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Advanced Electrical Engineering Advanced Electrical Engineering Michael E. Auer Transforms Michael E.Auer 21.05.2012

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Advanced Electrical Engineering Michael E. Auer Transforms Michael E.Auer 21.05.2012

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Michael E. Auer

Transforms

Electrical Engineering Advanced Electrical Engineering Michael E. Auer Transforms Michael E.Auer 21.05.2012 AEE03
Advanced Electrical Engineering AEE Content Advanced Circuit Analysis • Basic Concepts • Three-Phase

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering AEE Content Advanced Circuit Analysis • Basic Concepts • Three-Phase

AEE Content

Advanced Circuit Analysis

Basic Concepts

Three-Phase Circuits

Transforms

Power Conversion and Management

Field Theory

• Waves and Vector Fields

• Transmission Line Theory

• Electrostatics

• Magnetostatics

Applications

• Magnetic Field Applications

• Basics of Electrical Machines

Advanced Electrical Engineering Chapter Content • Fourier Series • Fourier Transform • Laplace Transform •

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Chapter Content • Fourier Series • Fourier Transform • Laplace Transform •

Chapter Content

• Fourier Series

• Fourier Transform

• Laplace Transform

• Applications of Laplace Transform

• Z-Transform

Advanced Electrical Engineering BSC Modul 4: Advanced Circuit Analysis • Fourier Series • Fourier Transform

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering BSC Modul 4: Advanced Circuit Analysis • Fourier Series • Fourier Transform •

BSC Modul 4: Advanced Circuit Analysis

• Fourier Series

• Fourier Transform

• Laplace Transform

• Applications of Laplace Transform

• Z-Transform

Advanced Electrical Engineering Trigonometric Fourier Series (1) • The Fourier series of a periodic function

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Trigonometric Fourier Series (1) • The Fourier series of a periodic function f(t)

Trigonometric Fourier Series (1)

• The Fourier series of a periodic function f(t) is a

representation that resolves f(t) into a dc component and an ac component comprising an infinite series of harmonic sinusoids.

• Given a periodic function f(t) = f(t+nT) where n is an integer and T is the period of the function.

∞ f ( t ) = a + ∑ ( a cos n t +
f
( t )
=
a
+
(
a
cos
n
t
+
b
n sin
n
t )
ω 0
ω 0
0
0
 
n
= 1
dc
ac

where ω 0 =2π/T is called the fundamental frequency in radians per second.

Advanced Electrical Engineering Trigonometric Fourier Series (2) • and a n and b n are

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Trigonometric Fourier Series (2) • and a n and b n are as

Trigonometric Fourier Series (2)

• and a n and b n are as follow

a =

n

2

T

T

0

f

(

t

) cos(

n

ω

o

t

)

dt

     

b =

n

2

T

T

0

f

(

t

) sin(

n

ω

o

t

)

dt

   

 

f

t

( )

=

n = 1

(

c

n

cos( ω

n

0

t

φ )

n

a



+

+

0

dc

ac

in alternative form of f(t)

where

2 2 a + b n n
2
2
a
+
b
n
n

b

c

 

=

φ =−

n

tan

1

(

n

)

n

,

a

n

(Inverse tangent or arctangent)

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Fourier Series Example A = n φ n =    
Advanced Electrical Engineering Fourier Series Example A = n φ n =    

Fourier Series Example

Advanced Electrical Engineering Fourier Series Example A = n φ n =    
Advanced Electrical Engineering Fourier Series Example A = n φ n =    

A =

n

φ

n

=



2 /

n

π

, n

= odd

0,

n

= even

=

odd

0,

90 ° , n n

=

even

− = odd 0, 90 ° , n n = even a) Amplitude and b) Phase
− = odd 0, 90 ° , n n = even a) Amplitude and b) Phase
− = odd 0, 90 ° , n n = even a) Amplitude and b) Phase

a) Amplitude and

b) Phase spectrum

° , n n = even a) Amplitude and b) Phase spectrum Determine the Fourier series

Determine the Fourier series of the waveform shown right. Obtain the amplitude and phase spectra.

 

0

< t <

1

   

f

t

( )

=

1,

0,

1

< t <

2

and

f

t

( )

=

f

(

t

+

2)

 

2

T

0

f

(

t

) cos(

 

a =

n

T

n

ω

0

t

)

dt

=

0 and

 

b =

n

2

T

T

0

f

(

t

) sin(

n

ω

0

t

)

dt

=

2 /

0,

n

π

, n

n

=

=

odd

even

1

2

1

1

f

( t ) =

+

sin(

n

t

π

),

n

=

2

k

2

π

k = 1

n

Truncating the series at N=11

Advanced Electrical Engineering Symmetry Considerations (1) Three types of symmetry 1. Even Symmetry : a

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Symmetry Considerations (1) Three types of symmetry 1. Even Symmetry : a function

Symmetry Considerations (1)

Three types of symmetry

1. Even Symmetry : a function f(t) if its plot is symmetrical about the vertical axis.

f (t) = f (t)

In this case,

2 / 2 a = ∫ T f ( t ) dt 0 T 0
2
/ 2
a =
∫ T
f
(
t
)
dt
0
T
0
4
/ 2
a =
∫ T
f
(
t
) cos(
n
ω
t
)
dt
n
0
T
0
b
n = 0
T f ( t ) cos( n ω t ) dt n 0 T 0 b

Typical examples of even periodic function

Advanced Electrical Engineering Symmetry Considerations (2) 2. Odd Symmetry : a function f(t) if its

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Symmetry Considerations (2) 2. Odd Symmetry : a function f(t) if its plot

Symmetry Considerations (2)

2. Odd Symmetry : a function f(t) if its plot is anti-symmetrical about the vertical axis.

f (t) =− f (t)

In this case,

a = 0 0 4 ∫ T / 2 b = f ( t )
a
= 0
0
4
∫ T / 2
b
=
f
( t
) sin(
n
ω
t
)
dt
n
0
T
0
∫ T / 2 b = f ( t ) sin( n ω t ) dt

Typical examples of odd periodic function

Advanced Electrical Engineering Symmetry Considerations (3) 3. Half-wave Symmetry : a function f(t) if T

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Symmetry Considerations (3) 3. Half-wave Symmetry : a function f(t) if T 2

Symmetry Considerations (3)

3. Half-wave Symmetry : a function f(t) if

T

2

f

(

)

t − =−

f

t

( )

a = 0

0

 

T

0

/ 2

a =

n

 

f

(

t

) cos(

n

ω

0

t

)

dt

, for n odd



0

, for an even

b

4

T

4

T

 

T

0

/ 2

 

f

(

t

) sin(

n

ω

0

t

)

dt

, for n odd

n

=

 

0

, for an even

n odd n =     0 , for an even Typical examples of half-wave

Typical examples of half-wave odd periodic functions

Advanced Electrical Engineering Symmetry Considerations (4) Example 1 Find the Fourier series expansion of f(t)

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Symmetry Considerations (4) Example 1 Find the Fourier series expansion of f(t) given

Symmetry Considerations (4)

Example 1

Find the Fourier series expansion of f(t) given below.

1 Find the Fourier series expansion of f(t) given below. Ans: f ( t )  

Ans:

f

( t )

 

2

n = 1

1  

n

1

 

n π

sin   

n

π

=

cos

 
 

π

 

2

2

t

 

Advanced Electrical Engineering Symmetry Considerations (5) Example 2 Determine the Fourier series for the half-wave

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Symmetry Considerations (5) Example 2 Determine the Fourier series for the half-wave

Symmetry Considerations (5)

Example 2

Determine the Fourier series for the half-wave cosine function as shown below.

series for the half-wave cosine function as shown below. Ans: ∞ 1 4 f ( t

Ans:

∞ 1 4 f ( t ) = − ∑ 1 2 cos nt ,
1
4
f
( t )
=
1 2 cos
nt
,
n
=
2
k
1
2
2

π

k = 1

n

Advanced Electrical Engineering Circuit Applications (1) Steps for Applying Fourier Series 1. Express the excitation

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Circuit Applications (1) Steps for Applying Fourier Series 1. Express the excitation as

Circuit Applications (1)

Steps for Applying Fourier Series

1. Express the excitation as a Fourier series.

2. Transform the circuit from the time domain to the frequency domain.

3. Find the response of the dc and ac components in the Fourier series.

4. Add the individual dc and ac responses using the superposition principle.

Advanced Electrical Engineering Circuit Applications (2) Example Find the response v 0 (t) of the

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Circuit Applications (2) Example Find the response v 0 (t) of the circuit

Circuit Applications (2)

Example

Find the response v 0 (t) of the circuit below when the voltage source v s (t) is given by

1

v ( t ) = +

s

2

1

sin( n

t

πω

2

π

n = 1

n

), n = 2 k − 1
),
n
=
2
k
1
Advanced Electrical Engineering Circuit Applications (3) Solution Phasor of the circuit 5 j 2 n

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Circuit Applications (3) Solution Phasor of the circuit 5 j 2 n π

Circuit Applications (3)

Solution Phasor of the circuit

5

j

2 n

π

+ j

2

n

π

V 0

=

V s

For dc component, (ω n =0 or n=0), V s = ½ => V o = 0

For n th harmonic,

V

S

=

∠− 90 ° ,

V

0

=

V

s

n π

V S = ∠− 90 ° , V 0 = V s n π 25 +

25

+ 4 n

2

π 2

2

4 ∠−

tan

1

2

n

π / 5

)
)

In time domain,

∞ 4 2 n π − 1 v 0 ( t ) = ∑ c
4
2 n
π
− 1
v
0 ( t ) =
c
os ( n
π t −
tan
2
25
+ 4 n
π 2
5
k = 1

Amplitude spectrum of the output voltage

π t − tan 2 25 + 4 n π 2 5 k = 1 Amplitude
Advanced Electrical Engineering Average Power and RMS Values (1) ∞ ∞ v ( t )

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Average Power and RMS Values (1) ∞ ∞ v ( t ) =

Average Power and RMS Values (1)

∞ ∞ v ( t ) = V + ∑ V cos( nω t −
v ( t )
=
V
+
V cos(
nω t
φ
)
and
i ( t )
=
I
+
I
cos(
mω t
φ
)
dc
n
0
Vn
dc
m
0
Im
n =
1
m = 1
1
P
=
V
I
+
V I
cos(
θ φ
)
dc
dc
n
n
n
n
2
n
= 1
2
2
2
F
=
a
+
(
a
+
b
)
rms
0
n
n
n
= 1

Given:

The average power is

The rms value is

Advanced Electrical Engineering Average Power and RMS Values (2) Example Determine the average power supplied

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Average Power and RMS Values (2) Example Determine the average power supplied to

Average Power and RMS Values (2)

Example

Determine the average power supplied to the circuit shown below if i(t)=2+10cos(t+10°)+6cos(3t+35°) A

to the circuit shown below if i(t)=2+10cos(t+10°)+6cos(3t+35°) A Answer: 41.5W Michael E.Auer 21.05.2012 AEE03

Answer: 41.5W

Advanced Electrical Engineering Exponential Fourier Series (1) • The exponential Fourier series of a periodic

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Exponential Fourier Series (1) • The exponential Fourier series of a periodic function

Exponential Fourier Series (1)

• The exponential Fourier series of a periodic function f(t) describes the spectrum of f(t) in terms of the amplitude and phase angle of ac components at positive and negative harmonic.

∞ jn ω t f ( ) = t ∑ c e o n n
jn
ω
t
f
( ) =
t
c e
o
n
n =−∞

c =

n

1

T

0

f

( t )

 

jn

ω

0

t

dt

, where

 

2

 

/

T

e

ω

0

=

π

T

• The plots of magnitude and phase of c n versus nω 0 are called the complex amplitude spectrum and complex phase spectrum of f(t) respectively.

Advanced Electrical Engineering Exponential Fourier Series (2) • The complex frequency spectrum of the function

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Exponential Fourier Series (2) • The complex frequency spectrum of the function f(t)=e

Exponential Fourier Series (2)

• The complex frequency spectrum of the function f(t)=e t , 0<t<2π with f(t+2π)=f(t)

f(t)=e t , 0<t<2 π with f(t+2 π )=f(t) (a) Amplitude spectrum; (b) phase spectrum Michael

(a) Amplitude spectrum;

(b) phase spectrum

Advanced Electrical Engineering Application – Filter (1) •Filter are an important component of electronics and

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Application – Filter (1) •Filter are an important component of electronics and

Application – Filter (1)

•Filter are an important component of electronics and communications system.

•This filtering process cannot be accomplished without the Fourier series expansion of the input signal.

•For example,

series expansion of the input signal. •For example, (a) Input and output spectra of a lowpass

(a) Input and output spectra of a lowpass filter, (b) the lowpass filter passes only the dc component when ω c << ω 0

(b) the lowpass filter passes only the dc component when ω c << ω 0 Michael
Advanced Electrical Engineering Application – Filter (2) (a) Input and output spectra of a bandpass

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Application – Filter (2) (a) Input and output spectra of a bandpass filter,

Application – Filter (2)

Advanced Electrical Engineering Application – Filter (2) (a) Input and output spectra of a bandpass filter,

(a) Input and output spectra of a bandpass filter, (b) the bandpass filter passes only the dc component when Β << ω 0

Advanced Electrical Engineering BSC Modul 4: Advanced Circuit Analysis • Fourier Series • Fourier Transform

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering BSC Modul 4: Advanced Circuit Analysis • Fourier Series • Fourier Transform •

BSC Modul 4: Advanced Circuit Analysis

• Fourier Series

• Fourier Transform

• Laplace Transform

• Applications of Laplace Transform

• Z-Transform

Advanced Electrical Engineering Definition of Fourier Transform (1) • It is an integral transformation of

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Definition of Fourier Transform (1) • It is an integral transformation of f(t)

Definition of Fourier Transform (1)

• It is an integral transformation of f(t) from the time domain to the frequency domain F(ω)

F(ω) is a complex function; its magnitude is called the amplitude spectrum, while its phase is called the phase spectrum.

Given a function f(t), its Fourier transform denoted by F(ω), is defined by

 

F (

ω ) =

 

−∞

f (t)e

jωt

dt

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Definition of Fourier Transform (2) τ / 2 j ω t F (

Definition of Fourier Transform (2)

Electrical Engineering Definition of Fourier Transform (2) τ / 2 j ω t F ( ω
τ / 2 j ω t F ( ω ) = ∫ Ae dt −
τ
/ 2
j
ω t
F (
ω ) =
Ae
dt
− τ
/ 2
A
τ / 2
j
ω
τ / 2
j
ωτ
/ 2
− j
ωτ
/ 2
2 A
e
− e
=
 
ω
2 j
ωτ
= A
τ sin
c
2

=−

e

j

ω t

 ωτ = A τ sin c 2 =− e − j ω t Amplitude spectrum

Amplitude spectrum of the rectangular pulse

− j ω t Amplitude spectrum of the rectangular pulse Example 1: Determine the Fourier transform

Example 1:

Determine the Fourier transform of a single rectangular pulse of wide τ and height A, as shown below.

Solution:

Advanced Electrical Engineering Definition of Fourier Transform (3) Example 2: Obtain the Fourier transform of

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Definition of Fourier Transform (3) Example 2: Obtain the Fourier transform of the

Definition of Fourier Transform (3)

Example 2:

Obtain the Fourier transform of the “switched-on” exponential function as shown.

Solution:

− at , − at f ( t ) = e u ( t )
− at
,
− at
f
( t )
=
e
u ( t )
=
 e
 0,
t > 0
t < 0
Hence,
− j
ω
t
jat
j
ω
t
F (
ω )
=
f
( t )
e
dt
=
e
e
dt
−∞
−∞
∞ − ( a +
j
ω )
t
=
e
dt
−∞
1
=
a
+ j
ω
dt −∞ −∞ ∞ − ( a + j ω ) t = ∫ e dt
Advanced Electrical Engineering Properties of Fourier Transform (1) Linearity: If F 1 ( ω )

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Properties of Fourier Transform (1) Linearity: If F 1 ( ω ) and

Properties of Fourier Transform (1)

Linearity:

If F 1 (ω) and F 2 (ω) are, respectively, the Fourier Transforms of f 1 (t) and f 2 (t)

 

[

F a

1

f

1

( t )

+ a

2

f

2

( t )]

= a F

1

1

(

ω+ ) a F

2

2

(

ω

)

 

F

[

sin(

ω

0

t

)

]

=

1

2 j

[(

F e

j

ω

0

t

)

(

F e

j

ω

0

t

)]

=

j

[

πδω ω δω ω

(

+

0

)

(

0

)]

Example:

Advanced Electrical Engineering Properties of Fourier Transform (2) Time Scaling: If F ( ω )

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Properties of Fourier Transform (2) Time Scaling: If F ( ω ) is

Properties of Fourier Transform (2)

Time Scaling:

If F (ω) is the Fourier Transforms of f (t), then

[

1 ( at ) ] = a
1
(
at
)
]
=
a

ω

a

a is a constant

F f

F (

),

If |a|>1, frequency compression, or time expansion If |a|<1, frequency expansion, or time compression

Advanced Electrical Engineering Properties of Fourier Transform (3) Time Shifting: If F ( ω )

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Properties of Fourier Transform (3) Time Shifting: If F ( ω ) is

Properties of Fourier Transform (3)

Time Shifting:

If F (ω) is the Fourier Transforms of f (t), then

[ − j F f ( t 0 )] ω t − t = e
[
− j
F f
( t
0 )]
ω t
t
=
e
0 F
(
ω )

Example:

[

]

e

j 2

1 + j

ω

ω

F e

( 2)

t

u ( t

2)

=

Advanced Electrical Engineering Properties of Fourier Transform (4) Frequency Shifting (Amplitude Modulation): If F (

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Properties of Fourier Transform (4) Frequency Shifting (Amplitude Modulation): If F ( ω

Properties of Fourier Transform (4)

Frequency Shifting (Amplitude Modulation):

If F (ω) is the Fourier Transforms of f (t), then

     

[

F f

( t )

e

j

ω

0

t

]

= F (

ω ω

0

)

 

[

F f

(

t

) cos(

ω

0

t

)

]

1

= F (

2

ωω

0

) +

1

2

F (

ω+ω

0

)

Example:

Advanced Electrical Engineering Properties of Fourier Transform (5) Time Differentiation: If F ( ω )

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Properties of Fourier Transform (5) Time Differentiation: If F ( ω ) is

Properties of Fourier Transform (5)

Time Differentiation:

If F (ω) is the Fourier Transforms of f (t), then the Fourier Transform of its derivative is

Example:

df

j

F

dt

u(t)

 = ω

F(s)

d

  

 

1

 

dt

a

+ jω

F

(

e

at

u ( t )

)

=

Advanced Electrical Engineering Properties of Fourier Transform (6) Time Integration: If F ( ω )

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Properties of Fourier Transform (6) Time Integration: If F ( ω ) is

Properties of Fourier Transform (6)

Time Integration:

If F (ω) is the Fourier Transforms of f (t), then the Fourier Transform of its integral is

Example:

t F ( ω )  F   ∫ −∞    j
t
F (
ω )
F 
 ∫ −∞
j
ω

f

t

( )

dt

=

F (0)

π

δω

(

)

1

j

ω

)

[

F u t

( )

[ F u t ( ) ] = + πδ ω (

]

=

+

πδ ω

(

Advanced Electrical Engineering Circuit Application (1) • Fourier transforms can be applied to circuits with

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Circuit Application (1) • Fourier transforms can be applied to circuits with

Circuit Application (1)

• Fourier transforms can be applied to circuits with non-sinusoidal excitation in exactly the same way as phasor techniques being applied to circuits with sinusoidal excitations.

being applied to circuits with sinusoidal excitations. Y( ω ) = H( ω )X( ω )

Y(ω) = H(ω)X(ω)

• By transforming the functions for the circuit elements into the frequency domain and take the Fourier transforms of the excitations, conventional circuit analysis techniques could be applied to determine unknown response in frequency domain.

• Finally, apply the inverse Fourier transform to obtain the response in the time domain.

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Circuit Application (2) Example: Find v 0 (t) in the circuit shown below
Advanced Electrical Engineering Circuit Application (2) Example: Find v 0 (t) in the circuit shown below

Circuit Application (2)

Advanced Electrical Engineering Circuit Application (2) Example: Find v 0 (t) in the circuit shown below

Example:

Find v 0 (t) in the circuit shown below for

v i (t)=2e -3t u(t)

Solution:

2 The Fourier transform of the input signal is V ( ω ) = i
2
The Fourier transform of the input signal is V (
ω ) =
i
3 + j
ω
V
(
ω )
1
The transfer function of the circuit is
V
(
ω
)
1
+ j
2
ω
i
Hence,
1
V (
ω ) =
0
(3
+
j
ω
)(0.5
+
j
ω
)
− 0.5
t
− 3 t
Taking the inverse Fourier transform gives
v
0 ( t )
=
0.4(
e
e
)
u ( t )

H (

ω ) =

0

=

Advanced Electrical Engineering BSC Modul 4: Advanced Circuit Analysis • Fourier Series • Fourier Transform

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering BSC Modul 4: Advanced Circuit Analysis • Fourier Series • Fourier Transform •

BSC Modul 4: Advanced Circuit Analysis

• Fourier Series

• Fourier Transform

• Laplace Transform

• Applications of Laplace Transform

• Z-Transform

Advanced Electrical Engineering Definition of Laplace Transform • It is an integral transformation of f

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Definition of Laplace Transform • It is an integral transformation of f (

Definition of Laplace Transform

• It is an integral transformation of f(t) from the time domain to the complex frequency domain F(s)

• Given a function f(t), its Laplace transform denoted by F(s), is defined by

[ ] − st F (s) = L f (t) = ∫ ∞ f (t)
[
]
− st
F (s)
=
L f (t)
=
∫ ∞
f (t)
e
dt
0

• Where the parameter s is a complex number

s =σ+ jω

σ, ω – real numbers

Advanced Electrical Engineering Bilateral Laplace Transform • When one says "the Laplace transform" without

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Bilateral Laplace Transform • When one says "the Laplace transform" without

Bilateral Laplace Transform

When one says "the Laplace transform" without qualification, the unilateral or one-sided transform is normally intended. The Laplace transform can be alternatively defined as the bilateral Laplace transform or two-sided Laplace transform by extending the limits of integration to be the entire real axis. If that is done the common unilateral transform simply becomes a special case of the bilateral transform.

The bilateral Laplace transform is defined as follows:

[

]

F (s) = L f (t) =

−∞

f (t) e

st

dt

Advanced Electrical Engineering Laplace Transform Definitions Definitions of right-sided, left-sided, and two sided

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Laplace Transform Definitions Definitions of right-sided, left-sided, and two sided

Laplace Transform Definitions

Definitions of right-sided, left-sided, and two sided functions of time.

Definitions Definitions of right-sided, left-sided, and two sided functions of time. Michael E.Auer 21.05.2012 AEE03
Advanced Electrical Engineering Examples of Laplace Transforms (1) Determine the Laplace transform of each of

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Examples of Laplace Transforms (1) Determine the Laplace transform of each of the

Examples of Laplace Transforms (1)

Determine the Laplace transform of each of the following functions shown:

Laplace transform of each of the following functions shown: a) The Laplace Transform of unit step,

a) The Laplace Transform of unit step, u(t) is given by

1

[

L u t

( )

]

=

F

(

s

)

=

0

1

e

st

dt

=

   

s

Advanced Electrical Engineering Examples of Laplace Transforms (2) b) The Laplace Transform of exponential function,

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Examples of Laplace Transforms (2) b) The Laplace Transform of exponential function, e

Examples of Laplace Transforms (2)

b) The Laplace Transform of exponential function, e -at u(t), a>0 is given by

c)

[

L u ( t )

]

=

F

(

s

)

=

0

e

t

α

e

st

dt

=

1

s +

α

 

L

[

u(t)

]

=

F (s)

=

0

δ

(t)e

st

dt

=

1

The Laplace Transform of impulse function, δ(t) is given by

Advanced Electrical Engineering Examples of Laplace Transforms (3) 1 s F ( s ) =

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Examples of Laplace Transforms (3) 1 s F ( s ) = =

Examples of Laplace Transforms (3)

Electrical Engineering Examples of Laplace Transforms (3) 1 s F ( s ) = = s

1

s

F

(

s

) =

= s

1

+α

F

(

s

)

F(s) =1

Advanced Electrical Engineering Table of Selected Laplace Transforms (1) Michael E.Auer 21.05.2012 AEE03

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Table of Selected Laplace Transforms (1) Michael E.Auer 21.05.2012 AEE03

Table of Selected Laplace Transforms (1)

Advanced Electrical Engineering Table of Selected Laplace Transforms (1) Michael E.Auer 21.05.2012 AEE03
Advanced Electrical Engineering Table of Selected Laplace Transforms (2) Michael E.Auer 21.05.2012 AEE03

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Table of Selected Laplace Transforms (2) Michael E.Auer 21.05.2012 AEE03

Table of Selected Laplace Transforms (2)

Advanced Electrical Engineering Table of Selected Laplace Transforms (2) Michael E.Auer 21.05.2012 AEE03
Advanced Electrical Engineering Properties of Laplace Transform (1) Linearity : If F 1 (s) and

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Properties of Laplace Transform (1) Linearity : If F 1 (s) and F

Properties of Laplace Transform (1)

Linearity:

If F 1 (s) and F 2 (s) are, respectively, the Laplace Transforms of f 1 (t) and f 2 (t)

L a [ f ( t ) + a f ( t )] = a
L a
[
f
( t )
+ a
f
( t )]
= a F
(
s
)
+ a F
(
s
)
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
2

Example:

1

 

2

s

s +

ω 2

L [

cos(

ω

t u t

)

( )

L [ cos( ω t u t ) ( ) ] = L ( e j
L [ cos( ω t u t ) ( ) ] = L ( e j

]

=

L

(

e

j

t

ω

+

e

j

t

ω

)

u ( t )

=

2

Advanced Electrical Engineering Properties of Laplace Transform (2) Scaling : If F (s) is the

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Properties of Laplace Transform (2) Scaling : If F (s) is the Laplace

Properties of Laplace Transform (2)

Scaling:

If F (s) is the Laplace Transforms of f (t), then

Example:

[

]

1

a

s

a

L f

(

at

)

=

F (

)

L [

]

2

ω

= s + 4

ω 2

sin(2

ω

t u t

)

( )

sin(2 ω t u t ) ( ) 2
sin(2 ω t u t ) ( ) 2

2

Advanced Electrical Engineering Properties of Laplace Transform (3) Time Shift : If F (s) is

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Properties of Laplace Transform (3) Time Shift : If F (s) is the

Properties of Laplace Transform (3)

Time Shift:

If F (s) is the Laplace Transforms of f (t), then

L[f (t

a)u(t

a)]

=

e

as

F(s)

t − a ) u ( t − a ) ] = e − as F

Example:

L [

]

s

s

+

ω 2

cos(

ω (

t

a

))

u ( t

a

)

=

e

as

2

Advanced Electrical Engineering Properties of Laplace Transform (4) Frequency Shift: If F ( s )

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Properties of Laplace Transform (4) Frequency Shift: If F ( s ) is

Properties of Laplace Transform (4)

Frequency Shift:

If F (s) is the Laplace Transforms of f (t), then

L[e

at

f (t)u(t)]

=

F(s

+

a)

Example:

[

 

]

 

s + a

at

cos(

ω

t u t

)

( )

=

2

L e

(

s + a ) +

ω 2

Advanced Electrical Engineering Properties of Laplace Transform (5) Time Differentiation: If F ( s )

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Properties of Laplace Transform (5) Time Differentiation: If F ( s ) is

Properties of Laplace Transform (5)

Time Differentiation:

If F (s) is the Laplace Transforms of f (t), then the Laplace Transform of its derivative is

L

L

df

 df

 

dt

u ( t )

sF

 =

(

s

)

f

(0

)

Time Integration:

If F (s) is the Laplace Transforms of f (t), then the Laplace Transform of its integral is

L

1

  s

t

0

f

t

( )

dt

=

F

(

s

)

 
Advanced Electrical Engineering Properties of Laplace Transform (6) Initial and Final Values: The initial-value and

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Properties of Laplace Transform (6) Initial and Final Values: The initial-value and

Properties of Laplace Transform (6)

Initial and Final Values:

The initial-value and final-value properties allow us to find f(0) and f() of f(t) directly from its Laplace transform F(s).

f (0)

= lim sF (s)

s→∞

f (

) =

lim

s0

sF

(

s

)

Initial-value theorem

Final-value theorem

Advanced Electrical Engineering Properties of Laplace Transform - Overview Michael E.Auer 21.05.2012 AEE03

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Properties of Laplace Transform - Overview Michael E.Auer 21.05.2012 AEE03

Properties of Laplace Transform - Overview

Advanced Electrical Engineering Properties of Laplace Transform - Overview Michael E.Auer 21.05.2012 AEE03
Advanced Electrical Engineering The Inverse Laplace Transform (1) In principle we could recover f (

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering The Inverse Laplace Transform (1) In principle we could recover f ( t

The Inverse Laplace Transform (1)

In principle we could recover f(t) from F(s) via

1

j

σ +∞

f

( t ) =

F

(

s

)

e

st

d

s

2

π j

j

σ −∞

F =

1

x

But, this formula isn’t really useful.

Advanced Electrical Engineering The Inverse Laplace Transform (2) Suppose F(s) has the general form of

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering The Inverse Laplace Transform (2) Suppose F(s) has the general form of N

The Inverse Laplace Transform (2)

Suppose F(s) has the general form of

N

D

(

(

s

s

)

)

F

(

s

)

=

numerator polynomial denominator polynomial

The finding the inverse Laplace transform of F(s) involves two steps:

1. Decompose F(s) into simple terms using partial fraction expansion.

2. Find the inverse of each term by matching entries in Laplace Transform Table.

Advanced Electrical Engineering The Inverse Laplace Transform (3) Example Find the inverse Laplace transform of

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering The Inverse Laplace Transform (3) Example Find the inverse Laplace transform of  

The Inverse Laplace Transform (3)

Example Find the inverse Laplace transform of

 

3

5

6

 

F

(

s

) =

s

s

+ 1

+

s 2 + 4

f

( t ) =

L

1

3 −  L

 

1

s

s

5

+ 1

+  L

1

s

2

6

+ 4

 

=

(3

5

e

t

+

3sin(2 )

t u t

( ),

t

0

Solution:

Advanced Electrical Engineering Application to Integro-differential Equations (1) • The Laplace transform is useful in

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Application to Integro-differential Equations (1) • The Laplace transform is useful in

Application to Integro-differential Equations (1)

• The Laplace transform is useful in solving linear integro-differential equations.

• Each term in the integro-differential equation is transformed into s-domain.

• Initial conditions are automatically taken into account.

• The resulting algebraic equation in the s-domain can then be solved easily.

• The solution is then converted back to time domain.

Advanced Electrical Engineering Application to Integro-differential Equations (2) Example: Use the Laplace transform to

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Application to Integro-differential Equations (2) Example: Use the Laplace transform to

Application to Integro-differential Equations (2)

Example:

Use the Laplace transform to solve the differential equation

d

2

v ( t )

dt

2

+

6

dv ( t )

dt

+

8

v ( t )

=

2

u ( t )

Given: v(0) = 1; v’(0) = -2

Advanced Electrical Engineering Application to Integro-differential Equations (3) Solution: Taking the Laplace transform

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Application to Integro-differential Equations (3) Solution: Taking the Laplace transform

Application to Integro-differential Equations (3)

Solution:

Taking the Laplace transform of each term in the given differential equation and obtain

2 [ 2 ] s V ( s ) − sv (0) − v '(0)
2
[
2
]
s V
(
s
)
sv
(0)
v
'(0)
+
6
[
sV
(
s
)
v
(0)
]
+
8
V
(
s
)
=
s
Substituting
v
(0)
=
1;
v
'(0)
=−
2,
we have
1
1
1
2
s
2 +
4
s
+
2
2
(
s +
6
s
+
8)
V
(
s
)
= +
s
4
+
=
⇒ V
(
s
)
=
4
+
2
+
4
s
s
s
s
+ 2
s +
4
By the inverse Laplace Transform,
1
4

v ( t ) =

(1

+

2

e

2

t

+

e

4

t

)

u ( t )

Advanced Electrical Engineering BSC Modul 4: Advanced Circuit Analysis • Fourier Series • Fourier Transform

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering BSC Modul 4: Advanced Circuit Analysis • Fourier Series • Fourier Transform •

BSC Modul 4: Advanced Circuit Analysis

• Fourier Series

• Fourier Transform

• Laplace Transform

• Applications of Laplace Transform

• Z-Transform

Advanced Electrical Engineering Circuit Element Models (1) Steps in Applying the Laplace Transform: 1. Transform

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Circuit Element Models (1) Steps in Applying the Laplace Transform: 1. Transform the

Circuit Element Models (1)

Steps in Applying the Laplace Transform:

1. Transform the circuit from the time domain to the s-domain

2. Solve the circuit using nodal analysis, mesh analysis, source transformation, superposition, or any circuit analysis technique with which we are familiar

3. Take the inverse transform of the solution and thus obtain the solution in the time domain.

Advanced Electrical Engineering Circuit Element Models (2) Assume zero initial condition for the inductor and

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Circuit Element Models (2) Assume zero initial condition for the inductor and capacitor,

Circuit Element Models (2)

Advanced Electrical Engineering Circuit Element Models (2) Assume zero initial condition for the inductor and capacitor,

Assume zero initial condition for the inductor and capacitor,

Resistor :

Inductor: V(s)=sLI(s)

Capacitor:

V(s)=RI(s)

V(s) = I(s)/sC

The impedance in the s-domain is defined as Z(s) = V(s)/I(s)

The admittance in the s-domain is defined as Y(s) = I(s)/V(s)

Time-domain and s-domain representations of passive elements under zero initial conditions.

Advanced Electrical Engineering Circuit Element Models (3) Non-zero initial condition for the inductor and capacitor,

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Circuit Element Models (3) Non-zero initial condition for the inductor and capacitor,

Circuit Element Models (3)

Non-zero initial condition for the inductor and capacitor,

Resistor :

V(s)=RI(s)

Inductor:

V(s)=sLI(s) + LI(0)

Capacitor:

V(s) = I(s)/sC + v(0)/s

Inductor: V(s)=sLI(s) + LI(0) Capacitor: V(s) = I(s)/sC + v(0)/s Michael E.Auer 21.05.2012 AEE03
Inductor: V(s)=sLI(s) + LI(0) Capacitor: V(s) = I(s)/sC + v(0)/s Michael E.Auer 21.05.2012 AEE03
Advanced Electrical Engineering Circuit Element Models (4) Michael E.Auer 21.05.2012 AEE03

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Circuit Element Models (4) Michael E.Auer 21.05.2012 AEE03

Circuit Element Models (4)

Advanced Electrical Engineering Circuit Element Models (4) Michael E.Auer 21.05.2012 AEE03
Advanced Electrical Engineering Equivalent Circuits in the s-Domain Parallel and Series Connection Z () s

Advanced Electrical Engineering

Advanced Electrical Engineering Equivalent Circuits in the s-Domain Parallel and Series Connection Z () s 1

Equivalent Circuits in the s-Domain

Parallel and Series Connection

Z () s 1 ⇒ Z () s Z () s 2 Zs () ()
Z
() s
1
Z
() s
Z
() s
2
Zs
() ()
= Z
s
+ Z
()
s
1
2
()
s
V 1
V (s)
V
() s
2
Vs
() ()
=Vs +V
()
s
1
2
 
      Z (s)
   
Z (s)
Z (s)

Z

1

() s

ZZ 1 () s 2 () s ⇒

2

() s

Z 1 () s Z 2 () s ⇒

   
   
Z s () = Z 1 () () sZ 2 s () Zs 1 +

Z

s

()

=

Z

1

() ()

sZ

2

s

()

Zs

1

+

()

Zs

2

     
I (s)
I (s)
I 1 () s I 2 () s ⇒
I 1 () s I 2 () s ⇒

I

1

()