping concert
ticket bag
birthday
program
key
board

9 SPEAKING Work in groups. Imagine you are filming


a video clip for Life in a Day. What part of your day
are you filming and why?

Vocabulary bank Routines page 134

O ur w orld
1 B G ram m ar and listening Around th e w orld

PROFILE: VOLUNTEER AFRICA


Eighteen-year-old Peter H anson is w orking for V olunteer Africa
for a m onth. He's building a n ew sch o o l in a village in Tanzania
with four other volu n teers. 'At th e m om ent, w e're talking to
him about the project.

W hat do you th in k o f T anzania? 5Are you w orking on


It's a n in terestin g place! 2I like it h e re b e c a u se p e o p le are th e school today?
friendly, b u t its very different from hom e. The village W ell, I'm n o t w o rk in g right
d o e s n t have electricity o r ru n n in g w ater, so w e cook n o w b e c a u s e its o n e oclock.
over a fire a n d carry w a te r fro m a river. Life is h ard . This a fte rn o o n Im lea rn in g
Swahili!
3W hat do you do every day?
I get up at 7.00 a.m . b e c au se l alw ays start w ork early. Its W hat a re you d o in g th is w eek?
a difficult job, especially w h e n its hot, a n d 4its very hot 6W ere p a in tin g a c la ssro o m on T hursday, b u t we
in th e sum m er. W e often finish at 12.30 p.m . a n d w e d o n t a r e n t w orking this F riday b e c a u s e th e sch o o l is
usually w ork in th e afternoons. However, l som etim es o p e n in g . W ere o rg an izin g a p a rty a n d w e re very
teach English to th e children in th e village, o r w e play a excited a b o u t it!
gam e of football in th e evening. I'm never bored.

1 SPEAKING Look at the photos and the map. Where is Tanzania? What are the people doing?

2 Read the profile from a magazine. How does Peter describe these things?
life in the village the work the weather the people

Present sim ple an d present continuous

3 Read the profile again. Match sentences 1-6 in the profile to rules a-f.
We use the present simple:
a to talk about routines or habits, especially with adverbs of frequency such as always, often, etc.
and time expressions such as everyday.
b to talk about facts and general truths.
c with verbs that describe states: believe, hate, know, like, love, need, prefer, understand, want.

We use the present continuous:


d to talk about actions that are happening now.
e to talk about actions that are happening around now.
f to talk about planned future arrangements.

Reference and practice 1.1 Workbook page 104

6 O u r w orld
Make questions. Then work in pairs and answer the
questions.
Peter / build / a school on his own?
2 he /always /w o rk /in the mornings?

Every year thousands of young people 3 w h a t/ h e / d o / a t the moment?


4 the children / sometimes / learn English /
1 [take] time out from their
in the afternoons?
work or studies and travel abroad. Some of them
5 Peter / paint classrooms / every day?
2 (not stay] in hotels and they
6 w h a t/ P e te r/ d o / th is Friday?
3 (not lie) on the beach and
sunbathe. Instead, they 4 [help)
5 Complete the text about voluntourism with the
people in developing countries with local projects.
correct form of the verbs in brackets.
This new way of travel is called voluntourism.

According to a recent travel survey, 2 5 % of 6 1.01 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Look at photos
young people are interested in voluntourism. 1 and 2. What are the people doing? What type of
Organizations like BUNAC and Raleigh International
projects are they working on? Listen to the podcasts
and check your answers.
5 [match] people to
projects around the world. These organizations
7 1.01 Listen again and complete the information
6 (make) a big difference in
about Josep and Rosie in the table.
countries where children 7 (not go)
to school, or people 8 (not have) Josep Rosie My project
access to medical facilities. Volunteers often Name of Sea Turtle
9 (build) new schools and project
medical centres in Africa and Asia. Location dosta R-ica
South America is a very popular destination, too, Number of seven
and right now hundreds of volunteers people
10...................................(work] there. Eighteen-year- Duration one month
old Maria Black is a volunteer from the UK. At the to.oo p.m. -
Working
moment, she 11 (teach) hours i.oo a.m.
English in Chile. At the end of this week I
Difficulties no clean water
12...................................[fly] home, but more
Benefits learning a new
volunteers 13 (arrive) tomorrow.
language
Its a great experience, so I
(want) Current collecting
activity rubbish
to volunteer again next
summer. You see the
8 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Look at the advert. Then
world, learn about
read the instructions.
different cultures and
help people, too. Student A
Imagine you are a volunteer on one of the projects
below. Complete the table in exercise 7 for your project,
then phone your friend. Ask them to join you.
Student B
Your friend is on a volunteer project and wants you to join
them. You need to know more about the project before
you decide. Use the ideas in exercise 7 to help you.

/
Volunteers wanted!
Health First: Build a medical centre in India.
Monkey Business: Protect orang-utans in Borneo.
One World: Teach children English in Tibet.
Want to help? Call: 01614960735

O u r w o rld 7
1 C " Listening, speaking and vocabulary New friends

SPEAKING Work in pairs. Answer the questions.


1 How often do you go on holiday?
2 W ho do you go with?
3 Where do you usually stay?
in a hotel with family or friends
on a campsite in a hostel

2 1.02 Study the dictionary entries. Then


listen to the introduction to a radio programme.
What do you think a 'couch surfer' is? waves w h rid o r

3 1.03 PagePS 2 (^formoO a pe on whn P/ ture


time usingjhe Internet P ho pends a ,ot of
1 W hat is the speaker's main purpose?
Listen to the radio programme and answer the questions.
a to say thank you to couch surfers b to warn people about staying with strangers
c to explain the benefits of couch surfing
2 How do couch surfers usually thank people?
a they pay for their accommodation b they give people a small gift c they pay for meals
3 How does Lucas describe most couch surfers?
a they are mostly older people b they are mostly younger people
c they are mostly people with families
4 Where are the members o f www.couchsurfing.com from?
a Europe and South America b the USA and Canada c all over the world
5 W hat is the most important thing for couch surfers?
a to travel cheaply b to experience new cultures c to volunteer for local projects
6 Where is Mika staying right now?
a Canada b Alaska c Australia
7 W hat are couch surfers not doing?
a changing people b changing the world c changing cultures

insight Collocations with m ake and do

4 A collocation is a group of words that are often used together. Study the examples in the
table. Then add these words from the radio programme.
a choice friends the housework a meal a sport your best good (noun) a difference

m ake do
a mistake homework

a phone call exercise


a journey (someone) a favour
an excuse a crossword
a mess your hair

5 Complete the sentences with the correct form of collocations in exercise 4.


1 Couch surfers aren't usually shy.They don't find it difficult t o ............................................................
2 Tom wasn't good at cooking, so he didn't....................................................................for the family.
3 'Can I borrow your mobile? I need t o ..................................................................................................
4 The ice hockey t e a m ..................................................................., but they still didn't play very well.
5 'Can you and close the window ? It's very cold in here!'
6 Mike and caught the wrong bus. That's w hy he's late.
7 W e usually................................................................... after school on Friday.This week it's football.
8 You can by working as a volunteer

6 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.


1 W hat are the benefits of couch surfing? Is it a good w ay to make friends?
2 W hat are the difficulties? Is it a good idea to stay with strangers?
3 Which do you think is better? Why?
to travel cheaply and experience more
to travel comfortably and experience less

Vocabulary bank Free-time activities page 134


O u r w orld
Asking fo r personal in fo rm a tio n

7 SPEAKING Look at the photo and


answer the questions.
1 Where are they?
2 Do they know each other?
3 W hat are they talking about?
4 How do they feel?

8 [vl 1.04 Listen to the dialogue.


Where is Gina from? Does she like
London?

9 1.04 Complete the phrases from the


dialogue.Then listen again and check.

Asking for personal inform ation Reacting


How do y o u 1............................................. ? Me neither
2............................................. are you from? Really?
What's i t 3............................................ there? It's very different from ....
W hat do you think4.................................... ? Actually, I love it.
W hat do you d o 5........................................ ? I usually....
Are y o u 6..................................................... ? Yes, I am. That sounds great.

10 1.05 Complete the dialogue with the phrases below. Then listen and check.
I'm not bad. I've got one sister. No, she doesn't. I spend time at the skatepark.
M e too! W ere in the same class.

Dan So, how do you knowCarly?


Amy 1 W hat about you?
Dan 1play football with her brother, Marc.
Amy Have you got any brothers or sisters?
Dan 2 Shes older than me.
Amy Does she go to our school, too?
Dan 3..........................................................She works in the library cafe.
Amy Really? I sometimes go there with my friends. W hat do you do after school?
Dan 4
Amy Are you good at skateboarding?
Dan 5 .W hy don't you come along?
Amy No thanks, Im not keen on it, but I'm good at bowling.
Dan 6 Let's go bowling on Saturday then.

11 Read the dialogue again. Underline two questions which ask about free-time activities and
one question which asks about family and friends.

12 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Prepare a dialogue. Use the dialogue in exercise 10 to help you.
You are at a friend's party when you meet a new person.
Find out how they know your friend.
Explain how you know them.
Ask about their family.
Ask about their free-time activities.
Find something you both enjoy.

O u r w o rld 9
1 D Culture, vocabulary and grammar
hi \
M H H n a i w l

1 SPEAKING W o rk in p a irs . A n s w e r th e q u e s tio n s .


1 How do you travel to school in the morning?
2 W hat type of people do you meet?
3 W hat do you see? W hich language(s) do you hear?
4 W hat do you do during your journey?

2 Read th e a rtic le a b o u t th e N u m b e r 7 tr a in . H o w is
M a n u e la 's jo u r n e y s im ila r to y o u r o w n ? H o w is it
d iffe re n t?

3 Read th e a rtic le a g a in a n d c o m p le te t h e sentences.


Use th re e w o rd s in each se n te n ce .
1 Manuela is on the train because she is
Its 8.15 in the morning and Manuela G arcia is
2 The train is special because every station is like on her w a y to college in New York City. S h e s
sitting on the Number 7 train and shes doing her
3 In 1917, people moved to Queens because there homework, but she hasnt got much space. Two
s Chinese wom en are sitting next to her - they're
4 People came to N ew York because they wanted to laughing and chatting in Cantonese. A young man
fin d ........................................................................... is on the other side - he's listening to Shakira
5 Tomas Garcia worked hard, started saving and on his M P3 player and eating som e tacos. Then
an old wom an gets on the train and sits down
6 The people in Tomas's bakery are from Mexico, io nearby - she's wearing a sari and she's reading a
book in Hindi. At Ja ck s o n Heights, the old woman
gets off. It's raining outside and Manuela can see
insight P hrasal v e rb s w ith g e t
Indian and Pakistani shops in the street below.
4 S tu d y th e h ig h lig h te d p h ra s a l v e rb s in th e a rtic le .
W elcom e to the International Express, the most
Read th e s e n te n ce s a n d re p la c e t h e w o rd s in ita lic s
is international train journey in the world. Every day,
w it h th e c o rre c t fo r m o f a p h ra s a l v e rb .
som e of N ew Yorks three million immigrants take
1 I don't have a good relationship with my sister W e the Num ber 7 train from Q ueens to Manhattan
argue all the time. and each stop is like a different country- G et off
2 It was eight o'clock when the train arrived a t Jackson at Flushing station and experience China, go to
Heights.
20 Corona and youre in Mexico; the next stop is
3 It's always good to escape at the weekend and go
India at Ja ck s o n Heights. M any immigrants are
somewhere new.
from Latin America, Eastern Europe, Africa or
4 We're almost in the town centre. Let's leave at the
Asia. If you listen carefully, you can hear more
next stop.
than 100 different languages.
5 In 1900, immigrant children had to deal with a difficult
childhood. Many worked to help their families. 25 S o w hy is this train so popular? A hundred years
6 Quick! Climb onto the bus. It's leaving soon! ago, most immigrants lived in Manhattan, but by
1910 Manhattan w as overcrowded and life was
5 SPEAKING W o rk in p a irs. A n s w e r th e q u e s tio n s . very difficult. Then, in 1917, things improved,
1 Are there any stops on the Number 7 route youd like thanks to a new train to a suburb called Queens.
to get off at and explore? W hy / why not? Immigrants moved out of the city b ecause there
2 Which languages and cultures can you find in w as more sp ace in Queens, but they could still
your country? get to work in Manhattan.

F a s t F a c t s

N ew York population: about 8.2 million


Num ber of im m igrants: over 2.9 million
1910: 7 5 % of immigrants were from 5 countries
2010: 66 % of immigrants were from 25 countries

10 O u r w o rld
6 Match sentences 1-6 to rules a-f. Then find more
examples in the text.
1 I got on a train at Queens.
2 I got on a train at Queens. The train went to Manhattan.
3 It was the Number 1 train.
4 There are 8.2 million people in New York.
5 Immigrants com e from many different countries.
6 Tomas Garcia is a baker. Hes also an immigrant.

We use a / a n when:
a we talk about something or someone for the first time,
b we say what someone's job is, or when w e describe
what someone or something is.

W e use the when:


c we talk about a person or thing that was mentioned
T h ese first immigrants cam e to N ew York to
before.
escap e poverty and war, and to have a better
d there is only one person or thing.
35 life. Today, people com e for the sam e reasons.
M anuela G arcia's family is typical. Her father, W e use no article when:

Tomas, cam e from M exico in 1986 and sold tacos e we talk about something in general.
f we use names of people, continents, countries or cities.
from a small food stall next to Corona station.
Tomas got through hard times, saved his money Reference and practice 12 . Workbook page 105
40 and bought a bakery. Today the jukebox there
plays Mexican songs and a satellite TV shows 7 Read the extract from an online encyclopaedia and
Mexican TV programmes. W e're proud of our choose a / an, the or 0 (= no article).
culture, but the bakery is not just for M exicans,'
says Tomas. W e have Polish and Turkish
45 custom ers, too. W e all get on with each other.'
Ellis Island is 1an / the island in 2the / 0 New York
The train speeds past LaGuardia airport as the
Harbour. It's 3the / a tiny place, but between 1892
rain stops and the sun com es out. M anuela looks and 1954, more than twelve million people arrived at
out of the window and w atches the planes take 4a / the island. 5The / 0 people were immigrants
off. People are getting a w a y to experience the and they came to the United States from all over
so world. M anuela smiles. S h e doesn't need to go to 6the / 0 world. Fifteen-year-old Annie Moore and her
faraw ay countries - the world is right there on the two younger brothers, Anthony and Phillip, were the
Num ber 7 train. first immigrants to go there on 1 January 1892.
70 / The children were from Ireland and, after
8a / 0 long journey across 9the / 0 Atlantic Ocean, they
all hoped for 10the / a better future.
Today, the / 0 visitors come to Ellis Island to learn
about 12the / a history of their country and find out
about their families. Over 40% of all US citizens have
ancestors who first arrived in America at 13the / 0 island!

8 SPEAKING Complete the questions with a / an, the


or 0 (= no article). Then work in pairs and answer the
questions.
1 Do you en joy....................................holidays abroad?
2 Are you interested in other cultures?
3 Have you g o t................. penfriend in another country?
4 Do you think it's difficult to live in ................................
new place?
5 W hat do you think are................................. difficulties?
6 is immigration important issue in your
country? W h y / w hy not?

DVD extra From Ireland to the USA

O u r w orld
1 E Writing An letter

Whats new?
Every year, thousands of students go on our exchange programmes
all over the world. This month, we want to hear from YOU, so
send us a letter about your experiences of being on an exchange
programme. We want to know what you are learning: what's
different, what's similar and what's new. Check out this page for
the best two letters next month!

1 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Look at the photo and read the magazine advert. Would you like to
go on an exchange programme? Why / why not?

STRATEGY

Prep aring to w rite


Before you write, think carefully about the task.
Think about:
w ho you are writing to.
the type of composition: e.g. a formal or informal letter / email, a blog entry, a report, an opinion
essay, a review.
the things you w ant to include.
Prepare a paragraph plan and make short notes for each paragraph.

2 Read the strategy. Then imagine you are writing to X-change Magazine. Answer the questions.
1 W hat type of composition do you have to write?
2 W hat do you need to include?
3 Which four things from the list below would you like to write about?
the people everyday routines free-time activities the weather
the food school life the language
4 Read letters A and B on page 13. Which things in question 3 do they mention?

3 Read letters A and B again and complete the table.

Letter A Letter B
Where are the writers from?
Where are they staying?
Do they like their host families?
Which things are different?
Which things are similar?

W hat activities are they doing today / at the weekend?


W hat do they think of the programme?

Talking a b o u t sim ilarities and differences

4 Study the highlighted words in letters A and B. Which words are used to talk about
1 similarities? 2 differences?

5 Complete the sentences. Then compare your answers with a partner.


1 The weather in my town is different from
2 Food in my country is similar to
3 M y town is ......................................................... , in contrast t o .......................................
4 Subjects in my school are the same a s .............................................................................
5 M y best friend and I have a lot in common a n d ..............................................................
6 W e b o th ................................... ..............................................................................
12 O u r w o rld 7 Neither of us
32 King Street
0 Calle M arina 32 London N12 44T
08605 Barcelona United Kingdom
Spain
23 August 2013
23 A ugust 2013
D ear X-change, Hi X-change,

This is my first letter from London! My host family are


I'm on an exchange program m e in Barcelona and it's
nice, but their daughter Helen is quite shy -- unlike
great! My host family is lovely and I'm already best
me! We have nothing in common.
friends with their son, Felipe. We have a lot in common:
we re both keen on football and neither o f us likes maths! A lot of things are different here. London is an
interesting city, but it's expensive and the people
M any things are similar. School starts at the sam e time
are different from people in Australia - they're not as
and the subjects are like the subjects 1 study at hom e. I'm
friendly. Everyday life is different, too. Mealtimes are
not feeling hom esick at the m om ent because people are
very friendly. quite early and we don't go out in the evening. We
usually watch TV.
Other things are different. Its warm and sunny,
Other things are the same. Food is the same as the
in contrast to England, where it rains all the tim e1
food at home. School is similar to Australian schools,
M ealtim es are different, too. We always eat late, at nine
too. People are curious about Australia and they often
o clock, and we often have paella (its typical Spanish
ask me questions. I've made some friends here and we
food). O f course, the language is not the same and I am
usually play basketball at break time - it's just like
som enm es asham ed o f my Spanish, but Felipe helps me.
home.
It s Saturday today so I'm not going to school. I'm going
Right now I'm feeling homesick - I'm fed up with the
to the beach with Felipe, then I m watching Barcelona FC
rain. But this weekend we're going to the Science
play at Cam p Non stadium. The X-change program m e is
Museum and I'm excited about that! It's a challenge
a great way t0 see the world, m ake new friends and learn
a new language! to live in a new country, but it's also a great
opportunity to try new things.
Yours,
Yours,
Conrad
Jenni

Task Imagine you are on a student exchange Paragraph 3: Say which things are similar.
programme. Reply to the advert in X-change Paragraph 4: Say what you are doing today / at the
Magazine. weekend. Then give your opinion about
the X-change programme.
Ideas Answer the questions and make notes.
1 Which country are you visiting and what type of W rite Write a letter to the magazine. Use the
family are you staying with? paragraph plan to help you.
2 Look at the four topics you chose in exercise 2. Make
notes about the similarities and differences.
Check Check the following points.
3 W hat do you think about the X-change programme? Have you included the address and the date? Have
you signed your letter?
Plan Decide which ideas you are going to use and Have you included all the information asked for in
match them to these paragraphs. the task? Have you used a variety of expressions to
Paragraph 1: Say where you are and describe the host describe similarities and differences?
family. Have you checked spelling, grammar and
Paragraph 2: Say which things are different. punctuation?

O u r w o rld 13
Vocabulary insight 1 Using a dictionary: parts of speech

1 Work in pairs. Read the statements and choose 3 Read the dictionary entry again and answer the
the ones that are true for you. Then compare your questions.
answers with a partner. 1 W hat part of speech is make ?
1 I use a dictionary only at school. 2 W hat is the past tense form of make ?
2 I use a dictionary only at home. 3 How many meanings of make are there?
3 I use a dictionary at school and at home. 4 W hat examples are there for the meaning 'cause?
4 I prefer to use an online dictionary. 5 W hat information about make does the h elp section
5 I have a dictionary app on my phone. give you?
6 I check every word that I don't know.
7 I check the meaning of new words after I have STRATEGY
finished reading. Identifying parts o f speech
8 I never check the meaning of new words. All words belong to categories called parts of speech.
Most dictionaries use abbreviations to show what part
STRATEGY
of speech a word is. Study the definitions of the most
Using a d ictio n ary common parts of speech below. The abbreviations are
A dictionary entry gives you more information about given in brackets.
a new word than just its meaning. This additional
1 noun (n) = a word that names a person, a thing or
information can help you to learn how to spell the word,
an idea
how to pronounce it and how to use it in a sentence.
2 verb (v) = a word that refers to an action or a state
3 adjective (adj) = a word that describes a noun
2 Read the strategy above. Then study the extract 4 adverb (adv) = a word that describes a verb, an
from a dictionary entry for m ake. What information adjective or another adverb
does it give you? Match the words below to parts of 5 pronoun (pron) = a word that is used instead of
the entry 1-8. a noun
headword example sentence part of speech 6 preposition (prep) = a word that shows the position of
definition pronunciation and stress collocations something, the time when something happens, etc.
extra information about how to use the word 7 conjunction (conj) = a word that joins tw o phrases
grammar related to the word or sentences

4 Read the strategy above. Then study the words


% m a k e 1/meik/ verb [T] (pt, pp made /meid/) below. What parts of speech are they? Add them to
_ create ^ 1 to produce o r create sth: to make bread categories 1-7 in the strategy. Use a dictionary to
Tftis model is made o f steel, and that one is made
o u t o f used matches. * Cheese is made from milk. check your answers.
Those cars are made in Slovakia. * Shall I make
you a sandwich/make a sandwich for you? * to make and at bus ticket but car keys do excited
breakfast to make a hole in something to make a
law/rule * to make a movie
get in laptop often on proud really she
>p e r f o r m a c t io n 2 [used with nouns] to perform a shopping them understand usually
certain action: to make a mistake/noise * to make a
---guess/comment/statement/suggestion to make pro
E -
gress * I've made an appointment to see the doctor. 5 Find the words im m ig ra te , im m ig ra n t and
im m ig ra tio n in a dictionary. Are the following
m HELP Make can be used like this with a number
of different nouns. Often there is a verb with a
similar form, for example make a decision =
statements true (T) or false (F)? Correct the
decide. But if you use make + noun, you can false ones.
use an adjective with it: He made the right deci
sion. * They made a generous offer.
1 Immigrate is an adjective.
c a u s e 3 to cause a particular effect, feeling, situ
ation, etc: The film made me cry. * Flying makes him 2 Immigrate is often used with the prepositions to
nervous. * Her remarks made the situation worse.
and from.
I 'll make i t clear to him th a t we w ont pay. Make
sure you lock the car. You d o n t need to know much 3 Immigrate has an irregular past tense form.
~ o f a language to make yourself understood. to make
troubie/a mess/a noise
b e c o m e 4 to make sb/sth become sth; to have the
right qualities to become sth: She was made (= given
4 im m igrant is a conjunction.
the job of) President. * You can borrow some money 5 Im m igrant can also be spelled imigrant.
this time, b u t d o n 't make a h a b it o f it. * Karen
explains things very clearlyshed make a good teach 6 Im m igrant has three meanings.
er. 5 to become sth; to achieve sth: I'm hoping to
make head o f the department by the time I'm thirty. _
7 Immigration is a noun.
8 Immigration doesn't have a plural form.

Vocabulary insight 1 Dictionary entry from Oxford Wordpower Dictionary, 4th edition
1
Review 1
iV . V7t*WBn

V o cabu lary G ram m ar

1 Complete the sentences with the words below. 5 Complete the profile with the present simple or
anxious ashamed excited keen proud present continuous form of the verbs in brackets.

1 Mark's........................................... .............on football.


He's in the school team.
2 Theyr e ................................... .. of their son.
Hes at Oxford University. Eighteen-year-old Becky Greenberg is working for
3 Do you g e t................................... .................... about Volunteer Asia for a m onth . 1
going to rock concerts? (she / help) to look after old and sick animals
4 Are y o u ......................................... ..................... about at an elephant camp in Thailand. We asked her
the history exam tomorrow? about the project.
5 Emma is .. .... of
making her little sister cry. W hat 2 (you / do) every day?
Marks /5 3 (I / get up) very early to give
the elephants breakfast. 4
2 Match the words in A to the words in B to make (elephants / need) a lot of food, so this can take quite
compound nouns. Then complete the sentences. a long time.
A bus car credit parking shopping
How much food 5 (an elephant /
B card keys list ticket ticket
eat)?
1 You can buy a from the driver. At least 100 kg a day. B u t6
2 You can pay in cash or b y ............................................ (one elephant / not have) all that for breakfast!
3 W ell have to walk if you can't find th e ......................... O ur elephants have three m eals a day.
4 Do you write a .................................................. before 7 (they / eat) lunch at the
you go to the supermarket to buy food? m om ent.
5 You'll get a .......................................................... if you
leave your car there. 8 ................................. (the elephants / go out)
Marks /5 today?
Yes, 9 (we / take) them to the
3 Complete the text with the correct form of make or do. river this afternoon. 10 (it / get)
very hot after lunch a n d 11
O ne fa m ily, six continen ts, tw e lv e good (they / love) playing in the w ater
deeds
Jackson Lewis came home one day last year and Marks /11
asked his father,'Why arent we doing more to
1 a difference in the world?'His father's 6 Complete the text with a /a r t, the or 0 (= no article).
answer was to take Jackson and his brother on a trip
to 2 good in the world. Right now,they're 1 New York City is located at the mouth of
on a journey through twelve different countries. In 2 Hudson River o n 3 east coast of
every place they visit, th e y 3 their best 4 USA. But there was a time when
to help people in need. Sometimes they look after 5 city did not exist. The Italian explorer Da
children, sometimes they 4 meals and
Verrazzano was the first European to visit the area,
sometimes they teach English. Wherever they go,
but it w a s 6 Englishman who first landed
th e y 5 ................friends with a lot of different people.
there. Henry Hudson was 7 English sailor,
but he was working fo r 8 Dutch East India
Marks /5
Company at the time. He bought 9 animal
4 Complete each sentence with one word. skins from the Native Americans there and he took
10 skins back to Holland. Soon after that, the
1 W e w ent by taxi, so we g o t...........................................
the station on time. Dutch built 11 town in the area. They called it
2 I'm really stressed and I need to get ........................, New Amsterdam. In 1664, the British took ,2
so I'm going on holiday next week. town and gave i t 13 new name: New York.
3 She got The train and walked home. Since then , 14 town has become one of the
4 It's going to be difficult to get most important cities in the world.
tomorrow - fve got exams all day.
5 She paid the driver when she g o t ................. the bus. Marks 714
Marks /5 Total

Pronunciation b ank l Workbook page 124 R e vie w 1


Places
Reading and vocabulary Ghost tow ns

1 SPEAKING W o rk in p a irs. L o o k a t th e p h o to s o f
g h o s t to w n s a n d d iscu ss th e q u e s tio n s . T h e n read
th e te x t a n d c o m p a re y o u r ideas.
1 W hat kind of people lived there? Think about:
GM1QlfflDS
farmers: miners soldiers criminals
businesspeople railway workers Ghost towns ... why did people live there?
2 W hy did people go to these towns? Why did they leave?
3 W hy did they leave?Think about:
Read about three unloved places from
unemployment pollution natural disasters
around the w o rld ...
war famine crime overcrowding poverty

STRATEGY

Identifying paraphrase
P a ra p h ra sin g m eans u s in g d iffe re n t w o rd s to express
th e sam e id e a . To id e n tify pa ra p h ra se , lo o k o u t for:
synonyms (words with similar meaning) and antonyms
(words with opposite meaning).
sentences that say the same thing, but in a different
order.
ideas that are summarized and not repeated word for
word.

2 Read th e s tra te g y . U n d e rlin e s e n te n ce s in th e


te x t t h a t a re s im ila r to se n te n ce s 1-9 . T h e n m a tch
s e n te n ce s 1 -9 to places A -C .
1 There was a lot of pollution.
2 People in the town were religious.
3 People went there to make money.
4 There wasn't any light.
5 People left because they didn't have jobs.
6 Animals live there today.
7 There was a lot of crime.
Then: Hundreds of years ago, it was a Chinese fort and only
8 There were farms near the town.
soldiers lived there. Then in the early 20th century, the soldiers
9 People left because of natural and man-made disasters.
left and squatters* moved in. By 1980, the 0.03km2city had
500 buildings inside its walls and 33,000 residents lived there,
A Kowloon Walled City
s The city was crowded, dirty and full of rubbish. People called it
B Craco
the city of darkness' because the buildings were so high, there
C Kolmanskop was no sunlight in the narrow streets below.

3 SPEAKING W o rk in p a irs . D iscuss th e q u e s tio n s . Why did people go there? There were no laws and no police in
the city, so it was popular with criminals and people with illegal
1 Which town has the most surprising story? io businesses. The Chinese government didnt do anything about
2 Which place would you like to visit? the city because it was dangerous and difficult to control.
3 Does your town have any of the ghost towns'
Why did people leave? In 1993, the government finally moved
problems?
people out of the city and destroyed it.

in s ig h t A n to n y m s : d e s c rib in g places Now: One building and the city gate are left. You can see them
15 in Kowloon Walled City Park.
4 F in d a n to n y m s o f th e s e a d je c tiv e s in th e te x t.
1 deserted (line 5) ..............................
2 clean (line 5)
3 wide (line 7)
4 unpopular (line 9)
5 safe (line 11) ...............................
6 quiet (line 36) ...............................
7 messy (line 47) ...............................
8 modern (line 48) ...............................

16 Places
V o cab u la ry: antonyms: describing places; places in town; the senses;
verbs + prepositions: collocations: descriptive adjectives
Sp eak in g : talking about cities and towns; discussing acts o f kindness;
talking about the origin o f place names; asking for and giving directions
2A
G ram m ar: past simple and continuous; while, as and when W ritin g : a travel blog

5 Complete the sentences with words in exercise 4.


Sometimes more than one answer is possible.
1 The city is a lw a y s ................................................. during
carnival. Thousands of people co m e and celebrate.
2 The river was .................There was a lot
of pollution from the town's factories.
3 I dont lik e ........................................... cities w ith lots of
Name: Craco Location: Italy tall, n e w buildings. They all look the same.
4 It was late at night, and the shopping centre was
Then: The historic town of Craco There was no on e there.
is hundreds of years old. In the 5 That restaurant looks...............................................Lots
past, it was an important town of people are queuing to get in.
with a castle, a church, a market, 6 There are no buses in this part of tow n because the
a university and a prison. Its roads are t o o ....................................................................
population was about 2,500.
7 This road is really............................................ There is a
Why did people go there? The lot o f traffic and it is difficult to cross.
town had strong connections with 8 The park was clean a n d ..................................................
the church, and farmers grew There was no rubbish and no graffiti.
food on the land around the town. 25

did people leave? Craco Places in town


lost many people because of
a plague* in 1656. Wars and 6 Study the highlighted words in the text. Put them
famine* also made people into the correct category A-F. Then add the places
leave. Between 1892 and 1922, below to categories A-F. Can you add two more
about 1,300 left and went to North America. There were words to each category?
earthquakes, too, and many people died. By 1963, no one
cinem a football stadium bus station taxi rank
lived in the town.
library skatepark underground art gallery
Now: Craco is falling apart. If you want to visit, go there concert hall leisure centre police station
soon. The next earthquake may be its last.
A Entertainm ent
B Shopping
C Transport
D Education

Name: Kolmanskop Location: Namibia E Sports


F Services
Then: In 1910, Kolmanskop was a lively mining town.
A thousand people lived there, many of them German miners. 7 In which of the places in exercise 6 can you do these
The town had a hospital, a theatre, a school, a casino, a things?
furniture factory and a sports centre. It also had the first
catch a train see a play w atch a sport
tramline in Africa and a railway station.
borrow books work for a business
Why did people go there? In 1908, a railway worker found w in and lose m on ey listen to music
diamonds in the Namib desert. Many people went there
d o a sport find work
because they wanted to make their fortune.

Why did people leave? By 1920, there were no more 8 SPEAKING Work in groups. Imagine you are
diamonds left. People started to leave the town because 4s designing a new town. Use the ideas below to help
there was no work and no money. In 1954, the last person left, you. Prepare your plan and present it to the rest of
and sand started to cover the pretty gardens and tidy streets.
the class. Decide on the best plan.
Now: One or two old buildings are still standing, but sand th e location o f your n e w tow n
dunes cover most of the town. The town is deserted; only
w h y people should live there
birds, hyenas and snakes live there now. , sc
th e four most im portant places to include
four places that you w ou ld not include

Vocabulary bank Geographical features page 135

* squatters = people who live in a place illegally


* plague = a disease caused by rats
* famine = a time when there is no food

Places 17
2 B G ram m ar and listening The kindness o f strangers

G e m m a w a s e x c ited . S h e w a s a ls o a b it n e rv o u s . S h e u s u a lly
m e t h e r f rie n d s a t th e w e e k e n d , b u t th a t S a tu rd a y s h e w a s at
th e b u s sta tio n . T h is w a s n 't h e r first b u s trip o n h e r o w n , b u t
it w a s a lm o s t fiv e h o u r s to h e r a u n t's h o u s e in T oronto.

It w a s n in e o 'c lo c k w h e n s h e a rriv e d a n d th e s ta tio n w a s


c ro w d e d . T h e re w e re lo n g q u e u e s o f p e o p le a n d it to o k 45
m in u te s to b u y a tic k e t. W h e n s h e g o t o n h e r b u s , th e re w a s
o n e s e a t left, n e x t to a b o y in a b a s k e tb a ll s h irt. H e lo o k e d u p
fro m h is m o b ile p h o n e w h e n s h e s a t d o w n . G e m m a sm ile d ,
b u t h e d i d n 't s m ile b a c k . H e d i d n 't w a n t to ta lk , h e ju s t lo o k e d
o u t o f th e d irty w in d o w . 'W h a t d id I d o ? W as I r u d e ? ' sh e
th o u g h t; th e n s h e s ig h e d a n d c lo se d h e r e y e s. She n e e d e d a r e s t ...

1 SPEAKING Look at the photo. Where is the girl? How does she feel? Read the beginning of
the story and compare your ideas.

Past sim ple

2 Study the highlighted verbs in the story. Which ones are regular? Which are irregular? What
are their infinitives?

3 Read the story again and find more examples of the past simple. Then answer the questions.
1 How do w e make negative and question forms of the verb be?
2 How do w e make negative and question forms of other verbs?

Reference and practice 2.1 Workbook page 106

4 Complete the next part of the story. Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple.

A few h o u r s later, G e m m a 1 (w a k e u p ). O u ts id e th e re 2 (be) e m p ty


s tre e ts a n d u g ly h o u s e s, g re y sk ie s a n d ra in . T h e b o y b e s id e h e r 3 (g e t u p ) to
lea v e . 'W h e re a re w e ? ' a s k e d G e m m a . 'H a m il t o n / s a id th e boy. '4 w e ...................
(go) th ro u g h T o ro n to ? ' sh e a s k e d . 'Yes, w e d id ,' h e re p lie d . 'W e 5 (leav e) T o ro n to
a n h o u r a g o a n d ... ' G e m m a 6 (n o t w a it) to h e a r m o re . S h e q u ic k ly 7
(g e t off) th e b u s b e fo re it left a n d 8 (call) h e r a u n t. N o reply. S h e 9 (try)
a g a in , b u t h e r p h o n e s to p p e d w o rk in g . T h e n , th in g s g o t w o rs e . G e m m a re a c h e d fo r h e r
b a g , b u t it w a s still o n th e b u s a n d th e b u s 10 (n o t be) in th e s ta tio n a n y m o re.
G e m m a 11 (b eg in ) to cry. 'D o e s th is b e lo n g to y o u ? ' s a id a v o ic e b e h in d h e n It
w a s th e b o y in th e b a s k e tb a ll s h ir t a n d h e 12 (h av e ) h e r b a g ...

5 Make questions. Then work in pairs and answer the questions.


1 w h a t/ m is ta k e / G e m m a / m a k e ?.......................................................................................................
2 w hat/H am ilton /like ? ........................................................................................................................
3 w h a t/ th e w eather/like ? ...................................................................................................................
4 w h y/G em m a /sta rt to cry ? ...............................................................................................................
5 the b o y/h elp /G em m a ? ....................................................................................................................
6 how / Gemma / react ? ........................................................................................................................

6 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Invent an ending for the story. Use the past simple form of the
verbs below and your own ideas.
buy call explain find out forget go invite laugh leave like smile talk walk

1.06 Listen to the ending of the story and compare your ideas in exercise 6.

18 Places
World Kindness Day 2B
1In 1963 , Mr Seiji Kaya was a teacher a t Tokyo University.
2Every day, Mr Kaya took the train to work. 3At 8 a.m. one
February m orning , he was waiting for his train. 4It was
snowing and a lot of people were a t the station. 5M r Kaya
was getting on th e train when a m an stole his bag.
6He shouted for help, but no one tried to stop the thief.
Mr Kaya was upset b u t no one asked if he was OK. In
fact, no one talked to him a t all.
After this bad experience, M r Kaya started to encourage
his students to be brave and practise small acts of kindness
every day. He wanted to create a wave of kindness across
Japan, so he started the Small Kindness Movement. In
1997,13 November became World Kindness Day and today
people celebrate it all over the world!

Past sim ple and past continuous

8 Read a b o u t W o rld K in d n e ss D ay a n d a n s w e r th e q u e s tio n s .


1 Where was Mr Kaya from?
2 W hat did he do every day?
3 W hat happened one February morning?
4 W hy did he start the Small Kindness Movement?
5 How many countries were part of the Small Kindness Movement?

9 Read t h e t e x t a g a in . M a tc h se n te n ce s 1 -6 t o ru le s a -f.
W e use the past simple for:
a a completed past action or a past state,
b a past habit.
c a sequence of actions in the past.

W e use the past continuous for:


d background descriptions.
e an action or actions in progress at a specific time in the past.

W e use the past simple and the past continuous for:


f a longer action interrupted by a shorter action.

R e fe re n c e a n d p ra c tic e 2.2 Workbook page 106

10 1.07 Read a b o u t fo u r d iffe r e n t a cts o f kin d n e ss. P u t th e v e rb s in b ra c k e ts in th e c o rre c t


fo rm . T h e n lis te n a n d check.
1 W e ................. (look) for the station and it ..................(rain). Anyway, w e .................. (look) at our
map when w e .................(meet) an old lady. S h e .................. (not know) the way to the station,
but she (give) us her umbrella!
2 When I was a child, I ................ (visit) my grandparents every weekend.They (have) a
dog called Bono. One day, I (walk) the dog when I (get) lost. I (be)
lucky because a woman from the village (find) me and (call) my grandma.
3 Yesterday I (wait) in my car at a traffic light. An old m a n ................. (cross) the road
with tw o bags of shopping w hen h e ................. (drop) one of his bags. I .................. (get out) of
my car a n d ................. (help) him pick it all up.
4 Last week, I ................. (stand) in a ticket queue in the London Underground when a girl
(give) me her train ticket. She (not want) any money for it, she just wanted
to give it to someone else.

11 SPEAKING T h in k a b o u t a tim e w h e n y o u h e lp e d s o m e o n e o r s o m e o n e h e lp e d y o u . M ake


n o te s a b o u t th e th in g s b e lo w . T hen te ll y o u r s to rie s to th e re s t o f th e class. W h ic h a c t o f
k in d n e s s d o y o u t h in k w as th e m o s t g e n e ro u s?
When did it happen?
W hat were you doing?
W hat was happening in the background (the weather, people, etc.)?
W hy did you help them, or w hy did they help you?
How did you feel?
Places 19
2 C Listening, speaking and vocabulary G ettin g around

1 SPEAKING Can you name the five senses? Which senses do you use to find out about
these things?
an ice cream rain n e w friends m usic a sandy beach a ghost a fire

The senses

2 Complete the table with these words.


hear hearing nose 's e e skin smelly taste tasty ton g ue touch

Sense Body part Activity Adjective


sight eyes le a n 1 sighted
2 ears l e a n 3......................
4 5 1can t a s t e ... 6

smell 7 1can s m e ll... 8

9 10 1can f e e l...
_____________

3 1.08 Imagine you are visiting the place in the photos. Look at the photos and listen
to the sounds. Then finish the sentences in the third column of the table in exercise 2.
Use your imagination.

4 1.09 Listen to a radio programme about a traveller. What is unusual about him?
Which senses does he use when he travels?

5 1.09 Listen again. Are the sentences true (T) or false (F)? Correct the false ones.
1 Terri never walks around cities.
2 Terri went to Istanbul two years ago.
3 People always helped him when he was lost.
4 Terri once used his sense of smell to find out where he was.
5 In Istanbul people usually queue at bus stops.
6 Terri prefers train stations to bus stops.
7 Sounds give him an idea of a place.
8 Terri thinks sighted travellers should listen more to people talking.

6 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Answer the questions.


1 Think about a place you visited. W hat do you remember most about that place?
Talk about the things you:
saw heard tasted smelled felt
2 Which sense helped you remember the most? Number them 1-5 in order of importance.
sight hearing taste smell touch

20 Places
Asking fo r and g ivin g directions

7 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Look at


the map of Newcastle and find these
places.
a metro station
an art gallery
a market
two cinemas
a cathedral
a railway station
the river

8 m 1.10 Listen to the dialogue.


Where are the speakers?
Where do they want to go?

9 1.10 Complete the phrases


from the dialogue. Then listen
again and check.

Asking for directions G iving directions Asking for repetition


W h ic h 1.....................is the ... ? G o 3................................this road, Sorry, I did n't6
Could y o u 2............................... towards / away from the .... that.
us / me how to get to ... ? Then w a lk 4 the.... Could you say that again?
Do you know how to get to ... ? 5.............. right / left right into
Can you help us? It's the first / second / third road
We're looking fo r....

10 1.11 Put the dialogue in the correct order. Then listen and check.
Sue Sorry, I'm not sure I understood. Could you repeat that, please?
Teo That's right.
Sue OK, and then?
Sue Oh, I see. So I go down New Bridge Street.
Teo Well, when you reach the end of New Bridge Street you'll see Grey's monument, and
there's a metro station right next to it.
Sue Thank you!
Teo Sure, go along John Dobson Street, and then turn right on to New Bridge Street. The
metro station is there, but at the moment it's closed.
Sue Excuse me. Can you help us? We're looking for the nearest metro station.
Teo Yes, it's very near here. Go straight on, along John Dobson Street towards the river. Walk
past Durant Road and Saville Row towards Market Street. W hen you get to New Bridge
Street, turn right.
11 Read the dialogue again. Underline more ways of giving directions and asking for repetition.

12 SPEAKING Work in pairs. You are on Blackett Street. Take it in turns to ask for and give
directions to these places. Remember to ask for repetition if you do not understand.
the railway station
a library
a theatre
a cinema
the river

Vocabulary bank Prepositions of movement page 135

Places 21
2 D Culture, vocabulary and grammar Naming places

1 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Answer the questions.

W h a ts in
a name?
1 W hat does your name mean?
2 Is there a story behind your name?
3 Do you know other people who have the same name?

2 Study the names below. In which country are these


places? Do you know what the names mean? Read
Last year, as I was travelling through
the extract from a travel book and check your
answers.
Australia, I often stopped at places with
Nambucca Uluru Murwillumbah strange or unusual names: names like
Melbourne Bondi Beach Murwillumbah and Waterloo. I often asked
myself, W here do all these names come
3 Read the extract again and answer the questions. from? And what can we learn from them?'
1 How did the Aborigines name places? Local people sometimes knew the answer
2 W ho were the first Europeans to arrive in Australia? and sometimes they didnt, so I decided to
3 How did they feel when they arrived?
look at these place names more closely and
4 W hat type of names did they use?
found out some interesting facts.
5 W hat was special about Hell's Gates?
6 W hat happened at Gerringong?
M a n y p la c e n a m e s give u s a c lu e b e c a u s e th e y
7 How did Nowhere Else probably get its name?
d e s c r ib e p h y s ic a l c h a r a c te r is tic s , lik e b ig h ill,

insight Verbs + prepositions d r y d e s e r tj o r ta ll tr e e . T h o u s a n d s o f y e a rs


ag o , th is is h o w th e firs t A u s tra lia n s - th e
Find these verbs in the extract and write the
A b o r ig in e s - n a m e d p la c e s . T oday, in
prepositions that follow them.
A u s tra lia , t h e r e a re th o u s a n d s o f p la c e s w ith
learn .................................. A b o rig in a l n a m e s , to w n s lik e M u r w illu m b a h
borrow ..................................
(g o o d c a m p s ite ), N a m b u c c a ( e n tr a n c e t o th e
belong ..................................
se a ), B o n d i B e a c h f ro m th e w o r d B o o n d i (th e
happen ..................................
io s o u n d o f w a te r fallin g o v e r ro c k s) a n d U lu ru
wait
hope (b ig ro c k ).
warn ..................................
think .................................. T h e E u r o p e a n s h a d d iff e re n t id e a s . W h e n th e y
firs t a rr iv e d in 1606, th e y w a n te d to m a k e
5 Complete the sentences. Use the present simple or th is s tr a n g e n e w la n d feel lik e h o m e . H o w
past simple form of the verbs in exercise 4. is d id th e y d o it? W ell, th e y b o r r o w e d n a m e s
1 The sign.............................people.............................. f ro m th e c o u n tr y th e y c a m e f ro m - it s h o w e d
the dangerous road. t h a t th e s e p la c e s b e lo n g e d to th e m . F re n c h
2 The name Melbourne a n d D u tc h p la c e n a m e s lik e B o u g a in v ille a n d
................................................a British Prime Minister,
A r n h e m L a n d s ta r te d t o a p p e a r a lo n g th e
3 No one knows w h at..................................................
20 A u s tra lia n c o a s t. T h e n , in 1770, t h e E n g lish
........................................................ the tw o explorers.
e x p lo r e r C a p ta in C o o k a r r iv e d in B o ta n y Bay.
4 W e c a n .................................a lo t.................................
Aboriginal place names.
S o o n , t h e r e w a s M e lb o u r n e , a to w n n a m e d
5 Most people never........................................................ a fte r a B ritis h P rim e M in is te r, a n d W a te rlo o ,
.......................................the meaning of place names. n a m e d a f te r a fa m o u s b a ttle b e tw e e n E n g la n d
6 The Europeans.............................................................. 25 a n d F ra n c e .
a better life in Australia.
7 The sailors didn't want to leave without their captain.
The ship.........................................................................
........................................................ him in Botany Bay.
8 1.............................................. a book about Australia
..................................................................... the library.

6 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Answer the questions.


1 Which of the place names do you think is the
strangest? W hich is the most memorable? W hy?
2 Think about a strange or unusual place name in your
country. Do you know the story behind the name?

22 Places
2D
w h ile , as a n d when
7 Find examples of w hile, as and when in the extract.
Then complete the rules with the words below.
beginning longer shorter same after

W e can use w h ile , a s and w h e n to talk a b o u t actions


T h e re a re o th e r n a m e s w ith m o re lo c a l s to rie s th a t take place at th e sam e tim e.
to tell. T h e y tell u s w h a t h a p p e n e d to p e o p le a W e usually use while or as to introduce the
w h o liv e d th e re . I w a s w a itin g fo r a b u s in action.
T a s m a n ia w h e n I n o tic e d a sig n fo r H ell's G ates. b W e use while or as for tw o longer actions that happen

L ater, I fo u n d o u t th a t th e to w n g o t its n a m e at t h e .............................. time.


c W e use when to introduce a action
fro m a te r r ib le p ris o n n earb y . T h e o rig in s o f
that interrupts a longer action,
G e rrin g o n g in N e w S o u th W a le s a re e q u a lly
d W e use when to talk about on e even t that happens
d a rk . W h ile I w a s v isitin g a m u s e u m th e re , a
im m ed iately.............................. another.
g u id e w a s e x p la in in g its h isto ry . G e rrin g o n g e While, as and when can g o at the or
m e a n s a p lac e o f peril'" - it w a s th e w o rd th e in the middle o f sentences.
A b o rig in e s s h o u te d w h e n th e y first sa w C a p ta in
R e f e r e n c e a n d p r a c t i c e 2 .3 W orkbook page 107
C o o k 's sh ip . O t h e r n a m e s tell u s h o w p e o p le felt
w h e n th e y a rriv e d , like M o u n t D is a p p o in tm e n t 8 R ead th e sto ry a n d c h o o se th e c o rre c t w o rd s.
a n d N o w h e re E lse in th e A u s tra lia n O u tb ack * .
P e rh a p s th e p e o p le w h o n a m e d th e s e p laces M y cou sin ja k e w e n t to Australia last year. H e
h o p e d fo r s o m e th in g b e tte r! w as staying in M e lb o u rn e w h e n / w h i l e he
d e cid e d to go to Lake Eyre in the Australian
A lto g e th e r th e r e a r e o v e r 2 5 0 ,0 0 0 n a m e s in O u tb a c k . H e w as d rivin g through the outback
A u s tra lia ; n a m e s o f riv e rs , m o u n ta in s , p la in s , 2w h e n / a s he saw a sign for W illia m C reek, the

to w n s a n d c itie s a n d m a n y m o re . T h e s e n a m e s sm allest to w n in Australia. 3W h e n / W h i l e he got

c a n te ll u s w h a t w e c a n fin d th e r e , th e y c a n to the tow n, he saw a petrol station, a ca r park

te ll u s a b o u t h is to ry , th e y c a n w a r n u s a b o u t and a hotel. There w a s e ven a sm all m useum .

d a n g e r o r th e y c a n w e lc o m e u s . N e x t tim e y o u The hotel w a s open, so he had som ething to eat.


H e w a s talking to som e local p e o p le 4w h e n /
tra v e l t o a n e w p la c e , th in k a b o u t its n a m e .
w h i l e he w as having his lunch. T h ey w e re telling
W h a t is i t te llin g y o u ?
him stories a b o u t the o u tb ack 5w h e n / w h i l e they
heard a strange noise. 6A s / W h e n they w e re
looking under the table, som ething c ra w le d out
o f jake's bag. It w a s a scorpion!

9 Work in pairs. Choose five of the


S P E A K IN G
sentences below and think of a suitable ending
for each. Tell the endings to your partner. Can they
guess which sentence it is?
1 I w as w atching a TV program m e about Australia
w hen . . . .
2 M y friend w as sending a text message w hile ....
3 W h ile I w as w aiting in the cinem a q u e u e ,. . . .
4 M y teacher w as explaining the past sim ple w hile
5 As I was waiting for the b u s ,. . . .
* peril = danger
s the outback = mostly uninhabited, 6 The lights w en t out w hile ....
dry land in inland Australia 7 W h e n I w oke up this m orning.......
8 As w e w ere walking d o w n th e street,. . . .
9 M y friend w as looking ou t o f the w in d o w w hen . . . .
10 As I was helping an old lady cross the road____

Places
2 E Writing A travel blog

1 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Look at the photos from a


travel blog and answer the questions.
1 Which country do you think the blog is about? W hy?
2 W hat activities can you see? How would you describe them?
3 W hat do you like doing on holiday?

2 Read travel blog entries A and B. Match photos 1-4 to


entries A and B.

Home Search

25 June

Last week I went to Queenstown in New Zealand. I took a bus from Christchurch, through the mountains
and past peaceful lakes. It was a long, bring trip, but while I was travelling, I met a girl called Kate. She was
from Queenstown and she was very helpful. She told me all about the place.

Queenstown is in a beautiful location. It's next to Lake Wakatipu and it was originally a Maori settlement.
Then in the 1860s there was a gold rush. That's when the Europeans came and settled there.

While I was staying in Queenstown, I didn't see any gold, but I did see a lot of adventure sports.
Queenstown is famous for them. The weather was chilly, but sunny and bright, so I tried snowboarding. I
also went to a music festival. It was very busy, but I met a lot of friendly people.

As well as festivals and sports, I visited some lively markets and ate at some popular (and expensive)
restaurants. Queenstown was a fantastic place to stay!

1 August

When I arrived in Wellington the weather wasn't nice. It wasn't a good start to my stay, but on the nice
journey there, 1read that Wellington was a nice city, with lots of things to see and do. I wasn't disappointed.

Wellington is on the south coast of New Zealand's North Island. It's an old city with a fascinating history. The
Maori people lived there for hundreds of years before the British arrived in 1839.

There were lots of interesting places to see in Wellington. The parks were nice, the streets were nice and
tidy, and the people were nice. While I was staying there, I visited the Te Papa National Museum and learned
about the Maori people. Lots of tourists had the same idea - it's a very nice place! On my last day, I went
shopping on Cuba Street. The shops were expensive, but luckily I found a nice coffee shop.

24 Places
insight Collocations: descriptive adjectives

Complete the table with the highlighted words from travel blog entry A. Some words can be
used in more than one category.

The journey short, dangerous, safe, exciting, boring

The weather stormy, windy, hot, rainy, cold

The people polite, nice, young

The place historic, pretty, cheap, unpopular, awful, crowded, fascinating

4 What would you say in these situations? Use adjectives in exercise 3.


1 There are a lot of people on the bus. It's crowded!
2 You pay tw enty euros for a sandwich at a cafe.
3 The mountain road is very narrow.
4 There's no one else swimming in the lake.
5 Its starting to snow.
6 The hostel you're staying in is very dirty.
7 A lot of people visit this town.
8 I here aren't any clouds in the sky.
9 You get lost and someone helps you.
10 You spend the whole day sightseeing.

STRATEGY

A vo id in g rep etitio n
When you write, don't use the same words all the time. Use different adjectives, and try to use
new words you have learned. This will help you to remember new vocabulary and make your
writing more interesting.

5 Read the strategy. Then read travel blog entry B from the same trip. Underline the word the
writer uses to describe the weather, the journey, the city, places in the city and the people.
Replace the word with an adjective from the list.
cheap sunny long popular friendly lively pretty clean

DVD extra Queenstown, New Zealand

WRITING GUIDE

Task Think about an interesting place you visited Plan Decide which ideas you are going to use
in the past. Write a travel blog entry about the place and match them to these paragraphs.
and your visit. Paragraph 1: Introduction. Say where you w ent and
how you got there.
Ideas Read the instructions and make notes. Paragraph 2: Give background information. Say
1 Decide which place you are going to write about. something about the place and its
2 Choose four of these things to write about. history.
How and when you got there. Paragraph 3: Say what you did and saw.
The location of the place and its history. Paragraph 4: Sum up w hy you liked it.
The name of the place and where it comes from.
W hat you did and what you saw. Write Write a description of the place you visited.
W hat the weather was like. Use the paragraph plan to help you.
W hat the people were like.
Check Check the following points.
Have you included the information asked for in the
task?
Are your ideas divided into paragraphs?
Is there a variety of adjectives?
Have you checked spelling, grammar and
punctuation?

Places 25
Vocabulary insight 2 Using a dictionary: synonyms and antonyms

1 Work in pairs. Think of a town or city you know well. STRATEGY


Tell your partner about the places below.
Using synonym s and an to nym s correctly
a a cheap place to eat
Some words, especially adjectives, can have more than
b famous monuments to see
one synonym or antonym. These words are often used
c a beautiful area to walk around
in different contexts, so it is important to choose the
d old buildings to take photos of
correct synonym or antonym for the context.
e a quiet place to relax
For example:
f a large market
ancient (= very old, from a long time ago)
2 Read phrases a-f in exercise 1 again. Which six words historic (= important in history)
in the phrases are adjectives?
new (book, idea, friend)
STRATEGY modern (art, architecture, life)
Using a d ictio n a ry to find synonym s and young (person)
antonym s
To help you choose the correct synonym or antonym,
Learning the synonyms and antonyms of a word can
look at the dictionary entry for the word. Example
help you to improve your reading and writing skills. For
sentences, h elp and information boxes give you extra
example, they can help you to identify paraphrases when
information so that you choose the most suitable word
reading a text and to avoid repetition when writing.
for the context.
You can find useful information about the synonyms and
antonyms of a word in a dictionary. Most dictionaries use
5 Read the strategy above. Then study the dictionary
the following abbreviations:
notes and choose the correct adjectives in
SYN = synonym (a word with a similar meaning) sentences 1-5.
O PP = antonym (a word with an opposite meaning) 1 That music is too loud / noisy. Turn it down.

The synonyms and antonyms of a word are always the 2 Our flat is on a main road, so it is very loud / noisy.

same part of speech as the word itself. For example, if the 3 Anna is very tall / high. She's a basketball player.
4 How tall/high is this mountain?
word is an adjective, all its synonyms and antonyms will
be adjectives, too. 5 Sam is a big/large boy for his age.
loud /laud/ adj (louder; loudest) adv 1 making a
lot of noise; not quiet: Can you turn the TV down? I t s
3 Read the strategy above. Then study the dictionary too loud. * Could you speak a b it louder - the people
a t the back ca n 't hear. F m quiet, soft
entry for cheap and answer the questions.
HELP Loud or noisy? Loud is usually used to
1 W hat is a synonym of cheap ? describe the sound itself or the thing producing
2 W hat is an antonym of cheap ? the sound: a loud noise/bang loud music. Noisy
is used to describe a person, animal, place, event,
etc. that is very loud or too loud: a noisy road/
1 c h e a p 1 /tji:p / adj (cheaper; cheapest) 1 low in
party/engine/child.
price, costing little money: Oranges are cheap a t the
moment. * Computers are getting cheaper all the
time. i-Vi.'i inexpensive M J J dear, expensive
2 charging low prices: a cheap hotel/restaurant OTHER WORDS FOR
li 'i i! ! inexpensive M il J expensive 3 low in price b ig
and quality and therefore not attractive: The clothes
Big and large can both be used when talking
in th a t shop look cheap.
about size or number: a big/large house a big
1'. d irt cheap 3 d irt
baby. Urge is more formal and should be used in
writing, unless it is in an informal style. Large is
not usually used to describe people, except to
4 Complete the table with the words below. Use a
HELP Tall or high? Tall and high have similar
dictionary to help you.
meanings. We use tall to describe the height of
people, trees and other narrow objects: He is six
ancient big expensive inexpensive modern
lo o t three inches toll. * A ta ll oak tree stands in the
noisy peaceful pretty small ugly unknown garden. * I sow the ta ll skyscrapers o f Manhattan.
We use high to describe things that are not nar
well-known row: high mountains * The wall is tw o metres high.
and the distance of something from the ground:
a room w ith high ceilings
adjective synonym antonym
1 cheap inexpensive expensive
6 Match words 1-4 with synonyms and antonyms a-d.
2 famous
Then find the words in a dictionary and compare
3 beautiful their meanings.
4 old 1 short a U m unsafe, dangerous
5 quiet 2 cold b 1323 awful, terrible
3 safe c E L S long, tall
6 large
4 bad d H E l chilly, cool

26 Vocabulary insight 2 Dictionary entries from Oxford Wordpower Dictionary, 4th edition
Review 2

V o cabu lary G ram m ar

1 Read the text and write the antonyms of the 5 Complete the text with the past simple form of the
adjectives in italics. verbs in brackets.

The Rastro of Madrid is a famous street market in Ov\e day last -year, T 1 tgo)
Spain. It's in the historic centre of Madrid, where the to our local shoppivog centre with some frievods.
buildings are very 1modern and the streets are very X2 C+aKe) my mobile phone
Tourist attractions

2wide. The area gets3deserted on Sunday mornings


with me. The vvext dory, X realised that X
because thousands of people go to the market.
3..................................(.not have) m y phovve. N[y
When the Rastro opens at 9 a.m., all of the stalls
mum 4................................(.call) my vouoober +0
are 4messy, but at the end of the day, you can't find
see if my phone wos at home. We listened, but
anything and the streets are very 5clean. It's 6safe to
take a lot of money to the Rastro because someone
we 5..................................(.not hear) the ringtone.
might steal it from you. Suddenly, my mum's phone started n'vvgivog She
6 ...............................Cawswer) it avid
Marks /6 7 .............................. CspeaK) to c\ woman who
8 (.have) my phone. We
2 Complete the definitions with places in town. 9 ...............................(.arrange) to meet
1 you can see famous paintings here: at her house When X got there, .she
2 you go here if you break your leg: 10 (.01ve) m e back my phone.
3 you can borrow books here: X coulcWt believe my luck!
4 you can study a science degree here:
5 you go here if someone steals your bag:.....................
Marks 75 Marks /10

3 Complete the sentences with the words below. 6 Complete the sentences with the past simple or past
hear sight skin smelly tongue continuous form of the verbs in brackets.
1 Put suncream on your so that 1 W here (be) you yesterday morning?
it doesn't burn. 2 Rosie......................................(not study) at 8 p.m. last
2 That cheese is ve ry ..................................I don't like it. night. She was at a party.
3 Jack lost his.............................................in an accident, 3 W hat tim e.......................... the train
so now he's blind. (leave) the station?
4 W e can ................................... the birds singing 4 I got up,............................... (have) breakfast and
when we wake up. went out.
5 A person's can identify 5 y o u ............................(sleep) when
four different flavours. I called?
Marks 75 6 People........................................ (not write) emails in
the past. They sent letters instead.
4 Complete sentence b with three words so that it has a 7 It was the first day of August and the sun
similar meaning to sentence a. Use the correct form of (shine).
the verbs below. 8 W e were going to school when it
belong borrow learn wait warn (start) to snow.
Marks /8
1 a Travelling teaches you many things.
b You can from travelling.
7 Complete the sentences with while / as or when.
2 a M y friend lent me this book.
1 Jack fell asleep.......................he was watching a film.
b I ..................................................... from my friend.
2 W e w ent out the rain stopped.
3 a They were at the taxi rank for an hour.
3 Ann was driving to work
b They taxi for an hour.
the accident happened.
4 a That's my brother's digital camera.
4 I was walking through the park,
b That digital camera ....... brother
I remembered it was mum's birthday!
5 a They told us to be careful of scorpions in the grass,
5 They were listening to the radio...................................
b T h ey.....................................scorpions in the grass.
they were making breakfast.
Marks 75
6 Paul bought a ticket he got to the station.
Marks /6

Total 745

Pronunciation bank 2 Workbook page 124 R e vie w 2


Listening

1 1.12 Listen to four people talking about places


they visited. Match speakers 1-4 to sentences A-E.
There is one sentence that you do not need.
Speaker 1
Pompeii: the city
Speaker 2
Speaker 3
Speaker 4

A Many people didn't know this place existed until the


beginning of the twentieth century.
B There are some unanswered questions connected to
this place.
C This place was the site of the last battle fought by its
ancient rulers. 28 June
D This place changed the w ay experts thought about
W e're staying in our hotel in Naples this
the past.
morning after spending all day yesterday in
E This place shows how much the builders knew about
Pompeii. W e had a great time, but there was so
science at the time.
much to see that we're exhausted!

S peaking Pompeii is the city that disappeared when the


local volcano, Mount Vesuvius, erupted in AD 79.
2 Work in pairs. You are sightseeing on holiday when
At the time, people thought the volcano was
you see a person from your hotel. Prepare a dialogue.
a mountain, and so no one was worried about
Attract their attention and explain how you know living next to it. They didn't realize their mistake
them. until the 'mountain' exploded and volcanic ash
Find out how long they are staying at the hotel started falling on top of the city. By then it was
Ask about the activities they are doing on holiday.
too late. Soon a thick layer of ash covered the
Find something you both enjoy doing.
houses and the people inside them. About 2,000
people died in the disaster Eventually, the city
Reading
of Pompeii disappeared completely under the
3 Read the travel blog. Choose the correct answers. ash, until it was found again in 1748. Since then,
1 Right now, the writer of the blog is archaeologists have uncovered about two-thirds
a planning a visit to Pompeii. of the city.
b relaxing in her hotel, W e got the train to Pompeii from the station
c sightseeing in Naples, here in Naples. It only took us half an hour
d travelling to Naples. The tickets were really cheap - only 1.80 for
2 People weren't worried about living next to Mount a single! W e joined a tour group when we
Vesuvius because arrived at the entrance, and our guide's name
a they didn't know it was a volcano,
b it wasn't very near Pompeii,
c it was only a very small volcano,
d they couldn't see it from their houses.
3 The writer was happy with the tour guide because
a she told them where to have lunch.
b the tour didn't last very long.
c her English was very good.
d they saw things that tourists didn't usually see.
4 Inside the houses in Pompeii today, you can see
a typical food and drinks from the area.
b films about everyday life in Pompeii,
c furniture and objects from Roman times,
d actors performing the daily life of people in Pompeii
5 The writer's plan for this afternoon is to
a go back to Pompeii.
b see something she didn't see the day before,
c stay in the hotel and rest,
d learn something about the history of Naples.

C u m ulative re v ie w U nits 1-2 Literature insight 1 Workbook page 84


G ram m ar and vo cab ulary

4 Choose the correct answers.

Volcano threatens
holidays in,
the Canaries
The Canaries are a group of islands off the north-west coast
of Africa that belong1................. Spain. There are seven large
islands, such as Tenerife and Gran Canaria, and a number of
smaller ones. About twelve million tourists2 the
was Paola. She spoke fantastic English and she islands every year, making them one of the most popular
showed us lots of things that weren't in the holiday destinations in Spain. But this summer, the island of
guide book, which was really good. The tour El Hierro3 attracting any visitors. This is because
took two hours, and then we had a small pizza the National Geographic Institute of Spain is warning people
and a bottle of water for lunch. After lunch, we 4 the possibility of a natural disaster. This year, the
spent another four hours looking round. W e island5 many earthquakes every day, which is an
saw the amphitheatre, the baths, the forum and indication that there is volcanic activity in the area. At first,
some of the most important houses. the residents didnt notice the earthquakes at all, but the
latest one to hit the island registered four on the Richter
The thing I liked best about our visit was that you
Scale. People6 ........the earth move under their feet.
really got an insight into Roman life nearly two
thousand years ago. Pompeii was an important Last summer, the organization a lso 7 volcanic activity
near El Hierro and people became anxious8 . their
city at the time and the people lived in large,
safety. However, the main activity was out at sea, and they
beautiful houses. The ash kept the houses and
g o t9 the year without any problems. This summer,
their contents in perfect condition, and the
however, the activity is actually under the island. El Hierro is
objects are just as the people left them. There are
now on yellow alert and everyone is afraid10 a big
pots and pans in the kitchens and cups and plates disaster that could completely destroy the island.
on the tables, so you can imagine families having
lunch together in the room where you're standing.
W e liked the mosaics in Pompeii so much that 1 a from b of c to

we're planning to go to the National Museum 2 a visited b are visiting c visit


3 a wasn't b isn't c doesn't
of Naples this afternoon to see some more.
4 a about b for c from
They say the best ones are here and not on the
5 a experience b experiences c experienced
archaeological site. I'll tell you what I think in my
6 a felt b heard c saw
next blog tomorrow morning.
7 a was detecting b detected c detects
8 a of b about c in
9 a away b off c through
10 a from b for c of

W riting

5 Imagine that you went on holiday to Italy last


month. You made friends with a guest staying
at your hotel and you visited the city of Pompeii
together. Write an informal letter to a friend from
home telling them about your visit to Pompeii.
Include this information:
when you arrived back home and how much you
enjoyed your holiday.
what you found out about your new friend,
what you found out about Pompeii,
tw o differences you noticed between Italy and
your country.

Exam insight 1 Workbook page 94 C u m u lative review U nits 1-2 29


- ^ /I

Choices
Reading and vocabulary In m y frid g e

Food for THOUGHT


1 SPEAKING Look at the photo and answer the
questions. Then read the article and compare
your ideas.
1 W hat food items can you see in the fridge?
2 Which countries does this food probably com e from?
3 Study the dictionary entry below. Is a big carbon
footprint good or bad for the environment? W hy?
The good, the bad
c a r b o n ' f o o t p r i n t noun [C] a measure of the
and the really ugly
1 amount of carbon dioxide that is producedI by the
daily activities of a person or company: cPa 5
ore looking a t ways to reduce their carbon footprints.

2 Read the article again and choose the correct


answers.
1 W hat does the writer want to find out about the food
in his fridge?
a If it is good for his health,
b If it is good for the environment,
c If it saves him money.
2 W hat can we learn from food labels?
a Information about the people w ho make our food,
b How far the food has travelled,
c W hy the price is low or high.
3 W hy does the writer feel guilty about the pizza?
a Because it is made in Thailand.
b Because it has a big carbon footprint,
c Because it is bad for his health.
4 W h y are bananas better than grapes?
a Because they dont have any packaging,
b Because they dont travel very fan
c Because they grow in natural sunlight.
5 W hy are burgers 'the really u gly?
a Because they are unhealthy.
b Because they come from the USA.
c Because they come from cows.
6 W hat does the writer want to do?
a He wants to stop eating meat.
b He wants to reduce his carbon footprint,
c He wants to have a healthy liefstyle.

3 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Answer the questions.


1 Which of the food items below are good and which
How often do you look in your fridge? And
are bad according to the writer? W hy?
what's in it? Look at what you eat in a day
pizza prawns bananas grapes burgers
2 Think about the food you have in your fridge at and multiply that by the millions of people all
home. Do you know where it comes from? over the world. All those people, all that food.
Which items are produced in your country? Where does it come from? Should we care?
Vocabulary bank Food and nutrition page 136

30 Choices
V ocabulary: life cycle of food; compounds; containers Sp eaking : talking about food; discussing diets and eating habits; inviting
G ram m ar: determiners; indefinite pronouns and adverbs; relative W riting : short texts
pronouns and adverbs

Life cycle of food

4 Study the highlighted words in the article.Then complete


the food facts with the correct form of the verbs.

When we less meat at mealtimes,


Today, in my fridge, there are a few grapes, a bunch of
bananas and some fruit juice-things that are not expensive
1 we help to reduce pollution.
There are 91 million cows in the USA. The USA
and that are good for me. There is also a pizza, and some
burgers in the freezer - which are not so good. I know what
2 most of the world's beef.
Food companies often bananas over
this food does to my body, but what does it do to the world
around m e? It's time to look at my carbon footprint and sort
5
3 5,000 miles from Brazil to supermarkets in the UK.
Today, companies in the UK 70% of
out the good from the bad and the really ugly.
the food to protect it. They use plastic, paper and metal.
In the UK, people................................about 70% of
Food miles 5 food packaging. But more than 30% goes in the bin!
The best food for our planet is fruit and vegetables
My first stop is the label. Labels give us lots of information:
how long we can keep our food, how many calories it has 6 that we can locally.
Supermarkets in the UK food
and where it comes from. A few hundred years ago, most 10
of our food cam e from places w e could walk to, but today, 7 to keep it cold. This produces the same amount
of pollution in one year as a plane flying from
food travels thousands of miles*. W e refrigerate it, then
London to New York 2.5 million times.
transport it in planes and ships all over the world. This
Every year, people in the UK
creates pollution and causes global warming.
seven million tonnes of food. That's a lot of waste!
I look at the slices of pizza and immediately feel guilty - 5
not because it's unhealthy, but because the prawns on it
are from Thailand. I know we produce prawns in the UK,
Compound nouns and adjectives
but they're more expensive. I take out a banana - it's from 5 Match the words in A to the words in B to make
Brazil, but that's not too bad. It cam e here by boat, so the compound nouns and adjectives. Then match the
carbon footprint of this healthy snack is small. 20 compound words to definitions 1-7. Which two
words are adjectives?
Packaging A eco- energy- food greenhouse global
recycling rubbish
The next stop is the packaging. In the UK, we don't recycle
B _ centre dump efficient friendly gases
all our packaging; we throw away more than 3 0 % of it.
miles warming
This waste goes to the rubbish dump and not to the
recycling centre. Luckily, we don't need to package food 1 we leave things that we can't recycle in this place
like bananas, but food like grapes needs protection. I look 25 2 not harmful to the environment
at the grapes in my fridge - they're in a plastic container 3 the increase in the temperature of the world's
and they're from Spain. atmosphere
4 we take old objects and materials to this place and
use them again
Production 5 the distance food travels to get to our homes
So my grapes are from Spain, but at least they grew in 6 not using a lot of power
natural sunlight. In the UK, people grow grapes in heated 7 gases like carbon dioxide that are bad for the
greenhouses, which means British grapes are less energy- 30 environment
efficient. But there is one other thing in my freezer, and if
pizza and grapes are 'bad', then this food is 'really ugly'. 6 SPEAKING Work in groups. Choose a snack you eat at
It's the burgers. They have the biggest carbon footprint school and design a leaflet for an eco-friendly version
because they come from cows. In the USA, cows create of that snack. Use the ideas below to help you.
the same amount of greenhouse gases as 2 0 million cars! 35 its place of origin how people make it the distance
As I close the fridge door, I make a checklist for my next trip to it travels 1 information about the packaging
the supermarket: 1 Read the label. 2 Look at the packaging. Compare your leaflets as a class. Decide which snack
3 Don't buy a lot of meat. Maybe I could grow my own has the biggest carbon footprint and which has the
vegetables, too. It's eco-friendly, I'd save some money and I smallest.
wouldn't feel guilty about eating burgers! 40

*1 mile=1.6km

Choices 31
3 B G ram m ar and listening Burger or broccoli?

A recent study shows that more and more


teenagers are not eating a healthy diet. We
asked seventeen-year-old student Tanya
Whats Fairhurst to keep a food diary, to see what
a typical teenager eats and drinks. Does
on your she eat any fruit and vegetables? Are there
many hamburgers in her diet? Is there
plate? much juice? Read on and find out!

Day 2
Day 1 Breakfast: I had some bread and drank
Breakfast: I woke up late for college, a lot of water. I was still hungry, but I dont
so I didn't eat any breakfast. My mum know how to cook, so I didn't eat any more.
leaves for work before I'm awake. She Lunch: I drank a few glasses of orange juice,
left me some cereal, but I threw it away. then I had a banana, some chocolate and a few
I had some orange juice instead. crisps. I know you should eat five portions of
Lunch: My dad gives me money every week for fruit and vegetables a day. I sometimes eat fruit,
my lunches, but I use it to buy magazines and but I don't eat many vegetables. I hale salad.
CDs. so there's not much money left for food. Dinner: I ate quite well this evening
Today, I had some biscuits instead of lunch. because I had dinner with my family.
Dinner: By 5 p.m. I was hungry, so I had We had soup, chicken, baked potatoes,
a little peanut butter on bread for a snack, peppers and broccoli, but I didn't eat
but I didn't eat any vegetables. For dinner. any soup or potatoes. I had some
I had a burger. I don't have many big apple juice before I went to bed.
meals because I want to stay slim.

1 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Look at the photo of seventeen-year-old Tanya with some of her
favourite food. Which of the food items do you think are healthy?

2 Read Tanya's food diary and answer the questions.


1 W hy didn't Tanya eat breakfast on Day 1?
2 W hat does she spend her lunch money on?
3 W hy doesn't she eat big meals?
4 W hy didn't she eat more for breakfast on Day 2?
5 W hy did she eat well at dinner time on Day 2?

3 Study the highlighted words in Tanya's diary. Which words are plural countable nouns?
Which are uncountable nouns?

D eterm in ers

4 Study the words in bold in Tanya's diary. Then complete the table with a little , a few, some,
any, m uch and m any.

Affirmative sentences Negative sentences Questions


with a lot of a lot of a lot of
countable
nouns

with a lot of a lot of a lot of


uncountable
nouns

Reference and practice 3.1 Workbook page 108

32 Choices
5 Complete the dialogue between Tanya and her mum. Use some or any.
Mum Tanya, let's h a v e 1.................................................................................................... pasta for lunch.
Tanya No thanks, M um . I'm not very hungry.
Mum Well, there's2..................................................................................................... salad in the fridge.
Tanya You know I don't like salad. Is th e re 3 juice?
Mum No, there isnt 4 juice, but there's5 milk.
Tanya Hm m , I'll have 6........................................................................................................ w ater instead.
Mum You can't just have w ater for lunch, you didnt h a v e 7 breakfast.
Tanya You're right, M um . Have you g o t 8 ........biscuits or crisps?

6 Read a nutritionist's opinion about Tanya's diet. Choose the correct words.

Tanya w a n ts to sta y slim , so sh e d o e s n 't e a t much / many food. W h a t


sh e d o e s e a t is n 't g oo d for h e r S h e u su a lly has snacks w ith 2a lot of /
a few sugar and fat. T h at's b ad for her heart. S h e d o e s n t d rink 3much /
many m ilk o r have 4much / many ch eese, but h er b o n e s need calciu m .
S h e d o e s n 't e at 5much / many a p p le s or b an an as, a n d sh e d o e s n 't
have 6much / many ve g etab le s. T h is isn 't g o o d for her im m u n e system .
A h ea lth y d ie t sh o u ld in clu d e 7a little / a few fruit, 8a little / a few
ve g etab le s, 9a little / a few m eat a n d carb ohyd rates. S h e co u ld eat
10a lot of /a few h ea lth y food and still stay slim .

7 1.13 Listen to a radio programme about teenage diets and complete the table.

Teenagers in the UK ... Yes No

1 eat junk food.

2 miss out meals.

3 are too lazy to eat well.

4 often eat with their families.

5 eat fruit and vegetables.

8 1.13 Make questions with h o w m uch or h o w m any. Then listen again and answer the
questions.
1 junk food / British teenagers e a t? ......................................................................................................
2 sugar and fat / they have in their d ie t? .............................................................................................
3 m e a ls /s o m e teenagers miss ou t? .................................................................................................
4 tim es a w e e k / th e y g o ou t w ith friend s?.........................................................................................
5 hom ew ork / teenagers h a v e ? ............................................................................................................
6 times a w eek / they eat w ith their fam ily ?........................................................................................
7 fruit / th ey have every w e e k ? .............................................................................................................

9 SPEAKING Write your own food diary. Make a list of the type of food you usually eat for
breakfast, lunch and dinner. Then work in pairs and interview your partner to find out about
their diet. Do they have five portions of fruit and vegetables per day?

Are there any


vegetables on Do you drink
your list? much milk?
How much fruit
do you eat?

Choices 33
3 C Listening, speaking and grammar Eating out

Look at the photos. What are vending machines? What can you buy from them?

STRATEGY

Listening for key w ords and phrases


When you listen to people speaking in English, remember to listen for key words and phrases.
Key words are often nouns and verbs. These words are usually stressed in spoken English.

2 1.14 Read the strategy. Listen to four people talking about vending machines. Match
the key words to speakers A-D.
animals 11 snack apples : junk food December airport healthy food forgot a refrigerate
: Japan i school camera postcard T-shirts and shoes depends

A Jake B Guy C Sally D Dexter

3 ^3 1.14 Match sentences 1-6 to speakers A-D in exercise 2. There is one sentence that you
do not need. Use the key words to help you. Then listen again and check your answers.
1 He / She w ent on holiday last year in January.
2 You can buy clothes from a few machines.
3 The country he / she visited has a lot of unusual machines.
4 He / She bought electrical equipment from a machine.
5 Some machines sell food that is good for you.
6 He / She often buys unhealthy food from vending machines.

In d e fin ite pronouns and adverbs: so m e -, a n y-, n o -, e v e r y -

4 t o 1.15 Complete the sentences from the radio programme with words from the table.
Which words do we use to talk about places? Which ones do we use for people and which
ones for things? Listen and check your answers.

some Indefinite pronouns and adverbs refer to people, things or places


one / body
any without saying exactly who, what or where they are. The difference
+ thing
no between indefinite pronouns and adverbs with some- and any- is
where
every like the difference between some and any on their own.

1 Today's gadget show is ab ou t.......................th in g .......................one uses at one time or another


2 Today, you can see th e m .......................where - at bus stations, in schools, shopping centres and
sports clubs.
3 one buys the apples........................ one prefers chocolates or crisps.
4 Is there thing w e can't buy from them?

Reference and practice 3.2 Workbook page 108

5 Choose the correct answers.


1 No one ordered pizza. Everyone / Anyone had burgers.
2 There's nothing / something in this vending machine. It's empty!
3 I can't find my phone, but I know it's here anywhere / somewhere.
4 I'm hungry! Have you got nothing / anything to eat?
5 Can anyone / no one help me with the shopping?
6 You can find junk food nowhere / everywhere you go.
7 No one / Anyone was interested in cooking.
8 Someone / Anyone gave me a few sweets in class.

34 Choices
3C

6 SPEAKING Work in groups. Read the announcement. Then prepare a proposal and present it
to the class. Vote for the best proposal.

Wanted: a vending machine


A t t e n t io n a ll s tu d e n t s ! T h e h e a d t e a c h e r o f o u r
s c h o o l a g r e e d to h a v e a v e n d in g m a c h i n e a n d
n o w w a n t s u s t o s u b m i t p r o p o s a ls .

The proposals should suggest:


what the m achine can sell.
the best location for it.
T he head teacher would also like to know.
w hat things students want to buy.
what things students can afford.
Send your proposals to the head teacher by 15 December.

In v itin g

7 SPEAKING What do you usually do at weekends? What are you doing this weekend?

8 1.16 Listen to the dialogue. What is Paul doing at the weekend? What is Zara doing?

9 1.16 Complete the phrases from the dialogue. Listen again and check.

Inviting Responding Keeping a conversation


Do y o u 1 ............. ? That's a g o o d 3 .................. going
2 like to com e Thanks, but I'm 4 W hat do y o u 6....................... ?
with me? Oh, that's a 5 .......... They've g o t . .., right?

10 ^ 1.17 Complete the dialogue with questions A-E. Then listen and check.
A Wheres that? Karl Hi, N ina.1
B W hat time are you meeting? Nina I'm going to the library. I've got a lot of maths
C W hy are you in such a hurry? homework, you know.
D W hat about 8.30 then, in the Karl But it's for Monday, right?
park? Nina Yes, it is, but there's a rock concert on Saturday.
E Area lot of people going? Karl Really?2
Nina It's in the park on Sefton Street.
Karl 3
Nina Yes, everyone.
Karl Well, no one told me about it.
Nina I didn't know you liked rock m usic W hy don't you
com e with us?
Karl Thanks, I'd like that.4
Nina At 6 p.m, outside the pizzeria.
Karl I can't make it at six. I've got basketball practice.
Nina 5
Karl That sounds great. See you there!

11 Read the dialogue again. Underline more ways of inviting and responding.

12 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Choose one of the situations below or use your own ideas. Take
turns to invite your partner. Use the dialogue in exercise 10 to help you.
You are going to the cinema on Friday and you have a spare ticket.
You are having a few friends over for a pizza on Saturday.
You are going bowling for your birthday next Sunday.

Choices 35
3 D Culture, vocabulary and grammar Notes from a big country

SPEAKING S tu d y th e s h o p p in g lis ts a n d a n s w e r
th e q u e s tio n s .
1 Which food is nutritious and healthy? Which is
unhealthy?
2 Which of these things can you buy in your
country?

Shopping List S h o p p in g LiSt_

chocolate cookies
mushrooms
Cookie Crisp cereal
broccoli
pancakes
muesli
bacon
milk p iz z a
cheese to a ste r strudel

2 Read th e e x tra c t fr o m N o te s fr o m a B ig C o u n try .


W h a t ty p e o f fo o d d o e s th e w r ite r like?

3 Read th e e x tra c t a g a in . A re th e s e n te n ce s tru e (T),


fa ls e (F) o r n o t g iv e n (NG)? C o rre c t th e fa ls e ones.
1 The writer always goes to the supermarket with his wife.
2 His wife approves of his'American'diet.
3 There is more junk food than healthy food in the store.
4 The writer has a good relationship with his wife.
5 Breakfast pizza remains in the trolley.
6 The writer agrees to eat all the junk food in the trolley.
Junk Food Heaven
7 His wife ate some of the junk food. S o m e w e e k s a g o I a n n o u n c e d to m y w ife t h a t
8 The writer thought the junk food was disgusting. I w a s g o in g to th e s u p e r m a r k e t w ith h e r n e x t
tim e s h e w e n t b e c a u s e th e s tu f f s h e k e p t
4 SPEAKING W o rk in p a irs. D iscuss th e q u e s tio n s . b r in g in g h o m e w a s n o t fu lly in th e s p i r i t o f
1 How would you describe the'American'diet? Is your s A m e r ic a n e a tin g . H e r e w e w e r e liv in g in a
diet similar or different? p a r a d i s e o f j u n k f o o d - t h e c o u n tr y t h a t g a v e
2 If you lived abroad, which traditional food from your t h e w o r ld c h e e s e in a s p r a y c a n - a n d s h e k e p t
country would you miss the most? b r in g in g h o m e h e a lt h y s tu f f lik e f r e s h b ro c c o li.
It w a s b e c a u s e s h e w a s E n g lis h , o f c o u r s e .
n s ig h t C o n ta in e rs
io S h e d i d n 't r e a l ly u n d e r s t a n d th e p o s s ib ilitie s
5 L o o k a t p h o to s A -H a n d m a tc h th e m to c o n ta in e rs f o r g r e a s i n e s s t h a t th e A m e r ic a n d ie t o ffe rs.
1 -8 . T h e n fin d th re e c o n ta in e rs in t h e te x t. W h a t's I lo n g e d f o r b a c o n b its , c h e e s e in a s h a d e o f
in s id e th e m ? y e llo w u n k n o w n to n a t u r e , a n d c h o c o la te
1 packet 3 carton 5 tube 7 bottle fillin g s , s o m e tim e s a ll in t h e s a m e p r o d u c t . So I
2 jar 4 box 6 can 8 bag is a c c o m p a n ie d h e r to th e s u p e r m a r k e t a n d w h ile
s h e w a s o ff p r ic in g m u s h r o o m s I m a d e f o r th e
6 C o m p le te th e ta b le . T h e n use y o u r o w n ideas to a dd j u n k fo o d s e c tio n - w h ic h w a s t h e r e s t o f th e
m o re ite m s t o th e list. s to r e . W e ll, i t w a s h e a v e n .

a box chocolates, tissues T h e r e w e r e tw o h u n d r e d ty p e s o f b r e a k f a s t


20 c e r e a l. T h e m o s t im m e d ia te ly i n t e r e s t i n g w a s
eggs, milk
a c e r e a l c a lle d C o o k ie C ris p , w h ic h tr ie d to
jam, coffee
p r e t e n d it w a s a n u t r i t i o u s b r e a k f a s t b u t w a s
water, vinegar r e a l ly j u s t c h o c o la te c h ip c o o k ie s t h a t y o u p u t in
of
toothpaste, cream a b o w l a n d a te w ith m ilk . B r illia n t. I g r a b b e d * a
potatoes, flour 25 b o x a n d r u s h e d * b a c k to th e tro lle y .

crisps, biscuits W h a t's t h a t ? m y w ife a s k e d in th e s p e c ia l to n e


o f v o ic e w ith w h ic h s h e o f te n a d d r e s s e s m e in
olives, soda
r e t a il e s ta b lis h m e n ts * .
V o c a b u la ry b a n k Food adjectives page 136

36 Choices
E l
3D

R elative pronouns and adverbs

7 Read the information about Bill Bryson and study the


highlighted words. Find more examples in the extract
from Notes from a Big Country. Then complete rules a-e.

Bill Bryson is a famous w riter who grew up in


America. He visited England in 1973, then moved
there a few years later after he got married. Its the
place where he wrote N o te s fr o m a S m a ll Isla n d , a
book about life in England. In 1995, the year when
he returned to the USA, he wrote N o te s fr o m a B ig
C o u n try. This extract is about a visit to an American
supermarket. Bill goes shopping with his wife, whose
opinions about food are very different from his. In the
supermarket, there is a lot of junk food which you can
only find in America. Its food th a t Bill Bryson likes ....

Relative pronouns and adverbs introduce more


information about a person, a thing, a place or a time.
We use:
a or that for people,
b
e

or forthings.
c .......... for possessions.
d .........for places.
e ..................... for times.

W e can leave out who, that and which if they are


B r e a k f a s t, I p a n te d a s I r u s h e d p a s t, a n d followed by another pronoun or a noun.
d o n 't e v e n t h in k a b o u t p u t ti n g a n y o f i t b a c k 30 W e can't leave out who, that and which if they are
a n d g e tt in g m u e s l i / followed by a verb.

It w a s t h e b r e a k f a s t p iz z a t h a t fin a lly m a d e m y
Reference and practice 3.3 Workbook page 109
w ife s n a p * . S h e lo o k e d a t t h e b o x a n d s a id , N o .
I b e g y o u r p a rd o n , m y s w e e t? Complete the sentences with the correct word.
Y ou a r e n o t b r in g in g h o m e s o m e th in g c a lle d 35 There may be more than one correct answer. In
b r e a k f a s t p iz z a . I w ill l e t y o u h a v e - s h e which sentences can you leave out the relative
r e a c h e d in to th e tr o lle y fo r s o m e s a m p le s - pronoun?
C o o k ie C risp a n d t o a s t e r s t r u d e l a n d . . . S h e 1 Bill Bryson is som eone....... ...............................enjoys
lif te d o u t a p a c k e t s h e h a d n 't n o tic e d b e fo r e . telling funny stories.
W h a t's t h i s ? 40 2 Hes the m a n . .. Trolley is full of junk food.

I lo o k e d o v e r h e r s h o u ld e r . M ic ro w a v e 3 Cookie Crisp is a cereal...... ............................ you can


buy in America.
p a n c a k e s , I s a id .
4 This is the broccoli............. ........................we bought
M ic ro w a v e p a n c a k e s , s h e r e p e a t e d , b u t w ith
from the supermarket.
le s s e n th u s ia s m . 5 Here are the pizzas............ ............... are for breakfast.
I s n t s c ie n c e w o n d e r f u l ? 45 6 Sunday is the d a y............... ................................ some
Y our e g o in g to e a t i t a ll, s h e s a id . E v e ry b it supermarkets close.
o f e v e r y th in g t h a t y o u d o n 't p u t b a c k o n th e 7 A oarden is the nlarp w 9 ran

s h e lv e s n o w . You d o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t ? grow our own vegetables.

O f c o u r s e , I s a id in m y s i n c e r e s t v o ice . 9 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Make sentences using the


A n d d o y o u k n o w s h e a c tu a lly m a d e m e e a t 50 words in the table and your own ideas. Can your
it. 1 s p e n t w e e k s w o r k in g m y w a y t h r o u g h a partner guess who / what / where it is?
s y m p h o n y o f j u n k fo o d , a n d it w a s a w fu l. F v e r y
a person which 1know very well.
b it o f it.
a place where 1go with my friends.
Extract from N o tes fr o m a Big C ountry by Bill Bryson a drink whose 1really enjoy.
This is
a time /day when 1can't stand.
G lo ssary a thing that 1use all the time.
* grabbed = took quickly a food who is really good at sport.
* rushed = walked / ran quickly
* retail establishments = shops DVD extra Food in the UK
* snap = speak with an angry voice
Choices
3E Writing Short texts: notes, invitations, adverts and announcements
r \ ^t l

1 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Look at short texts A-F. Then answer the questions.
1 Where might you find each text A-F? Choose from the places below.
on a school noticeboard on a desk in an office or at home a on a fridge
2 W hen was the last time you wrote a note, an invitation, an advert or an announcement?
W hat was it about? Tell your partner about it.

Tanya
Dont f o r ge t your lunch box
Lost python snake
I t s on th e third shelf, above th e burgers. called Lucky.
Working late tonight so cant cook dinner, but Black with brown spots.
th eres p izza in th e frid ge and some fruit,
Last seen Friday 13 Nov,
near South Park.
e g bananas and apples

See you later


20 reward if found.
Call Eva, tel. 028 9018 0659.
Mum x

Helen
Dan
Kelly's birthday on Sa t. Holly planning surprise party.
Just wanted to say thanks
fo r the flow ers! Want t o come?
Lovely surprise to find them P a rty a t 7.30 p.m.. Gusto P iz z a , Baker S t.
on my desk.
I'll be th ere from 7 - helping with decorations, lights, e tc .
They're beautiful, esp. the
R S V P t o Holly i f you can make it.
yellow roses.
Lily xx Tanya

Book Sale
H arry
We are holding a second-hand book sale to celebrate
Colour p rin ter not working. World Book Day and raise money for schools in Africa.
Need to fix i t asap. Can Date: 7 March
you call the electrician? Location: school canteen
Time: 2 p.m. - 5 p.m.
Anne
PS Buy more paper, too. NB School canteen closed from 11 a.m. to 2 p.m. tomorrow, 7 March.
Please bring your own lunch or use vending machine on the first floor
next to the gym.

STRATEGY

Thinking about purpose


Before you write a note, an invitation, an advert or an announcement, think about why you are
writing and what you need to include. Do you want to remind, invite, explain, make a request
or an offer, give instructions, advertise, apologize, suggest, announce something, thank
somebody or ask for help? Make sure the purpose is clear.

2 Read the strategy. Then read short texts A-F again. What is the main purpose of each text?

A b b reviatio n s

3 An abbreviation is a short form of a word or phrase. Study the highlighted abbreviations in


A-F and match them to words and phrases 1-9.
1 street 6 this is very important
2 please reply 7 telephone number
3 as soon as possible 8 for example
4 and so on 9 especially
5 I also want to say

38 Choices
Look at the informal letters on page 13 and compare them with short texts A-F. What are the
differences? Think about:
the greetings (e.g. Dear, Best wishes).
the use of abbreviations.
the grammar: imperatives (e.g. Don't be late), articles (a / a n and the), pronouns and auxiliary verbs
at the beginning of sentences (e.g. compare I'm going to the beach, with Working late tonight.).

Read the email below. What is its main purpose? Underline the most important information.
Then write an advert to put on the noticeboard at Kelly's school. Use exercises 3 and 4 to
help you.

0 lo =>

15 September
Hi Kelly
How are you? I hope you enjoyed the party last night. I had a great time! The only thing is,
I think I lost my leather jacket somewhere. It's a really nice black one with a red lining, two
pockets at the front and a small green logo above the left pocket. It was a birthday present
from my dad, so I especially want to find it. Can you ask the other students in your class at
school if anyone saw it or found it? If someone has got it, please could they ring me as soon
as possible on 01632960354? Thanks.
Dan
I almost forgot - I'll give a reward of 15 to the person who brings it back!

WRITING GUIDE

You are planning to spend the 2 You spent a week staying with 3 You and two friends have tickets
weekend camping and walking an English friend and their family for a music festival this weekend,
in the mountains with a group of in London. Today is the last day but one friend is ill and can't go.
friends from school. Write a note of your visit and you have to You want to sell the spare ticket.
to a new student in your class to get up very early to catch your Write an advert to put on the
invite them to join you. plane. Write a note to thank your school noticeboard.
a Say where you are going, friend's parents. a Say you have a spare ticket for
b Give the time and place to a Say you are sorry not to say sale and explain what type of
meet. goodbye to everyone in person. event it is for
c A s k th em to tellyo u if they b Thank them for the food and b Describe the event and give
can come or not as soon as the accommodation. information about the date,
possible. c Say how much you enjoyed time and place.
d Remind them that they will your visit, especially the trip to c Say how much the ticket
need good walking boots: this Brighton. costs.
is very important. d Add a message at the end to d Give your name and
say you hope they will visit telephone number so that
you soon. people can contact you.

Task Read tasks 1-3 and check you understand them. Write Write your note, invitation and advert.
Use the plan to help you.
Ideas Answer the questions.
1 W ho is each short text for? Is it for a friend, a Check Check the following points.
classmate, a member of your family, etc.?
Have you included the information asked for in the
2 Think about the main purpose of the texts. Are you
task?
writing to explain, invite, remind, make an offer, etc.?
Have you used informal language, short sentences,
Plan Follow the instructions. imperatives and abbreviations?
Have you checked spelling, grammar and
1 Write the title of the message or the name of the
punctuation?
person at the top, but dont include greetings.
2 Make sure the purpose of the text is clear. Keep
it short. Use short sentences, imperatives and
abbreviations where you can.

Choices 39
Vocabulary insight 3 Recording vocabulary

1 Work in pairs. Answer the questions. STRATEGY


1 W here do you record new vocabulary?
Recording groups o f w ords
2 Can you find the words again easily? W hy / w hy not?
Recording words in a group can help you to remember
3 W hat information do you record about a new word?
them more easily.There are different methods to record a
STRATEGY group of words:
1 a labelled drawing
Recording vo ca b u la ry
2 a mind map
It is useful to have a vocabulary notebook or file on your
3 in word families
computer where you can write down new words and
4 a list with a topic heading.
find them easily later.

When you record vocabulary, first decide how important 4 Read the strategy above. Match A-D to methods 1-4
the word is. You should always include the meaning, part in the strategy.
of speech and pronunciation. However, if it is a word
you think you will use often, then it is a good idea to add
more information about it, such as an example sentence,
irregular forms, collocations, synonyms and antonyms.

You can find this information in a dictionary. It will help


you to remember the word and use it correctly.

2 Read the strategy above. Look at the students'


vocabulary records A and B. What information does
each student have about the word grow ? Which
record do you think is more useful?

s ' ' ' ..........................................................


grow Lgroul Cverbi - grew - grown
s become bigger, develop in a place
Translation, rosvtyc, podrosv^c, podrastoic
Ex. AV) v>%<rY\ grows flowers |V\ pots.
Cqrow + plants / -flowers)

_B_
grow - rosvyyz, podrosvvyc, podrasiac -
become biqger / lovoger

3 Study the dictionary entry and complete the


vocabulary record for healthy.

healthy / helOi/ a d j (h ealth ier; h ealthiest) 1 not


often ill; strong and w e ll: a h e a lt h y c h il d / a n im a l /
p l a n t 2 helping to produce good health: a h e a lth y
d im a t e / d ie t / lif e s t y le 5 show ing good health (of
body or m ind): h e a lt h y s k in a n d h a i r 4 norm al and 5 Put the words below into three different groups
sensible: T h e re w a s p le n t y o f h e a l t h y c o m p e t it io n
b e tw e e n th e b r o t h e r s m in for all m eanings using methods in exercise 4.
unhealthy healthily adv
delicious fresh grew grow grown growth
jar label lid raw spicy tough

h e a lt h y L ....................................... 1 (...... ...... ........ _ ........ ......)


6 Work in pairs. Look at each other's records. Answer
- s t r o n g a n d _____ _____ ___ ____ ______
the questions.
Ex. _________ _________________________ ______ ____ __ ________
1 Did you put the words into the same groups?
h e a lt h ie r / .... ....... ............... ...........
2 Did you use the same method to record each group
* unhedlih-y of words?
C o ;lo c a tio n s , c h ild , d i e t , ........ .... .................. , ...................... 3 Which method or methods do you think you will use
in the future?

40 V o ca b u la ry insight 3 Dictionary entry from Oxford Wordpower Dictionary, 4th edition


Review 3

V o c a b u la r y G ra m m a r

1 Complete the text with the correct form of the verbs 4 Read the text and choose the correct words.
below.
All foods are divided into groups. How some / much /
eat grow package produce recycle refrigerate
many groups are there? Well, there are five. The most
throw aw ay transport
important is fruit and vegetables. They contain 2a lot of /
any / much vitamins, so you need to eat 3many / much /
Bananas 1 in tropical countries on huge farms a lot of fruit and vegetables to be healthy. The next group
called plantations. O n e o f the countries th a t2 is carbohydrates, like bread, pasta and rice. You should
the most bananas is Costa Rica. Farmers pick the have 4any / some / a few food from this group with every
bananas when they are green. They 3 the fruit meal. Protein is next, which is in meat, fish and eggs.
Protein is good for you, but you shouldn't eat 5any /
to keep it fresh. Then, they 4 it to different
some / many eggs per week - no more than five. You
countries by boat. The bananas are kept in special
shouldn't have 6much / a little / any red meat either - no
cupboards until they are the right colour. Then, more than twice a week. After that comes milk and dairy
workers 5 them in plastic and take them to the foods. How 7a lot of / much / many cheese can you eat?
shops. People buy the bananas and take them home Well, cheese contains fat, so you should only eat 8a little /
to 6 ..... M o s t countries d o n 't 7 plastic, much / some every day. The final group is fats and sugars.
Food in this group doesn't contain 9some / a few / any
so p e o ple have to 8 the packaging when they
vitamins or protein, so you shouldn't have it often. Only
finish the bananas. The plastic packaging means that
eat it on special occasions, when you can have 10any / a little /
bananas sometimes have a large carbon footprint.
a few biscuits or a piece of cake for a change.

Marks 78
Marks /10
2 Complete the compound words in the sentences.
5 Complete the sentences with indefinite pronouns or
1 The temperature on Earth is rising because of
adverbs with some-, any-, no- o r every-.
global...........................................................................
2 If you can't recycle something, take it to the 1 ...... taught me to cook. I learned on my own.

dump. 2 H a s .................................seen the knife? I can't find it.


3 Take old newspapers, used cans and bottles to the 3 Let's eat different tonight.

centre. 4 Are you enjoying the meal? Is.......................................


4 ..................................................................... gases, like all right?

carbon dioxide, are bad for the environment. 5 You can eat pizza nearly...............................................
5 Buy an energy-.............................................refrigerator in the world.

to save power and money. 6 W e need to go shopping. There's


6 Eco- shopping bags in the fridge.

don't pollute the environment. 7 I wasn't hungry this morning so I didnt e a t..................
Marks /6 8 loves home-made cakes.
They're delicious!
3 Match the words in A to the words in B to make Marks 78
things you can buy. Then complete the sentences.
6 Complete the sentences with who, which, where,
A bag box carton jar packet tube
when or whose.
B biscuits chocolates eggs jam potatoes
1 Sir Walter Raleigh was an Englishman.......................
toothpaste
brought the first potatoes from America to England.
1 I want to make chips, so I 2 Camembert is a place in France..............................
need a .......................................................................... they make delicious cheese.
2 There's a .................................................................... in 3 Brazil is a country in South America
the fridge, if you want something on your toast. produces a lot of coffee.
3 M y brother never puts the lid on th e .......................... 4 Do you remember the day we first met?
............................................... after he cleans his teeth. 5 Buiiol is a town in Spain...............................a tomato
4 Our guests gave us a .................................................... fight festival takes place.
to say thank you. 6 Queen Margherita was an Italian monarch
5 Shall w e have a ............................................................. favourite food was pizza.
with our cup of tea? 7 Jam ie Oliver is a British ch e f.........................................
6 Tony bought a ............................................................... tried to make school meals in the UK healthier.
so that he could make omelettes for lunch. Marks /7
Marks 76
Total

Pronunciation bank 3 W orkbook page 125 R e vie w 3


*
p

My space
Reading and vocabulary M oving house

1 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Look at the photo of a


kitchen in a 1940s house. Choose the things you
think the average family had in the 1940s. Do you
think life was difficult? Why / why not?
central heating a DVD player a fridge
a microwave a radio an oven a computer
a washing machine a hoover a dishwasher
a p h o n e * a television

2 Read the article and compare your ideas in exercise 1.

3 Read the article again. Then match sentences 1-7 to


paragraphs A-F. There is one sentence that you do
not need.
1 The most important thing for a 1940s family
2 The reasons w hy Lyn enjoyed the experiment
3 W hy the family didn't have much to eat
4 W hy the family decided to leave
5 W hat a 1940s house looked like
6 The difference between men's and women's lives
7 The reason for the experiment

4 SPEAKING Discuss the questions.


1 Would you like to take part in an experiment like this?
W h y / w h y not?
2 Do you think people were happy in the 1940s? W hy /
*
w hy not?
3 How were men's and womens lives different in the
1940s? A 'T h ere w e re m an y tim es w h e n I thought,
a o tms. am a twenty-Tirst cen tury w om an, aon t
insight Adverbs of manner and comment w ork eighteen-hour days." B u t then I'd stop and
say, "H a n g on. In the 1940s, w o m e n didn't say
5 Study the adjectives in the table below. Find and
underline the adverbs in the article. Then complete th ey couldnt do it. They just got on w ith it.'" T h ese

the spelling rules. are the w o rd s of fifty-year-old Lyn H ym ers, w h o


took part in an experim ent called The 1940s House.
Adjective Adverb The purpose of th e experim ent w a s to s e e if a
(un)fortunate modern-day fam ily could su rvive in th e 1940s.
lucky
io B In March, Lyn, her husband M ichael, her daughter
quick and tw o grandsons arrived at a three-bedroomed,
easy sem i-detached house in south London.
(un)surprising Unfortunately, w h e n th ey o pened th e door, all
twenty-first century labour-saving d e vices magically
helpful
is disappeared. There w a s no central heating in the
necessary
two-storey house, not m uch soap or toilet paper and
happy only a radio for entertainm ent! The fam ily didnt have
a fridge, but luckily th ey had an oven and a larder.
Spelling rules
They also had a coal fire to keep th em w arm .
To form adverbs from adjectives, we:
a add . 20 C B u t food and w arm th w e re not as im portant as
b change -y at the end of adjectives to s afe ty - th eir first task w a s to quickly dig a hole
.................................. and a d d .......... in th e garden for a 2 m etre by 1 m etre air-raid
sh e lter*. W o rld W a r II started in 1939 and, although
th e w a r w a s n 't real for th e H ym ers, th ey sp en t a lot
25 of tim e in th e old-fashioned shelter. T h ey w an ted
th e experim ent to be as realistic as possible.

42 M y space
V ocabulary: adverbs: compound adjectives: collocations: phrasal verbs Sp eaking : talking about houses and labour-saving devices;
G ram m ar: comparative and superlative adjectives; (not) as... as, too, enough; comparing rooms; discussing house rules; asking permission
verbs + infinitive or -ing form W riting : an email: description of a room

6 Adverbs can have different functions in the


sentence. Study the adverbs you underlined in the
article. Then answer the questions.
D T h e w a r w a s n 't real, but th e difficulties of 1 Which adverbs tell us how something is done?
eve ryd ay life w e re . In th e 1940s, th ere w a s food 2 Which adverbs give an opinion about the situation?
rationing*. T here w a s n 't m uch m eat or milk, or
m an y eggs, and th e food w a s really boring. A s a 30 7 Complete the sentences with an adjective or adverb
result, th e fam ily w e r e often hungry, esp ecially the in exercise 5.
children. B efo re th e experim ent, th e children often 1 The children ate their m eal..........................................
had snacks, but n o w th ey ate dry sa n d w ich e s for They were very hungry!
lunch, filled w ith lettuce from th e garden. 2 After their meal, they were ve ry..................................
and washed the dishes.
E D o m e stic ch ores w e re a challenge, too. In the 35 3 Lyn smiled when she finished
1940s th e s e chores w e r e like a full-time job. W h ile
her chores.
M ich ael w e n t out to w ork, Lyn and her daughter 4 Everyday life in the 1940s house wasn't
sp en t m o st of their tim e preparing m eals, doing It was hard work.
th e d ish es and hoovering th e floor. Things that Lyn 5 There was no central heating, so in winter it was
did easily before, n o w b e cam e terribly difficult. S h e 40 to use a coal fire.
m issed her w ash in g m achine m o st of all. 'W e had 6 The family built a shelter, b u t...................................... ,
to boil th e clo th es and w h e n th e w e a th e r w a sn 't the war wasn't real.
good, it w a s im possible to dry anything,' said Lyn. 7 I he children didn't have a DVD player or a computer,
but............................................................., they didn't
FToday, Lyn is back in her m odern, open-plan
get bored.
hom e, but surprisingly, sh e m is s e s th e 1940s 45
8 , Lyn can never go back
house. The fam ily g re w closer, sh e feels, b ecau se
to the 1940s house.
th ey helpfully shared th e hard w ork. In the
evenings th ey played board g am es w ith the
nsight Compound adjectives
children, read books or just talked. Life in th e 1940s
w a s n 't easy, but an easier and m ore com fortable so 8 Complete the text about Mr and Mrs Average with
life do esn 't n ecessarily m ean a better life. 'I w ould the highlighted words in the article.
happily go back there,' s h e says. 'I loved that house
and th e sh elter w h e re w e all laughed and cried
to g eth e r as a family. 1 1 1 1 .
M r a n d M rs Average are a ty p ic a l1 British
* air-raid shelter = a sm all building used to protect
family. T h e y live in a 2...................., 3 house
people from attacks from the air
* food rationing = people are allow ed a sm all
w ith th eir tw o children and a p e t cat.
am ount of food each w eek
T hirty-eight-year-old M r Average has a 4
job, w hile forty-year-old M rs Average w orks part-
tim e in a superm arket. T h e y have tw o cars and th eir
5 house is full o f 6 devices.
M rs Average hates a n y th in g 7 , so all the
fu rn itu re is n ew in th eir 8 living room . T h ey
also have th e latest c o m p u te r and three m obile phones.

9 SPEAKING Work in groups. Imagine you are going


to take part in a similar experiment, but you are
allowed to take three labour-saving devices or
gadgets with you. Agree on three things to take with
you. You can use the list in exercise 1to help you.

Vocabulary bank Houses and homes page 137

M y space 43
4 B G ram m ar and listening A room o f my own

1 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Answer the questions.


1 W h at are the typical rooms in a house?
2 W h ich is your favourite room ? W h y ? Think about these qualities:
size com fort privacy w arm th light decoration entertainm ent

2 1.18 Listen to three people talking about their favourite rooms. Complete the sentences.
1 The w orst room in Maya's house is ............................................................................................................
2 ............................ is more com fortable than Maya's bedroom.
3 The busiest and the most interesting room in Adrian's house is ...........................................................
4 Yasmin's......................................................................... is the best room, although it isn't the biggest.
5 It's also smaller and quieter t h a n ...............................................................................................................

C o m p a r a t iv e a n d s u p e r la t iv e a d je c t iv e s

3 Find comparative and superlative adjectives in exercise 2. Then complete the table.

Comparative Superlative
Short adjectives
big bigger

quiet th e quietest

small th e smallest

busy busier

Long adjectives
com fortable th e m o st com fortable

interesting m o re interesting

Irregular adjectives
bad w o rse

good better
far further the furthest

Reference and practice 4.1 W orkbook page 110

4 Complete the text from a book about the history of homes with the comparative or
superlative form of the adjectives in brackets.

We sleep in the bedroom, have breakfast in the kitchen, watch TV in the living
room ... But in the past, many houses only had one important room and that was
called the hall.
Hundreds of years ago, the hall was 1................ (important) than it is now. It
was 2................ (big) room in the house and everyone ate there and slept there.
Halls were 3 (busy) and 4 (noisy) rooms. They were also
5 (warm). There was often a big fire in the middle of the hall and a hole
in the ceiling for smoke. Because of the smoke, homes were 6 (dirty)
than today and the ceiling in the hall was 7 (high). Rooms were also
8 (dark) than modern rooms because the only light they had came from
fires or candles. Today, homes are 9 ................ (clean), lighter and 10................
(comfortable) than they were in the past... and less crowded, too!

5 SPEAKING Make questions. Use comparative or superlative


adjectives. Then work in pairs and answer the questions.
1 w hich / b rig h t/ ro o m in your house?
2 w hich / useful / labour-saving d evice in your kitchen?
3 a com puter / expensive / a m obile phone?
4 w hich / unusual / object in your house?
5 w h y / semi-detached houses / expensive / one-bedroom ed flats?
6 w h ic h / ta ll/ b u ild in g in your tow n?
7 your house / far / from th e tow n centre / your best friend's house?
8 w h a t / q u ic k / w a y to g et to school?
4B
We moved to the city last year Our new I share a room with my brother I'm not as old
house isn't as big as our old house, so as he is and he has more homework than
I share a room with my sister. It's not a me. He always does his work in the bedroom
problem for me, but my sister hates it. I'm and that causes problems. We often argue.
not as tidy as she is. She often complains If I play my music or talk on my mobile, he
that 2the room is too messy and that 3there complains that its too noisy to work. I don't
isn't enough space for two people. She's a mind sharing, but he isn't as relaxed
year older than me, but I'm as tall as she as I am. He says 4the room isn't big
is. I sometimes borrow her clothes ... Then enough for both of us. 5lt's too small
I forget to put them back and that really to share.
annoys her. Why can't she just relax?

(not) as ... as, too, enough


6 Read extracts A and B from two problem page letters. What is the problem? What do you
think is the solution?

7 Match sentences 1-5 in the letters to rules a-b.


a W e use (nor) a s ... as to compare two people or things. The adjective comes between as and as.
b W e use too and enough to talk about degree.
too comes before an adjective.
enough comes after an adjective, but before a noun.
An infinitive with to can come after an adjective + enough, or too + an adjective.

Reference and practice 4.2 Workbook page 110

8 Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets.


1 M y wardrobe isn't big enough for all my clothes! (too)
2 It isn't quiet enough to do my homework! (too)
3 Youre too young to watch that horror film, (enough)
4 This chair is not comfortable enough to sit on. (too)
5 The room was too messy to sleep in. (enough)
6 I he windows are very small in this room. It isn't light enough, (too)

9 Complete the extract from a report with the words below.


than enough (x 2) more as (x 2) lonely healthiest most

Room s w ith a p o in t o f view


Kids who share a room sometimes complain that their room isn't big 1 but a new study says
teenagers who don't share space aren't2 happy as teenagers who do.
The study found that sharers aren't a s3 as non-sharers. They might not have 4 space,
but there is always someone to talk to about their problems. However, non-sharers spend more time alone,
so they aren't as confident5 sharers and can't negotiate as well. Some are very shy; others are
more selfish 6 . children who share. Sharers, on the other hand, are7 easy-going and
relaxed. The study concluded that kids who share are the8 and the9 sociable.

10 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Look at the photos and answer the questions.
1 Which adjectives best describe these rooms?
2 Which room do you prefer and why?
3 W hy don't you like the other room?
4 C Listening, speaking and vocabulary House rules

1 SPEAKING Look at the photos


and answer the questions.
1 W hat are the people doing?
2 Do you think children should
help with household chores?
W h y / w h y not?
3 Do you think girls are more
hard-working than boys?
W h y / w h y not?

insight Collocations: household chores

Match 1-8 to a-h to make sentences and questions. Which of these


household chores do you do? Which is the worst chore? Which is the easiest?
1 The bathroom is dirty. Can you clean a the rubbish?
2 After I get up, I usually make b the table.
3 Before w e eat, dad always lays c my bed and get dressed.
4 After dinner, can you help me to do d the bath, please?
5 Take these dirty clothes and load e the washing machine.
6 W hen the clothes are dry, please do f the dishes?
7 The bin is full. Can you take out g the floor.
8 The carpet isnt clean. Lets hoover h the ironing.

3 1.19 Listen to the first part of a talk about household chores and complete the factfile.
Are you similar to or different from children in the survey?

In the UK, there was a survey of children aged 1


to sixteen. The results were:
Whose Percentage of children who dont cook: 2 %.
house Percentage who dont help with 3 : 63%.
Percentage who never clean 4.................................................: 75%.
is it Boys don't 5 hard as girls.
anyway? Many children dont 6 in the morning.

4 ^ 1.20 Listen to the second part of the talk and choose the ideas that you hear.
Which do you agree with?
1 Today's children aren't as busy as children in the past.
2 Teenagers have more energy than young children.
3 It's important for children to learn how to cook and clean.
4 Chores remind children of their responsibility to other people.
5 Children who do chores feel more confident.
6 Parents are usually very selfish.
7 Children who do chores become better citizens.
8 Children like to do things that benefit other people.

5 SPEAKING Work in groups. Imagine you are agreeing a list of house rules with
your parents. Use the ideas below and your own ideas. Choose four rules for
your house.

1 E v e ry o n e h e lp s w ith h o u s e h o ld ch o res.
2 C o m p le te h o m e w o rk on tim e.
3 C le a n u p a n y m e s s th a t you m ake.
4 A s k b efo re you b o rro w o r ta k e s o m e th in g th a t b e lo n g s to o th ers.
5 A s k fo r p e rm is s io n in a d v a n c e to go o u t a t n ig h t w ith frie n d s .
6 B e kind a n d h e lp fu l a t all tim e s .
7 E a t re g u la r m ea ls: b reakfast, lu nch and dinner.
8 G e t u p fo r sch o o l on tim e .

46 M y space
4C

A s k in g p e rm is s io n

6 SPEAKING Study the situations. Whose permission might you ask in each situation: a
parent's, a friend's or a teacher's?
You w an t to:
1 stay ou t late. 3 make a phone call. 5 buy a n e w m obile phone.
2 borrow som e clothes. 4 g et a tattoo. 6 use a dictionary.

7 1.21 Listen to dialogues A-D and match them to four of the situations in exercise 6.

8 1.21 Complete the phrases from the dialogues. Then listen again and check.

A sk in g p erm issio n R e sp o n d in g
1 I use a dictionary, please? O f course you can.
Can I 2....................................borrow your T-shirt? Sure, n o 4................................................................
Is it O K if I use ... ? 5........................................................... , g o ahead.
Is i t 3..................................................... if I stay ... ? T h a t6......................................................................

9 1.22 Put the dialogue in the correct order.


Then listen and check.
Joel I can co m e back earlier, Mum.
Mum Hm m , I'll think about it.
.. L Joel Hi, Mum . Shall I d o the w ashing? I can
load th e m achine if you like.
Mum That depends. W h at tim e does it
finish?
Joel Thanks, M um . Oh, there's just one
m ore thing. Could I please have my
pocket m on ey today? The tickets
are expensive.
Mum Thanks, Joel, that's helpful.
Joel Er, Mum , Harry has got som e
tickets for a rock concert this
Saturday. Its at the football
stadium. Do you mind if I g o?
Mum Then I'm afraid not. W e re going to
your grandad's on Sunday, rem em ber?
Joel Around midnight.

10 Read the dialogue again. Underline two more ways


of asking permission and two ways of responding.

11 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Read the instructions and prepare a


dialogue. Use the dialogue in exercise 9 to help you.

Student A
You are B's child and you w an t to do on e o f the following:
dye your hair purple,
go aw a y for a w eekend with your friends,
have a party at home.
have extra pocket m oney for expensive trainers.
Think o f ways you can get your parent to agree.

Student B
You are A's parent. Listen to w h at th ey want. Then d o one
of th e following:
think o f reasons for not granting permission.
think o f things you m ight w an t them to do to earn their
extra freedom / pocket money.

M y space 47
4 D Culture, vocabulary and grammar Historic homes

1 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Think about your home


and answer the questions.
1 When was it built? Do you know who lived there before?
2 Do you know anything else about its history?

STRATEGY

Pred icting co ntent


Before you read a text, try to predict its content and
purpose. Look at:
the layout. This can tell you where the text is from and
w ho it is for.
the title and paragraph headings. These give content
clues.
the pictures. Think about w hats happening in them
and what you can see.

2 Read the strategy. Look at the text and the photos


and choose the correct answers. Then read the text
and check your answers.
1 The text looks like it is from
A HOUSE
a a leaflet, b a newspaper c a blog.
2 The title tells me that the text will probably be
WITH A
HISTORY
a mostly fiction, b mostly fact, c mostly opinion.
3 People w ho read the text will probably be
a tourists, b historians, c journalists.
4 The photos tell me that the text is about
a a modern house,
c a small house.
b a very old house,
m
I m a g in e liv in g in a h u g e h o u s e , a h o u s e so
b ig t h a t y o u d o n t k n o w h o w m a n y r o o m s
3 Read the text again and match paragraphs 1-5 to it h a s ! L a d y C a r n a r v o n , o w n e r o f H ig h c le re
headings A-F. There is one heading that you do not C a s tle , is n o t s u r e a b o u t th e n u m b e r o f
need. r o o m s , b u t s h e d o e s k n o w t h a t H ig h c le re
is o n e o f th e b ig g e s t h o u s e s in E n g la n d .
A Upstairs, downstairs D Planning your visit P ro m th e o u ts id e , th e c a s tle lo o k s like th e
B Living in London E Treasure and tragedy H o u s e s o f P a r lia m e n t in L o n d o n . In fa c t, th e
C Size matters F The small screen s a m e p e r s o n , S ir C h a rle s B a rry , b u ilt b o th
| io p la c e s . In t h e n in e te e n th c e n tu ry , m a n y
4 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. w e a lth y p e o p le d e c id e d to s h o w o ff a n d
1 W hat was the most interesting fact you learned about b u ilt m a s s iv e h o u s e s , a n d th e C a r n a r v o n s
Highclere Castle? d id th e s a m e . W h e n B a r ry f in is h e d b u ild in g
2 Think of a famous house in your country. How is it H ig h c le re in 1 8 4 2 , th e c a s tle h a d m o re
similar to or different from Highclere Castle? t h a n fifty r o o m s , in c lu d in g o n e r o o m w ith
a f if te e n -m e tr e -h ig h ceilin g ! B u t th is ro o m
insight Phrasal verbs w a s o n ly u s e d o n s p e c ia l o c c a s io n s . T oday,
H ig h c le re is o n e o f th e m o s t e x p e n s iv e
5 Find eight phrasal verbs in the text and match them h o u s e s i n B rita in , w o r th m o r e t h a n 1 5 0
to definitions 1-8. 12o m illio n p o u n d s .
Paragraph 1
1 to try and impress other people 0 ...................................................
C o u n try h o u s e s like H ig h c le re s o m e tim e s
Paragraph 2
h a d h u n d r e d s o f s e r v a n ts . T h e s e s e r v a n ts
2 got out of bed
g o t u p b e fo re th e ir e m p lo y e rs a n d c a r r ie d on
3 moved to a higher place from a lower one
w o r k in g a f t e r t h e i r e m p lo y e r s w e r e in b e d .
4 made someone very tired 125 T h e y liv e d in r o o m s in th e b a s e m e n t o r
5 became an adult a ttic a n d u s e d a s m a ll s ta i r c a s e a t th e b a c k
6 took care of someone o f th e h o u s e . T h e y w o n t u p a n d d o w n th e
7 to learn some information s t a i r s a ll d ay , c le a n in g o r c a r r y in g w a te r,
Paragraph 3 m e a ls o r c o a l fo r th e fire s . T h e w o r k tire d
8 caused; made something happen I so th e s e r v a n t s o u t, b u t th e y m a n a g e d to

48 M y space
4D
Complete the text with the correct form of the
phrasal verbs below.
look after grow up tire out find out get up
go up

Charlotte 1 in a village near Highclere Castle.


W hen she was sixteen, she made up her mind to find
work at the castle. Her mother 2 about a job
there as a kitchen maid. Unfortunately, it was the worst
job in the castle! Every m orning Charlotte 3
early and 4 from the basement to the kitchen.
She did the washing-up all morning. It was hard work
and i t 5 h e r.............. In the afternoons, she
helped to 6 the children. That was more fun!

Verbs + in fin itiv e o r -ing fo rm


d o it. R o o m s fo r th e fam ily u p s t a i r s w e r e
7 Match sentences 1-2 to rules a-b. Then add the
m o r e c o m f o r ta b le , a lth o u g h fa m ily life w a s
highlighted verbs in the text to the table.
v e ry d iff e re n t th e n . C h ild re n d i d n 't s p e n d
m u c h tim e w ith t h e i r p a r e n t s - th e y g r e w 1 Imagine living in a huge house.
u p in a s e p a r a te p a r t o f th e h o u s e a n d a 351 2 Do you want to learn about ancient Egypt?
n a n n y lo o k e d a f t e r th e m . You c a n still se e
a Some verbs are followed by an infinitive,
th e fa m ily r o o m s a n d s e r v a n t s ' r o o m s a t
b Some verbs are followed by an -ing form.
H ig h c le re to d a y a n d fin d o u t m o r e a b o u t
e v e ry d a y life. Verb + infinitive Verb + -in g form

E ...................................
D o y o u w a n t to le a r n a b o u t a n c ie n t E g y p t? 401
agree
try
can't stand
don't mind
V isit H ig h c le re a n d fin d o u t a b o u t its fa m o u s need hate
E g y p tia n c o n n e c tio n . In 1 9 2 2 , th e fifth F.arl
promise avoid
o f C a r n a rv o n a n d th e a r c h a e o lo g is t H o w a rd
C a r te r o p e n e d th e to m b o f T u ta n k h a m u n pretend look forward to
in th e V alley o f th e K in g s. U n fo rtu n a te ly , a 451 would like like
few w e e k s late r, L o rd C a r n a rv o n d ie d fro m
a m o s q u ito b ite . M a n y p e o p le th o u g h t th a t Reference and practice 4.3 Workbook page 111
the. P h a r a o h 's c u r s e b r o u g h t a b o u t h is d e a th .
T oday, y o u c a n r e a d a b o u t h is d isc o v e ry in 8 Match 1-8 to a-h to make sentences.
th e c a s tle 's E g y p tia n e x h ib itio n a rid m a k e so|
1 I hope
u p y o u r o w n m in d !
2 My best friend can't stand
E ......................................
N o w a d a y s , H ig h c le re is o n e o f th e m o s t
3 My parents don't mind
4 After school, I want
w e ll-k n o w n h o m e s in B r ita in , b u t i t s n o t 5 This weekend, I need
b e c a u s e o f its i n te r e s tin g p a s t o r its 6 I am looking forward
F .g y p tia n t r e a s u r e s . H ig h c le re is a ls o th e 551 7 A lot of British people enjoy
s t a r o f a B ritish TV s h o w c a lle d D o u m to n 8 I sometimes pretend
A b b e y . T h e s h o w is all a b o u t th e life o f a
w e a lth y fam ily in th e 1 9 1 0 s a n d m o r e th a n a to do my homework,

to n m illio n v ie w e rs e n jo y w a tc h in g it e v e ry b being late for class,

w e e k . F a n s lo v e c o m in g to I l i g h d e r e a n d eoi c to watch my favourite TV programmes,


m a n y h o p e to s e e t h e i r f a v o u r ite a c to r s , loo! d watching Downton Abbey. It's popular in the UK.
e to be a tour guide when I grow up.
f doing all the housework together,
S g to like football because my friends like it.
Open from May to September 7 days a week,
h to hearing from you.
from 10.30 a.m. to 6.00 p.m.
Tickets: 9.50 child, 16.50 adult 9 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Use the verbs in exercise 7
Visit: www.highclerecastle.co.uk to make sentences that are true for you. Then
interview your partner and compare your sentences.

Vocabulary bank Parts of a house page 137

Homes in the UK
M y space 49
4 E Writing An email: description of a room

My space, my world
This week we want to know all about your personal space. W h at things do you have in your room? Email
us a description of your room, including the three words which best describe it. The most entertaining
description will appear in next months magazine.
Email: ed@myspacemyworld.ed.uk

1 S P E A K IN G W o r k in p a ir s . R e a d t h e a d v e r t f r o m a s t u d e n t m a g a z i n e a n d l o o k a t t h e p h o t o s .
A n sw er th e q u e stio n s.

1 Do you have any of these things in your room?


2 W hat is your most prized possession? W hy?

2 R ead th e o p e n in g p a ra g r a p h s o f d iffe re n t d e s c rip tio n s th a t s tu d e n ts s e n t to th e m a g a z in e .


W h ic h o f t h e o b j e c t s in e x e r c i s e 1 a r e in c l u d e d ?

My mum says my room is a pigsty. She doesn't [ B l When I was ten, I pretended to be Spiderman,
understand how I can live in such a mess. I tell her jumped off my bed and banged my head on the
bookcase. The bookcase is still in my room, but
to close the door and to stop worrying. Yes, there
today it's full of books like The H u n g e r G am es -
are clothes on the floor, but its not very messy,
there aren't any Spiderman comics now!
and I know where everything is. In fact, I think my
room is quite comfortable.

In my room, there is Theres a strange-looking


When I look out of my window, I can see
a bed, a desk and a shops, restaurants and a bus stop. Its wardrobe in the corner of my
chair. There are some always busy outside and a bit noisy, room. Its huge and rather
posters on the wall but it's interesting. My desk is next to the old-fashioned and it belonged
window, so I get a good view of the street to my grandmother Inside the
and a really nice photo
when Im doing my homework. wardrobe, ...
of my family.

STRATEGY

Writing opening sentences


W h e n y o u w r i t e a d e s c r i p t i o n , t r y t o g e t t h e r e a d e r i n t e r e s t e d . S t a r t y o u r w r i t i n g in a w a y t h a t
m a k e s th e re a d e r w a n t to fin d o u t m o re.

Start with:
1 a quote or an opinion, then agree or disagree with it.
2 an interesting or mysterious object, then describe other things in your room.
3 a view from outside (for example, a view from the window), then go inside.
4 a dramatic event. Use the past tense for this, but remember to use the present tense when you
start describing your room.

Don't start with:


5 a straight description, like There is a . . . i n m y room.

3 R e a d t h e s tra te g y .T h e n re a d th e o p e n in g p a r a g r a p h s A -E a g a in a n d m a tc h th e m to p o in ts
1 -5 . W h ic h d e s c r i p t i o n d o y o u t h i n k w ill b e t h e m o s t i n t e r e s t i n g ? W h y ?

50 My space
4E
bed is a dusty old bookcase full of textbooks and music
magazines. I like reading vampire stories, so there are a
lot of Tw ilight books there, too. On top of the bookcase,
there are some family photos and my pink MP3 player.
That's my most prized possession, apart from my guitar.
Opposite the bookcase is a small red desk. It's the
'It's incredibly small,' said my best friend when she first messiest part of my bedroom because there's homework
saw my bedroom. She's right: it's tiny and a bit dark, but everywhere. Then, at the side of my desk, there is a big
it's also very special. beanbag. It's extremely comfortable, so I often relax there
When you walk through the door, the first things you and listen to music. My friends like to sit there when they
see are a rather small bed and a really big poster on the visit, too.
wall. The poster is of Orlando Bloom in Elizabethtown, The three words that best describe my room are: cosy,
my favourite romantic film of all time. There isn't much slightly messy and quite original. It's my own private space
space in my room, so it's not very tidy. Right next to my and I love spending time there.

4 Read the description the magazine published. What type of opening does the writer use to
get the reader's attention?

5 Read the description again and answer the questions.


1 W hat is Jenni like? Choose the adjectives that describe her.
friendly polite romantic boring tidy messy musical quiet
2 Which adjectives does she use to describe the room in general? Which adjectives does she use to
describe the furniture?
3 Which prepositions of place does she use to say where things are?

insight Adverbs of degree

6 Study the highlighted adverbs in Jenni's description. Put them into the correct category.

Words that mean a little:


Words that mean a lot:

7 Complete the sentences so that they are true for you. Compare with a partner.
1 I'm quite / extremely good at keeping my room tidy.
2 M y bedroom is not very / really big, compared to my friend's.
3 It's incredibly / rather easy to make your own bed.
4 M y alarm clock was slightly / very noisy this morning.
5 It's a bit / incredibly difficult to describe my room!

WRITING GUIDE

Task Write an email with a description of your room Plan Decide which ideas you are going to use and
to M y space, m y world. match them to these paragraphs.
Paragraph 1: Open your description in an interesting
Ideas Decide how you are going to start your way.
description. Remember to make it interesting. Make Paragraph 2: Describe the most important things first.
notes about: Paragraph 3: Describe other things in your room.
the general appearance of your room. Is it small or Remember to say what you use them for.
big? Tidy or messy? Dark or light? Paragraph 4: Sum up your description.
the things inside your room. Where exactly are
they? W hat do they say about your personality and Write Write your email. Use the paragraph plan to
interests? Remember to use adjectives and adverbs. help you.
the things you like best about it. Choose three
adjectives that best describe your room. Check Check the following points.
Are your ideas divided into paragraphs?
Is there a variety of adjectives and adverbs?
Have you checked spelling, grammar and
punctuation?

M y space 51
Vocabulary insight 4 Phrasal verbs: literal and non-literal meanings

1 Work in pairs. Study the verbs below. Do you know 3 Read the strategies. Then look at the pairs of
what they mean? Choose three verbs and write sentences 1-4. Is the meaning of the underlined
example sentences. phrasal verbs literal (L) or non-literal (NL)?
bring com e get go grow look sit stand 1 a The crowd looked up when they heard the plane.
throw turn show b I looked up the answers on the internet.
2 a The teacher w ent over the instructions again.
STRATEGY b He kicked the ball and it went over the wall into
the neighbour's garden.
Phrasal verbs
3 a I took off mv coat and sat down.
A phrasal verb is a combination of tw o or three words:
b Hurry up! The plane takes off in ten minutes.
a verb and at least one particle (a preposition or an
4 a M v friends and I often hang out in the park.
adverb). The particle changes the meaning of the verb.
b Tom, can you help me hang out the washing?
Compare:
show = to let somebody see something
4 Study the dictionary entries. Then complete the
They showed me their new house.
sentences with the correct particles.
show o ff - t o try to impress somebody
He bought a new sports car just to show off. 'Llo o k after sb/sth/yourself (especially BrE)
1 to make sure th at sb/sth is safe; take care of
sb/sth: His parents are looking after the children
Recognizing literal m eanings fo r the weekend, o She doesnt look after her
clothes, o Sophie will look after the visitors.
Some phrasal verbs have a literal meaning. You can guess o Theyre old enough to look after themselves
the meaning of a literal phrasal verb by thinking about now (= they dont need any help), o Would you
m ind looking after m y bag fo r a minute? o He
the meaning of the verb and the particle. needs to be properly looked after, o See you
go = to move to another place soonlook after yourself (= w hen saying good
bye to sb). m a i a / 1 - r 1
down = to or at a lower place or position
go down = to move from a higher to a lower position t'lo o k at sb/sth 1 to tu rn your eyes
sth so th at you can see them /it: Don
The sun is qoing down and it will get dark soon. like that! What are you lookin;

2 Read the strategy above. Then choose the correct 1 a Look my new poster. Do you like it?

particles to complete the sentences. b I'm looking my neighbours'cat


while they are on holiday.
1 W elcom e to our new house! Please com e out / in
and sit down / off. S t a n d 1 /sta:nd/ verb (pt, pp
stood /stud/)
ON FEET 1 [I] to be on yo u r feet, not sitting o r lying
2 Throw this old phone in / away. It doesn't work, dow n; to be in a vertical position: He was standing
near the window. * Stand stillI'm trying to draw
3 Turn up / down the radio. It's too loud.
you! * Only a lew houses were left standing after the
4 Slow away / down! You're driving too fast. earthquake. 2 [I] stand (u p ) to rise to yo u r feet from
another position: He stood up when I entered the
5 W hen I grow in / up, I want to be an architect. room.
6 Could you bring o ff/in another chair? There aren't
stand fo r sth 1 to be a short form o f sth: What does
enough chairs for everyone. BBC stand for? 2 to support sth (such as an idea or
o p in ion ): / hate everything that the party stands for.

STRATEGY
2 a Can everyone stand.......................................... and
Recognizing non-literal m eanings
leave the room quietly?
Many phrasal verbs have a non-literal meaning. You
b W hat does U.N. stand.............................................?
can't guess the meaning of a non-literal phrasal verb
.bring sth a'bout to make sth happen: What
even if you know what the verb and the particle mean. has brought about this change? o His nervous
look = to turn your eyes in a particular direction breakdown was brought about by stress.
up = to or at a higher place or position
bring sth 'back 1 (to sth) to return sth to the
look up = to find information in a dictionary place it came from: If the dress doesnt fit, bring
If you don't know what this phrasal verb means, look it it back to the shop and well change it fo r you.

up in the Oxford Phrasal Verbs dictionary.


3 a You can borrow my dictionary, but please bring it
Some phrasal verbs have both a literal and a non-literal .................................................................tomorrow.
meaning, b The new head teacher brought........................... a
get on = climb onto lot of changes at school.
1 think we got on the wrong bus.
get on = have a good relationship 5 Read the pairs of sentences in exercise 4 again.
1 often argue with my parents. We don't get on. In which sentences does the phrasal verb have a
non-literal meaning?

52 V o ca b u la ry in sig h t 4 Dictionary entries from Oxford Phrasal Verbs and Oxford Wordpower Dictionary, 4th edition
Review 4

V o c a b u la r y G ra m m a r

1 Make adverbs from the adjectives below. Then use 5 Complete sentence b so that it has a similar meaning
the adverbs to complete the text. to sentence a. Use comparative or superlative forms
helpful lucky necessary quick surprising and write three words in each sentence.
unfortunate 1 a Flats are usually cheaper than houses.
b Houses are usually.........................................flats.
Labour-saving devices are designed to help people do 2 a In the UK, there aren't any cities bigger than London,
household chores 1 and efficiently.
b London is............................................. in the UK.
2 , some of these devices are quite
3 a My brother's room is better than mine.
complicated and you don't 3 save time
b My room my brother's.
the first time you use them. 4 .most
companies have a hotline that you can call for advice. 4 a My neighbourhood is noisier than yours.
There's always an operator on the end of the line b Your neighbourhood mine.
who will 5 explain how to switch the 5 a The cellar is colder than the attic.
machine on. 6 , some of these operators b The attic the cellar.
work in call centres in countries as far away as India! 6 a There's no easier way to get home than by taxi.
b ....... to get home is by taxi.
Marks /6

2 Match the words in A to the words in B to make 6 Complete the sentences with (not) as ... as, to o or
compound adjectives. Then complete the sentences. enough and the adjectives below.
A full- modern- old- semi-sstwo- big comfortable fast small tall warm
B bedroomed day detached fashioned time 1 My room is...................................................... There
1 We cant afford a big house in London, but weve got isn't space for a wardrobe.
enough money for a .......................................... flat. 2 The bus is very slow. It is............................................
2 families don't usually the Underground.
have many children. 3 We can't sit in the garden. It isn't...............................
3 People w ith...................................... jo b s don't
4 Our kitchen isn't............................................... fora
have much time for housework. table and chairs.
4 Most young people don't like............ 5 My brother and I are the same height.
furniture. Hes ................................................I am.
5 The most popular home in the UK is a 6 I dont like these armchairs.They a re ..........................

................... house. the sofa.


Marks 75 Marks 76

3 Choose the correct words. 7 Complete the text with the infinitive or the -in g form
1 Dinner's ready. Can you load / lay the table, please? of the verbs in brackets.
2 Adam hoovered / made his bed before he left the
house. If you enjoyed 1 (watch)

3 The bin smells. We need to take out / do the rubbish. Tim Burton's film Alice in Wonderland and you want
4 Our cleaning lady makes / does the ironing every 2 (se e) the place where it

Friday. w as made, you need 3 (go) to

5 I took out / loaded the washing machine before I Antony House in Cornwall. The Carew family decided
4 (build) this enormous
switched it on.
country house in the early eighteenth century and
6 Please clean / lay the bath after you wash your hair.
theyve carried on 5 (live)
Marks /6
there ever since. Fortunately, they dont mind
6 (have) visitors and theyve
4 Replace the words in italics with the correct form of
agreed 7 (open) the house three
the phrasal verbs below.
days a week. T ry8 (visit) in good
find out tire out bring about show off look after weather so that you can see the gardens when you finish
grow up 9 (walk) around the house. You can
1 Alec only bought that big house to impress his friends. imagine 10 (b e ) Alice during one of
2 The long staircase always makes visitors tired. her adventures!

3 We became adults in the country.


4 A neighbour takes care o f our dogs when we're away. Marks 710
5 They learned about the opening times on the internet.
Total / 45
6 Moving house often causes many changes.
Marks / 6

Pronunciation b a n k 4 Workbook page 125 R e vie w 4 53


Listening

1 1.23 Listen to a radio programme about


Knebworth House in England. What is the speaker's
main purpose?
a To invite somebody to his house,
b To give instructions to visitors,
c To announce an event at the house,
d To encourage people to visit the house,
e To give a warning.

2 1.23 Read sentences 1-8 and underline the key


words. Then listen to the radio programme again.
Are the sentences true (T) or false (F)?
1 Knebworth House is only interesting for people who
like music.
2 The Lytton family built Knebworth House more than
five centuries ago.
3 No one lives in the house today.
A rough guide to
4 In the past, the house had some important visitors.
5 I he speaker only gives the names of three rooms in
living on a boat
the house.
6 Knebworth House is in some famous films. A boat is a cool place to live. I cant see myself
7 You don't need much time to visit the house and living anywhere else, says 36-year-old Nick Bibby.
gardens. Hes one of the I 5,000 people in the UK who live on
8 You can take your own food to Knebworth House. houseboats. Its amazing to sit out on the deck and
5 have breakfast, or sit out there in the evening when
S peaking its calm and the suns going dow n . 1
Read on and decide for yourself.
3 Work in pairs. You want to invite a friend to a
barbecue at your house this weekend. Prepare a One of the differences between houseboats and
dialogue. houses is that houseboats dont have an endless
Say what type of event it is and when it starts. Invite io supply of water when you turn on the tap. The
your friend. water on a boat is kept in large containers called
Suggest a different day if your friend is busy. tanks. A full tank has about BOO litres in it, which
Suggest your friend brings someone along. runs out quite quickly . 2 This means
Ask permission to borrow your friend's music system. that washing machines and dishwashers arent very
is practical, so houseboat owners wash their clothes
Reading and dishes by hand.
4 Read the article about living on a boat. Match There is a similar problem with electricity. Most
sentences A-F to gaps 1-5 in the article. There is one houseboats get their energy from batteries.
sentence that you do not need. 3 This can be noisy and expensive,
A These get their power when the boat's engine is 20 which is w hy few houseboat owners have machines
turned on.
B You only need the basics like a bed and a table. j J

C You just need to turn on the engine and sail away to


somewhere different.
D But some boat owners say that life on a houseboat is
not as romantic as it sounds.
E If you've never been on a boat, then do try it out for a
few days.
F Every few days, you have to find somewhere to fill it
up again.

54 C u m ulative re v ie w U nits 1-4 Literature insight 2


G ram m ar and vo cab u la ry

5 Choose the correct answers.

T he ed ib le
h o u se
EATHOUSE is a house that is ;
garden, or a garden in the shape
of a house, if you prefer. It was the
idea of a group of Dutch architects,
who are very proud 1 the design.
The basic structure is a set of long thin metal poles
that you put together to form a house. Then you fill
the spaces between the poles with special boxes called
crates. The crates are the walls of the house and they
contain plants which, eventually, 2 vegetables.
The house is 3 , so you dont damage the
environment when you build it. And you can take it
down and build it in a different location whenever
that use a lot of energy, such as microwaves and you want to. The good thing is that you dont leave
hairdryers. Some of the more modern boats use 4 waste when you move it. The system is very
solar or wind power to charge the batteries instead. simple, so anyone who is keen 5 growing
One advantage of houseboats is that they give you vegetables can use it. However, you'll probably need
the freedom to explore new places. 4 25 the help of 6 friends to hold the poles and
The only problem is that you have to find a place to carry the crates on your first day.
put your boat when you arrive. The best places are You only need sunshine, water and a lot of loving
in a marina or at the side of a canal, but you need
care to look 7 Eathouse - it isn't as hard
permission to stay there. You can stay in one place
8 you might think. And it doesn't cost much
on a canal for a maximum of two weeks and then 30
either, because plastic crates and growbags are cheap
you have to move further along the canal.
9 for most people to afford. The watering
And finally, there's the question of space. The system is probably the m ost 10 part.
longest houseboats are about thirteen metres long
and two metres wide, which doesn't give you a lot 1 a in b for c of
of room to have many possessions.5 2 a package b produce c recycle
But this also means that you spend more time 3 a eco-friendly b energy-efficient c open-plan
outside meeting other people just like you. The 4 a some b any c a fe w
boating community is like being part of something 5 a on b in c of
- like having a second family. Perhaps that's why 6 a a little b m uch c some
more and more people choose to live on a boat. 7 a at b after c for
8 a as b than c that
9 a m uch b enough c to o
10 a popular b tirin g c expensive

W riting

6 Think of a house that you like. It can be a friend's


house, the house of someone in your family or a
house that you saw on TV. W rite an email to a friend
describing the house. Include this information:
w here it is, w h o it belongs to, and its general
appearance.
the room s inside th e house. W hat d o they say abo u t
th e personality and interests o f th e owner(s)?
th e th in g s you like best a b o u t th e house. Choose
three adjectives th a t best describe th e house.

W o rkb o o k page 96 Cumulative review Units 1-4 55


m 7 s J
p
No limits
Reading and vocabulary Taking risks

1 S P E A K IN G L o o k a t th e p h o t o s a n d d isc u ss
s t a te m e n ts 1 -4 . D o y o u a g r e e w ith th e m ?

1 Small children take more risks than teenagers.


2 Boys take fewer risks than girls.
3 Teenagers often take risks when they want
to be part of a group.
4 Seventeen-year-olds take more risks than
younger teenagers.

2 R e a d t h e a rtic le . W h a t d o e s t h e a u th o r th in k
a b o u t t h e s t a t e m e n t s i n e x e r c i s e 1? H a s t h e
a rtic le c h a n g e d y o u r o p in io n o f a n y o f th e m ?

STRATEGY

U nd erstand ing p ro no un referencing


W h e n y o u re a d , n o tic e th e p ro n o u n s
a n d th in k a b o u t w h a t t h e y re fe r to .
U n d e r s t a n d i n g p r o n o u n s w ill h e l p y o u t o
u n d e r s ta n d t h e te x t. P r o n o u n s c a n re fe r to :

a word a phrase a whole sentence or idea

3 R ead th e stra te g y . S tu d y th e b o ld p ro n o u n s
in t h e a r t i c l e . W h a t d o t h e y r e f e r t o ?

1 This (line 5) 5 it (line 21)


2 they (line 10) 6 This (line 22)
3 that (line 16) 7 they (line 28)
4 it (line 19) 8 their (line 32)
I t s a f a c t : m a n y t e e n a g e r s t a k e m o r e r i s k s t h a n c h i l d r e n

4 M a tc h s e n t e n c e s A - G t o g a p s 1 -5 in t h e a n d a d u lts. T he q u e stio n is, w h y ? 1

a rtic le . T h e re a r e tw o s e n t e n c e s t h a t y o u d o
T h e w o w fa c to r
not need.
Have you ever been on a rollercoaster ride? How did you feel
A 'I just felt like it.' when you got off? Excited? Amazed? T h i s is the 'wow 1factor,
B Have you ever taken a risk to impress your the feeling of pleasure we get when we take and survive a risk.
friends? Scientists know that a brain chemical called dopamine causes
C You can get your dopamine fix in lots of this feeling of enjoyment.2 Well, some scientists believe
other exciting ways. that dopamine levels are sometimes lower in adolescence than
D They encourage us to take more risks. t h e y are in childhood. This means that some teenagers might
E Check out the latest theories and what you need to take more risks to get the same 'wow' factor.
can do about it.
F W hat has dopamine got to do with you?
I ju s t fe lt lik e i t
Have you ever done something dangerous or frightening
G Girls don't show off very often.
without thinking about what happens next? When an adult
V o c a b u la ry b a n k Generations page 138 asks a teenager, 'What were you thinking of when you did
t h a t ? 1 a common reply is, 3 But the question misses the
in sig h t A d je c tiv e su ffix e s: -in g a n d -e d point, because the point is that the teenager might not have
been thinking at all! The teenager had no intention of taking
5 S t u d y t h e h i g h l i g h t e d w o r d s in t h e a r t i c l e .
a risk, i t just 'happened! A few years ago, scientists made a
F in d t h e a d je c tiv e f o r m s o f t h e v e r b s b e lo w .
surprising discovery: the teenage brain goes through many
T h e n a n s w e r th e q u e stio n s.
physical changes, and some parts of i t develop later than
excite frighten amaze surprise embarrass others. The last part to fully develop is the frontal cortex. T h i s
1 Which adjectives describe how someone is the area of the brain which allows us to do things such as
feels?
controlling emotions and making good decisions.
2 Which adjectives describe what someone or
something is like? I This passage is heavily adapted from a section o f Blame M y Brain - TheAm azing Teenage
Brain Revealed by Nicola Morgan. Nicola Morgan is not responsible for the wording o f this
passage. For a clear understanding o f the science, readers should refer to the original book

56 No lim its
V ocab ulary: adjective suffixes: -ing and -ed; noun suffixes: -merit and -ion- Speaking: discussing w hy people take risks; talking about
base and strong adjectives; phrasal verbs: stages in a journey experiences; talking about phobias; describing photos
G ram m ar: present perfect and past simple; already;just and yet; for and since W riting : a letter: description of a person

6 Complete each sentence with two adjectives formed from


the verb in brackets. Use -ed or -ing.
1 It was a really.......................match! Everyone was .....................
when our team scored a goal in the last mintue. (excite)
2 I'm not like my friends. I hate things.
I'm t o o ........................... to go on a rollercoaster ride, (frighten)
3 The skatepark w a s .........................................................W e were
.......................................................... by how big it was. (amaze)
4 W e're............................. by the statistics. It's..............................
that boys take more risks than girls, (surprise)
5 I feel........................................ when I wear my bicycle helmet.
It's because it's too big! (embarrass)

insight Noun suffixes: -m en t and -ion

7 Complete the table with words from the article and the
sentences in exercise 4.

Verb Noun
1
enjoy
2
development
3
encouragement
4
argue
5
impression
6
decide
7
intend
8
solve

8 Complete the news story with the correct form of a noun or


Peer pressure a verb in exercise 7.
Even teenagers who are not usual
big risk-takers may suddenly do something A party for 'friends' started to steal. Karl asked some people
dangerous because they want to show off to leave, but they just laughed. They had
When his parents went away for the
or fit in. If you look at statistics, boys often no 4 of leaving. Then he got
weekend, 18-year-old Karl1....................
into a n 5....................with another boy.
take more risks than girls, perhaps because to have a party. He posted an invite on
Facebook because he wanted to impress Unfortunately, it6 into a fight.
they don't want to be embarrassed in front
his girlfriend, Mim. He did, but he also Things were getting out of control and
of their friends - though girls dislike that, the only7 was to call the police.
made an 2....................on 200 other
too. Boys are more likely not to wear seat people. His invite was posted on other The next day, most people said
belts or motorbike helmets, more likely to get Facebook pages and 'friends of friends' they8..................the party and Karl got
into an argument or a fight, and more likely 35 didn't need much3 to come. seventy-five likes' on his Facebook page.
to carry a weapon, smoke and drink. But is At first, only a few people came, But Karl was in big trouble. The house
but as more teenagers arrived, people was a mess and his parents were on their
taking risks really the best way to get people
started to damage things and then they way back home.
to respect, notice and like you?

What you can do 9 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Interview your partner. Then read
There's no easy solution, but try to make 40
the key. Are they a risk-taker? Do you agree with the results?
good choices and be independent. Don't get
pushed into doing things by your friends.
5 Sports, rollercoasters, skateboarding, Do you:
go-karting and trampolining will all give you 1 enjoy rollercoaster rides?
2 like films where you cant predict the ending?
the same 'wow' factor. And if you're around
3 do frightening things to impress your friends?
seventeen, stop worrying, because your
4 feel bored if you stay at home for a long time?
brain has reached the stage where you can
5 like to try new food you have never tasted before?
more easily make sensible decisions. You've 6 wear unusual clothes and enjoy looking different?
survived up until now, so you've achieved a 7 do things without thinking about what happens next?
lot - well done!
KEY: If you answered yes to more than five of these questions,
then you are probably a risk-taker!

No lim its 57
5 B G ram m ar and listening Too young, to o old?
s iL

1 SPEAKING Look at the profiles of Jordan Romero


and Anthony Smith. What is unusual about them?
What have they achieved? Why do you think they Jo rd a n R om ero
did it? Achievement: climbed Everest
Ambition: climb the highest mountain
P r e s e n t p e r f e c t a n d p a s t s im p le in every state of the U SA
Recent activity: wrote a book
2 1.24 Listen to an interview with a climbing Interests: skiing, skateboarding,
instructor. Why did Jordan Romero climb Everest? friends parties

3 1.24 Choose the correct answers. Then listen


again and check.
1 How many mountains has Jordan Romero climbed?
a He's climbed eight mountains.
b He's climbed seven mountains.
2 W hen did he climb Everest?
a He climbed Everest in 2010.
b He climbed Everest in 2011.
3 How old was he then?
a He was thirteen. b He was nine.
Young adventurers
4 Has he been to Antarctica?
t Most people 1 (never visit)
a Yes, he has. b No, he hasn't.
5 Has Marco ever climbed with a young explorer?
' the North Pole, but Parker Liautaud has. Last
a Yes, he's climbed with Jordan. A year, Parker2 (ski) 130 km
b No, he's never done that. across the Arctic in freezing temperatures. In
the same year, he also 3
4 Study the questions and answers in exercise 3.
(start) a Facebook page about climate
Which sentences are in the past simple? Which are
in the present perfect? Complete the rules. change. It's amazing because Parker is
a W e u se.................................. to talk about an event only sixteen years old and still

S
that happened at a definite time in the past. 4 (not finish) school
b W e u se.................................. to talk about an event he's a very young explorer.
that happened at an indefinite time in the past,
c W e form the present perfect with the auxiliary verb
5 you
..................................and the past participle of the
main verb. (ever be) to the
d W e often use ever and never with the present South Pole? Maybe not, but in 2009,
perfect to talk about experiences. W e only use Katie Walter 6 (walk)
.................................. in questions.
there and back in twenty days.
e Compare the participles been and gone:
She was only seventeen
He's been to Antarctica. = He went to Antarctica and
came back. years old and she
7
Hes gone to Antarctica. - He went to Antarctica and
is still there now. (make) a lot of money
Reference and practice 5.1 Workbook page 112 for charity.

5 Complete the text about young adventurers with Parker and Katie 8
the correct form of the verbs in brackets. (achieve) great things, but they are both
still teenagers. 9 they
6 SPEAKING Choose three of the activities below.
(do) too much, too
Then ask and answer with a partner. Use the present
perfect for the questions and the past simple to give young? Some people think so. Some
more details. psychologists say that it's dangerous for
try a risky sport watch an adventure film teens to take these risks because their brains
travel to another country give money to charity 10 (not develop) enough.
be on a motorbike fly in a hot-air balloon Katie and Parker probably disagree! W hat
Have you ever tried a risky sport? do you think?

Yes, I have. I went skiing two years ago and broke my leg!

58 No lim its
Present p e rfe c t w ith a lrea d y, j u s t and y

L o o k a t t h e p ro file o f A n th o n y S m ith , t h e n re a d th e
a d v e r t h e p o s t e d in a n e w s p a p e r . W h a t is i t a s k i n g
for? W h a t ty p e o f p e rs o n w o u ld a n s w e r t h e a d v e rt?

Fancy sailing across the


Atlantic in a raft?
Famous traveller needs three crew.
Must be old-age pensioners.
Serious adventurers only.

8 R e a d t h e p ro file s o f J o r d a n a n d A n th o n y a g a in a n d
c o m p le te th e se n te n c e s.

A v e te ra n s story 1
2
has already flown in a hot-air balloon.
hasn't climbed a mountain yet

Anthony Smith is an old-age pensioner 3 has ju st written a book.

from London. He ' a life


S t u d y t h e s e n t e n c e s in e x e r c is e 8 a n d c o m p l e t e t h e
full of adventure. When he was young, he ru le s w ith a lre a d y , ju s t a n d ye t. T h e n m a k e t h r e e
biology at university. m o r e s e n te n c e s a b o u t J o r d a n a n d A n th o n y .
After that, he 3 a pilot W ith t h e p r e s e n t p e rf e c t, w e u se:
and also 4 as a science a to talk about recent events,
correspondent for a newspaper. He b to talk about an event or action that
5 more than thirty books, happened sooner than expected,
but he 6 any films. In c to talk about an event or action that

January 201 2, he 7 has not happened.


d in negative sentences and questions.
from the Canary Islands to the Bahamas
It goes at the end of the sentence,
in the Caribbean. He wanted to prove
e and before the past
that old people can still have adventures.
participle.
He 8 alone. Three
Reference and practice 5.2 Workbook page 113
other old adventurers joined him. He
9 a lot of money for a
10 C o m p le te t h e t e x t a b o u t a v e te r a n 's s to r y w ith t h e
charity that provides clean water for people p re s e n t p e rfe c t o r p a s t sim p le fo rm o f th e v e rb s
in Africa, Asia and Central America. He b e lo w . C an y o u a d d a lre a d y , ju s t o r y e t t o a n y o f t h e
10 through seventy se n te n c e s?
countries, but he 11 to become give have not be not go not produce
the South Pole. He 12 an raise sail study travel 1 work write
interview for our newspaper. You can read it
in the next issue. 11 SPEAKING Work in groups. How well do you know
your classmates? Complete the profile for each
person in your group. Then ask and answer to find
out if your ideas are correct.

N a m e

A c h ie v e m e n t:

A m b itio n :

R e c e n t activ ity :

In terests:

DVD extra Great explorers: Edmund Hillary

N o lim its 59
5 C Listening, speaking and vocabulary Fears and phobias

SPEAKING Work in pairs. Look at the photos and the chart. Answer the questions.
1 Do any of these things make you feel scared? Rate them on a scale of 0-5
(0 = not scared at all, 5 - terrified). Then compare your scores with a partner.
2 Did anything score 4 or 5? Can you explain why?

Score

the dark

small spaces

large crowds

fs. heights
Are you afraid o f

public speaking

flying

injection

exams

open spaces

2 1.25 Listen to the introduction to a programme about phobias. What is a phobia?


Why do people have phobias?

3 1.26 Listen to three people talking about their phobias. Which phobias in exercise 1do they
mention?

4 1.26 Listen again and match speakers A-C to statements 1-8. There are two statements
that you do not need.
Speaker A 1 This person thinks their phobia is silly.
Speaker B 2 This person thinks their phobia started in childhood.
Speaker C 3 This person can't stand cold weather
4 This person has a fear of heights.
5 This person has the same fear as a parent.
6 This person doesn't mind walking up stairs.
7 This person doesn't like huge open spaces.
8 This person asked someone for help with their phobia.

insight Base and strong adjectives

5 @ 1 .2 7 Complete the table. Then listen and check your answers.


boiling freezing hilarious ihuge ridiculous furious terrible tiny

Base hot silly cold big funny angry small bad


adjectives
Strong boiling
adjectives (=very hot)

6 Which adjectives in exercise 5 would you use to describe these things?


the weather in Alaska your favourite joke an unpleasant experience
the temperature in the Sahara a baby how you feel when someone has lied to you

7 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Study the unusual


phobias and answer the questions. Fear of...
1 Which do you think is the most ridiculous? W hy?
colours
2 Which of these phobias might start when you are
the number 13 uou,h
a child? a teenager? an adult? cars the sun
storms dancm9 SCII00I
60 No limits
Describing a photo
8 SPEA K IN G W o r k in p airs. L o o k a t
p h o to s A a n d B a n d discuss th e questions.

1 W hat type of event do you think it is?


2 W hat are the people doing?
3 How do you think they feel?
4 Which adjectives would you use to describe
the events?
frightening amazing boring
ridiculous exciting

9 1.28 L isten to t h e d ia lo g u e . W h ic h p h o to
are th e p e o p le talking a b o u t?

10 1.28 C o m p le te th e p h rases from th e dialogue.


T h e n listen a g a in a n d check.

L o catin g D escrib in g S p e cu la tin g


in th e 1 le a n 3 that it's.... Ju d g in g 4 his face,....
in the foreground It s h o w s .... He d o es5 a b i t ....
in 2 of In this photo, there is/are ... . It looks6 it w a s . . . .
on the right/left
next to

11 1.29 P u t t h e d i a l o g u e in t h e c o r r e c t o r d e r . T h e n liste n a n d c h e c k .

Hannah It's in Dublin. It's a photo of a St Patrick's Day concert.


1 Josh Hey, that's a nice picture. Where is it?
Hannah Yes, it's a big celebration in Ireland on 17 March. There's usually a huge parade
through the streets.
Josh St Patrick's Day?
Hannah Yes, w e did. It was amazing!
Josh I've never celebrated St Patrick's Day, but it looks fun. Is that you in the middle of the
picture?
Hannah Oh, these are shamrocks. It's the symbol of Ireland.
Josh There are lots of people there. W hat are they waving?
Josh That's interesting. Well, I bet you all had a good time!
Hannah Yes, it is. And that's my cousin on the left. M y friends Liz and Dora are just behind us.

12 R ead t h e d ia lo g u e ag ain . U n d e rlin e m o r e w a y s o f locatin g a n d sp ecu latin g .

13 SPEA K IN G W o r k in p a i r s . L o o k a t t h e p h o t o a n d p r e p a r e a d i a l o g u e . U s e t h e d i a l o g u e in
e x e r c i s e 11 t o h e l p y o u .

Take turns to ask about the photo. Ask questions about:


the place and the event: Where is it? W hat is it?
the people: W hat are they doing? W h y are they there? W ho are they?
5 D Culture, vocabulary and grammar Antarctic adventure

1 SPEAKING Work in pairs. How much do you know


about the Antarctic? Do the quiz. Then read the text
and check your answers. E yew itn ess a cco u n t:
1 The Antarctic is than the Arctic,
a colder b less cold
2 Thousands of live there,
a polar bears b penguins
3 The Inuit people have lived there,
a never b always

4 It's dark...............
a all year round b for half the year
5 It's the place on Earth,
a wettest b driest

2 Read the text again and answer the questions.


1 W hat job does Brita do?
2 How was Amundsen's expedition different from Scott's?
3 W hy did most of Scott's team go back?
4 W hy was Scott disappointed when he got to the
South Pole?
5 W hat problems did he experience on the way back? Brita Harding is a scientist and she's been in
6 W hat makes Scott's boots special? Antarctica for five weeks. She is working in a
7 W hy does Brita think Scott's story is an inspiration? small building called Scott's Hut and helping to
preserve it. The British explorer Captain Robert
3 SPEAKING Work in groups. Discuss the questions. 5 Scott used the hut as a base camp in 1 9 1 1 .
1 Do you think it is important to preserve historic 'The A n ta rc tic is th e d rie st, c o ld e st a n d w in d iest
buildings like Scott's Hut? W hy / w hy not? c o n tin e n t in th e w orld. It's d ark for six m o n th s
2 Which famous explorers do you know of? W hat did of th e y e a r a n d n o t m any a n im als live h ere, a p a rt
they explore / discover? Are there any from your from p e n g u in s. T here are no n a tiv e p e o p le lik e th e
country?
io In u its , a n d to u ris ts n e v e r sto p off to explore. It's
easy to u n d e rs ta n d w hy. It is n 't th e b e s t place to
nsight Phrasal verbs: stages in a journey
live a n d w ork a n d it's freezin g a t th e m o m e n t -
4 Study the highlighted phrasal verbs in the text. w e've h a d te m p e ra tu re s of -73 C since- Monday!
Then read sentences 1-8 and replace the words in Every day, I go dow n to Ross Isla n d a n d w ork in
italics with the correct phrasal verb.
is S c o tt's H u t w ith o th e r sc ie n tis ts . In sid e th e r e are
1 Last August we went on a road trip. The first day of books, w ooden skis, b isc u its, p e n g u in s ' eggs a n d
the holiday, we began our journey from home. m an y o th e r in te re s tin g th in g s . All th e s e th in g s
2 After a few kilometres, w e decided to stop for a short h a v e b e e n h e re for a h u n d re d y ears a n d th e y 're
time and have breakfast at a small cafe. c o m p le te ly fro z e n . T hat's w hy we w a n t to save th e
3 W e were there for an hour, then w e continued with 20 h u t - i t b rin g s S c o tt's e x p e d itio n to life!
our journey.
4 Unfortunately, it started to rain.Then w e travelled The race to th e S o u th Pole is a fam ous story.
down the wrong road and got lost. C aptain S c o tt a'nd a N orw egian ex p lo rer called Roald
5 Later, things got worse and the car stopped working. A m undsen b o th w a n te d to g e t th e r e first. They
Dad's mobile phone stopped working, too! b o th p re p a re d for m an y m o n th s, b u t in th e end
6 W e spent half an hour repairing the car, but in the 25 th e ir e x p e d itio n s w ere v ery d iffe re n t: A m undsen
end w e stopped trying. u se d dogs to p u ll h is sleds a n d S c o tt u sed
7 W e decided to go in the opposite direction and go m o to riz e d sleds a n d h o rses. A m u n d sen h a d good
home, so we got out of the car and started walking. w e a th e r d u rin g h is e x p e d itio n , b u t S c o tt h a d bad
8 W e didn't meet or find any other cars or people all the W eather. W hen S c o tt's te a m s e t o u t from th e h u t on
w ay home! 30 1 'N ovem ber 1911, th e r e w ere te rrib le snow sto rm s
a n d th e sleds broke dow n. A fter a few w eeks, th e
5 SPEAKING Have you ever been on a long or h o rse s d ied a n d m o st o f h is te a m tu rn e d back. In
eventful journey? Where were you going? Describe . th e e n d , o n ly five m en carried on to th e S o u th
the journey. Pole: S c o tt, O ates, Evans, Bowers a n d W ilson.

62 No lim its
5D

P r e s e n t p e r f e c t w it h fo r a n d sin<

6 Read the sentences and answer the questions.


VZeve had temperatures of-73C since Monday
The skis have been in the hut fo ra hundred years.
How long have you lived in the Antarctic?
1 W hen did it start getting very cold? Is it still very cold
today?
2 W hen did Scott first put the skis in the hut? Are they in
the hut now?
3 Do the sentences refer to the present, the past, or both?
4 W e use for and since with the present perfect to say
how long a situation has existed. W hich word do we
use with a period of time? W hich one do w e use with
a point in time?
5 Which question word do we use with the present perfect
when we want to know the duration of an activity?

Reference and practice 5.3 Workbook page 113

7 Read the email from Brita to a friend. Complete the


I text with the present perfect or the past simple form
of the verbs in brackets.
m

m n i i a a
.' V v '~ ! -v ---vrv^..^ . ' Hi Carine
11 (live) in Antarctica for two months now and
On 17 J a n u a ry 1912, S c o tt's te a m read h ed th e 35
it's been an interesting experience. It's an amazing place,
Pole a n d cam e across th e N orw egian flag -
but I 2 (not see) my family since Christmas and
A m undsen's te a m w ere th e r e b e fo re th e m and I'm starting to feel homesick. It's summer here now, so
w ere a lre ad y racing back to te ll th e w orld. Tired lots of scientists3 (arrive) recently. More come
a n d d isa p p o in te d , S c o tt m ade, h is w ay back hom e, in the summer as they can do more research.
b u t th e r e tu r n jo u rn e y was a n ig h tm a re . They 40 One of my friends is a biologist and he's studying
ra n o u t o f food a n d g o t lo s t in snow stprm s; th e n penguins. He 4 (tag) hundreds since he
on 17 February, Evans h a d a b a d fall a n d d ied . A arrived. But he 5 (not do) any tagging since
Monday this week because the weather has been
m o n th la te r, O ates w alked in to a snow sto rm a n d
terrible. No one 6 (be) outside because there's
d isa p p e a re d . S co tt, Bowers a n d W ilson s ta y e d in
a 'category 2' warning, which means there's a huge
th e t e n t for tw o m ore w eeks. Sadly, th e sto rm 45 snow storm. 17 (have) two thick jumpers on
d id n 't s to p , so th e y d ied . They w ere o n ly e ig h te e n for days, but I still feel cold!
k ilo m etres from a s u p p ly o f food. I8 (not send) an email last week because I
didn't have any news - 19 (stay) in my room all
In S c o tt's h u t , th e r e is a .pair o f old explorer's b o o ts.
week, read books about astronomy and wrote my blog.
S c o tt w ore th e s e b o o ts
I also 10 (chat) with Max, one of the scientists.
for y ears a n d th e y are Have I told you about him? He 11 (live) here
d irty a n d b ro k e n , b u t for six months and he's studying astronomy. It's easier
th ey lre v ery special, to see the night sky as there's no light pollution here.
to o . They te ll us I have to go now, but I'll write again next week.
S c o tt's .s to ry - t h a t Brita
h e was h a rd -w o rk in g ,
a m b itio u s and
d e te rm in e d , a n d t h a t 8 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Student A is a scientist
h e p u sh e d h im self to who works in the Antarctic. Student B is an
th e lim it. A lth o u g h i, interviewer for a radio programme. Use the email
th e jo u rn e y was in exercise 7 to help you.
te rrib le a n d te rrify in g , Interviewer Where do you live in the Antarctic?
S c o tt n ev er gave u p , Scientist I live in a research station near Ross Island.
a n d t h a t's a n am azing Interviewer How long have you lived there?
a c h ie v e m e n t/ . . Scientist I've lived here since December.

Vocabulary bank Personality adjectives page 138

N o lim its 63
5 E Writing A letter: description of a person
srt\ --TC

This months competition is all about


inspirational people.
W rite a d escription of a person you adm ire. It can be a
fam ous person, a friend or a m em ber of your family.
S a y why th ey are sp ecial and w h a t th ey have achieved !
S e n d in your description w ith a photo by Friday,
1 6 th January.
W in n e rs will g e t a copy of th e best-selling book
Teens Can Make It Happen by Sted m an Graham .

1 SPEAKING Read the magazine competition announcement. What prize is the winner going
to receive? Have you ever taken part in a magazine competition?

2 Read competition entries A and B on page 65. Which description is about a friend? Which
description is about someone famous?

STRATEGY

Paragraphs and to p ic sentences


When you write, always organize your ideas into paragraphs.
The introduction tells you w h at the text is going to be about.
The m iddle paragraph(s) give background information and details.
The conclusion repeats and summarizes th e ideas from the introduction.

In each paragraph there is always a topic sentence w hich introduces the topic and often summarizes
w h at the paragraph is about. The topic sentence is usually at the beginning of a paragraph.

3 Read the strategy. Then read description A again and put the paragraphs in the correct order.

4 Complete description B with topic sentences a-c.


a People say you shouldn't ju d g e by appearances and that's true,
b Things aren't always easy for Stacey,
c M y best friend Stacey is a person I admire.

Expressing ad d itio n

5 Study the highlighted words in descriptions A and B. Complete the rules.


We use addition linkers to join ideas and add information when we write. We can use:
a a s w e ll and at th e end of a sentence or n e w idea,
b before a main verb, but after auxiliary verbs and be.
c and w h a t's m o r e at th e beginning o f a sentence or n e w idea.

6 Choose the correct words.


1 M arathon running is fun. In addition, / As well, its goo d for your health.
2 M y sister is hard-working. She's very am bitious as well / in addition.
3 M y cousin got fantastic exam results. He also / what's more passed his driving test!
4 These trainers are com fortable. They are in addition / also very light.
5 M y friend Sarah is amazing at tennis. Shes g oo d at basketball, too / also.
6 M y dad is brilliant at chess. He can also / too d o crosswords.
7 Jaim e speaks English well. What's more, / Too, he can speak Spanish and German.

64 No lim its
I I
5E

Fauja started running when he was 89 years old, and


1 She's ta u g h t m e
you may wonder why. When his wife died, he moved
n o t to ju d g e p e o p le by th e ir a p p e a ra n c e s. W h a ts
from India to the UK to be with his son. He wanted
m o re , sh e is a v e ry b rav e p e rs o n .
something to focus on and running provided that.
Fauja ran his first race in 1992 and since then has run 2 1 m e t Stacey
marathons around the world. Hes also broken many w h e n w e w ere b o th tw elve y e a rs old. S he w as
records and hes made a lot of money for charity, too. in m y class, b u t I d id n t ta lk to h e r a t first. I w as
e m b a rra s s e d b e c au se Stacey lo o k e d differen t. You
see, Stacey u se s a w h eelch air. T h e n o n e day, in
When Fauja Singh runs a marathon, he never gives up.
s p o rts class, w e p lay e d b a sk etb a ll. Stacey jo in e d in
He always carries on. I don't want to stop, he says.
a n d w e h a d a lo t o f fu n . In a d d itio n , sh e w as a really
I want to die running. And thats why I admire him.
g o o d player! I s ta rte d ta lk in g to S tacey a n d fo u n d
th a t w e h a d a lo t in c o m m o n .
Fauja Singh is a person I admire. Fauja shows that old 3.................................................................Its d iffic u lt to
people can achieve amazing things, just like young o p e n d o o rs w h e n y o u re in a w h eelch air. P eople
people. In 2011, when Fauja w as one hundred years s o m e tim e s ig n o re y o u as w ell. W e re all different,
old, he becam e the oldest person to run a marathon. sh e says, b u t its g o o d to b e different. B ut Stacey
Thats an incredible achievement! n e v e r c o m p la in s a b o u t h e r d isa b ility - sh e ju st
sm iles a n d c a rrie s o n , a n d th a ts w h y I a d m ire her.

| WRITING GUIDE

Task Think of a person you admire. Write a letter Plan Decide which ideas you are going to use and
with a description of the person to enter the M y match them to these paragraphs.
page competition. Paragraph 1: Say w ho you admire and why.
Paragraph 2: Give background information. Talk about
Ideas Decide who you are going to write about and their achievements, or how you know
make notes. them.
1 Make a list of people you admire. Decide w ho you are Paragraph 3: Say w hy you admire them again.
going to write about.
2 Make notes about: Write Write your letter. Use the paragraph plan to
why you admire them. help you.
the things they have achieved.
if it's a friend, how you met them. Check Check the following points.
their personal qualities. Are your ideas divided into paragraphs?
Does each paragraph have a clear topic and a topic
sentence?
Have you checked spelling, grammar and punctuation?

No lim its 65
Vocabulary insight 5 Phrasal verbs: understanding the particle

1 Work in pairs. Study the words below. Which ones 4 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the
are not phrasal verbs? How do you know? phrasal verbs below.
playgam es look after sit d o w n feel bored eat u p get u p go out hurry up rub out
g o out take risks lo o k u p
1 I .............................................at six o'clock this m orning
and had a shower.
STRATEGY
2 Dad, I'm ju s t .............................................. See you later.
U nd erstand ing th e m eaning o f th e p article in 3 ................. your sandwich and let's go.
phrasal verbs 4 ............1W e re going to be late.
A phrasal verb is a com bination of tw o or three words: 5 The teacher the draw ing on the
a verb and at least on e particle (a preposition or an board and w rote the date.
adverb). Som e o f the m ost com m on particles are a t,
STRATEGY
b a c k , d o w n , fo r, in , o ff, o n , o u t, to , u p and w it h . T h e same
particle can have different m eanings in different phrasal Recording phrasal verbs
verbs. For example, o u t and u p have several meanings: It is useful to group and record phrasal verbs by the
m eaning of the particle. A mind m ap can be a good
OUT
technique to use. You can add more phrasal verbs to
sharing: Share the chocolates out between you.
the group as you learn them.
leaving: We set out early on our trip,
removing: I've ju s t had a tooth taken out.
5 Read the strategy above. Put the phrasal verbs
UP from exercises 2,3 and 4 under the correct particle
m oving from a low to a high position: Please stand up meaning in the mind map. Can you add one more
when the head teacher comes into the room, phrasal verb for each particle meaning?
finishing: I've used up all my money,
increasing: He grew up on a farm in Ireland.

Knowing the possible m eanings o f a particle will help


you to understand n e w phrasal verbs.

2 Read the strategy above. Then study the underlined


phrasal verbs in the sentences below and match the
particles to meanings a-f.
1 She w ent over to the crying child and picked
him ujd.
2 I got some fruit juice out of the fridge and drank it.
3 The price of petrol has gone up again.
4 I went around the guests, serving out tea and biscuits.
5 They ate up the rest of the cake.
6 W e started out at six in the morning and arrived
at lunchtime.

a increasing
b finishing
c removing
d sharing
e leaving
f moving from a low to a high position

3 Choose the correct words.


1 Ann, can you help me to give out / up the
dictionaries?
2 Please turn the music out / up. I cant hear it.
3 Don't leave your coat on the floor! Pick it out / up
6 Work in pairs. Take turns to say a sentence using a
and put it in your wardrobe.
phrasal verb from exercises 2, 3 and 4. Your partner
4 Drink o u t/u p all your milk!
has to guess the meaning of the particle.
5 I took the books out / up of my bag and started
A Bus ticket prices have gone up.
doing my homework.
B Increasing.
6 They checked out / up of the hotel at eight o'clock.
A Correct!

66 V o ca b u la ry insight 5
Review 5

V o c a b u la r y G ra m m a r

1 Complete the text with the adjective form of the 5 Complete the dialogue with the present perfect or
verbs in brackets. Use -ed o r -ing. the past simple form of the verbs in brackets.
Ewan 1 you ever (climb)
People say that bungee jumping is 1 (amaze),
a mountain?
but I'm not so sure. I once saw a video of a jump
Max Yes, I have. 12 (go up) Snowdon in
that went wrong and the images were quite 2 Wales with my brother last year. It 3
(frighten).They showed a woman jumping at the (not take) long and we 4 (have) a
Victoria Falls in Zambia. She was very 3 (excite) great view from the top. 15 . (do)
before the jump, but it nearly ended in disaster.The a lot of climbing with my brother. He's very good.
bungee broke and she fell into the river below, which Ewan 6 he ever (think)
was full of crocodiles.The 4 (surprise) thing is about climbing abroad?
that the woman survived the experience, but she says Max Yes, but h e 7 (not try) it yet.
she was very 5 (frighten) and she would never Right now, he only goes climbing in the UK. Last
do it again. month, h e 8 (fly) to Scotland to
climb Ben Nevis.
Marks 75 Ewan 9 h e ..................... (get) to the top?
Max No, the weather was bad, so h e 10
2 Complete the sentences with the noun form of the (give up) before he reached the top.
underlined verbs. Marks /10
1 I enjoy skiing.
I get a lot o f .................................................. out of it. 6 Choose the correct words.
2 Mike impressed the interviewer. 1 Ive just / yet / already bought a new bike. Do you
He made a g o o d ........................................................... want to see it?
3 We've solved the problem. 2 Charlie can't go out. He hasn't done his homework
We've found a ............................................................... just/yet/already.
4 They didn't intend to do it. 3 W e've just / yet / already seen that film. W e w ent to
It wasn't th eir................................................................ the cinema last month.
5 Technology develops quickly today 4 Can we go home? Has the match finished just / yet /
There are a lot of new in technology. already?
Marks /5 5 W e are thirty minutes late. The concert has ju st/yet/
already started.
3 Replace the words in italics with strong adjectives. 6 Tessa can't ski. She hasn't had lessons just / yet / already.
1 Canada is a very big country. It's 9,984,670 km2. 7 They're wearing pyjamas. They've just/yet/already
2 It's very hot in Death Valley, California. The temperature got up.
goes up to 49C!
Marks n
3 British comedian Peter Kay is very funny. He's sold over
7 Complete sentence b so that it has a similar meaning
ten million DVDs.
to sentence a. Use the present perfect form of the
4 The Razzies are prizes for very bad films. They're the
verbs in brackets with fo r or since.
worst films of the year.
5 Monaco is a very small country. It's only 2 km2. 1 a Harry met Kate five years ago. (know)
Marks /5 b Harry..........................................................five years.
2 a The last time I had a holiday was in January, (not have)
4 Match the words in A to the words in B to make b I .................................................................... January.
phrasal verbs. Then complete the sentences with 3 a Caitlin became a doctor in 2010. (be)
the correct form of the verbs. b Caitlin................................................................ 2010.
A break come set stop turn 4 a W e came here eight years ago. (live)

B across back down off out b W e ........................................................... eight years.


5 a The last time Rob saw his family was in May. (not see)
1 T h e y .............................................................. some old b R ob .....................................................................May.
friends at the hotel they were staying at. 6 a You lost your job six months ago. (not work)
2 W e ............................................................... at a petrol b You six months.
station to ask for directions. 7 a I started learning English when I was eight, (study)
3 Can you help me? M y c a r............................................. b I ...............................................................I was eight.
4 T h ey.................................................... early tomorrow 8 a The last time it rained was five weeks ago. (notrain)
to avoid the traffic. b It .............................................................. five weeks.
5 It started to rain, so we Marks /8
and went home.
Marks /5 Total / 45

Pronunciation bank 5 W orkbook page 126 I Review 5 67


Roads to education
Reading and vocabulary A hard lesson

1 SPEAKING Look at the photo. Where are the


people? Is it a safe or a dangerous place? Read the
article and compare your ideas.

2 Match sentences A-F to gaps 1-5 in the article. There


is one sentence that you do not need.
War Zones
A Police officers are not going to leave schools anytime
F u lm o re M iddle School in Texas is a n
soon.
B If they don't pay, their children will go to prison when o rd in ary school t h a t te a c h e s th e u su a l
they are seventeen. su b je c ts . 1..................................................
C It's got a big sports hall, a nice canteen, a good library W hen t h e b ell rin g s a t b re a k tim e,
and well-equipped classrooms. s c h ild re n w alk o u t of th e classroom s p a s t
D The officer took out his gun and threatened a girl te a c h e rs , m o n ito rs ... a n d police officers.
because she did not show respect.
'Yes, th e r e a re police in o u r sch o o l/ says
E W hat happened there shocked people all over the
country.
o n e fo u rteen -y ear-o ld s tu d e n t. 'They've
F The boy had learning difficulties and didn't got p e p p e r spray a n d th ey 'v e got g u n s
understand what the police were saying. io a n d th e y w ill u s e th e m /

Police officers in American schools are nothing new.


3 SPEAKING Work in groups. Do you think having
In the 1990s, there w as a rise in juvenile and gang-
police officers in school is a good idea? Think of
related crime and new spapers sta rte d to report
two reasons supporting the idea and two reasons on a 'lo st generation'. They talked about unhappy,
against it. Use examples in the article to help you. is out-of-control children, irresponsible parents and
schools w hich were like w ar zones. Then, in 1999, the
insight Collocations: crime unthinkable happened. Two stu d en ts from Colorado
sh o t twelve other stu d en ts and a teacher at school.
4 Find the verbs in the article and write the nouns that
2.............................................................. Everyone w anted
go with them. Which phrases describe something
2o protection for th e ir children, an d police officers in
the police do?
schools were the answer.
1 get into (line 24) Nowadays, police still p ro tect schools, and in many
2 arrest (line 25) .............................................. schools, there is a zero tolerance policy*. This m eans
3 punish (line 29) .............................................. th a t you can get into trouble for even sm all offences.
4 pay (line 31) .............................................. 25 Police officers arre st people for violence and bringing

5 appear (line 31) illegal drugs o r w eapons into school, b u t they can
6 commit (line 47) also a rre s t them for throw ing p ap er planes or being
7 charge (line 54)
8 spend time (line 5 5 )..............................................

5 Complete the extract from a newspaper article with


the correct form of the verbs in exercise 4.

Can you remember the last time you 1 trouble


at school? W hat happened? Did your teacher talk to
you about it? Perhaps they2 you or sent you to
the head teacher? Thats not unusual, but for students
in some parts of America, its a very different story.
If you do something wrong, the police can 3
you and put you in prison. Last year in California,
a girl 4 in court because she dropped food
on the floor in the school canteen. In Texas, a boy
5 in prison because he w asn't wearing his
school identification tag. Was he just forgetful or
did he 6 a crime? Police officers in schools
sometimes 7 students for very small offences.
In some schools, the students have to 8 a fine
for arriving late or not wearing their school uniform.

68 Roads to ed ucation
V ocabulary: collocations: crime: negative prefixes; adjectives in poems Sp eaking : talking about school life; making predictions about the future;
G ram m ar: will and going to; first conditional: zero conditional; expressing making offers and suggestions; discussing a poem
6A
probability: may might, will; adverbs of probability W riting : a for and against essay

nsight Negative prefixes: un-, im -, ir- and il-

im p o lite . 'I f a s t u d e n t b e h a v e s b a d ly , t h e p o lic e


6 Study the adjectives from the article and read the
o ff ic e r w ill p u n i s h o f f e n d e r s a n d g iv e th e m a tic k e t,' rules. Then write the correct negative prefixes.
e x p la in s o n e s t u d e n t . T h e ti c k e t m i g h t s a y y o u h a v e so 1 ............................happy
to p a y a fin e , o r a p p e a r in c o u r t. T h e fin e s c a n b e 2 .............. responsible
u p to $ 5 0 0 , a n d m a n y p o o r e r p a r e n t s d o n 't h a v e th e 3 .........thinkable
m o n e y .3 T h ese 4 legal
s t u d e n t s w ill g e t a c r im i n a l r e c o r d , a n d w h e n th e y 5 ...........polite
le a v e p r i s o n , i t 'l l b e im p o s s i b l e f o r th e m t o g e t a j o b 35 6 possible
o r g o to c o lle g e . T h is r e c o r d w ill d e s t r o y t h e i r liv e s , 7 .........usual
a n d a ll b e c a u s e th e y d id s o m e th in g w r o n g a t sc h o o l. 8 .........mature
U n f o r tu n a te ly , t h e s i t u a t i o n i s n 't g o in g to c h a n g e .
W e often add the prefix un- to a word to make it
4 ....................................................................... 'W e n e e d p o lic e in
negative. However, w hen the word starts with I, m, p or r,
s c h o o l,' s a y s a tw e lv e - y e a r - o ld s t u d e n t a t F u lm o r e . 40
w e often use a different prefix,
'I n m y s c h o o l, i t c a n g e t p h y s ic a l a n d i t c a n t u r n o u t
v e r y b a d . ' H o w e v e r, s t a t i s t i c s t e l l u s w h a t h a p p e n e d a im - + m o t p perfect imperfect

in C o lo r a d o w a s u n u s u a l . M o s t s c h o o ls d o n o t fa c e b ir- + r rational > irrational


a s e r io u s t h r e a t o f v io le n c e , a n d p o lic e o ffic e rs o fte n c il- + l literate > illiterate
o n ly d e a l w i t h 'n a u g h t y ' o r i m m a tu r e s t u d e n t s . 45
S c h o o l i s n o t lik e t h e o u t s i d e w o r ld . C h ild r e n d o n 't 7 Add the correct negative prefixes to the adjectives.
u s u a l l y c o m m it t e r r i b l e c r im e s . S e v e re p u n i s h m e n t s fortunate helpful logical moral practical
fo r s m a ll o ffe n c e s m a y d o m o re h a r m th a n good. regular safe 1 surprising tidy
I n o n e i n c i d e n t , p o lic e o ffic e rs p e p p e r - s p r a y e d a
s ix te e n - y e a r - o ld s t u d e n t w h e n h e d i d n 't r e s p o n d to so 8 Complete the sentences with negative adjectives in
a n o rd e r.5 W hen exercises 6 and 7.
th e y p e p p e r - s p r a y e d h im , h e s t a r t e d s w in g in g h is
1 I think my school is an place to
a r m s a r o u n d in p a i n a n d h i t o n e o f th e o ffic e rs b y
study. W e really need the police.
a c c id e n t. N o w t h e p o lic e a r e c h a r g i n g h im w i t h
2 The classroom looked.................................at the end
a s s a u lt * , a n d h e w ill p r o b a b ly s p e n d tim e in p r is o n . 55
of the lesson. There w ere bits o f paper on the desks
P o lic e o ff ic e rs i n s c h o o ls m a y w e ll b e p r o te c tin g
and on the floor.
s o m e liv e s , b u t a r e th e y d e s t r o y i n g o th e r s ?
3 Stop talking! Its ................................to hear w hat the
* z e r o t o l e r a n c e p o lic y = p u n i s h i n g a ll b a d b e h a v io u r , teacher is saying.
e v e n w h e n i t is n o t s e r io u s 4 W hen som eone breaks the law and does something
* a s s a u lt = w h e n so m e o n e a tta c k s a n o th e r p e rs o n , it's necessary to punish them.
5 M y brother is at school. He's scared
because there are bullies in his class.
6 Ify o u a re ....................................... , it means you can't
read or write.

9 SPEAKING Work in groups. Imagine you are


teachers at a new school and you have decided to
introduce fines for bad behaviour. Look at the list
of 'crimes'and agree on a fine for each one.The
minimum fine is 10 euros. The maximum fine is 500
euros. Then compare your ideas as a class.
being late cheating bullying fighting
swearing truancy using a mobile phone in class
forgetting hom ework vandalism

Crime Fine
f o r g e t t in g h o m e w o r k 10

V o c a b u la ry b a n k School: bad behaviour page 139

DVD e x tra An American high school

Roads to ed ucation
6 B G ram m ar and listening H ungry to learn
C\V L

Editor's choice: the world's youngest head teacher


This week's amazing story comes all the way from India. We
think that Ali's school will make a big difference to his village!

B ab ar Ali s ta rte d te a c h in g w h e n h e w as n in e y e a rs old.


At first, h e ta u g h t frie n d s as a gam e, b u t th e n h e d e c id e d
to do it serio u sly a n d h e lp p o o r c h ild ren in his village.
T here a re o th e r sch o o ls o u tsid e th e village, b u t B abar
Ali's sc h o o l is different b e c a u s e its free. It also gives
s tu d e n ts free books. 3Ali th in k s th a t c h ild ren w o n t go to
a sc h o o l w h ich h a s fees, b e c a u s e th e ir p a re n ts c a n t afford
it. H is sc h o o l is th e ir o n ly c h a n c e to have a n e d u c a tio n .
4I p ro m ise I'll h e lp th e m learn, h e says.
It's 2.15 p.m . a n d c h ild re n are arriv in g a t th e sch o o l, b u t
th e re are big black clo u d s in th e sky. 5Its going to ra in
a n d th e c la ssro o m s a re ou tsid e. Ali looks at th e clouds
a n d m akes a difficult d ecisio n . 6W ell clo se th e sch o o l
today, h e says, b u t h e h a s a p lan . T ie 's going to raise
Its tw o oclock a n d six teen -y ear-o ld B ab ar Ali h a s ju st m o n e y for a n e w bu ild in g , so th e sc h o o l c a n stay o p e n
got ba c k from sch o o l in W est B engal. Its b e e n a lo n g day, all th e tim e.
b u t h e is n 't going to relax o r play w ith h is friends. W hat is The rain starts a n d th e children ru n h o m e. Will th ey com e
h e going to do? 2H es going to te a c h th e c h ild ren fro m his b ack tom orrow ? Of course th ey will. Theyre h u n g ry to
village w h a t h e le a rn e d today. B a b a r Ali h a s got h is ow n lea rn a n d they w a n t a b e tte r future. T hats w h a t B abar All
sch o o l - h e 's th e w o rld s y o u n g e st h e a d teacher. w ants, too.

1 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Read the sentences and decide if they are true for you.
Then compare your answers with a partner.
1 I study at school, so I can pass exams.
2 M y parents think school is important.
3 I like school because all my friends are there.
4 M y parents pay for my uniform / books / lessons.
5 I'd like to be a teacher when I leave school.
6 School is the most important thing in my life at the moment.

2 Read the article about the world's youngest head teacher. How is Babar Ali's school different
from your school?

will an d going to
3 Read the article again. Match sentences 1-7 to rules a-d.
W e can use w ill for.
a predictions, usually after /th in k ... or /don't th in k . ...
b decisions made at the moment of speaking, offers and promises.
W e use going to for:
c predictions, based on something w e can see in the present,
d future plans and intentions.

4 Choose the correct words.


1 'W hat are your plans for this afternoon?' 'W e 're going to / 'II watch a film at home/
2 'Do you think you 're going to / 'II pass your exams? 'Perhaps. I don't know.'
3 1 can't do m y homework. 'Dont worry. I'm going to /'II help you.'
4 'W hy are you studying English?' ' I 'm going to / 'II get a job in tourism when I leave school/
5 'Oh no! I'm late for school.' 'Calm down - 1'm going to / 'II take you in the car.'
6 'Can I help you with those books?' 'Careful! You 're going to / 'II drop them!'

Reference and practice 6.1 Workbook page 114

70 Roads to ed ucation
6B
5 2.01 Complete the interview with Malika, a student at Babar Ali's school. Then listen and
check your answers.
Interviewer Hi Malika, is the school open today?
Malika Yes, it is. There's a clear, blue sky, so it 1 ........................... (be) sunny.
Interviewer W hat are your plans for today, Malika?
Malika I2 (go) to school this afternoon.
Interviewer W hat are you studying today?
Malika I think i t 3...................................................................(be) geography, but I'm not sure.
Interviewer Are you going to study this evening?
Malika No, I'm not. I 4 (work) this evening. I clean people's houses.
Interviewer W hat about after that?
Malika I usually teach my little sister, but I dont think 15 (have) time today.
Interviewer W hat do you think y o u 6 (do) when you have your diploma?
Malika Well, I 7 (not clean) people's houses. I want to be a teacher.
Interviewer Thanks, Malika, and good luck. Will you do another interview after your graduation?
Malika I'd love to. Perhaps 18 (have) a job as a teacher then!

6 SPEAKING Write six sentences about your future. Use the ideas below. Then work in pairs
and compare your ideas.
two things you think will happen next year / when you leave school
two things you think wont happen next year / when you leave school
one thing you are going to do tonight / this weekend
one thing you are not going to do tonight / this weekend

F irs t c o n d it io n a l

7 Read the text about a journey to school. What is unusual about it? Why do the children do it?

Pili village, China: The road to education is w orry about this path. If anything happens, w hat
som etim es a very' n a rro w path. Twice a year, a will w e tell their p a re n ts? says one. But the danger
group of eighty children travel from their village d o esn t end there. After the m ountain path, there
in the m ountains to a school in Taxkorgan, 190 a re narrow bridges over deep rivers. The children
kilom etres away. They get to the school in three w ont fall if they're careful, but som e have slipped
days w hen the w eather is good. But w hen the in the past. Fortunately, no one w as hurt.
w eather is bad, it takes them a week. W hat do the children think about the trip?
T here arc no roads to the village, so the children According to one teacher, they enjoy the adventure.
travel across the m ountains and rivers. The m ost But a t th e m om ent, th e governm ent is building a
dangerous p a rt of their journey is a n arrow path ro ad to the school. Everyone hopes they'll finish it
along th e side o f a 300-m ctre cliff. If they slip, this year. If they do, th e children w ont have to risk
theyll fall into the valley below. Every year, teachers their lives again.

? 8 Read the sentences and complete the rules. Find more examples of the first conditional in
the text.
If they slip, they'll fall into the valley below.
They'll fall into the valley below if they slip.
We use the first conditional to talk about a possible future action or situation, and its probable result.
condition: i f + ................................................... tense
result: ... ,+ verb
The condition clause can come before or after the result clause. We don't use a comma when i f
comes in the middle of the sentence.

Reference and practice 6.2 Workbook page 114

9 Complete the chain story about Kai Yang, a student from Pili village. Use the ideas below.
If he doesn't do the journey, he won't go to school. > If he doesnt go to school, he won't learn to
read. If he doesn't learn to read,...
not do exams not get a diploma not get a job be poor not send his children to school

10 SPEAKING Choose one of the starting points below and create your own chain story.
Compare with a partner.
1 Your alarm clock doesn't go off. 3 You forget your best friend's birthday.
2 The weather is good / bad this weekend. 4 You lose your mobile phone.

Roads to e d u catio n 71
6 C Listening, speaking and grammar The best things in life

1 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Look at the photos and read the opinions about play. Answer the
questions.
1 Have you ever played these games? Which games might children play? Which games might
teenagers play?
2 W hat type of games did you play when you were a child? W hat do you play now?
3 Do you think play is a good thing? Choose the opinions you agree with.

2 O 2.02 Listen to a talk about play and compare your ideas in exercise 1.

STRATEGY

Taking notes
When you listen to a talk or presentation, it is useful to take notes. Notes should:
1 summarize and order the main ideas. W hat key points does the speaker make?
2 be concise. There won't be time to write complete sentences, so use abbreviations and
symbols (=, >, <, +, x, etc.).

3 2.02 Read the strategy. Then listen again and complete the notes.
Best things in life seminar
playing outside = kids'1..........................................................................................................activity
89% prefer free play t o 2......................................................................................................................
all kids play, b u t3............................................................. games = different from children's games
Benefits of play
rat experiment: play >4 .................................brains
schools in 5 & Japan: more breaks better grades
play better6............................................................................................ & communication skills
Albert Einstein:7.......................................................................................................... > knowledge
children, teenagers a n d 8 can all benefit from play

Z e r o c o n d it io n a l

4 Match 1-5 to A-E to make sentences. Then complete the rules.


1 W hen children play games, A students get better grades.
2 If schools have regular break times, B their brains develop faster
3 Ifyo uaddo n ean do n e, C w e don't play outside.
4 W hen the weather is bad, D you are tired the next day.
5 If you go to bed late, E you get two.

a W e use the zero conditional to talk about general facts, when one event or action always
happens as a logical result of another event or action,
condition: if + tense
result: tense
b W e can sometimes u se..........................................................instead of if

Reference and practice 6.3 Workbook page 115

72 Roads to ed ucation
BC

5 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Complete the table with your own ideas. Then make zero
conditional sentences with i f or when.

Condition Result Zero conditional


late for school teacher gets angry 1 If I'm late for school, the teacher gets angry.
get bored 2 .......................................................
play games 3 ............................
feel scared 4 ...................................................
speak English 5 .............................................
say'sorry' 6
mobile phone rings 7 ..............................

M a k in g o ffe r s a n d s u g g e s tio n s

6 2.03 SPEAKING Listen to the dialogue. What does Tom ask Rachel to do? What does
Rachel decide? What do you usually do when you have a lot of homework and a friend asks
you to go out?

7 2.03 Complete the phrases from the dialogue. Then listen again and check.

M a k in g offers R e sp o n d in g to offers
Can I 1................................. ................... you? Its OK. I'm just looking.
Do vou w a n t2.................... ..................to ... ? That'd be great, but are yo u 5................. ?
3................................ meet you at one o'clock, Thanks, thats really kind.
if you like.
R e sp o n d in g to su g g estio n s
M a k in g su g g estio n s Sorry, 1can't.
4
.. don't you ... ? 1don't k n o w 6 ... 1can.
W hat / How about going .. . ? All right then.

8 2.04 Complete the dialogue with responses A-F. Then listen and check.
A I'm looking for my train Lily Hi, Seth. Are you ready?The concert starts in thirty minutes.
pass. Seth 1
B Don't worry. It won't take Lily Yes, it will. It's at Festival Hall, so w e should leave now.
long to get there. Seth 2
C Sorry, that's not it either. Lily What's the problem?
D OK, Im almost ready. Seth 3 .........................1know its here somewhere.
E No, that's my student card. Lily I'll help you look for it. Is this it?
F Sounds like a good idea. Seth 4
Lily W hat about this?
Seth 5 ............................1think I've lost it. How annoying!
Lily Calm down, Seth, it's no big deal. W h y don't we get the
bus instead?
Seth 6 Come on, lets go.
We're going to be late!

9 Read the dialogue again. Underline more ways of making and responding to suggestions
and offers.

10 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Choose one of the situations below or use your own ideas. Take
turns to make offers and suggestions. Use the dialogue in exercise 8 to help you.

A B C
Your friend is doing a photo story You want to go to the Design Your friend is planning a New Year's
about your school for a local Museum with your friend to Eve party. Make suggestions about
newspaper, but their digital camera research a school project, but they where to have the party and who
isn't working. Offer them your have to babysit their little brother to invite. Offer to help with the food
camera for a few days. Suggest Suggest doing the research at their and decorations.
going shopping together to buy a house instead. Offer to bring your
new camera. laptop and some fashion magazines.

Roads to ed u catio n 73
6 D Culture, vocabulary and grammar Life goals

1 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Look at the list of life


goals below. Choose the ones you think people
often achieve before they are twenty-one.
Compare your ideas.
get married have children find a job
travel a n d / o r live abroad buy a house
learn how to drive The
2 2.05 Read and listen to the poem. Who is it
about? What was his life goal? Did he achieve it?
G eography
3 Read the poem again. Match summaries a-f to
verses 1-6.
L e sso n '
a He loved these places, but he didn't leave the school. by Brian Patten (1946 - )
I didn't know why.
b At school, people tidied up his classroom. They forgot
about him, but I didn't forget,
c M y teacher told our class that he wanted to travel the
world and see different countries,
d He lived in an ugly house, but he often thought O u r t e a c h e r to ld u s o n e d a y h e w o u ld le a v e
about the beautiful places he wanted to visit, A n d s a il a c r o s s a w a r m b l u e s e a
e Today, I visit the countries my teacher loved. I love T o p l a c e s h e h a d o n ly k n o w n f r o m m a p s ,
these places, too.
A n d a ll h i s life h a d l o n g e d t o b e .
f Then one day, my teacher didn't com e to school
because he was ill. He never visited the places he
2
talked about.
T h e h o u s e h e liv e d i n w a s n a r r o w a n d g r e y
4 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Think about the poem and B u t i n h i s m i n d 's e y e * h e c o u ld s e e
discuss the questions. S w e e t - s c e n te d j a s m i n e c lin g in g to * t h e w a lls ,
1 The poet couldn't understand why the teacher didnt A n d g r e e n le a v e s b u r n i n g o n a n o r a n g e t r e e .
leave the school. Can you think of reasons why he
stayed? 3
2 The poet says: 'But a lesson he never knew he taught /
H e s p o k e o f t h e l a n d s h e lo n g e d to* v is it,
Is with me to this day.' W hat was that lesson?
W h e r e it w a s n e v e r d r a b * o r c o ld .

Adjectives in poems I c o u l d n t u n d e r s t a n d w h y h e n e v e r le ft,


A n d s h o o k o ff t h e s c h o o l's s tr a n g le h o l d * .
5 Read the poem again and underline the adjectives
the poet uses. What do they describe? Add them to
the table.

Places on the maps warm, blue ...

The teacher's home

6 Study the adjectives in exercise 5. What parts of the


world do they describe? What other adjectives can
you use to describe these places?

7 2.05 Listen to the poem again and underline


the rhyming words at the end of the lines. Can you
think of other words which rhyme?

8 Study the words below. Do they rhyme with any of


the words that you underlined in the poem?
too: learned free play told

9 Practise reading the poem out loud.


Think about the rhymes and the rhythm.

74 Roads to education
E x p re ssin g p ro b a b ility

10 Read these students' life goals. Study the phrases in


blue. Then complete the diagram and the rules.
1 I will probably travel to other countries. I'd like to visit
America.
2 Perhaps / Maybe I will learn to drive. I might / may buy a
car, too.
3 I definitely / certainly won't get married or have
children.
4 I will definitely/certainly learn another language.
5 It's possible that I will find a good job.

100%
very likely

I will probably travel.toother countries,


50%..........................................

very unlikely
0%

a W e can use the modal verbs................................


and m ay to say that something is possible,
b We can also use + adverb
4 or adjective to express degrees of probability,
Then halfway through his final term c Probably, definitely and go after

he took ill and never returned. w ill but before won't.


d Perhaps and go before the
He never got to that place on the map subject + will.
Where the green leaves of the orange trees burned.
R e fe re n c e a n d p ra c tic e 6 .4 Workbook page 115
5
11 R e w rite th e se n te n ce s. Use th e w o rd s in b ra cke ts.
The maps were redrawn on the classroom wall;
1 It's very likely that I'll earn lots of money, (definitely)
His name forgotten, he faded away*.
2 It's possible that I won't own a big house, (probably)
But a lesson he never knew he taught 3 I'll probably have a dog or a cat. (may)
Is with me to this day. 4 I might buy a motorbike instead of a car. (possible)
5 I'm sure that I won't live in another country, (certainly)
6 6 It's possible that I'll marry someone from my school,
I travel to where the green leaves burn, (maybe)
To where the oceans glass-clear and blue, 7 I might not go to university, (perhaps)
8 But perhaps I'll write a book of poetry! (might)
To places our teacher taught me to love -
And which he never knew. 12 SPEAKING W o rk in pairs. W h ic h o f th e sentence s
in exercises 10 a n d 11 m ig h t b e tru e fo r you? G ive
reasons f o r y o u r answ ers.

V o c a b u la ry b a n k School: compound nouns page 139


G lossary
* in his mind's eye = in his imagination
* clinging to = holding on tightly to
* longed to = wanted to
* drab = dull
* stranglehold = complete control over someone
* fade away = disappear
Roads to education 75
6E Writing A for and against essay

b etter discipline

1 SPEAKING S tu d y th e m in d m a p a b o u t s c h o o l u n ifo rm s . W h ic h ideas a re f o r s c h o o l u n ifo rm s


a n d w h ic h a re a g a in s t th e m ? W h ic h d o y o u a g re e w ith ? Read m o d e l essay A a n d a d d m o re
id e a s to th e m in d m a p.

STRATEGY

Brainstorming ideas
B e fo re y o u s ta rt w r itin g :

1 think carefully about the topic and write down


all your ideas - they can be one word,
notes or phrases.
2 use a diagram or mind map to organize them into fo r
topic areas.
3 make sure all your ideas are relevant.
Don't spend more than 5-10 minutes on this stage.
police in
schools
2 Read th e s tra te g y . T h e n read m o d e l essay B o n
p a g e 77 a n d c o m p le te th e m in d m a p . W h ic h ideas
a re t h e m o s t im p o rta n t? W h ic h d o y o u a g re e w ith ?
a g a in s t
3 L o o k a t th e a rtic le o n p a g e s 6 8 -6 9 . F ind m o re ideas
fo r a n d a g a in s t p o lic e in schools. P u t th e m in to
th e m in d m a p . T h e n a d d y o u r o w n ideas.

Expressing contrast

4 S tu d y th e h ig h lig h te d lin k in g w o rd s in m o d e l essay A. C o m p a re th e w a y h o w e v e r, b u t,


a lth o u g h , o n th e o n e h a n d a n d o n th e o th e r h a n d c o n tra s t tw o ideas. W h ic h w o rd s co m e :

at the beginning of a sentence?


in the middle of a sentence?
at the beginning or in the middle?

5 C o m p le te m o d e l essay B w ith th e c o rre c t lin k in g w o rd s .

6 R e w rite th e s e n te n ce s u s in g th e lin k in g w o rd s in b ra cke ts.


1 It was raining. They walked to school, (although)
2 I arrived at school early.The teacher was late, (however)
3 I enjoy basketball. I hate football, (on the one hand, on the other hand)
4 He was tired. He finished his homework, (but)
5 He finished his homework. He was tired, (although)
6 The police stop crime. They cost schools a lot of money, (but)

76 Roads to education
m
What are the arguments for and What are the arguments for and
against school uniforms? against police officers in schools?
T h e re h a ve a lw a ys b e e n a lot o f arg u m en ts a b o u t P e o p le fe e l v e r y s t r o n g ly a b o u t p o lic e o ffic e r s
sch o o l uniform s. In Britain, 65% o f stu d e n ts d o n t in s c h o o ls . A s c h o o l is u s u a lly a s a f e p la c e to
lik e th em . H ow ever, I th in k th a t sch o o l uniform s eaAr n ' 1 , in s o m e s c h o o ls
are a n e ce s s a ry p a rt of school life. in A m e r ic a , th is is n o lo n g e r t h e c a s e .
2

On th e o n e h and, s o m e p e o p le argue th a t school , . , p e o p le a r g u e th a t


t e a c h e r s a n d s t u d e n t s n e e d m o r e p r o te c tio n .
uniform s are boring. E v e r y o n e lo oks th e sam e
T h e r e h a s b e e n m o r e c r im e in s c h o o ls r e c e n t ly
in a uniform , an d you c a n t ex p re ss yo urself, but
a n d t e a c h e r s , a s w e ll a s s tu d e n t s , h a v e b e e n
yo u r clo th e s are o n ly o n e w ay o f sayin g w ho you hurt. In a d d itio n , ' te a ch e rs
are. O th e r p e o p le co m p la in th a t school uniform s tr y to c o n tro l d is r u p tiv e s tu d e n t s , s o m e t im e s it
are e x p e n s ive . S o m e p a re n ts can't afford is im p o s s ib le t o t e a c h a c la s s . In t h e s e t y p e s
uniform s, so th e ir ch ild re n d o no t go to school. o f s c h o o ls t h e p o lic e c a n p r o t e c t p e o p le a n d
T h is is a b a d thing. p u n is h s t u d e n t s w h o s t o p t h e t e a c h e r s fro m
d o in g th e ir jo b .
On th e o th e r hand, school uniform s can sa ve 4

p a re n ts m o n e y b e c a u s e th e y are c h e a p e r than . . - p o lic e h a v e a z e ro


t o le r a n c e p o lic y . T h is m e a n s th a t t h e y c a n
fa s h io n a b le clothes. In a d d itio n , th e id e a b e h in d
a r r e s t a n d fin e s t u d e n t s fo r e v e n s m a ll
sch o o l uniform s is to m ake e v e r y o n e look th e
o f fe n c e s . S t u d e n t s c a n fe e l a n x io u s in th is
sam e, so you can 't te ll th e d iffe re n c e b e tw e e n
t y p e o f e n v ir o n m e n t. T h e p o lic e a r e t h e r e to
rich and poor. A lthough ch ild re n m ight still g et p ro te c t t h e m .5 .th e y
b u llie d for o th e r reasons, th e y w o n 't g et b u llie d a r e a c t u a lly t h r e a t e n in g th e m .
for th e ir clothes. S ch o o l uniform s m ake yo u feel
T o s iim u p .............................................. t h e y m ig h t
p a rt of s o m e th in g bigger, too. T h e y show that
m a k e a d iffe re n c e in s c h o o ls w ith v io le n t
s tu d e n ts are p ro ud to b e lo n g to th e ir school.
p u p ils , I th in k h a v in g p o lic e o ffic e r s in s c h o o ls
is n o t a g o o d id e a . M o s t s c h o o ls a re s a fe
In conclusion, I think that school uniform s are a
p la c e s to s tu d y , a n d m o s t s tu d e n t s d o n o t
good id ea, although th e y are e x p e n s ive for som e
c o m m it c r im e s , t h e y ju s t m is b e h a v e . T h e
p e o p le . It is im p o rtant for stu d e n ts to feel part of a
p r o b le m is th a t p o lic e o ffic e r s c a n t a lw a y s tell
com m unity, to work to g eth er and h e lp each o ther
th e d iffe re n c e .
to learn. Sch o o l uniform s re p re s e n t this unity.
____________________________________________________________________ l

WRITING GUIDE

Task Read the task and check you understand it. W rite Write your for and against essay. Use the
W hat are the arguments for and against more break paragraph plan to help you.
times at school?
Check Check the following points.
Ideas Write down your ideas in a mind map. Decide Are your ideas divided into paragraphs?
which arguments you support. Decide on the order Have you used contrast linkers correctly?
of your arguments. Which are the most important? Have you checked spelling, grammar and
punctuation?
Plan Decide which ideas you are going to use and
match them to these paragraphs.
Paragraph 1: Introduce the topic and your opinion.
W hat are you going to write about?
Paragraph 2: Arguments you do not support.
Paragraph 3: Arguments you support.
Paragraph 4: Summarize the arguments you support.

Roads to ed u catio n 77
Vocabulary insight 6 Using a dictionary: verb and noun collocations
s(L

1 Work in pairs. Study the words below and answer 3 Complete the sentences with nouns from the mind
the questions. map in exercise 2.
a crime homework a mistake 1 I always pay my telephone............................ on time.
It's usually about ten euros.
1 W hat part of speech are these words?
2 M y boyfriend never pays me a n y .................................
2 Which word can you use with the verb make ?
Maybe he doesn't like me any more.
3 Which word can you use with the verb do?
3 Laura, are you paying ? Did you hear
4 Which word can you use with the verb commit?
what the teacher just said?
STRATEGY 4 I paid a lot o f ........................... for this MP3 player, but
it is not as good as my old one.
Using a d ictio n a ry to find verb and noun
5 You can't park the car here. If you do, you'll have to
collocations
pay a ...........................
A collocation is a group of words which are often used
6 I live in my own house, so I don't need to p a y .............
together. Many English verbs collocate with certain
to anyone.
nouns only, for example, we say make a cake and make
your bed, but w e can't say make the dishes or make the
4 Match each verb in column A to two nouns in
housework.
column B. Use a dictionary to help you.
To find out which nouns are used with a verb, look the
A B
verb up in a dictionary and read the example sentences
in the dictionary entry. time
a film
When you record new vocabulary, it is useful to include give
a present
collocations and your own example sentences with spend
money
them. If you learn to recognize collocations and use watch
advice
them correctly, your English will sound more natural. TV

2 Read the strategy above. Then study the extract 5 Work in pairs. Complete the questions with a
from a dictionary entry for pay. Choose the nouns collocation from exercise 4. Put the verbs into the
that collocate with p a y and add them to the mind correct tense. Then answer the questions.
map below. 1 W hat did you your best friend for his/
advice attention beliefs a bill a compliment her last birthday? Did he / she like it?
a fine money rent trouble 2 How m u ch .................... do you on new
clothes every month?
? pay1 /pei/ verb (pt, pp paid) 1 [l,T] pay (sb) (for
3 Do you often in the evenings?
sth); pay (sb) sth (fo r sth) to give sb m oney for
w o rk goods, services, etc: She is very w e ll p a id . W hat is your favourite programme?
The work's finished b u t we haven't p a id io r it yet.
We paid the dealer 3000 for the car. 2 [T] pay sth 4 W hen did you last go to the cinema? Which
(to sb) to give the m oney that you o w e for sth: Have did you ?
you p a id her the rent ye t? * to p a y a bill/fine 3 [l,T] to
be worth doing: It would pay you to get professional 5 How m u ch ...................... do y o u .......................doing
advice before m aking a decision. 4 [l,T] to make a
your homework every week?
profit: It's hard to make farming pay. 5 [I] pay (for
sth) to suffer or be punished because of y o u r beliefs 6 W h o do you ask for help if you have a problem? W hat
o r actions: Youll p a y for that remark!
IIUtM charge/pay the earth O earth1 is the best.............. someone has eve r............... you?
pay attention (to sb/sth) to listen carefully to or
to take notice of sb/sth
pay sb a complim ent; pay a com plim ent to sb to 6 Study the extract from a dictionary entry for break.
say that you like sth about sb Choose five nouns that collocate with b reak and
pay yo u r respects (to sb) (formal) to visit sb as a
sign of respect: Hundreds came to p a y th e ir la s t write your own example sentences.
r e s p e c ts to her (= w e n t to her funeral).
pay trib u te to sb/sth to say good things about sb/ ? b r e a k 1 /breik/ verb (pt broke /braok/; pp broken
sth and show your respect for sb/sth____________ /'breulon/)
1
in p ie c e s [|,f] to separate, o r make sth separate,
into tw o or more pieces: She dropped the vase onto
the floor and it broke. * He broke his leg in a car
accident. O picture at chip
s t o p w o r k in g 2 [l,T] (used about a machine, etc.)
to stop working; to stop a machine, etc. working:
The photocopier has broken. Be careful with my
cameraI d o n 't want you to break it.
r LAW/p r o m is e 3 [T1 to do sth that is against the law,
o r against w hat has been agreed or promised: to
break the law/rules/speed lim it * D on't worry-1 never
break m y promises
s t o p 4 [|,7] to stop doing sth for a short time: Lets
break lo r coffee now. * We decided to break the jour
ney and stop for lunch.
end STH 5 [T] to make sth end: Once you start smok
ing it's very difficult to break the habit. * Suddenly,
the silence was broken by the sound o f a bird singing.

78 V o ca b u la ry insight 6 Dictionary entries from Oxford Wordpower Dictionary, 4th edition


Review 6

V o c a b u la r y G ra m m a r

1 Complete the text with the correct form of the 4 Complete the sentences with w ill o r going to and the
verbs below. verbs in brackets.
appear arrest charge com m it get pay 1 M att and Ali are in the gym with the coach. They
punish spend (play) basketball.
2 Tell m e what's wrong. I promise I ...................................
(not tell) anyone.
The two boys responsible for the Colorado killings 1
3 Grace is exhausted! S h e ..................................................
into trouble with the police the year before the incident. (not go out) tonight.
The police 2 them after they stole some tools and 4 Wait, I ......................................................... (help) you to
other equipment from a parked van. They 3 the two carry the shopping bags.
boys with theft, so they had to 4 in court. The judge 5 M y exam is on Monday. I've decided that I
5 them by sending them on a special programme for .................................................... (study) all weekend.
difficult young people. They didnt have to 6 a fine 6 Our team isn't very good. I don't think
o r7 any time in prison. They 8 their terrible w e ...........................................................(win).
crime just a few months after they finished the programme. Marks /6

Marks 78 5 Complete the text with the correct form of the verbs
in brackets. Use the first conditional.
2 Add the correct negative prefix to adjectives 1-6.
Then match them to the synonyms below. Students in the final year of school have to make some
difficult decisions. If you 1 (leave) school and get
dam aged messy rude uneducated w rong
a job you2...................(have) your own money to spend.
1 .literate You3 (not earn) anything for several years if
2 moral you4 (do) a university course. Then there's the
3 perfect question of where to study. You5.................. (have) more
4 .polite .................................... opportunities if you 6 (study) in a different
5 ........ .tidy ..................................... country. However, the course7 (not cost) so much
Marks /5 if you8 . (not go) abroad.The best thing is to talk to
an expert who will help you to make the right decision.
3 Complete the text with the negative form of the
Marks /8
adjectives in brackets.

Complete the zero conditional sentences with the


It's quite 1 (usual) for students to correct form of the verbs in brackets.
use violence at my school, and 1 can only remember
1 I t .............................................................. easier to study
one day when I fe lt 2 (safe). We
if y o u ..................................your o w n room, (be / have)
were in our classroom getting quite impatient because
2 Y o u ..................................................................... anything
the history teacher was late. Suddenly, an argument if y o u ......................................................................... your
developed between two o f the boys, Steven and Paul. hom ework, (not learn / not do)
It was completely 3 (rational) and it 3 If y o u .............................................to very loud music, it
was 4 (possible) to stop them shouting. ............................................ your ears, (listen / dam age)
Steven was 5 (happy) because Paul was 4 Y o u ............................................................... m ore if you
going out with his sister. He thought Paul was too .................................. regular breaks, (rem em b er/take)
6 (mature) for her. Fortunately, the 5 If y o u ............................................................ relaxed, you
teacher arrived ju st as Steven was taking a knife out ................................. a lot o f mistakes, (not feel / make)
o f his bag. He took Steven to the head teacher's office Marks 75
and then came back to speak to us. He told us that
it was 7 (legal) to bring knives to school 7 Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets.
and that it was very 8 (responsible) of It's very likely that I'll g o to university, (definitely)
any student to do so. That day, we didn't have our Perhaps I'll becom e a volunteer, (might)
history class and we never saw Steven again. I'm sure that I w o n t leave home, (certainly)
I m ight get a sum m er job. (m aybe)
Marks 78 It's possible that I'll m ove to another city, (probably)
Marks 75
L is te n in g R e a d in g

1 2.06 Listen to four speakers talking about 3 Scan the review. Match pronouns 1-6 in the review
exams in different countries. Match speakers 1-4 to to words a-h below. There are two words you do not
sentences A-E. There is one sentence that you do need.
not need. a the cows
Speaker 1 b the gam e ............................
Speaker 2 c the viewers ............................
Speaker 3 d the lesson .............................
Speaker 4 e the programme
f the students
A Exams in this country determine what a student can
g the classroom
study at university.
h the teacher ............................
B Exams in this country are so long that some students
fall asleep before they finish. ^
Read the review again. Choose the correct answers.
C Exams in this country are so important that they
1 The Unteachables is
affect everybody in the country.
a a new TV programme,
D Exams in this country are not the only important
b the writer's favourite TV programme,
thing for getting a university place.
c a TV programme about animals,
E Exams in this country don't make up all of a student's
final mark. d a show about building schools.
2 The students in the programme
S p e a k in g a wanted to learn about farming,
b won a competition,
2 Work in pairs. Look at photos A and B. Discuss the c had problems at their old schools,
questions. d enjoyed going to school.
W here are the people and what are they doing? 3 At his first school, Philip Beadle's students
How do you think the people are feeling? a learned to sing.
W hat are the advantages of doing this activity in each b studied many languages,
of these places? c bought his records,
W hat are the disadvantages? d got very high marks.
Which place would you prefer and why? 4 According to the writer, Mr Beadle's teaching
methods are
a very unusual,
b quite traditional,
c fairly normal,
d a bit boring.
5 In the first episode of the programme, the students
a didn't like the teacher.
b had fun.
c didn't learn anything,
d acted in a play.
6 According to the writer, the best thing about The
Unteachables was
a the personality of the students,
b the methods used by the teacher
c the change in the students' behaviour,
d the teacher's sense of humour.

W o rk b o o k page 88
V o c a b u la r y

An experiment 5 Complete the text with the correct form of the


words in brackets.
in education
The best programme on TV last night was the first
episode in a new series called The Unteachables. It's
a kind of reality show set on a farm. But this farm is NO BALL GAMES HERE
not for animals, it's for children. The farm has been
converted into a school for one class of difficult Psychologists say that playing outside is extremely
students. And it is the job of one man to try and im portant for the 1....................................................
teach these students something in the two weeks (DEVELOP) of a child. However, a report has
they are there. shown that, 2.............................. (FORTUNATE),
fewer children in the UK play in the streets
The class is a group of sixteen boys and girls, aged
thirteen and fourteen, who have all been expelled today than ever before. The report says that at
from schools at least once. Their previous teachers least half of the countrys five to ten-year-olds
said that 2they were 'unteachable' and, judging never play outside.Children seem to have lost
by their behaviour on the programme last night, their 3.......................................................... (EN JO Y)
it isn't hard to see why. The teacher who has to of playing. Fifty years ago, this situation was
deal with this class is forty-year-old Philip Beadle. 4 (THINK).
Before working in education, Mr Beadle played in Both parents and children are responsible for
a rock band, but he gave up music eight years ago these 5.............................................. (S U R P R IS E )
to become a teacher. At his first school, he helped
statistics. On the one hand, 6
his students to get the best English marks the
(FRIGHTEN) mums and dads believe that todays
school had ever seen. As a result, 3he was made
streets are 7 (SAFE). This is
Schoolteacher of theYear.
because there are more cars on the roads and, in
In the programme last night, we saw the students m any places, crim e has got worse. On the other
have their first lesson with Mr Beadle. He started by hand, there are more activities to do inside these
playing a game, where he and the students pointed at
days, such as watching TV, playing with games
each other and said something bad about the other 25
consoles and using com puters. Many children
person. 4This might not sound very educational, but
8 (HAPPY) stay at home
he had the attention of all the students the whole
time. After that, Mr Beadle took his class outside for doing these activities, instead of going outside to
an English lesson. At their previous schools, most play. Experts say that parents should give them
of these students refused to read in front of their 30 more 9...........................................(ENCOURAGE)
classmates, so Mr Beadle took them to a field to read to switch off their m achines and go and call on
to some cows. Each student read an extract from a a friend.
Shakespeare play to 5them, and the students seemed To help find a 10 (SOLVE)
to enjoy 6it. In the next scene, Mr Beadle took them to this problem, the government has decided to
to another field to teach them basic punctuation. He 35
make the first W ednesday in August a national day
did this through another game that involved jumping
of play. Playday is part of a campaign to highlight
around and shouting, 'question mark!' and 'semi
the im portance of play in childrens lives. It is also
colon!' Everyone seemed to enjoy this strange way
a celebration of their right to play outside.
of learning and by the end of the show the students
were starting to accept their new teacher. Some of
them even said he was 'all right'.
W r it in g
I really enjoyed The U nteachables because you could
see the teacher was having a positive effect on Think of a person who taught you an important
the students. If, like me, you are fascinated by this
lesson. Write a letter to a magazine with a
experiment in education, you'll want to watch the 45 description of the person. Include this information:
next episode on Channel Four next Wednesday at
7.30 p.m. Personally, I can't wait! w ho the person is and how you know them
what the person is like
m
what you learned from them and how they taught you
why the person is special to you

Workbook page 98 | C u m u lative re v ie w U nits 1-6


/I I
Progress?
R e ad in g an d vo ca b u la ry B ig and sm all

1 SPEAKING Look at the photos and the chart. Then


answer the questions.
1 How many people do you think live on our planet?
Is this number getting bigger or smaller?
2 Choose a foreign country that you have visited or
read about. How is it different from your country?
Are there any similarities? Think about:
the buildings*the language the food
the music the clothes the people

2 Read the blog post and complete the missing


information in the chart.
W orld population growth

3 Read the blog post again and answer the questions. Year Number

1 How long would it take to say'hello'to all people on 8,000 BC .............million


the planet? 1805 AD .............billion
2 Why did the population start growing quickly after 1927 two billion
8,000 BC? 1987 .............billion
3 In what ways is the planet getting smaller, according 1999 six billion
to the writer? 2011 billion
4 How many languages does the writer speak?
2100 billion
5 Why are languages disappearing around the world?
6 Does the writer prefer to live in a world with no The worlds population reached five billion on the
cultural differences? day I w as bom. That was in Indonesia back in 1987,
and my parents were amazed that there were so
4 SPEAKING What problems will there be in the future many people on the planet. However, since then the
if the population continues to grow? Is it a good 5 population has continued to increase. In October
thing or a bad thing if languages disappear? Why? 2 0 1 1 , the seven billionth baby was bom, and experts
estim ate that there will be ten billion of us before the
Statistics end of this century.

5 Study the highlighted verbs in the blog post. Read A number as big as seven billion is hard to imagine.
the text below and replace the words in italics with io If you said hello to a different person every second,
the correct form of the verbs. it would take you 222 years to greet everyone on the
planet. If seven billion people made a human chain with
their hands, the chain would go to the moon and back
Population experts 1separate the countries of the world nine times.
into two groups: those where the population is getting
is The growth of our human population is extraordinary.
bigger and those where it is getting smaller. Most
For more than two million years, humans lived
countries are in the first group. The population has
with no permanent home, finding plants to eat and
2become a bigger number fastest in Africa and parts
hunting animals for meat. Then, just 10,000 years
of Asia. In Uganda, for example, the population has
3grown four times in the last fifty years. In Myanmar,
there were 25 million people in 1967, but now there are
50 million: the population has Abecome twice as big.

Japan and several countries in Eastern Europe are in


the second group. The population of Ukraine sbecame a
smaller number from 52 million in 1990 to 46 million in
2012. Experts have 6used maths to fin d an answer that,
in Europe as a whole, the number of births per woman
''became twice as smalt from about 2.8 in 1950 to 1.4
in 2005. The future is uncertain, but people 8guess that
Europe, now home to 11% of the world's population,
will be home to only 7% or 8 % in 2050.

82 Progress?
V ocabulary: statistics; nouns with two meanings; business: language Sp eaking : discussing social issues; organizing an event for an
G ram m ar: must, mustn't, have to, don't have to-, second conditional; international festival; talking about rules; asking for and giving advice
7A
I wish... W ritin g : a formal email

nsight Nouns with two meanings

ago, w e in vented agriculture. A t that tim e, there


6 Many English words have more than one meaning.
w e re on ly a b o u t five million hum ans, but this figure 20
Find words 1-8 in the blog post. Then choose the
q u ickly doubled. T h e population rea ch ed a billion in correct meaning for each word as it is used in the blog.
1805, and s in c e then it h as m ultiplied seve n tim es. 1 end a final part
O n e expert has ca lcu la te d that a b o u t 6 % of all the b purpose
h u m an s th at h ave e ve r lived are alive right now. 2 second a each of the sixty parts of a minute
b between first and third
Th e hum an population has never been bigger, but in 25
so m e w a y s the planet s e e m s to be getting smaller. In 3 figure a the shape of the human body
th e past, travellers from Eu ro p e to Indonesia spent b a number
m onths at sea. N o w you just h ave to sit on a plane 4 way a path or route
for a fe w hours. W h e n you arrived in another country b method
a hundred years ago, you s a w unfamiliar styles of 30 5 present a gift
clothing and architecture and discovered a com pletely b now
different culture. In m any p la ce s today, clothing and 6 country a nation
n e w buildings are very similar, and peop le enjoy the b land that is outside towns and cities
sam e sports, m usic, films and T V sh o w s. W e also 7 time a period
buy the s a m e products - A p p le phones, M c D o n a ld 's 35 b how often we do something
burgers, C oca-C ola, C o lg ate tooth paste - from huge, 8 race a competition
global com panies. In our different continents, w e are b group of people
starting to live the s a m e lives.
7 Complete the text with the correct form of the
words in exercise 6. Then write a or b in the brackets
to show the correct meaning.

India is a large1 (...... ) in South Asia.The people


there are from different2 ( .....) and speak
415 different languages. India has th e 3 (...... )
biggest population in the world, after China.
A t4 (......) there are 1.3 billion people in China
and 1.2 billion in India, but India's population is
increasing faster than China's. By th e 5........... (.......)
of the twenty-first century, there will probably be
more people in India. Experts estimate there are also
25 million Indians w ho live in other parts of the world,
E v e n th e languages that w e u se are becom ing more but this6 (..... .) might be wrong. Many Indians
global. Th ere are around seven thousand languages 40
left at th e 7........... (........) when Britain controlled India,
in use today, but the n um ber is decreasing fast. I grew
in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. They
up in a sm all village w here everyo n e s p o k e B a ra s,
travelled all th e 8...........(... ) to South America, East
on e of Indonesia's 719 different languages. Today,
Africa and the Caribbean and started new lives there.
like m ost of the younger people from m y village, I live
in th e capital, Ja k a rta , and sp e a k Indonesian there. 45
T h e only regular B a ra s sp ea k ers at present are the 8 SPEAKING Work in groups. Imagine the mayor of
older people w h o h ave stayed in the country. The your town or city has asked your school to organize
s a m e thing is happening around the world. Experts an event for an international festival next month.
think that the n um ber of different languages will Follow the instructions.
halve to just 3,500 b y the end of this century. so
1 Talk about the things that you like: sports, games,
W h e re will it s to p ? W ill there b e a tim e in the future music, films,TV shows, technology, food, etc. Do
w hen E a rth s billions all s p e a k just o n e language, people like them all over the world or are they
and there are no cultural d ifferen ces to d ivid e u s? specific to your culture?
P e rh a p s the plan et w o u ld b e m ore p e a cefu l if this 2 Choose the best things about global culture or your
h ap p en ed , but I m ust adm it that the id ea is quite 55 country's culture, and plan, in detail, a weekend in
depressin g. I prefer to think that, a s ou r population your town or city that celebrates these things. For
grow s, w e c a n c e le b ra te not the sim ilarity but the
example, include a sports event, a fashion show, a
fascin atin g diversity of th e hum an race.
food festival, a music concert, etc.
3 Tell the class about your plans.

Vocabulary bank Country facts page 140

Pro g ress? 83
7 B G ram m ar an d liste n in g Be an entrepreneur

1 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Answer the questions.


1 Who are / were these entrepreneurs? Can you match them to the type of business that they started?
Entrepreneurs Steve Jobs Rupert Murdoch Mark Zuckerberg James Cameron
Donna Karan Bill Gates

Business films computer software TV and newspapers computers, MP3 players and
smartphones fashion and cosmetics social networking
2 What types of business can teenagers start?

2 Read the article. Does it mention any of the business types that you thought of in exercise 1?

HOW TO THE YOUNG


MAKE ENTREPRENEURS GUIDE
MONEY: Lots of people dream of having their ow n business, but
w h at do you have to do to become an entrepreneur?

Have a cool b u sin ess idea


You'll enjoy your business more if it does something that really interests you, so use your
hobbies for ideas. Sixteen-year-old Michelle Coakley from Ireland loved jewellery and her
friend Jade Kearney was interested in environmental issues. Together they designed and
sold eco-friendly jewellery, and have won an entrepreneur award for their efforts.
Work, work, w ork
You have to work hard to build a business, but you mustnt forget your schoolwork
either. Even if your business is successful, you'll probably need good qualifications in
the future. And dont go as far as US teenager Anton Schneider, who is so busy with
his lawnmowing company that he sleeps for only four hours a night. T must get more
sleep, he says, but there just arent enough hours in the day!'
Ask for help
You don't have to do all the work yourself. Family members are often happy
to help, and school friends, too, if you pay them. And you dont have to limit
yourself to people in your town. Thirteen-year-old Monik Pamecha runs a
technology website in India with twenty-six writers from all around the world.
Spread th e w ord
If you want people to use your business, you have to tell them about it. Social
networking sites are great for this, but remember: you mustnt meet new
contacts in person on your own. Some people on the internet are dangerous.

m u s t, m u s tn 't, h a v e to , d o n 't h a v e to
3 Find and complete the sentences from the article. Then match them to meanings a-c below.
There are two sentences for one of the meanings.
1 You................................ work hard. We usually use m ust when the speaker
2 You................................ forget your schoolwork. has decided that something is
3 I ........... get more sleep. important, and h ave to when someone
4 You................................ do all the work yourself. else has decided this. However, in many
situations, we can use h ave to and m ust
a It's very important that you do this,
in the same way.
b It isn't necessary for you to do this,
c It's very important that you don't do this.

Reference and practice 7.1 Workbook page 116

84 Progress?
4 Read the rules. Which entrepreneur from exercise 2 might have written them? Choose the correct
words.

1 You must / mustnt arrive late.


2 You have to / mustnt be polite.
3 You must / don t have to bring your ow n law nm ow er. You can use the cu sto m er's
law nm ow cr.
4 You mustnt / dont have to leave the law nm ow er on w hen you are n ol using it. T his is
dangerous and w astes petrol, loo.
5 You have to / mustn t leave th e garden tidy at the end o f the job.
6 W hen you have finished, the cu sto m er has to / doesnt have to sign in y o u r book, so w e
can pay you fo r the job.
7 You mustnt / don t have to co llect m oney after every job. Som e p eo p le prefer to pay the
m oney into o u r bank account instead.

5 Read the text and complete it with have to, d o n 't have to, m ust or m u stn't. Sometimes more
than one answer is possible.

Writing a blog is fun and easy, and it can make you money, too. You 1 try it! Here's how:

First, decide what you want to write about. It can When you have some interesting content on your
be anything - technology, fashion, orang-utans. But blog, you 8 go on social networking sites
if you want to make money, you 2 write and tell everyone to come and visit. You can also
about something that interests lots of other people. write articles for other people's blogs. However,
you 9 publish the same article on your
** Next, you 3 choose a name for your
own blog - that's not allowed. And remember: you
website. You 4 use a name that already
10 put the details of your own blog at the
exists, of course.
end, so readers know where to find you.
Then, you 5 set up your blog. This is
^ Now lots of people are reading your blog, so it's
quick and easy, and you 6 pay - there are
time to include some adverts. People 11
lots of free blog sites.
read them, but if they choose to click on an advert,
S* Now start writing. You 7 write something
you will make some money. 1 12 say, this
every day, but try to write at least two blog entries won't make you rich quickly, but if your blog is good
a week. enough, the money will come in the end. Good luck!

6 ^ 2.07 Listen to an interview with two Native American teenagers talking about their
business, Catch a dream . Are the sentences true (T) or false (F)? Correct the false ones.
1 If you have a dreamcatcher above your bed, you don't have to worry about nightmares.
2 A dreamcatcher catches only the bad dreams.
3 You don't have to use wood to make a dreamcatcher.
4 Maka and Zebi have to make their dreamcatchers between 6 p.m. and 8 p.m.
5 They mustn't leave the kitchen messy after they have used it.
6 If they want to sell dreamcatchers at the market, they have to get up early.
7 They rarely sell dreamcatchers to tourists.
8 They mustn't sell their dreamcatchers on the internet.

7 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Choose one of the situations A-E below and decide on six rules:
two things that the person has to do in the situation, two things that they mustn't do and
two things that they don't have to do.
A Your friend has decided to start a cake-making business.
B Your brother's or sister's friends are going to stay in your house while you are away from home.
C You are organizing a competition in your favourite sport or free-time activity.
D Your brother or sister wants to borrow your camera.
E You are going on a school trip to a foreign country.

Pro g ress? 85
fll

7 C Listening, speaking and vocabulary Silicon Valley

Silicon Valley

1 2.08 SPEAKING Look at the map. Which country is Silicon Valley in? What type of
business do you think it is famous for? Listen to a radio programme and chec

STRATEGY

Listening for statistics


Numbers can be difficult to understand when you hear them quickly. Use these questions to
help you.
W hat type of number is it: e.g. a quantity, an amount of money, a distance, a length of time,
a percentage or a year? Listen for key words like dollars, kilometres, months, percent.
Is it a big number or a small number? Remember that the first part of a big number is the most
important (e.g. in 7,620 the most important part of the number is seven thousand).

2 2.08 Read the strategy. Then read sentences 1-8 and decide what type of numbers are
missing. Listen to the radio programme again and complete the sentences.
1 People first called the Santa Clara Valley'Silicon Valley' in the
2 The first radio station in the USA began in ......................................................................................
3 The first Apple computers appeared in ...........................................................................................
4 In 1980, the value of Apple w a s ........................................................................................................
5 Arun's old home in India is about .....................................................from his home today
6 of Stanford's students are from foreign countries
7 People invented..................................................................... new things in Silicon Valley last year
8 At least......................................................................... of these new inventions were eco-friendly.

D Business

3 Match nouns 1-9 to definitions a-i.Then work in pairs and think of an example for each
word 1-9.
1 company a something new that someone has created for the first time
2 advert b the study of something to discover new information
3 product c someone w ho owns a business with other people
4 founder d something that a business sells
5 research e the main office of an organization
6 partner f a text or picture that tells people to buy something
7 invention g someone w ho starts something, e.g. a business or school
8 headquarters h someone w ho buys things from a shop or uses a service
9 customer i an organization that sells something to make money

4 Complete the text about Apple with the correct form of the nouns in exercise 3.

W hen Steve Jobs and his friend Steve Wozniak started a put $250,000 into the company. This was enough
1 in Silicon Valley in 1976, they called it Apple. money to make the new computer, the A pple II, and
At first, they used the Jobs familys garage as their pay for some 6 to tell peo p le about it. More
2 . Steve Wozniak was a fantastic engineer, and than five million 7 bought the computer, and
one of his 3 was the w orlds first com puter with a A pple becam e a huge success. It never did much
colour screen. The com pany n eed e d money to produce 8 to find out what peo p le w anted. Steve Jobs
this computer, but the banks didn't want to lend to the said, People dont know what they want until you
two 4 becau se they w ere very young and wore show it to them. It seem s that h e was right. Successful
dirty clothes. Luckily, they soon found a third 5 9 like the iPod, iPhone and iPad have m ade
for the business. His nam e was Mike Markkula and he A pple one of the most popular com panies in the world.

86 Prog ress?
7C

5 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Answer the questions.


1 W hat inventions have made the biggest difference to your life?
2 Which big companies have their headquarters in your country?
W hat products do they sell?
3 Name some famous businesspeople in your country.
Are they the founders of their companies?

A s k in g fo r a n d g iv in g a d v ic e
6 SPEAKING Look at the photo and answer the
questions.
1 W hat is the girl doing? How does she feel? W hy?
2 Do you ever miss your friends or family? In what
situations?

7 2.09 Listen to the dialogue and compare your ideas


in exercise 6. What advice does the girl's friend give her?

8 2.09 Complete the phrases from the dialogue.


Then listen again and check.

A s k in g fo r a d vice G iv in g a d v ic e R e s p o n d in g to
W hat do y o u 1 I should do? Y o u 3................................ to .... a d vice
W hat's2............................ advice? Maybe it's a g o o d 4 to .... I 7.............. , because
Should I ... ? If I w e re 5......................... , I'd ___ That's not a 8 idea.
I think you 6............................... 9..................a good idea.

9 2.10 Put the dialogue in the correct order. Then listen and check.
Hugo You ought to go to the mountains near Lake Tahoe for that, but I don't think you
should go at this time of year The snow will be better in January. I know! W h y don't
you join a surfing club and spend some time at the beach?
James I don't know about that. I've never been very good at team sports. W hat else would
you advise?
.) Hugo Hi, James. Are you enjoying Silicon Valley?
James I love snowboarding.
Hugo Are there any other sports that you like?
James That's a great idea. Thanks for the advice.
Hugo If I were you, I'd join a local sports team. That's a great w ay to make new friends.
James Well, my job is great, but I sometimes feel a bit lonely. I haven't made many friends
here yet.

10 Read the dialogue again. Underline more ways of asking for, giving and responding to
advice.

11 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Choose one of the situations A-E below or use your own ideas.
Take turns to ask your partner for advice. Use the dialogue in exercise 9 to help you.

A You are always very tired, but you find it difficult to fall asleep at night.

B Your computer at home is broken. You have to do some internet research for homework.

C You are often bored at the weekend. You want to have a more exciting life.

D You don't understand the science that you have studied in class, and there is going to be an
important test soon.

E You would like to make some new friends, but you are very shy.

Vocabulary bank Electronic devices: compound nouns page 140

Progress? 87
7 D Culture, vocabulary and grammar The English language

1 SPEAKING English has taken words from lots of


other languages. In pairs, discuss the meaning of
A ll you need to know
words 1-6 and try to match them to their original
languages a-f.
1 banana, OK, jazz a Caribbean languages
about ENGLISH
2 sofa, yoghurt b Hindi I f you were an alien an d h a d tim e to learn
3 hurricane, potato c Spanish only one language before y o u r visit to
4 cookie, cruise, snack d West African languages E arth , w hich language w ould you choose?
5 jungle, pyjamas e Dutch E nglish, o f course!
6 guitar, tornado f Turkish
s Why not Chinese?
2 Read the article. What other languages have English
If y o u w ere o n ly in terested in talk in g to native speakers,
words come from?
C h in e se w o u ld definitely b e a b e tte r choice. A bout
3 Read the article again. Are the sentences true (T), 1.2 billion p eo p le sp e ak C h in e se as th e ir first language,
false (F) or not given (NG)? Correct the false ones. c o m p a re d w ith o n ly 400 m illio n w h o sp e ak English.
io H ow ever, C h in e se w o u ld n t help y o u v ery m u ch if
1 More people speak Chinese as their first language
than English. y o u w erent in C h in a , w hile y o u can usually find an
2 There are 1.8 billion people w ho speak English as their E nglish tra n sla tio n at m a jo r to u rist sites a n d a irp o rts
first language. all a ro u n d th e w orld. If y o u n e e d e d in fo rm a tio n fro m
3 English is an official language in Nigeria. th e in te rn e t, E nglish w o u ld b e useful, too. A b o u t 56%
4 I he Normans often spoke in Latin. is o f all w ebpages are in E nglish. W h a ts m o re, English
5 British people w ent to live in South Africa in the is a n official language in fifty-four different countries,
sixteenth century. w h ich to g eth e r cover m o re th a n 28% o f all th e land
6 N ew technology will soon mean that people don't o n o u r planet.
have to learn foreign languages.

4 SPEAKING What's the story of your language? Which


people spoke it first? Where do people speak it now?
What other languages has it taken words from?
So how m any English speakers are
Language
20th ere altogether?
A b o u t 1.8 b illio n , a b o u t a q u a rte r o f th e w o rld s
5 Study the highlighted words in the article. Then p o p u la tio n . T h a t in c lu d e s n ativ e sp e a k e rs, p e o p le
complete the text about Singapore with the words
w h o are flu en t sp eak ers in c o u n trie s w h e re E n g lish
below.
is an official lan g u ag e, lik e In d ia , N ig e ria a n d
dialects official s foreign fluent native 25 S in g ap o re, a n d all th e p e o p le w h o h a v e le a rn e d it as
translations accent slang a foreign lan g u ag e at school.

What is English, a n y w a y ?
Singapore has fo u r1 languages: English, Several g ro u p s o f peo p le in v ad ed E n g lan d in th e fifth
Mandarin Chinese, Tamil and Malay. If you visited c e n tu ry A D , fro m G e rm a n y a n d D e n m a rk . W e n o w
0J

the country, you would see street signs with o 30 call th e m th e A nglo-Saxons. E nglish d eveloped from
Q. th e different G e rm a n ic dialects th a t th e y spoke. Later,
2 in all four languages. About 3 2 % of (
00
Singaporeans speak English at home with their c in th e eleventh century, th e N o rm a n s fro m n o rth e rn
In
families. As well as th ese3 ... English speakers, F rance to o k co n tro l o f E n g lan d , a n d a b o u t 10,000
there are a lot of o th er4 . English speakers, F rench w o rd s becam e p a rt o f th e E nglish language.
because most lessons at school are in English. 35 E nglish also to o k lots o f w ords fro m Latin, a n d so m e

There are two different English 5 in


Singapore. One is close to British English, but with a
different6 for certain sounds. The other,
Singlish, is a mix of English and other Singaporean
languages, and uses a lot of American 7
that people have learned from TV shows. It has its
own grammar rules. For visitors to Singapore from
the UK and the USA, Singlish can sometimes sound
like a 8 ....... language.

88 Prog ress?
S e c o n d c o n d it io n a l

6 Study the sentences. Then complete the rules.


I f I were an alien, I w ould travel through space.
If an alien visited Singapore, it w ould see street signs in
M andarin Chinese.

a W e use the second conditional to talk about an


imaginary situation in the present or an unlikely
situation in the future, and its result,
condition: i f A simple
result: ............................ + infinitive without to
b In the condition clause, w e sometimes use
instead of was after I, he, she and it.
How did it become such an Reference and practice 7.2 Workbook page 117
im portant w orld language?
It s ta rte d to s p re a d a ro u n d th e w o rld w h e n B ritish 7 Complete the text with the correct form of the verbs
c o lo n ists w e n t to live in N o r th A m e ric a in th e in brackets. Use the second conditional.
s e v e n te e n th c e n tu ry , a n d la te r in A u stra lia , N e w
I'm from Wales. If you 1 (visit) my
Z e a la n d a n d S o u th A frica. T he B ritish a lso to o k
country, everyone 2 (speak) to you
c o n tro l o f p a rts o f A sia, th e C a rib b e a n a n d A frica,
in English, but about 12% of us also speak
a n d p e o p le th e re h a d to le a rn E n g lish . In th e
fluent Welsh. If you 3 . (go) to school
tw e n tie th c e n tu ry , th e s p re a d o f E n g lish c o n tin u e d 45
in Wales, you 4 (have) Welsh lessons,
b e c au se p e o p le w a n te d to d o b u sin e ss w ith th e
and at some schools you would have all your lessons
U SA . T h is w as e a sie r fo r p e o p le w h o sp o k e th is
in Welsh. If we 5 (not learn) Welsh, we 6
c o u n tr y s lan g u ag e: E n glish.
(spend) more time learning foreign languages like French
and Spanish. However, I think it 7 (be) very sad
Is English e x a c tly the sam e around
if we 8 (stop) speaking Welsh, because it is an
the w o rld ? so
important part of our culture. English is a useful global
N o t q u ite. A m e ric a n E n g lish h a s a few d ifferen t
language, but the world 9.......... (not be) very interesting
sp ellin g s fro m B ritish E n g lish , a n d a few sm all if everyone 10 (share) the same native language.
d iffe re n c es in g ra m m a r. P eople a ro u n d th e w o rld
s p e a k w ith m a n y d iffe re n t accents, a n d slang w o rd s
8 SPEAKING Work in pairs. What would you do i f ... ?
are o fte n d iffe re n t in d iffe re n t c o u n trie s . 55
you had to learn a new language in a month
Wliats next fo r English? you met an alien
you were fluent in English
If a n a lie n w ere clever e n o u g h to re a c h E a rth ,
you didnt have to go to school
it w o u ld p ro b a b ly ha v e a m a z in g tra n s la tio n
there were no dictionaries
tec h n o lo g y , to o , a n d w o u ld n t h a v e to le a rn a n y
o f o u r lan g u a g e s. H ow ever, it w ill b e a lo n g tim e eo I w is h ...
b e fo re o u r o w n te c h n o lo g y can rep la ce th e n e e d for
la n g u a g e le a rn in g . E n g lish is b e c o m in g th e m a in 9 2.11 Listen to the dialogue and complete
la n g u a g e fo r lesso n s in m o re a n d m o re sc h o o ls a n d sentences A-C.Then answer questions 1-3.
u n iv e rsitie s a ro u n d th e w o rld , b e c au se p e o p le th in k A I wish I ................................................. good at French.
th a t flu e n t E n g lish w ill b e v e ry im p o r ta n t fo r y o u n g 6s B I wish I a grandmother in Paris!
p e o p le w h e n th e y lo o k fo r jo b s. In th is c e n tu ry , at C I wish s h e ............................................................there.
least, E n g lish as a g lo b al la n g u a g e is h e re to stay. 1 Which tense do we use after /wish ... ?
2 Is the situation in the present or in the past?
3 Does the speaker want the situation to change?

Reference and practice 7.3 Workbook page 117

10 SPEAKING Write down six things that you wish. Use


the verbs below. In pairs, talk about your wishes.
Use the second conditional to explain your reasons.
be go have know live play speak
A I wish I had a pet spider.
B Why?
A If I had a spider in my bedroom, ...

DVD extra World English


Prog ress?
7 E Writing A formal email
t v -re

Com e a n d stu d y E n glish th is su m m er in th e


lo v e ly se a sid e to w n o f M orsh am .
Four-week courses start on 14 July and 10 August.
Cost: 900 including accom m odation, delicious food a t our
cafe, an d fun evening an d w eekend activities.
C ontact info@MorshamCollege.co.uk for m ore details.

1 SPEAKING Study the advert. Would you like to go on a course like this? Why / why not?

STRATEGY

Using th e correct register


Before you start writing, think about the register: is it formal or informal?
Some words and phrases are formal. Use these for formal pieces of writing, e.g. job applications,
emails and letters to people that you do not know.
Other words and phrases are informal. Use these for informal pieces of writing, e.g. blogs, diaries,
emails and letters to people that you know.

formal informal
formal letter openers and closers, informal letter openers and closers,
e.g. Dear M r Tanner, Yours sincerely/ faithfully e.g. Dear Charlie, Love from
longer phrases and polite requests, e.g. Please imperatives, e.g. Send me a brochure.
could you send me a brochure?
full forms, e.g. la m , there is contractions, e.g. I'm, there's

neutral or formal words, e.g. children, wonderful informal or slang words, e.g. kids, cool
full words, e.g. television, examination, abbreviated words, e.g. TV, exam, advert
advertisement
longer linking words, e.g. however, on the o n e / shorter linking words, e.g. but,and
other hand, in addition (NB W e can use these in formal writing, too.)

2 Read the strategy. Then read emails A and B on page 91 and answer the questions.
1 Which writer uses a formal register?
2 Which writer uses an informal register?
3 Which register is more suitable for the content of the emails? W hy?

Underline all the informal words and phrases in the informal email. Then match six of them
to these more formal alternatives.
1 Dear Sir or Madam,
2 I am very interested in doing one of your courses.
3 Please could you give me some more information a b o u t... ?
4 I would be very grateful for your help.
5 I look forward to hearing from you.
6 Yours faithfully,

Leonie and Jorge wrote notes for their emails. Match notes 1-6 to the writers. Write L or J.
1 do th re e weeks for less money?

2 s e e th e sig h ts ?

3 writing skills?

4 what type of accommodation?

5 c o s t w it h o u t a c c o m m o d a t io n ?

6 n o m ilk

90 Prog ress?
From: Leonie Adler From: Jorge Sanchez
Date: 19 O ctober
Date: 21 May
To: info@ MorshamCollege.co.uk To: info@ MorshamCollege.co.uk
subject: English course this sum m er Subject: English course

Hi there, Dear Sir or Madam,


I saw your advert in English N ow . Your courses sound 1am writin fo find out more about the English
cool. Please tell me more about the accommodation language courses advertised in English Now.
and the food. Since my cousins live in Morsham, I have the choice
The advert says that you'll find me somewhere to of staying at their house. If I did not use college
stay. W ill this be with an English family, or with other accommodation, would the course cost less? How
international students? It would be cool to stay with much would I have to pay for four weeks?
an English family because I could practise my English M y school examinations have a lot of writing tasks.
with them. eref re would like to work on my writing skills
W hat's the food like? I'm allergic to milk, so l mustn't Will your course give much help with writing?
eat things like cheese and ice cream. Do you have The advertisement mentions fun evening and
other things l can eat at the cafe? weekend activities. Please could you give me some
As I'm on holiday from 20 July to 3 September and l information about these, including any sightseeing
trips that you organize?
mustn't miss any days of school, l can't do either of
your four-week courses. If l did the 10 August course I have to book my flight to England by the end of this
for just three weeks, would it be cheaper? month. As a result, l would be very grateful if you
could reply as soon as possible.
Thanks a lot for your help. W rite soon!
I look forward to hearing from you.
Love, Yours faithfully,
Leonie Adler Jorge Sanchez

Expressing reason and result

5 Study the highlighted words and phrases in emails A and B. Then answer the questions.
1 W h ich words and phrases express a reason?
2 W h ich ones express a result?

6 Choose the correct words or phrases.


1 I don't w a n t to g o to Britain b ecause / so it often rains there.
2 M y m other is Canadian. As a result, / B ecau se I am fluent in English and French.
3 Therefore / As the course is in England, you will learn a lot o f English outside the classroom.
4 The course starts at 9 a.m. Therefore / S in ce w e suggest that you arrive in M orsham the
night before.
5 Sin ce / As a result, your English is better than your sister's, you will be in a higher group.
6 Its a sunny day, so / as w e ll have our lessons on the beach.

WRITING GUIDE

Task Imagine you want to do an English course in Plan Choose three queries to ask the college and
the UK. Write a formal email to Morsham College. match them to these paragraphs.
Paragraph 1: Say w h y you are writing.
Ideas You have made a note of some queries for
Paragraphs Ask your queries. Each query should have
the college. Add three more queries. Then, for each
2,3 and 4: som e background, so th e reader
query, note down some background that explains
understands w h y you are asking.
your reason for asking.
Paragraph 5: Thank the reader for their help.

W rite Write your email. Use the paragraph plan to


frien d lives in Brighton - how far? help you.
weekend visit?
Check Check the following points.
n ever do sport - other evening activities?
Are your ideas divided into paragraphs?
\ dont v/ant to Share a bedroom ' cost more? Have you used expressions o f reason and result
correctly?
Have you used formal language?
Have you checked spelling, grammar and punctuation?

Pro g ress? 91
Vocabulary insight 7 Using a dictionary: words with more than one meaning
s(L

1 Work in pairs. Study the dictionary entries for play. STRATEGY


Then answer the questions.
Learning w ords w ith m ore th an o n e m eaning
1 How many different parts of speech are there for
Many English words can be more than one part of
play ? W hat are they?
speech and often have more than one meaning.
2 How many different meanings does play1have? Are
Compare:
any of them similar to the meanings of play1?
Did you sign the letter? (verb = to write your name on a
t p l a y ' /plei/ verb document)
h a v e fu n 1 [I] play (w ith sb/sth) to do sth to enjoy
yourself; to have fun: The children have been playing
In Singapore, there are road signs in several languages:
on the beach all day. Emma's found a new friend to English, Mandarin Chinese, Tamil and Malay, (noun = a
p la y with.
>g a m e s /s p o r t s 2 [|,T] to take part in a game or sport: notice that gives directions or a warning)
to play football/tennis/hockey * I usually play against
Bill. * She played him a t table tennis and won. Do Each part of speech of a word has a separate entry in the
you know how to play chess? * Who's Brazil playing
next in the World Cup? dictionary. The different meanings within the entry are
r MUSICAL INSTRUMENT 3 [l,T] play (sth) (on sth) to
usually numbered.
make music with a musical instrument: to play the
piano/guitar/trum pet M y sons learning the piano.
He plays very well. * She played a few notes on the Knowing the part of speech will help you to find the
violin. O note at music correct entry and definition w hen you look up the word
CDS, d v d s , etc . 4 [|,T] to make a CD, DVD, etc. pro
duce sound: M y favourite song was playing on the in a dictionary.
radio. * Shall I p la y the DVD for you again?
>a ct /p e r f o r m 5 [l,T] to act in a play, film, TV pro
gramm e, etc.; to act the role of sb: Richard is going to
p la y Romeo. 3 Read the sentences. Write the part of speech of the
underlined words.
? play2/plei/ noun t [U ] activity done for enjoyment 1 Did they give vou a birthday present?
only, especially b y children: Young children learn
through play. * the happy sound o f children a t play 2 The head teacher will present the guest to the
2 [C] a piece of writing performed b y actors in the
theatre, o r on TV o r radio: Would you like to see a
staff and students this afternoon..................
play while you're in London? a radio/TVpIay O note 3 Some parts of Australia are very flat and dry.
at theatre 3 [U] the playing of a game or sport: Bad
weather stopped play yesterday. There aren't any mountains or hills..................

HELP W e play tennis, football, etc. but w e CAN


4 I live in a flat in the city centre.
NO T say a play of tennis. W e have a game of 5 I'm fine, thanks. How are you?
tennis.
6 M y dad had to pay a fine for speeding,
4 [U] a control on a CD o r DVD player, etc. that you
press to start the tape, etc. running: Put the DVD into
7 W e need to hurry if w e want to catch the last
the machine then press play. train. .................
]', f a ir p la y O fair1
8 I'm going to train hard all winter so I can run in
the National Championship..................
2 Read the strategy. Then look at the dictionary
entries again. Write the part of speech and the 4 Match the underlined words in exercise 3 to
meaning number of the underlined words below. meanings a-h below. Use a dictionary to check
1 The actor who played the detective was brilliant, your answers.
verb, meaning 5 (act / perform) a healthy and happy
2 I play basketball for the school team. b low, no part higher than any other
c something you give to someone
3 I'm learning to play the guitar. d a type of public transport that runs on rails
e a home, usually part of a large building
4 It's important to balance work and play. f introduce
g to prepare for a sporting event by practising
5 W hat CD do you want me to play now? h money you pay if you break the law

6 Romeo and Juliet is a famous play by Shakespeare. 5 Find the words below in a dictionary. Choose
two meanings for each word and write example
7 The DVD won't start unless you press play. sentences.
hard pay right plant native show

92 V o ca b u la ry insight 7 Dictionary entries from Oxford Wordpower Dictionary, 4th edition


Review 7

V o c a b u la r y G ra m m a r

1 Replace the words in italics with the correct form of 5 Complete the sentences with m ust, m ustn't,
the verbs below. have to or d o n 't have to and the correct form of
decrease divide double estimate halve increase the verbs in brackets. Sometimes more than one
answer is possible.
1 The population of the USA will be twice as big by 2075.
1 W e .................................................................... (speak)
2 The size of the polar ice caps is getting smaller each year.
English in our English class. It's one of the rules.
3 They guess that the building will cost about 3 million.
2 I ....................................................................... (get up)
4 The price of petrol has gone up again.
early tomorrow. It's Saturday.
5 The number of visitors has gone down by 50% this year
3 Y o u ....................................................................(make)
6 They separated the people into three groups.
phone calls on a plane. It isn't allowed.
Marks /6
4 Y o u ......................................................................(wear)
a seat belt in a car. Its the law.
2 Complete each pair of sentences A and B with the
5 Y o u ...................................................................... (learn)
same word.
all the words in the English language. You can always
1 A Schumacher won, Alonso w a s..............................
use a dictionary.
and Lewis Hamilton was third.
6 I ................................................................. (go) to bed.
B Messi scored in the last of the match.
I'm very tired.
2 A Russia is the largest.............................in the world.
7 H e .......................................................................(study)
B Many people moved from th e ...............to the city.
tonight. He's got an exam tomorrow.
3 A M y friends bought me a birthday............................
8 Y o u ...................................................................(ride) a
B Forget the past and live in th e ...................................
bike without a helmet. It's very dangerous.
4 A Eight athletes ran in the men's 100-metre...............
9 T h ey.................................................................(wear) a
B Martin Luther King fought against
uniform to school. They can wear jeans.
discrimination in the USA in the 1960s.
Marks 19
5 A It took me a lo n g ........................... to make dinner
B This is the first........................ I've been to London.
6 Write second conditional sentences.
Marks /5
Example: I don't live in England. I don't speak fluent
English.
3 Complete the sentences with the words below.
If I lived in England, I'd speak fluent English.
advert research invention company founder
1 I'm not on holiday. I have to go to school today.
1 Nokia is a Finnish..........................................................
2 Tom has a lot of homework. He doesn't go out.
2 T h e ........................................ of Microsoft is Bill Gates.
3 Anne makes the dinner. She likes cooking.
3 Have you seen th e ...................................................on
4 You dont study. You don't pass your exams.
TV for the new Sony laptop?
5 I have my own money. I work on Saturdays.
4 The world changed after th e ......................................
6 I'm not eighteen. I don't have a car
of the com puter
7 Jack doesn't play basketball. He isn't tall enough.
5 Companies do a lot o f..................................................
Marks 77
before they create a new product. M a rks /5
7 Write sentences with /wish.
4 Complete the text with the words below. Example: I speak English badly.
accent dialects foreign official native slang I wish l didn't speak English badly.

1 I'm not rich.


E nglish is the 1 lan g u a g e of the 2 I live in a small town.
UK and a ro u n d 95% of th e p opulation are 3 I haven't got a smartphone.
2 sp e a k e rs. H ow ever, n o t everyone
4 I dont know a lot about computers.
sp e a k s the sa m e version of E nglish b ecau se
5 I fail most of my exams.
th e re a re m an y d iff e re n t3 . T he
6 I can't afford a tablet computer.
p ro n u n cia tio n of th e lan g u a g e also v a rie s from
7 I don't know what to do in the future.
p lace to p lace a n d you c a n tell w h e re a perso n
Marks 77
is from b e c a u se o f th e ir 4 . The
m ain 5 lan g u ag es ta u g h t in schools Total
a re F ren ch , S p an ish and G erm an. Young people
often use 6 .........

Marks /6

Pronunciation bank7 Workbook page 127 R e vie w 7


- ^ /I
Achieve
Reading and vocabulary Against all odds

1 SPEAKING Read the quotes about success. Which


quote do you like most? Why? Give examples from
your own life to explain your choices.

^ S u C C e S S is falling nine
times, and getting up ten. 5
SUCCESS
*Success is b e in g a b le to What is success? For many
live your life in your o w n w ay. 5 people, it means being rich. For
some high achievers, however, there
Luck is the best way to explain the are much more im portant things
success of people that you dont like. 5 s than money.
* a successful p e rso n is som eone
w ho can build so m e th in g w ith th e bricks E m m a n u e l Jal
t h a t o th e rs h a v e th ro w n a t him . 5
E m m a n u e l le ft his h o m e in
* nopain, nogain.* S u d a n a t th e age o f eight.
T h e r e w a s a civil w a r and

2 Read the magazine article about three successful 10 his village had b e c o m e
people.Then answer the questions. t o o d a n g e ro u s. H is o n ly

W hich person ... ? c h o ic e w a s t o jo in the


1 never knew their mother and father a rm y th a t w a s fighting fo r
2 was part of a movement to make one part of their th e in d e p e n d e n c e o f S o u th
country separate from the rest of the country 15 S u d a n .T h e life o f a child
3 is going to represent their country in a competition s o ld ie r w a s e x tre m e ly
4 wasn't a successful student as a child v io le n t and w h e n h e w a s
5 has raised money to improve people's lives e le v e n , he ran away.
6 had to change their ambition because of an injury
H e w a lk e d a d ista n ce o f m o r e th an 1,500 km and
7 has had problems because of the beliefs of other
20 m anaged t o re a c h K e n y a .T h e r e .f o r th e firs t tim e ,
people in their country
he w a s able t o g o t o sch o o l.
8 has written songs
A s a tee n ag e r, h e e x p re s s e d th e pain o f his
3 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. c h ild h o o d m e m o rie s by w r itin g and p e rfo rm in g
1 W hat does Emmanuel think is his greatest success? rap m usic. N o w he uses his songs t o cam paign
W hat does Paul think? Do you agree with them? 25 f o r w o r ld p e ace, and has p e rfo rm e d th e m a t huge
W h y / w h y not? c o n c e r t s in L o n d o n . H o w e v e r, he b elieves th a t his
2 Which of the three people has had the hardest
g re a te s t success is n o t his m usic, b u t his c h a rity
challenge? Whose story is the most inspirational?
G u a A fric a , w h ic h has h e lp e d lo ts o f in tellig en t
yo u n g A fric a n s to g e t a g o o d e d u ca tio n .
insight Verbs + prepositions: success

4 Complete the sentences with on, of, in or for. Some


so Paul C o n n o lly
prepositions can be used more than once. Then find
the verbs in the article and check your answers. Paul g r e w up in a B ritis h c a re h o m e b ecause
1 I've always dreamed being a his p a re n ts had a b a n d o n e d him as a b a b y.T h e
breakdancing champion. c o n d itio n s a t th e
2 There had never been a breakdancing championship h o m e w e r e te r rib le .
in Wales, so I cam paigned............................................
one. I wrote letters to dancers and dance judges, and 35 Paul w a s b rillia n t at
finally everyone agreed to organize one. s p o r t and d re a m e d
3 I did lots of training to prepare o f b e co m in g
the championship. a p ro fe ssio n al
4 I competed the championship
last weekend.

94 A ch ieve
V ocabulary: verbs + prepositions: success; suffixes: -ant, -ent, -ance, Sp eaking : talking about success and sport; discussing the greatest
-ence, collocations: achievement; state and society achievements in human history; expressing and justifying opinions
G ram m ar: past perfect; used to W ritin g : an opinion essay

5 There were a lot of good dancers, so I had to fight


a place in the final.
6 I succeeded......................................winning the final.
7 The judges praised m e ........................................... my

STORIES unusual dance moves.


8 Everyone congratulated m e .....................my success.

nsight Suffixes: -a n t, -ent, -ance, -ence

s p o rts m a n , b u t an in ju ry in his e a rly tw e n tie s 5 Suffixes show the part of speech of a word. Study
d e s tro y e d th a t d rea m . A s a ch ild , he had b een t o o 40 the highlighted words in the article. Then add them
u n h ap p y t o learn anythin g in class, b u t he k n e w to the correct category in the table and write the
th a t w it h o u t an e d u c a tio n he c o u ld n 't s u c c e e d in a corresponding adjectives or nouns.
c a r e e r .A t th e age o f tw e n ty - five , he w e n t b a c k to A d je c tiv e Noun
sch o o l.
distant 2distance
W i t h p a tie n ce and hard w o r k , he le a rn e d t o rea d 45 -ant 3
-ance 4

and w r it e .T h is gave him m o r e c o n fid e n c e and 5 6


s o o n he w a s a successful fitn ess t r a in e r w ith lots
independent independence
o f fa m o u s clien ts. Late r, he w r o t e an autob iog rap h y.
9 10
P e o p le p raised it f o r its h o n e s t a c c o u n t o f life in
a c a re h o m e and it b e c a m e a b e s ts e lle r - n o t bad so 11 12

f o r a w r it e r w h o had b e e n illite ra te in his tw e n tie s ! -ent -ence


13 14
Pa u l is p ro u d o f his b o o k , b u t h e s e ven p r o u d e r o f
15 16
his w ife and ch ild re n . H e g r e w up w it h o u t a family,
17 18
so h e k n o w s th e im p o r ta n c e o f having p e o p le w h o
lo ve him . 55
6 Complete the text with a noun or adjective in
exercise 5.
S a d a f R a h im i
M an y girls in A fghanistan a re w ive s b e fo re th e y a re Life would be boring if we w ere all th e sam e,
sixteen, b u t seventeen-year-old Sad a f is different.
bu t luckily everyone is 1 . There a re n t
S h e is single and sh e is a b o x e r.T h e re is no boxing
m an y people as 2 as A lbert Einstein
o r as 3 a t football a s Lionel Messi. We
ring w h e r e w o m e n can tra in in Afghanistan, b u t eo
m ay no t look a fte r th e ill an d poor w ith th e
Sad a f tra in s in a gym at a s p o rts stadium . M an y
4 of M other T eresa, o r in sp ire millions
Afghans b elieve th a t w o m e n sh o u ld n t d o sp o rt,
to fight fo r th e ir 5 like M ahatm a
and re c e n tly Sad a f had to miss train in g fo r a m on th
Gandhi. We c an t all ru n th e 6 of a
a fte r p e o p le had th re a te n e d t o a tta c k h er.T h en she m a ra th o n in less th a n th re e h o u rs, o r speak
ca m e s e co n d in a boxing co m p e titio n in Tajikistan. es w ith 7 in fro n t of th o u san d s of people,
Suddenly, p e o p le w e r e con g ratu latin g h e r o n h er o r catch 8 crim inals an d p u t th e m in
a ch ie ve m e n t and th e th re a ts sto p p ed . N o w sh e is prison. However, we c an all be heroes in our
p rep arin g fo r h e r n e x t big challenge: th e O ly m p ic own community. We all have a n 9 p a rt
G a m e s . S h e m ight be th e o n ly fem ale a th le te from to play in th e world.
h e r c o u n tr y to c o m p e te in th e G a m e s , so sh e w ill 70

be rep re se n tin g
all Afghan 7 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Choose a very successful
w o m e n . S h e is person in each area. Then answer the questions.
d e te rm in e d to business entertainment: politics science
bring h o m e a sport your community
m edal. 1 W hat has each person achieved?
2 W hat qualities have helped them to succeed? Which
is the most important quality to achieve success in
each area?

Vocabulary bank Sport: places page 141

A ch ieve 95
8 B G ram m ar and listening Foul play

1 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Answer the questions.


1 Have you ever watched the Olympic Games?
W hat are your favourite Olympic sports?
2 Are sportspeople always honest? Can you think of
any examples of cheating? Use the words below to
help you.
lying bribes illegal equipment drugs violence

P a st p e rfe c t

2 Read the text and match paragraphs A-E to the


words in exercise 1. Are some of these examples
of cheating worse than others or are all types of
cheating equally bad?

3 Study sentences a-b and answer the questions.


a Ben Johnson won the 100-metre running race.
b He had taken illegal drugs.
What a cheat!
1 Which event happened first, a or b?
A Cheats in the Olympic Games have existed almost as
2 Study sentence b again. How do we form the
long as the Games themselves. The first known cheat
past perfect?
was Eupolus. He won the boxing competition of
388 BCbecause he had bribed his three opponents.
Reference and practice 8.1 Workbook page 118
B In the 1905 marathon, US athlete Frederick Lorz
4 Read the text again and underline more examples crossed the finish line first, but he hadn't run
of the past perfect. How do we form negative the whole race. He had travelled 18 km in his
sentences and questions? manager's car, and he had only run the last part
because the car had broken down!
5 Study the sentence pairs. Number the events in the
correct order. C In the 1988 Olympics, Canadian athlete Ben
1 a Julia joined the sports club at her school when she Johnson won the 100-metre running race and set a
was fourteen. new world record. But the organizers of the Games
join sports club [ F ] become fourteen [ T ] took away his medal three days after he had won
b Julia had joined the sports club at her school
it. What had he done to deserve this? He had taken
when she was fourteen. illegal drugs to improve his strength and speed.
join sports club Q become fourteen Q D Ice skater Tonya Harding's methods were even
2 a W hen she decided to enter the race, she had done more extreme. Before the 1994 Winter Olympics,
some training. someone attacked Tonya's rival, Nancy Kerrigan,
decide to enter race Q do some training Q with a heavy stick. Tonya had asked her ex-
b W hen she decided to enter the race, she did some
husband to organize the attack so that Nancy
training. couldn't compete in the Games. Unfortunately for
Tonya, Nancy's injuries weren't serious and she
decide to enter race \ ^ \ do some training Q
was soon back on her skates. Nancy won a silver
3 a She had put on her running shoes when the race
medal and Tonya only came eighth.
started.
put on shoes Q race start Q The Paralympics have also had their cheats. In
b She put on her running shoes when the race started,
2000, there was a basketball competition for
intellectually disabled players.The Spanish team
put on shoes Q race start Q
won easily, but they hadn't told the truth. Only two
4 a W hen she finished the race, all the other runners
of the twelve players were intellectually disabled.
w ent home.
finish the race Q go home Q
b W hen she finished the race, all the other runners
had gone home.
finish the race Q go home Q

A ch ieve
8B

6 Read the story about Liam. Then write the reasons. Use the past perfect.

1 Liam dressed in women's clothes because


Liam's friends paid him some money. He dressed
his friends had paid him some money.
in women's clothes. The race organizers
2 The race organizers put him in the
put him in the women's race. No other
women's race because ....
men entered the women's race. He ran
3 He ran faster than everyone else
faster than everyone else. He won the
because....
gold medal unfairly. Other people in
4 He won the gold medal because ....
the race complained. He didn't keep
5 Other people in the race complained
his medal.
b ecau se....
6 He didn't keep his medal because ....

7 Complete the text with the past simple or past perfect form of the verbs in brackets.
I t 1................. (be) the end of theTV quiz show and the presenter2 (say),'Congratulations,
Charles! You've won a million pounds/Charles Ingram 3 (answer) every question correctly.
However, the TV com pany4 (not pay) Charles the money. W hy not? Because Charles
5 (cheat) during the show.The presenter6 (not notice) anything wrong,
but another man in the audience, Tecwen W hittock,7................. (help) Charles with some of the
answers. H o w 8 ......(they communicate)? Charles9 ......(read out) all the possible
answers, and Tecwen 10................(cough) after the correct one.

8 SPEAKING Look at the photo of pop group Milli Vanilli.


When do you think they were famous? Can you think
of any examples of cheating in the music business?

9 2.12 Listen to a radio programme about


Milli Vanilli. Why were people angry with them?

10 2.12 Listen again and choose the correct


words or phrases.
1 Fab and Rob had met in the USA / Germany.
2 They got a Grammy Award for Best New Group /
Best New Song.
3 They ran off the stage in a concert because
their fans couldn't hear them /
the equipment had stopped working properly.
4 During the concert, they had sung all the songs / had pretended to sing.
5 The people w ho had sung on their album were older / more successful than Fab and Rob.
6 Fab and Rob had to give back money to the fans who had bought their album /
the Grammy Award they had won.

11 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Choose one of the situations below and tell your partner about it.

1 Think about a time when you were late. 3 Think about someone w ho cheated.
W here were you? Was it someone that you know?
W h o were you with? W hat did they do?
W h y were you late? How did people find out about their cheating?
W hat were the consequences? W hat punishment did they get?

2 Think about a time when you forgot 4 Think about a time when you found something
something important. surprising or unusual.
W here were you? W hat was it?
W h o else was there? How did you find it?
W hat had you forgotten? How had it got there?
W hat were the consequences? W hat did you do with it?

Vocabulary bank Sport: compound nouns page 141

A ch ieve 97
8 C Listening, speaking and vocabulary The greatest

1 S P E A K IN G W o r k in g r o u p s . D is c u s s t h e q u e s t i o n s . L o o k a t p h o t o s a - f o r u s e y o u r o w n id e a s .

1 W hat are the greatest achievements in human history? W hy?


2 In your opinion, what is the single greatest achievement of all time?

2 2 .1 3 L i s t e n t o p a r t o f a r a d i o p r o g r a m m e a b o u t t h e g r e a t e s t a c h i e v e m e n t s in h u m a n
h i s t o r y . M a t c h s p e a k e r s 1 - 5 t o p h o t o s a - f . T h e r e is o n e p h o t o t h a t y o u d o n o t n e e d .

3 2 .1 3 L i s t e n a g a i n . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e s p e a k e r s , a r e t h e s e n t e n c e s t r u e (T ) o r f a l s e (F)?
C o rre c t th e fa lse o n e s.

1 The hardest challenge for NASA was getting their astronauts back home.
2 W hen Archimedes was alive, everyone knew about his mathematical ideas.
3 In the past, half of all the children born in England died as babies.
4 The first important human achievement was inventing the pizza.
5 W e can live comfortable lives today without harming the planet because of solar power

4 S P E A K IN G W o r k in p a ir s . W h ic h s p e a k e r 's id e a w a s t h e b e s t ? W h ic h o n e w a s t h e w o r s t ?
G iv e r e a s o n s fo r y o u r a n s w e r s .

insight C o llo c a tio n s: a c h ie v e m e n t

5 2 .1 4 C o m p le te t h e s e n te n c e s w ith t h e v e rb s b e lo w . T h e n liste n a n d c h e c k y o u r a n s w e rs .

solve achieve take change ifind make: put rise

6 S P E A K IN G W o r k in p a ir s . R e a d t h e in s t r u c t i o n s .

S tu d e n t A S tu d e n t B
T e ll S t u d e n t B a b o u t a t i m e w h e n : T ell S t u d e n t A a b o u t a t i m e w h e n :
you rose to a challenge. you achieved a goal.
you made progress with hard work. you took advantage of an opportunity.
you solved a problem. you put your mind to something.

98 A ch ieve
8C

Expressing and ju s tify in g opinions

7 SPEAKING Study the pairs of famous people. Who has achieved more, in your opinion?
Choose one person in each pair.

Shakespeare - J.K.Rowling Mozart - Adele peie - Lionel Messi

Picasso - Michelangelo Walt Disney - Peter Jackson

8 2.15 Listen to the dialogue. Who does Daisy choose as the greatest writer? Does Jack
agree with her?

2.15 Complete the phrases from the dialogue. Then listen again and check.

Expressing opinions Justifying opinions Conversation fillers


For m e ,.... T h e 3.................1say that is . ... Basically_____
In 1................................. v ie w ,.... You4 ..............deny t h a t .... W e ll,....
It seem s2 me t h a t .... 5........................kn ow ,..

10 2.16 Complete the dialogue with the correct words. Then listen and check.
Jack W hat about footballers? Who's the greatest footballer of all
time?
Daisy Hmm, you can't deny that / for me, Lionel Messi, probably.
Jack 2lt seems to me that / Well, Pele was the greatest.
3ln my view, / The reason I say that is, he's scored more
goals than any other footballer in history, and he won the
World Cup for Brazil three times.
Daisy Pele was brilliant, but in my opinion, if a young Pele was in
a match today, he wouldn't be so amazing. I mean,
4you can't deny that / for me, people break new records in
sport every year. I say that because the level in all sports is
higher now than it was in the 1960s.
Jack 5ln my v ie w / T h e reason I say that is, that's not important.
It's your achievements that are important, and there's no
doubt that Pele has achieved a lot more than Messi.

11 Read the dialogue again. Underline one more way of expressing


opinions and one more way of justifying opinions.

12 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Read the questions from a survey


and make notes on your opinions. Use the phrases in
exercise 9.Then compare your ideas with your partner and
explain your opinions.

* '

What's the greatest^ Who's the greatest


gadget of all time? actor of all time?

What's the greatest Who's the greatest What's the greatest


S p o r t of all time? artist of all time? TV show of all time?

DVD extra Great British writers: Shakespeare, Austen, Fleming

Achieve 99
8 D Culture, vocabulary and grammar The British honours system

1 SPEAKING Look at the photos. Who do you think


the people are? What are they doing? Then read the
text quickly and check your answers.

STRATEGY

Identifying facts and opinions


When you read a text, it is important to understand
which statements are facts and which are opinions.
A fact is som ething that w e can prove to be true.
An opinion is som ething that w e believe to be true.
Look for these clues that som ething is an opinion:
certain verbs and modals, e.g. th in k , b e lie v e , s e e m , feel,
s u g g e s t, s h o u ld , m a y , m ig h t
m adjectives, e.g. a m a z in g , g re a t, te rrib le , b e a u tifu l, b o r in g ,
b e s t, w o r s t
w ords and phrases such as in m y v ie w , in m y o p in io n ,
p r o b a b ly , p e rh a p s , p o s s ib ly

2 Read the strategy. Then read the text again and


underline the opinions in it.

3 Complete the facts with information from the text.


1 The full name of the O BE award is ........................
2 A b o u t............................................................ peop le get
a C BE every year
3 Eleanor Sim m onds has a health problem called

f you won an MBE, would you accept it?

I
4 Chris Preddie w as a teenager w hen
........................ died. We asked two British people what they
5 Awards cerem onies take place in think about the honours system. Here is
....................... different cities.
what they said.
6 ............................................................... didn't accept an
award for his work in the area of science.
Every year, about two thousand amazing people
7 In the early years of the twentieth century, some parts receive a special honour from the Queen. And it
o f .................................................................... w ere in the seems to me that they deserve it.
British Empire.
Take Eleanor Simmonds, for example. She was born with
8 If he ever wins a KBE, M r Bill Crispin will becom e
s dwarfism, and at the age of thirteen, she was only
123 cm tall. But that didn't stop her from reaching the top
in her sport. She's won four swimming gold medals in the
PI State and society Paralympic Games.
4 Study the highlighted words in the text. Then match As a teenager, Chris Preddie used to be in a gang. His friends
them to definitions 1-9. io used to steal and sell drugs. Chris didnt use to believe
1 a political system in w hich a king or queen rules a
that he could make a positive difference to his community.
country
However, when he was sixteen, someone shot and killed his
brother. Chris decided to change his life, and now he helps
2 people w h o work in politics
young criminals to stay out of trouble,
3 th e most im portant city o f a country
4 a group o f countries that on e person or country rules is Bill Crispin is eighty-two. Every morning, he helps young
5 th e activity of ruling a country, or the group o f people children to cross the road safely on their way to school. It
w h o d o it
is sometimes very cold in winter, but does Bill complain?
Certainly not. He is always smiling, and always ready to help
6 people w h o help to m anage the country, but don't
other people.
m ake political decisions
7 an even t w h e n people vo te to choose som eone for 20 Eleanor and Bill won MBEs for their achievements, and Chris
an im portant position won an OBE. I feel the British honours system is a great way
8 the earning, spending and m anaging of m on ey in a
to thank people for their hard work. The Queen gives each
country or area
winner a medal, either in Buckingham Palace in London, or
in Edinburgh or Cardiff, the capitals of Scotland and Wales.
9 th e leader o fa country w hich is a republic
25 For these British heroes, it's the proudest moment of
their life.

100 A ch ieve
E l
8D

5 Complete the text below with the correct form of words


in exercise 4. Which European country is it about?

This country has a population of only 832 people, and


no one is ever horn there. Its system o f1
is one of the strangest in the world. The country has
no king or queen, hut its ruler isnt a 2
either. There is an 3 to vote for him,
hut after he takes power, he keeps his position until
he dies, like in a 4 . He is in complete
control of the country for the rest of his life, hut he gets
some help from th e 5 who work in the
law courts, police, fire and post service. The countrys
6 depends on the tourists who spend
a lot of money there every year. And strangest of all,
this little country is inside a big city that is one of the
most famous 7 in Europe, and was once
if

the centre of an 8 that reached from


Portugal to Iran.

6 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.


1 If you won an MBE, would you accept it? W h y/w h y not?
Award Full name How many a year? 2 Does your country have a national honours system
M BE Member of the British Empire about 1250 to reward people for their work? W ho wins awards?
OBE Officer of the British Empire about 500 W h o chooses them ? Where do award ceremonies take
place? Is the system popular?
CBE Commander of the British Empire about 200

K B E /D B E Knight / Dame of the British Empire about 50


used to
7 Study the sentence below. Find three more examples
f In th e British honours system, people win awards of used to in the article. Then complete rules a-c.
V for th eir work in one of eight areas: education;
As a teenager, Chris Preddie used to be in a gang.
science and technology; health; m edia and the
arts; community; th e economy; governm ent; and sport. a used to refers to the present / the past,
1 believe its a good idea to give aw ards to volunteers b It is used for habits and states / single actions.
who help th eir community. However, a lot of o th er high c W e use the auxiliary verb d id / h ad to form negative
achievers a re very rich. They dont need any other sentences and questions.
rew ards.
Reference and practice 8.2 Workbook page 119
Although politicians, civil servants and industry experts 35
choose th e people who get awards, th e re is still a strong
8 Read sentences 1-6. Rewrite four of them with used to.
association with th e monarchy, and many people dont
like this. In th eir view, its b e tte r to have a president 1 Eleanor trained in the pool for eighteen hours a week.

instead of a queen, and to choose him or her in an 2 She won her first Paralympic gold medal in Beijing, in
election. Even back in 1953, biologist Francis Crick -to 2008.
refused an award because he thought th e monarchy 3 She didn't listen to people's rude comments about
was out-of-date. her height.
4 Chris's friends were young criminals.
O ther people dont like th e word em pire in th e nam e of
th e awards. A hundred years ago, th e British controlled 5 W hen he was young, Bill didnt work with children.
m any p a rts of India, Africa and th e Caribbean. Poet 45 6 He received his MBE in 2011.
Bertjamin Zephaniahs family is from th e Caribbean,
and in his opinion th e Em pire didnt use to tre a t its 9 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Think about when you
population fairly. He refused an offer of an OBE. were younger. How have you changed? Use the verbs
below and your own ideas.
The titles seem out-of-date, too. If you win th e highest
honour, a KBE or DBE, your title changes from Mr to 50 collect listen to watch live wear eat have
Sir, or from Miss or Mrs to Dame. Some examples play do exercise be afraid of
include w riter Dame Agatha Christie and ex-Beatle
1 W hat did you use to do when you were younger, but
Sir Paul McCartney. Although these people have
don't do now?
achieved a lot in th e ir lives, th eir old-fashioned a
2 W hat do you do now that you didn't use to do?
title s shouldnt have a place in the m odern world, y 55

A ch ieve 101
7A.
8 E Writing An opinion essay

1 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Look at


the photos and answer the questions.
1 What's happening in the photos?
2 How do you feel when you win something?
3 How do you feel when you lose?
4 Are competitions a good thing? W hy / w hy not?

STRATEGY

Selectin g ideas
Before you start writing, brainstorm some ideas and write them down.
Then decide on your best ideas. Use these questions to help you.
Are they relevant to the task?
Are they the most interesting ideas?
Are there convincing arguments and examples to support these ideas?
Are they the easiest ideas to explain clearly?

2 Read the strategy. Then study the task and the notes below.
Which four ideas do you think are the best? Why?

'The most important thing isn't winning a competition.


It's taking part.' Do you agree?
* running a marathon = great achievement * winning is what makes a competition
(not everyone tries to win) exciting
* winners inspire other people * be realistic - you can't win every time
* if we praise losers, they won't try harder * it's expensive to prepare fo r a competition
next time * losing is not always bad - you can learn
* someone needs to lose so that someone from your mistakes
e-lse- can win * used to enjoy chess but stopped after losing
* winning = lots of hard work competition

3 Read Aisha's essay. Does she agree with the statement in the essay title? Has she included
only arguments that support her opinion? Are there any arguments against it?

In t r o d u c in g e x a m p le s a n d c o n c lu s io n s

4 Read paragraphs 1-4 of Aisha's essay again. Then read conclusions A-E. Which conclusion
best summarizes Aisha's argument?

5 Study the highlighted phrases in the essay and the conclusions. Which phrases introduce an
example? Which ones introduce a conclusion?

6 Read essay extracts 1-6. Are they giving an example or stating a conclusion? Choose the
correct words. Then match extracts 1-6 to essay topics a-c.
1 To sum up, / Such as I believe that a good king or queen can be a better head of state than a
president.
2 To summarize, / For instance, there are many examples of rich people w ho are very generous,
but it is definitely harder to achieve success if you are not ambitious and competitive.
3 A famous actress in conclusion, / such as Gwyneth Paltrow gets lots of scary letters from crazy
people, and some of them even try to break into her home.
4 All things considered, / For example, billionaire Bill Gates established a charity foundation which
supports educational and health projects around the world.
5 In conclusion, / For instance, Queen Elizabeth II of England has always worked very hard and
never interferes in politics.
6 All things considered, / Such as I don't think that famous people are lucky. They pay a high price
for their success.

a 'Monarchies should have no place in the modern world/ Do you agree?


b 'All successful people are selfish.'Do you agree?
c 'Celebrities are the world's luckiest people.' Do you agree?

102 A chieve
'The most im portant thing i s n ' t W in n in g a competition-
A
To conclude, it is clear th a t taking part
It's taking part! Do you ag ree?
and winning are equally important. I f you
by A isha Dona Id
don't take part in a competition, you can
[T] Io every competition, there are Winners aod losers. Some people never win.
think th a t anything except first place is a failure. Others believe th at
we should celebrate everyone's achievements equally. W hat is more
6
important, winning or taking part?
To summarize, the purpose o f a
|~2~| Io my view, Wiooiog isn't the only Way to be successful. O f course, competition is to find a winner. For this
you shou Id always try to do your best, but you must be realistic. For reason, I believe th a t winning is much more
instance, if you aren't very fit aod have never taken part io a race importantthan taking part.
before, then you probably wont win this time. You can't win every race,
but you can always aim to be better than last time. If you arrived io c
twentieth place last year, then finishing in fifth place this year is a
Io conclusion, I think th a t winning is not
great result.
important. Having fuo io a competition is
[~3~] Io addition, not everyone wants to be the Wiooer. People have the only thing th a t matters.
different reasons for entering a competition. For example, io a big
marathon race there are often professional athletes a t the front D
and ordinary people a t the back. The prafessiaoal athletes' goal is to
To sum up, I believe th a t people deserve
Wio, but for many ordinary people just fioishiog a marathon is a huge
praise for winning a competition, but
achievement.
taking p a rt aod doing your best are more
[4] On the other hand, it Would be wrong if we didot praise the important.
Wiooer's achievement more than everyone elses. Wiooiog an important
competition such as the Olympic Games often takes years of E
determination and hard work. The winners inspire us by going further,
All thiogs considered, life is a competition.
running faster and jumping higher than we thought was possible, There are winners and there are losers. If
however, there can only be one winner and the other people who take you never ta k e part, you are always going
part io the competition are just as importantto its success. to be a loser.

WRITING GUIDE

Task Write an opinion essay on this topic. Plan Decide which ideas you are going to use and
'Students should have compulsory sport classes at match them to these paragraphs.
school every day.'Do you agree? Paragraph 1: Introduce the topic and say what other
people think about it.
Ideas Follow the instructions. Paragraph 2: Say what your opinion is. Give your main
1 Read the comments below and think about your own argument in support of it. Add examples.
experience of sports at school. Paragraph 3: Give a second argument in support of
2 Brainstorm ideas. Think of reasons w hy having sport your opinion. Add examples.
classes every day is a good or a bad idea. Paragraph 4: Give an argument against your opinion,
3 Decide if you agree or disagree. with details, and a counter-argument.
4 Choose the two strongest arguments in support of Paragraph 5: Summarize the main points.
your opinion and think of suitable examples.
5 Choose one argument against your opinion and Write Write your opinion essay. Use the paragraph
think of a counter-argument (a reason why the first plan to help you.
argument isn't very strong).
Check Check the following points.
T get really bored because no one throws me the ball. I'm not
Are all your arguments clear and relevant to the
good enough.'
statement in the essay title? Have you included
'Sport is not as im portant as other subjects, such as m aths or
examples?
science.'
Have you divided your essay into five paragraphs?
T do sport every day because 1w an t to be fit and healthy.'
Have you used appropriate phrases to introduce the
T m not great a t maths or science, but I'm really good a t sport. examples and the conclusion?
I'd love to have the opportunity to show people my skills.' Have you checked spelling, grammar and punctuation?
'Playing basketball with friends is fun.'
T don't have time to do sport.'

A ch ie ve 103
Vocabulary insight 8 Using a dictionary: dependent prepositions

1 Work in pairs. Match 1-5 to a-e to make sentences. STRATEGY


Then find and underline one preposition in each
Verbs an d prepositions
sentence. What other prepositions do you know?
Some verbs can be followed by more than one
1 I was so proud
preposition. The preposition you need can depend on:
2 Something strange happened
the meaning of the sentence
3 The runners were very excited
I campaigned for less homework. (= I wanted less
4 Everyone congratulated her
homework.)
5 There is no hope I campaigned against less homework. (= I didn't want less
a for success, homework.)
b on winning the race, whether the object which follows the verb is a person
c to me yesterday, or a thing
d of my achievement, I talked to my teacher, (person)
e about the race. I talked about my exams, (thing)
I talked to my teacher about my exams.
STRATEGY
In a dictionary, this is usually written as talk to sb about sth
D e p e n d e n t prepositions (.sb = somebody, sth = something).
Verbs, nouns and adjectives are often used in
combination with certain prepositions, such as about, 3 Read the strategy above. Then study the dictionary
for, of, on, etc. The prepositions do not change the basic entry for com pete and complete the text.
meaning of the word they follow. Their role is to link that
1 c o m p e t e /kam'pfct/ verb [I] com pete (in sth)
word to other parts of the sentence. (against/with sb) (for sth) to try to w in or achieve
sth, or to try to be better than sb else: The world's
It is not always easy to know which preposition to use best athletes compete in the Olympic Games. * Well
after a particular verb, noun or adjective. If you are not be competing against seven other teams for the
trophy. ,4s children, they always used to compete
sure, look up the word in a dictionary.
dream 2 /dri:m/ verb (p t, pp dream t /dremt/ or
Usain Bolt com peted1 the 2012 Olympics. He
dream ed) 1 [|,T] dream (about sb/sth) to see or
experience pictures and events in yo ur mind while com peted2 the best athletes in the world.
you are asleep: I dreamt about the house that I lived
in as a child. * I dreamed that t was running b u t I They were com peting3 a gold medal.
couldn't get away. O look at daydream 2 [I] dream
(about/of sth/doing sth) to imagine sth that you
w ould like to happen: I've always dreamt about win
ning lots o f money. 3 [I] dream (o f doing sth/ 4 Choose the correct prepositions. Use a dictionary to
that ...) to imagine that sth might happen: / help you.
wouldn't dream of telling Stuart th a t I dont like his
music. * When I watched the Olympics on TV, I never 1 I wrote an email to / about my grandfather to /
dreamt th a t one day I'd be here competing!
about my trip to Canada.
2 She's always fighting for / with her brother from /
The dictionary entry tells you that the verb dream can
about the computer.
be followed by the prepositions about and of.
3 I learned a lot to / about history for / from my uncle.
Last night I dreamed about / of you.
(verb) (preposition) (object) 4 Sue agreed in / with Sally about / of the decision.
5 I apologized for / to my teacher for / to the mistake.
When you record new vocabulary, always try to include
a note about the preposition(s) that follow it, e.g.
5 Complete the vocabulary records for some of the
to dream about / of somebody or something verbs and prepositions on this page. Then write
your own example sentences.
2 Read the strategy above. Then study the groups of
Verb Preposition Object Example
words 1-4. Which preposition can follow all three
words in each group? Use a dictionary to help you. sb Wait for me!
wait for
1 anxious, excited, warn sth

2 afraid, dream, example ......................... to


apologize
3 succeed, interested, believe ......................... sth
4 praise, prepare, wait ......................... sb
agree
about
in
compete sb
for
from
learn
sth

104 V o ca b u la ry insight 8 Dictionary entries from Oxford Wordpower Dictionary, 4th edition
Review 8

V o cabu lary G ram m ar

1 C o m p le te t h e te x t w ith t h e c o rre c t fo rm o f th e v e rb s 5 C o m p le te th e te x t w ith th e p a s t p e rfe c t fo rm o f th e


b e lo w . v e rb s b e lo w .

com pete dream fight praise prepare succeed cheat come hit not kick save not score
not see touch
As a child, Bob Love1 of becoming a famous
English football fans will never forget the 1986
basketball player. H e2 for his future by
World Cup. Argentina 1 top of their
practising the sport every day. His dream came true and he
group and they had to play England in the quarter
3 in professional basketball for the Chicago Bulls
final. A t half-time, the teams s till2 , so
for eight years. He 4 in becoming one of the most
the scoreboard said 0-0. Then, Diego Maradona
important players in his team. But Bob also had another dream.
scored a goal for Argentina. But the goal was illegal
He found it impossible to speak in front of other people because because he 3......................the ball into the goal with
he had a speech problem and he wanted to change that. He his foot. Instead, he 4 it with his hand.
5 for this dream as hard as he worked on his The goalkeeper5 already
basketball. Now he gives motivational talks in schools and a number of goals, but not this time. The referee
colleges. In his talks, h e 6 his speech therapist allowed the goal because he 6 the
for helping him to change his life. incident. In the end, Argentina won the match
2-1. The players were furious because Maradona
Marks 16 7........................After the match, Maradona admitted
that he 8 the ball with his hand, but he
2 C o m p le te t h e s e n te n c e s w ith t h e n o u n fo rm o f th e didn't apologize.
a d j e c tiv e s in ita lic s.

1 Clara is a b r illia n t student. Her Marks /8


will earn her a place at a good university.
2 Some people want the country to be in d e p e n d e n t . 6 W rite s e n te n c e s w ith t h e p a s t s im p le a n d t h e p a s t

They're fighting fo r....................................................... p e rfe c t. Jo in th e s e n te n c e s w ith because.

3 There aren't any v i o le n t students at our school. 1 The player / go to hospital. He / break his leg.
isn't allowed. 2 The accident / happen.The driver / not see the cyclist.
4 Our teachers are very p a t i e n t , but sometimes their 3 W e / not play tennis. W e / not book a court.
runs out. 4 The athlete / not win the race. He / not train enough.
5 M y family is very i m p o rta n t to me. I didn't realize their 5 The referee / cancel the match. Rain / flood the pitch.
until I left home. 6 They / be upset.They / not score any points.
M arks /5 7 The fans / start cheering. Their team / win the match.
8 I/ n o t do PE. I/forget my trainers.
3 R e w rite t h e s e n te n c e s w ith p h r a s e s c o n ta in in g th e M arks /8
w o r d s in b r a c k e t s .

1 Volunteers want to help to make a difference, (world) 7 R ead th e s e n te n c e s a b o u t s p o r t to d a y . T h e n w rite

2 Make the most of the situation, (advantage) t r u e s e n t e n c e s a b o u t s p o r t in t h e p a s t . U s e used to,


3 Athletes have to work hard to make their dreams a v e r b a n d t h e w o r d s in b r a c k e t s .

com e true, (goals) 1 Today, footballers earn a lot of money, (as much)
4 You won't get better if you don't try harder, (progress) In the past, th e y ...........................................................
5 They need to find the answer by tomorrow, (problem) 2 Today, football referees wear coloured shirts, (black)
6 If you want to succeed, youll have to make a big In the past, th e y ...........................................................
effort, (challenge) 3 Today, women's basketball teams have five players, (six)
In the past, th e y ...........................................................
4 Today, football stadiums are enormous, (as big)
4 C o m p le te t h e s e n te n c e s w ith w o rd s re la te d to s ta te
In the past, th e y ...........................................................
a n d so c ie ty .
5 Today, people do extreme sports, (them)
1 The of the UK is London.
In the past, people.......................................................
2 A ................................................ is a country that is
6 Today, sports fans buy tickets online, (at the stadium)
governed by a king or queen.
In the past, th e y ...........................................................
3 A successful........................................................... may
7 Today, cyclists ride lightweight bicycles, (heavy)
become a member of the government.
In the past, th ey...........................................................
4 In the UK, a n ...............................................................is
Marks 77
usually held every four years.
5 Some parts of Britain were controlled by the Roman Total
from 43 AD to 410 AD.
M arks /5

Pronunciation bank 8 W orkbook page 127 I R e vie w 8


Cumulative review Units 1-8

L is te n in g

1 2.17 Read questions 1-5. Think about the type


of numbers you will hear in each situation.Then
A false start
listen again and choose the correct answers.
M any people w ho have found
1 Listen to someone giving information about a new
success started out by failing.
product. How much does the product cost?
a $199 Below are five o f the most famous.
b $250
c $400 1
2 Listen to someone describing a race. W hat is the new
E v e ry o n e s a y s th a t A lb e rt E in ste in is o n e of
Olympic record?
5 th e m o s t in te llig e n t m e n th a t h a v e e v e r lived.
a 9.58 seconds
b 9.63 seconds H o w e v e r, p e o p le th o u g h t d iffe re n tly in th e p a st.
c 9.69 seconds E in ste in d i d n 't s ta r t s p e a k in g u n til h e w a s fo u r
3 Listen to a woman phoning the doctor. W hat time is y e a rs o ld a n d h e c o u ld n 't r e a d u n til h e w a s se v e n .
her appointment? H is te a c h e rs s a id h e h a d le a rn in g d iffic u ltie s a n d
a 830 a.m. io e v e n tu a lly h e w a s e x p e lle d fro m sc h o o l. E in ste in
b 9.15 a.m.
w e n t o n to b e c o m e o n e o f th e m o s t im p o r ta n t
c 10.15 a.m,
p h y s ic is ts o f th e tw e n tie th c e n tu ry a n d w o n a
4 Listen to an advert for an art exhibition. How old is
N o b e l P riz e in 1921.
the artist?
a 6 years old 2
b 10 years old
c 16 years old E v e ry o n e h a s h e a r d o f th e h u g e ly su c c e ssfu l
5 Listen to a conversation between two students. is J a p a n e s e e le c tro n ic s c o m p a n y Sony, b u t few p e o p le
How far does Sam live from the station? k n o w th e s to ry o f th e c o m p a n y 's first p ro d u c t.
a 1.5 km T h is w a s a rice cooker, b u t u n f o rtu n a te ly it d i d n 't
b 2.5 km w o r k p ro p e rly . In s te a d o f c o o k in g th e rice, th e rice
c 3.5 km
c o o k e r b u r n e d it, w h ic h d id n o t m a k e it p o p u la r
20 w ith c o n s u m e rs. S o n y s o ld less th a n a h u n d r e d
S p e a k in g
rice c o o k e rs, b u t h a d m u c h m o re su c c e ss w ith th e ir
Work in pairs. Choose one of the situations below. n e x t p r o d u c t, w h ic h w a s a ra d io .
Ask your partner for advice. Give your partner three
3
pieces of advice. Prepare two dialogues.

Student A A s k a n y o n e to tell y o u th e n a m e o f th e g re a te s t
You arent very good at tennis. You have a match next B ritish P rim e M in is te r o f a ll tim e a n d m a n y w ill
week. You'd like to play better. 2s s a y it w a s W in sto n C h u rc h ill. B ut p e o p le h a v e n 't
a lw a y s a d m ir e d M r C h u rc h ill. A t sc h o o l, h e w a s a
Student B p o o r s tu d e n t a n d h e failed th e y e a r w h e n h e
You arent very good at French. You have an exam w a s tw e lv e . A fte r e n te rin g p o litic s a t
next month. You'd like to get a good mark. th e a g e o f tw e n ty -fiv e , few p e o p le
30 v o te d fo r h im a t e le c tio n s. H o w e v e r,
Explain the situation and ask for advice. h e fin a lly b e c a m e P rim e M in is te r a t
Listen to the advice your partner gives you. th e a g e o f six ty -tw o , a n d th e n a g a in
Respond to the advice.
w h e n h e w a s se v en ty -six .

R e a d in g

3 Read the article. Match headings A-F to paragraphs


1-5. There is one extra heading that you do not need.
A It's never too late
B A question of height
C Getting it right from the start
D Second time lucky
E A late developer with a curious mind
F He never knew success

106 C u m u lative re v ie w U nits 1-8


G r a m m a r a n d v o c a b u la r y

Complete the sentences so the meaning is the


same. Use two to five words including the word
in brackets.
1 My mum wasn't very good at sport when she was
at school. (USE)
My m u m ........................................ very good at sport
when she was at school.
2 I saw the film for the first time yesterday. (NEVER)
Before yesterday, ......................................... the film.
3 I dont speak Portuguese, but I'd like to learn it. (WISH)
I................................................................. Portuguese.
O n e o f th e u n lu c k ie s t a rtists in th e w o rld is th e
4 She feels tired because she doesn't sleep
D u tc h p a in te r V in c e n t v a n G o g h . O n ly o n e p e rs o n
enough. (FEEL)
b o u g h t a p a in tin g fro m h im d u r in g h is life, a n d 35 If she slept more,............................................ so tired.
th a t p e rs o n w a s a f rie n d w h o p a id v e ry little 5 Entrance to the museum is free. (PAY)
m o n e y fo r it. H o w e v e r, th e p a in te r c o n tin u e d Y o u ........................................ to go into the museum.
w ith h is w o rk a n d c o m p le te d o v e r e ig h t h u n d r e d 6 Ball games are not allowed in the park. (MUST)
p ic tu re s b e fo re h e d ie d . T oday, y o u c a n see h is You...........................................ball games in the park.

p a in tin g s in th e m o st im p o r ta n t a r t g a lle rie s in th e 40 7 You need to study to pass the exam. (FAIL)
If you don't study,........................................ the exam.
w o r ld a n d th e y s e ll fo r m illio n s o f eu ro s.
8 W e met a year ago. (KNOWN)
W e ..............................................each other for a year.
9 He doesn't have a good relationship with his
I t's h a r d to b e lie v e th a t th e sc h o o l b a s k e tb a ll co ach
sister. (GET)
d i d n 't c h o o se M ic h a e l J o rd a n to p la y in th e tea m , H e .......................................................... with his sister
b u t th a t's e x a ctly w h a t h a p p e n e d . A t th e tim e, 10 Russian is more difficult than German. (EASY)
J o rd a n w a s o n ly o n e m e tre a n d e ig h ty c e n tim e tre s 45 Russian........................................................... German.
tall, a n d th e c o a c h th o u g h t h e w a s to o s h o rt fo r
th e tea m . L u ck ily fo r Jo rd a n , h e g re w e ig h te e n W r it in g

c e n tim e tre s o v e r th e n e x t fe w y e a rs a n d b y th e tim e Study the advert. Imagine you want to work as
h e w a s tw e n ty -o n e , h e w a s p la y in g for th e C h ic a g o a helper at a summer camp in the USA. Write a
B ulls. D u r in g h is b a s k e tb a ll career, h e w a s N B A 50 formal email to the camp director asking for more
c h a m p io n six tim es. T oday, m a n y p e o p le th in k of information. In your email:
M ic h a e l J o rd a n a s th e b e s t b a s k e tb a ll p la y e r ever. say w hy you are writing
ask a question about accommodation
ask a question about flights
ask a question about free time
thank the reader for their help

SUMMER CAMP ASSISTANT


What are your plans for th is summer? If you
like to travel, make n ew friends and learn
about different cultures, this programme is
perfect for you. We are looking for assistants
to help w ith the organization of sports
activities at our summ er cam ps in the USA.

No experience needed
Must b e fourteen or older

nsight4 W orkbook page 100 C u m u lative re v ie w U nits 1-8 107


ii m
The media
Reading and vocabulary In th e news

2 Battle for 3 Chestnut the 4 Tsunami leaves


'Selena election votes squirrel adopted thousands Protests against
nuclear power
inlove enters final week by Sugar the cat without homes
plant continue
1 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Match photos A-E to headlines 1-5. Which stories would you be
most interested to read?

2 Read the article. What is it mainly about?


a the news of the day
b reasons for including stories in the news
c different types of news organization

3 Read the article again. According to the text, are the statements true (T), false (F) or
not given (NG)? Correct the false ones.
1 Napoleon Bonaparte thought that newspapers were very powerful.
2 Thomas Jefferson thought that newspapers gave people lots of useful information.
3 People can learn more from news organizations today than in the past.
4 Two countries that speak the same language are more likely to appear in each other's news
stories than countries that speak different languages.
5 Celebrities don't want their love lives to be in the news.
6 There are often less important stories in the news in the summer.
7 Someone always checks that a story is true before it goes in the news.
8 Some stories stay out of the news because they cost too much money to include.
9 The British usually prefer serious news about other countries than stories about famous people.

4 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Imagine you are the editors of a news website and want to give
clear instructions to your journalists. Study criteria a-h in the article and put them in order
from 1-8 (1 = most important, 8 = least important). Are there any other criteria that you
would like to include?

The press

5 Study the highlighted words in the article. Then match the words to definitions 1-10.
1 someone w ho writes news reports
2 the title of a newspaper report; the letters are bigger than in the rest of the report
3 a type of newspaper with large pages and serious news
4 a type of newspaper with small pages and not much serious news
5 a piece of writing that gives an opinion about a film, book, TV programme, etc.
6 the person w ho decides what stories a newspaper or magazine should include
7 a place in a newspaper or magazine where you can read about the private lives of famous people
8 announcements in the media that businesses and other organizations pay for
9 a piece of writing about a particular subject in a newspaper or magazine, or on a website
10 the section of a newspaper which contains the most important news

insight Collocations; the media

6 Choose the correct words. Then find the verbs in the article and check your answers.
Can you add more nouns to each group?
1 investigate / broadcast on the radio, on TV, on the internet
2 report / publish a newspaper, a magazine, a novel
3 report / publish an event, a crash, a murder
4 gather / confirm the facts, the details, a rumour
5 gather / interview information, news, evidence
6 investigate / confirm a story, a crime, a problem
7 broadcast / interview a person, a celebrity, a politician

108 The m edia


V ocabulary: the press; collocations: the media; films, Sp eaking : discussing news stories; talking about the media; doing a
types ofTV programme survey; talking about films; giving and reacting to news
9A
G ram m ar: reported speech; say and tell; question tags W riting : a film review

French ruler Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) once said that four newspapers against you were more dangerous
than a thousand guns. The power of newspapers was clear almost as soon as they became available in the
seventeenth century. The quality of their stories was more doubtful, however. US politician Thomas Jefferson
(1743-1826) said that a man who had read nothing at all knew more than a man who had only read newspapers.
Is the same true today? As well as publishing more serious broadsheet newspapers and less serious tabloids,
news organizations broadcast on the radio and on TVtwenty-four hours a day and provide websites and mobile
phone apps. But how do editors decide which stories to include?
These are the main criteria that they use.
a How many people does th e sto ry affect? f Is it tru e?
10 A tsunami that kills 10,000 is more likely to be on the Before journalists report an event, they should always
front page than a plane crash that kills twenty. confirm the facts. Some of them forget this, however,
b Where is the event?
especially if the facts ruin a good story!
An event in or near your own country usually has more g Will it be expensive to report?
importance than one on the other side of the world, News organizations cant afford as many journalists as
is A faraway country with strong links to your own - for they did in the past, so no one has much time to gather
example, a shared language - might be an exception to information. It's sometimes impossible to investigate
the rule. more complicated stories. And because TVnews crews
c How famous are the people in the story? usually work in the capital, its often too expensive to
interview people in other parts of the country.
If you fall off youi bike or fall in love, journalists won't
20 be very interested. But if it's a Hollywood star who does h Will it make money?
this, it might be big news. If people arent interested, they will find their news
d Does it appeal to the emotions? somewhere else, and the news organization will make
less money from sales and advertising. In the UK and
Sometimes stories about unimportant people or animals USA, people often seem so interested in celebrity
are so sad or so funny that they can become news. This gossip columns and reviews of the latest TVshows that
25 happens most often in summer, when politicians are on important international stories sometimes disappear
holiday and there isnt much serious news. from the headlines.
e Does it fit w ith the new s organizations
What types of news stories do you prefer? Do you think your
political ideas?
favourite news sources choose their stories for the right
Some newspapers and websites have a political bias. reasons? Send your comments to:
boA socialist newspaper might not want to publish an views@mediasawy.uk.com
article about corrupt socialist politicians.

7 S P E A K IN G W o r k in g r o u p s . T h i n k a b o u t t h e m e d i a in y o u r c o u n t r y a n d d i s c u s s t h e q u e s t i o n s .

W hat are the most popular newspapers? Are they broadsheet or tabloid?
Do any of the news organizations have a political bias? How do you know?
Are there any faraway countries that are often in the news? W hy?
Can you think of news stories in the media that weren't true? Give details.
Do you ever watch or listen to programmes broadcast in English?

Vocabulary bank Parts of a newspaper page 142

The m ed ia 109
9 B G ram m ar an d liste n in g M u ltita sk in g

1 SPEAKING L o o k a t t h e p h o to a n d a n s w e r th e
q u e s tio n s .
1 W hat is the girl doing? W hat do you think
multitasking is?
2 Do you ever multitask? W hat things do you do at the
same time?
3 W hat are the advantages and disadvantages of
multitasking?

R eported speech

2 Read th e n e w s p a p e r re p o rt. W h o sa id th e fo llo w in g ?


1 T multitask every second that I'm online/
2 'I am completing your survey at the same time as
watching a TV show/
3 'I have watched tw o hours of TV in the three hours
since the end of school.'
4 'Teenagers will have difficulties because of their
multitasking habits/
5 'Worries about multitasking became pointless a long
time ago/
Teens: more
3 C o m p a re th e d ire c t speech in exe rcise 2 w ith th e
re p o rte d spe e ch in th e n e w s p a p e r re p o rt. H o w does
media use than
th e te n s e ch a n g e ? C o m p le te th e ta b le a n d th e rules.

D ire c t speech R e p o rte d speech


hours in the day
present simple 1
A survey into the media habits of teenagers in the
present continuous - 2 USA reveals some surprising statistics. The average
teenager spends an incredible eleven hours each day
present perfect 3
on their mobile phone, computer, games console or
past simple 4 TV. That's more hours than they are awake outside
w ill -
5 school time! How are they able to do this? The
answer, of course, is multitasking.
say o r te ll ? The results of the survey came as no surprise to
W e often introduce reported speech with: fifteen-year-old participant Jake Kendall. He told
6
........ + that or researchers that he multitasked every second that
7
........+ personal object + that he was online. He said that he was completing their
survey at the same time as watching a TV show,
Reference and practice 9.1 Workbook page 120 chatting to friends online and reading reviews of
the latest film releases. For sixteen-year-old Marisa
4 2.18 L is te n to th e in te r v ie w w it h M arisa Sanchez, the survey simply confirmed the facts.
S anchez. T hen c o m p le te th e r e p o r t w ith th e c o rre c t She said that she had watched two hours of TV in
fo r m o f th e ve rb s . the three hours since the end of school, and also
researched her homework about volcanoes, played
be (x2) have listen not have save
an online game for two hours, and arranged her
send watch win
weekend plans by texting friends.
Some experts are worried about the survey results.
Sylvia de Lupis of the Family Action Institute told
our reporter that teenagers would have difficulties
During the interview, Marisa said that her because of their multitasking habits. She added
smartphone 1 her most important possession, that, as adults, they would struggle to focus their
and that she 2 four hundred texts the week before. attention. However, Dr Michael Rich from the
She said that she usually 3........... to music on her MP3 Center on Media and Child Health said that worries
player She 4 it in an online competition. She told about multitasking had become pointless a long
me sadly that she 5 her own computer. She had to time ago, and that high levels of media use were
use her mother's. She said that she 6 money to buy now a part of young people's environment, Tike the
a new laptop, and she 7........... enough money in a few air that they breathe, the water that they drink and
months. She told me that she 8 too many TV shows the food that they eat'.
on her tiny smartphone screen, and that it 9........... nicer to
watch TV on a laptop.

110 The media


5 Rewrite the statements as reported speech.
1 'Video g am e addicts often g et bad results at school,said Sylvia de Lupis.
2 T h e ir m edia habits haven't caused their bad results,'said other experts.
3 'M y parents gave m e a laptop) Jake told researchers.
4 'I w on't switch off m y com puter until bedtim e) he said.
5 'I'll probably spend six hours online after dinner,' he told researchers.
6 'I'm playing an online g am e w ith m y friends) Marisa told her mum.
7 'W e never buy magazines,' she said.
8 'I haven't read a new spaper for years,' she told everyone.
9 'So m e teenagers didn't w ant to d o the survey,' said researchers.

6 2.19 Listen to the dialogue. Are the sentences true (T) or false (F)? Correct the false ones.
1 Jake's m um said that it was tim e for breakfast.
2 Jake told her that he w as finishing his hom ework.
3 His m um w as happy that he w as w atching a DVD.
4 She said that Jake w ou ld never g et A grades that way.
5 Jake said that his m um multitasked more than he did.
6 His m um said that multitasking could save tim e w hen you w ere tidying your room.
7 Jake said that he had never studied the Second W orld W a r before.
8 His m um said that he'd finish his hom ew ork more quickly w ithout the DVD.
9 Jake said that he didnt w an t to work all evening.

7 SPEAKING Work in groups. Read the instructions and do the class survey.
1 Read the survey questions and make notes o f everyone's answers.
2 Com pare your group's answers with the answers in the box from young people in the USA.
3 Choose three interesting facts to report to the class.
Three out of five people said that they sometimes watched TV while they were doing their homework.

1 W hich of these things have you got in your bedroom?


Survey results, U SA
a a CD player a CD player: 6 8 %
b an M P3 player b M P3 player: 7 6 %
c a DVD player c DVD player: 5 7 %
d a TV d TV: 7 1 %
e computer: 3 6 %
e a computer
f mobile phone: 6 6 %
f a mobile phone
g games console: 5 9 %
g a games console h radio: 7 5 %
h a radio a talking on a mobile phone:
51 minutes
2 How long did you spend on these b texting or instant messaging:
activities yesterd ay? 1 hour 46 minutes
a talking on a mobile phone c watching TV, DVDs or
internet videos:
b texting or instant messaging
4 hours 44 minutes
c watching TV, DVDs or internet videos
d playing video or internet
d playing video or internet games games: 1 hour 13 minutes
e using social networking websites e using social networking
f reading a newspaper, magazine or book websites: 22 minutes
g listening to music f reading a newspaper,
magazine or book:
38 minutes
3 W hich of th e activities in question 2 do you sometimes do while
g listening to music: 2 hours
you are doing your homework?
31 minutes
7 8 % said that they did at least
4 How many film s have you seen a t the cinema in the past twelve
one of these things while they
m onths?
were doing their homework.
a none d 11 to 20 Average: 11 -20 films
b 1 to 3 e 21 to 40
c 4 to 1 f more than 40

Th e m edia 111
9 C Listening, speaking and vocabulary Behind the scenes
s iL

1 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Look at the photos. Discuss the tricks that film-makers
use to make something look real. Use the words below to help you.
green screen com puter-generated im ages (CGI) inflatable dum m ies miniatures

2 2.20 Listen to the start of a radio programme, Dom inic's D ow nload. Which
things does the programme mention?
an interview a song a video g am e a music concert celebrity gossip a n ew film

STRATEGY

Listening fo r m ain ideas


When you listen to people speaking in English, do not try to understand every word.
Think about:
the context: w here is it? H o w m any people are there? W h y are they speaking?
the key words: w h at key words can you hear?
repetition: does anyone repeat any words or phrases several tim es? This is probably
im portant information.

3 2.21 Read the strategy. Then listen to a later part of the same radio
programme. Use the strategy to identify the main idea.

2.21 Listen again and choose the correct answers.


1 Catherine i s ...
a working as an extra in a film,
b w atching a m atch in a football stadium,
c finding out about crow d scenes in films,
2 W ith CGI, you can ...
a give each d u m m y an individual face,
b make films very cheaply,
c create good special effects,
3 The crew m em bers she spoke to
a spent a long tim e preparing the crowd,
h a v e ...
b w orked on the set for seven days,
c m ade the clothes for 10,000 dummies,
4 Using inflatable d u m m ie s ...
a takes more tim e than using CGI.
b is not as expensive as CGI.
c is easier than using real people,
5 The dum m ies look real in films
a you can m ake th e m m ove their arms,
b e c a u s e ...
b people stand am ong them and move,
c you can bring them to life w ith CGI.
Films

Complete the text with the words below.


special e ffects: soundtrack scene script cast film set blockbuster
plot crew

A lth o u g h it usually costs m illions o f dollars to m ake a H o lly w o o d 1 ,


G areth Edw ards m ade his film Monsters for o n ly 5 ,0 0 0 .T h e re was a 2 of
o n ly tw o acto rs a n d five p e o p le b e h in d th e cam era. T h e film s 3 involves a
jo u rn a list and his boss's d a u g h te r travelling th ro u g h an area full o f alien m onsters.
N o o n e w ro te a 4 fo r th e film . Instead, th e actors ju s t said th e w ords th at
cam e in to th e ir heads in each 5 .T h e film in g d id n 't take place o n a 6
T h e actors a n d 7 drove a ro u n d C e n tra l A m erica in a bus fo r six weeks.
W h e n th ey saw so m e w h ere suitable, they started film ing, a n d in v ited local p eo p le
to b e in th e film as extras. Later, G areth created th e 8 for th e m onsters
w ith C G I softw are o n a n o rd in ary laptop. G areth believes th at th e so u n d is m o re
im p o rta n t in a h o rro r film th an th e visuals, so h e m ad e sure th a t his film had the
best possible 9 . A n d th e result? M a n y critics said th at Monsters was th e best
h o rro r film o f th e year.
6 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Think of a memorable scene in a film that you have seen recently.
Answer the questions.
1 W hat happened in the scene?
2 Which cast members were in it?
3 W hy was it memorable?Think about the special effects, the soundtrack, the set and the script.

G iv in g a n d r e a c t in g t o n e w s

7 SPEAKING Look at photos A and B. What do you think the people are talking about?
Have they received good or bad news? How are they feeling?

8 2.22 Listen to two dialogues. What are the two pieces of news in each dialogue?

9 2.22 Complete the phrases from the dialogues. Then listen again and check.

G iv in g n ew s R e a ctin g to g o o d new s
Have y o u 1 a b o u t ... ? Cool!
I was ju st2................................to Stanley, and Lucky ...!
he said t h a t . ... 5 wonderful!
3......................................... some exciting / bad
news a b o u t ... . R e a ctin g to b a d new s
It4 on TV / the radio / P o o r ...!
the internet t h a t . ... W hat a 6 thing to happen!
Oh no!

10 2 .23 Put the dialogue in the correct order. Then listen and check.
Jo Really?That's fantastic news! W hen does it start?
Oliver She made a short film last term and entered it in a competition. And she won!
Jo No. W hat film?
Oliver That's the bad news. Mr Simpson is going to be in charge of the club, but he's really
busy this term. It isn't going to start until January.
Oliver I was talking to her this morning, and she said that she'd won tw enty new video
cameras for the school, so now we can have a film-making club.
Jo W hat a brilliant thing to happen. Well done to Bella!
I Oliver Hey, Jo, have you heard about Bella's film?
Jo W hat a shame! But itll be great when it finally starts.

11 Read the dialogue again. Underline three more ways of reacting to news.

12 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Take turns to give some news. Use the ideas below and your own
ideas. Use the dialogue in exercise 10 to help you.
your friend is moving to another country
you've lost your school bag with all your books in it
a famous actor is going to visit your town
your best friend has failed an exam
theres going to be a new cinema in your town

Vocabulary bank Film genres page 142

T h e m edia 113
9 D Culture, vocabulary and grammar The BBC story

1 SPEAKING What do you know about the BBC? Are


the sentences below true (T) or false (F)? Read the
article and check your answers.
A s h o r t h is t o r y o f
1 The BBC is a British broadcaster.
2 Its first broadcast was on the radio in the 1890s.
th e B B C
3 Its first TV broadcast was the Queen's coronation in 1953.
4 S t ric tly C o m e D a n c in g is a BBC show. B irth o f th e BBC
5 There's a lot of advertising on the BBC.
A t 6 p .m . o n 1 4 N o v e m b e r 19 2 2 , A r t h u r B u r r o w s
r e a d a n e w s b u l l e t i n . It i n c l u d e d a r e p o r t o f a t r a i n
2 Read the article again. In which paragraph A-F can
r o b b e r y a n d a n i m p o r t a n t p o litic a l m e e tin g , s o m e
you find the following information?
1 th e num ber o f people w h o worked for the BBC at s p o r ts re s u lts , a n d a w e a th e r fo re c a s t.T h is w a s th e

th e start f i r s t e v e r b r o a d c a s t b y t h e B ritish B r o a d c a s tin g

2 th e num ber o f TV channels that the BBC has today C o r p o r a t i o n , o r B B C . It h a d a sta ff o f ju s t fo u r, a n d

3 w h y som e people are unhappy about the BBC i t s m i s s i o n w a s t o e d u c a t e , i n f o r m a n d e n t e r t a i n ' .

4 th e names o f som e BBC program m es that are


popular internationally E n te rta in m e n t fo r th e ears
5 an even t that people w atched on TV in big groups B y 1 9 3 0 , h a l f t h e h o m e s in B r i t a i n h a d a r a d i o . T h e y
6 h o w the BBC pays for its broadcasting services c o u ld listen n o t o n ly t o t h e n e w s , b u t a ls o t o d ra m a s ,
7 w h at the BBC achieved in the Second W orld W ar c la s sic a l m u s ic c o n c e r t s , c h a t s h o w s , c h ild r e n 's
8 w h at people could enjoy on the radio in the 1930s p r o g r a m m e s a n d liv e s p o r t s c o v e r a g e . W h e n t h e
S e c o n d W o r l d W a r s t a r t e d in 1 9 3 9 , B B C r a d i o w a s a
P I Types of TV programme v ery im p o rta n t so u rc e o f n ew s, an d o f e n te rta in m e n t

3 Study the highlighted words in the article. Match t o c h e e r p e o p l e u p in d i f f i c u l t t i m e s .

them to the programmes in the TV listings below.


G o in g global
2.30 Littlebrook Abbey T h e B B C W o r l d S e r v i c e b e g a n in 1 9 3 2 , m o s t l y f o r t h e
Mr Darlton finds out about John's love for Mary, and sends him B r i t i s h p e o p l e w h o li v e d in A f r i c a a n d A s i a . D u r i n g
away to tight in the war against Napoleon.
t h e S e c o n d W o r l d W a r , it b r o a d c a s t in m a n y d i f f e r e n t
3.30 Sunnyvale
la n g u a g e s a n d h a d la rg e n u m b e r s o f E u ro p e a n
In todays episode, Cathy argues with Jake, while Steve plans
liste n e rs.T o d a y it b r o a d c a s ts by ra d io , i n t e r n e t a n d
to leave Sunnyvale forever.
4.00 The Big Match s a t e l l i t e in t w e n t y - s e v e n l a n g u a g e s . 1 8 8 m i l l i o n p e o p l e
Chelsea plays Arsenal. Kick-off at 4.20 p.m. listen e v e ry w e e k .
6.00 Dicky and Ducky
Everyones favourite ducks solve another m ystery on the farm. F ro m ra d io to T V
6.15 Search for a Star
T e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t i n g h a d b e g u n in 1 9 3 6 , b u t s t o p p e d
Its been a hard week for youngest contestant Lily. Can she
perform well enough to survive another week on the show? d u r i n g t h e S e c o n d W o r l d W a r . W h e n i t r e t u r n e d in
8.15 Freddies Friday Night 19 4 6 , v i e w e r s c o u l d e n j o y a n y t h i n g f r o m D i s n e y ' s
Freddie talks to Johnny Depp and Lady Gaga. M ick ey M o u s e c a r t o o n s t o c o v e r a g e o f t h e O ly m p ic
9.00 The World at Nine
G a m e s . In 1 9 5 3 , 2 0 m illio n p e o p l e c r o w d e d r o u n d
The latest stories from around the world.
t h e c o u n tr y 's 3 m illio n T V s c r e e n s t o w a t c h Q u e e n
9.25 Met Check
Find out if there'll be sun or rain tomorrow. E l i z a b e t h lls c o r o n a t i o n . A f t e r t h a t , t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f T V
9.30 Animal Instinct g r e w fa st. Hancocks H a lf Hour, a f u n n y 1 9 5 0 s s i t c o m ,
The Arctic wolves are hungry. Will they succeed in finding their r e f l e c t e d B rita in 's c h a n g i n g e n t e r t a i n m e n t p r e f e r e n c e s .
next meal?
I t b e g a n a s a r a d i o s h o w i n 19 5 4 , t h e n t w o y e a r s l a t e r
10.00 Not for Nothing
b e c a m e a s h o w f o r b o t h r a d i o a n d t e l e v i s i o n . F in a l ly , in
In this funny episode, Lenny and Mel buy a pet pig.
19 5 9 , t h e B B C d e c i d e d t o b r o a d c a s t i t o n l y o n T V .

4 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Answer the questions.


1 W h at exam ples are there in your country o f these
types o fT V program m e?
2 W hich types of program m e do you like / dislike? W h y?
3 Have you ever w atched or listened to a BBC
programme, or seen the BBC website? W h at was it like?
4 W h at big m edia organizations are there in your
cou n try? Are th e y similar to the BBC?

The m edia
9D

Q uestion tags

5 2.24 Question tags are short questions at


the end of statements. Match statements 1-8 to
question tags a-h.Then listen and check.
1 T op G e a r is on T V now,
2 Soap operas have b ecom e very silly,
doesn't she?
3 The program m e won't last long,
will it?
4 You love E a stE nd ers,
didn't he?
5 There are more than a hundred
don't you?
channels in Britain,
isn't it?
6 W e can't w atch cable channels,
haven't they?
7 Scarlett Johansson stars in lots
aren't there?
o f great films,
can w e ?
8 Daniel Radcliffe started his career
Alvar Liddell,
one of the first in a BBC costum e drama,
B B C presenters,
1922 6 Study the questions in exercise 5 and choose the
correct words to complete the rules.
a In question tags, w e repeat the auxiliary / m ain verb
(D T h e B B C to d a y
from the statem ent and add a pronoun, e.g. I, he,
The BBC is now the largest broadcaster in the world,
w e . If there is no auxiliary, w e use d o , d o e s (present
with a staff of more than 23,000 people, ten U K TV 40
simple) or d id (past simple),
channels, fifty-nine radio stations (local, national and b A positive statem ent has a positive / neg ative
international) and a strong presence on the internet. question tag.
In Britain, more than 30% of all TV viewing is on the c A negative statem ent has a p ositive / n eg ative
BBC. People can watch BBC channels all around the question tag.
world, and its popular TV programmes, like reality show 45
Strictly Come Dancing and car programme Top Gear have 7 2.25 Read the information about intonation in
versions in many different countries. Other popular question tags. Then listen and repeat.
BBC shows include costume drama series Cranford,
W e use rising in to nation w hen w e are unsure about
the wildlife documentary Frozen Planet, and EastEnders, w h at w e are saying and w e w an t th e other person to
Britain's favourite soap opera. so confirm if w e are right or not.

0 W h a t next? You'U watch the programme, won't you?

The BBC is popular partly because it has no W e use falling intonation w hen w e are sure about what

advertising. Instead, it gets its money from the licence w e are saying and w ant the other person to agree.

fees that everyone with a television in Britain has to This show's fantastic, isn't it?
pay. However, some families now have hundreds of
cable channels and rarely watch BBC programmes. Reference and practice 9.2 W orkbook page 121
O ther viewers watch shows on iPlayer, the B B C s
internet-based TV service for which no TV licence is 8 _____2.24 Listen to the sentences in exercise 5 again
required.There are people who feel that the system and repeat. Which sentences have rising intonation
is unfair and needs to change. However, even its ___ - ^ 1 Which ones have falling intonation
strongest critics
9 Complete the question tags.
agree that
the BBC will 1 He's really good-looking, ?
continue to 2 She hasn't got a boyfriend,.......................................... ?

play a central 3 The film starts at six,..................................................... ?


role in the 4 You aren't going to film c lu b ,....................................... ?

British media 5 You can w atch it on iPlayer tom orrow ,....................... ?


in the future.
6 Ihey w ere on a reality show, .................................. ?
7 They did very w ell in th e co m p etitio n ,....................... ?

SPEAKING Choose five sentences in exercise 9 and


replace the pronouns with the names of people
you know. Choose rising or falling intonation for
the question tags. Then work in pairs and practise
saying the sentences.

The media 115


9 E " Writing A film review
UK*

1 SPEAKING What do you think are the most important elements of a great film? Study the
list. Put the elements in order from 1to 10 (1 = the most important, 10 = the least important).
the action scenes the plot the costumes the soundtrack the script the cast
the characters the locations the special effects a happy ending

2 Read the film review on page 117 and answer the questions.
1 W hat is the title and genre of the film?
2 W ho is the director?
3 W ho are the main characters?
4 Which of the things in exercise 1does the review mention? Which does it praise
and which does it criticize?
5 W hat are the reviewer's main reasons for liking or disliking the film?
6 W hat details and examples does the reviewer include to justify their opinions?
7 On balance, is it a positive or a negative review?

STRATEGY

W ritin g e n d in g s
Many writers finish their reviews by just stating an opinion of the film or giving a
recommendation. If you want to make your review more memorable, try to finish it in an
interesting way. For example, use:
1 a quote (you can find quotes online).
2 a memory of the film that will stay with you fora long time.
3 a rhetorical question (a question that doesn't expect an answer).
4 a prediction.

3 Read the strategy. Then read endings A-D and match them to points 1-4 in the strategy.
Which endings are very positive? Which ones are not so positive? Which ones are negative?
A There's only one thing to worry about: will every other superhero film be disappointing after
you've seen The Avengers?
B Most people in the cinema seemed to love this film, but I found myself agreeing with Thor:
1 thought humans were more evolved than this.'
C If the rest of the summer's action films are as bad as this one, cinemas will have a lot of empty
seats.
D I forgot the plot of The Avengers as soon as I left the cinema, but the excitement that I felt in the
action scenes will stay with me for a long time.

4 Read the film review again. In your opinion, which ending A-D would be the best
replacement for the ending in the film review?

Describing films

5 Study the highlighted adjectives in the film review. Which adjectives are positive? Which
ones are negative?

6 Read the sentences and choose the best answers.


1 His acting was very convincing / humorous. I could really believe that he was in pain.
2 It was a very dull / impressive film. I almost fell asleep.
3 The music on the soundtrack was very predictable / memorable. I can't stop singing it.
4 Nothing like that could ever happen in real life, but I enjoyed the film. It was very convincing /
entertaining.
5 There was a spectacular / dull car chase at the end. It was really exciting.
6 Her achievement is especially entertaining / impressive because this is her first film.
7 The plot is so predictable / spectacular. You can always guess what's going to happen next.
8 The film has some very m em orable / humorous moments. I laughed all the time.

DVD extra Pinewood Studios

116 The media


C u ltu re ^ F i l m T h e A vengers

The Avengers is an action film by director Joss Whedon. It brings together several famous
characters from the Marvel comic books, played by some well-known actors. Robert
Downey Jr. stars as Iron Man, Chris Hemsworth as Thor, Chris Evans as Captain America
and Scarlett Johansson as the Black Widow.
The plot is very predictable. There is a villain, of course: Thor's half-brother Loki. He wants
to take control of Earth and has an army of aliens to help him. The Avengers must stop
Loki's evil plans and save the planet. Each of the superheroes usually works alone, and
they find that learning to work as a team isn't easy.
The characters and the relationships between them are
convincing and more developed than in other action
films. Their arguments and misunderstandings as they
try to work together are very entertaining. The script
is humorous and the dialogues are rarely dull - I have
never laughed so much while watching an action film.
The millionaire scientist Iron Man gets the funniest lines
when he argues with old-fashioned Captain America, a
World War II veteran. Of course, the special effects are
very impressive and the action scenes are spectacular,
especially the final battle when Loki and his aliens try to
take over New York. But for me, the most memorable
scenes are the funny ones.
To sum up, director Joss Whedon has created one of the
best action films of the twenty-first century. The Avengers
is a film that really does have something for everyone.
Don't miss it!

WRITING GUIDE

Task Write a review of a film that you have seen Plan Decide which ideas you are going to use and
recently. match them to these paragraphs.
Paragraph 1: Include general information about the
Ideas Think about the film and answer the film, such as its title, genre and director.
questions. Very briefly give your opinion of the film.
General information about the film Paragraph 2: Summary of the film. Remember,
W hat is the title and genre? dont reveal any plot twists. Just say,
W ho is the director? for example, that the plot has a lot of
W ho are the main actors? surprises.
Plot Paragraph 3: Your opinion of the film, in detail. Give
Is it convincing? examples from the film to justify your
Is it easy to follow? opinion.
Does it have any surprises? Paragraph 4: Summarize your opinion of the film. Try
Does it have a good ending? to finish the review in an interesting way.
Is the film too long or short?
Main characters Write Write your review. Use the paragraph plan to
W ho are they? help you.
Are they interesting?
Do the actors bring them to life well?
Check Check the following points.
Script Are your ideas divided into paragraphs?
Is the dialogue funny or dull? Have you used a variety of interesting adjectives?
Does it suit the film? Have you included examples from the film to justify
Other details your opinion?
Is there anything remarkable to say about the Have you checked spelling, grammar and
soundtrack, special effects, costumes, locations, punctuation?
stunts, etc.?

The m edia 117


Vocabulary insight 9 Using a dictionary: easily-confused words

1 Work in pairs. Answer the questions. 2 Read the strategy. Then study the dictionary entries
1 H o w m any languages d o you speak? W h at are they? and choose the correct verb to complete the pairs of
2 Are you good at telling jokes? W h at is the funniest sentences below.
joke you have ever told som eone? 1 is s a y in g o r is te llin g ?
3 W h a t is your favourite quote? W h o said it? a The teacher something,
b The teacher Jo h n something.
STRATEGY
2 is s p e a k in g or is t a lk in g ?
U n d erstan d in g easily-confused w ords a The teacher to Jo h n about the
So m e English words have very similar m eanings and are football match.
easy to confuse, such as sa y, s p e a k , ta lk and te ll. All four b The te a c h e r...........................to the students'
words m ean that a person is using their voice to produce parents at a meeting.
speech. However, there are differences in gram m ar and 3 s p e a k s or is te llin g ?
collocation. a The tea ch er.......................... Jo h n to close the door.
b The teacher .............. four languages.
If you are not sure w hich word to use, look it up in a
4 s a id or t o ld ?
dictionary. Example sentences, h elp and information
a The teacher that this w as important,
boxes show you h o w to use the w ord correctly.
b The teacher Jo h n that this was
important.
I s a y 1 Iset/ verb [T] (says /sez/; pt, pp said /sed/) 5 s a id or sp o ke ?
speak 1 say sth (to sb); say th a t...; say sth (about
sb) to speak or tell sb sth, using words: Please come a The te a c h e r.......................... quietly.
back,' she said. * I said goodbye to her a t the station. b The teacher ................ goodbye.
* We can ask him, b u t t m sure hell say no. The
teacher said we should hand in o u r essays on Friday.
* He said to his mother that he would phone back 3 Study the dictionary entries and read the sentences
later. They ju st sat there w ithout saying anything.
, . -rfcir ------------------ a - - iL L . in exercise 2 again. Then answer the questions.
I s p e a k /spi:k/ verb (pt spoke /spaok/; pp spoken 1 W h ich tw o verbs can be used to report som eone
/'spaokan/) 1 [I] speak (to sb) (about sb/sth); speak
(of sth) to talk or say things: l d like to speak to the else's words?
manager, please. * Could you speak more slowly? I 2 W h ich verb is alw ays followed by a noun or a
was so angry I could hardly speak.
pronoun?
HELP Speak or talk? Speak and talk have almost
the same meaning but we use talk more infor 3 W h ich verb can be used to g ive orders and
mally, to show that two or more people are hav instructions?
ing a conversation, and speak to show that only
one person is saying something, especially in a 4 W h ich verb shows that tw o or more people are
formal situation: I'd like to speak to the manager,
having an informal conversation?
please. * We talked a ll night. * The head teacher
spoke to the class about university courses 5 W h ich verb shows that on e person is com m unicating
2 [l,T] [not used in the continuous tenses] to know w ith a group of people in a formal situation?
and be able to use a language: Does anyone here
speak German ? She speaks (in) Greek to her parents. 6 W h ich verb collocates with the following nouns:
* a French-speaking guide 3 [I] speak (on/aboutsth) t r u t h , lie , s to r y and jo k e ?
to make a speech to a group of people: Professor
Hurst has been invited to speak on American foreign
policy. 4 Complete the sentences with the correct form of
say, speak, talk or tell.
"E t e l l /tel/ verb (pt, pp told /taold/)
g iv e in form ation 1 [T] tell sb (sth/that...); tell sb 1 He's lived in Jap an for six years but he still cant
(about sth); tell sth to sb to give information to sb
by speaking or writing: She told me her address but
Japanese.
iv e forgotten it. * He wrote to tell me that his mother 2 W h e n I was a child, m y grandm other used to
had died. * Tell us about your holiday. * to te ll the
tru th /a lie * to tell a story * Excuse me, could you tell m e stories at bedtime.