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Michael E. Auer

Transforms

AEE Content

 • Basic Concepts • Three-Phase Circuits • Transforms • Power Conversion and Management

Field Theory

• Waves and Vector Fields

• Transmission Line Theory

• Electrostatics

• Magnetostatics

Applications

• Magnetic Field Applications

• Basics of Electrical Machines

Chapter Content

• Fourier Series

• Fourier Transform

• Laplace Transform

• Applications of Laplace Transform

• Z-Transform

BSC Modul 4: Advanced Circuit Analysis

• Fourier Series

• Fourier Transform

• Laplace Transform

• Applications of Laplace Transform

• Z-Transform

Trigonometric Fourier Series (1)

• The Fourier series of a periodic function f(t) is a

representation that resolves f(t) into a dc component and an ac component comprising an infinite series of harmonic sinusoids.

• Given a periodic function f(t) = f(t+nT) where n is an integer and T is the period of the function.

f
( t )
=
a
+
(
a
cos
n
t
+
b
n sin
n
t )
ω 0
ω 0
0
0
 
n
= 1
dc
ac

where ω 0 =2π/T is called the fundamental frequency in radians per second.

Trigonometric Fourier Series (2)

• and a n and b n are as follow

 a = n 2 T ∫ T 0 f ( t ) cos( n ω o t ) dt b = n 2 T ∫ T 0 f ( t ) sin( n ω o t ) dt ∞ f t ( ) = ∑ n = 1 ( c n cos( ω n 0 t φ ) n a   + + 0 dc ac

in alternative form of f(t)

where

2
2
a
+
b
n
n

b

 c = φ =− n tan − 1 ( n ) n ,

a

n

(Inverse tangent or arctangent)

Fourier Series Example

A =

n

φ

n

=

 2 / n π , n = odd 0, n = even − = odd 0, 90 ° , n n = even

a) Amplitude and

b) Phase spectrum

Determine the Fourier series of the waveform shown right. Obtain the amplitude and phase spectra.

 0 < t < 1 f t ( ) =  1,   0, 1 < t < 2 and f t ( ) = f ( t + 2) 2 ∫ T 0 f ( t ) cos( a = n T n ω 0 t ) dt = 0 and b = n 2 T ∫ T 0 f ( t ) sin( n ω 0 t ) dt =    2 / 0, n π , n n = = odd even

1

2

1

1

f

( t ) =

+

sin(

n

t

π

),

n

=

2

k

2

π

k = 1

n

Truncating the series at N=11

Symmetry Considerations (1)

Three types of symmetry

1. Even Symmetry : a function f(t) if its plot is symmetrical about the vertical axis.

f (t) = f (t)

In this case,

2
/ 2
a =
∫ T
f
(
t
)
dt
0
T
0
4
/ 2
a =
∫ T
f
(
t
) cos(
n
ω
t
)
dt
n
0
T
0
b
n = 0

Typical examples of even periodic function

Symmetry Considerations (2)

2. Odd Symmetry : a function f(t) if its plot is anti-symmetrical about the vertical axis.

f (t) =− f (t)

In this case,

a
= 0
0
4
∫ T / 2
b
=
f
( t
) sin(
n
ω
t
)
dt
n
0
T
0

Typical examples of odd periodic function

Symmetry Considerations (3)

3. Half-wave Symmetry : a function f(t) if

T

2

f

(

)

t − =−

f

t

( )

a = 0

0

 ∫ T 0 / 2 a = n f ( t ) cos( n ω 0 t ) dt , for n odd

0

, for an even

b

4

T

4

T

  ∫ T 0 / 2  f ( t ) sin( n ω 0 t ) dt , for n odd n =

0

, for an even

Typical examples of half-wave odd periodic functions

Symmetry Considerations (4)

Example 1

Find the Fourier series expansion of f(t) given below.

Ans:

 f ( t ) 2 ∞ ∑ n = 1 1    n 1 n π   sin    n π = − cos π 2  2

t

 

Symmetry Considerations (5)

Example 2

Determine the Fourier series for the half-wave cosine function as shown below.

Ans:

1
4
f
( t )
=
1 2 cos
nt
,
n
=
2
k
1
2
2

π

k = 1

n

Circuit Applications (1)

Steps for Applying Fourier Series

1. Express the excitation as a Fourier series.

2. Transform the circuit from the time domain to the frequency domain.

3. Find the response of the dc and ac components in the Fourier series.

4. Add the individual dc and ac responses using the superposition principle.

Circuit Applications (2)

Example

Find the response v 0 (t) of the circuit below when the voltage source v s (t) is given by

1

v ( t ) = +

s

2

1

sin( n

t

πω

2

π

n = 1

n

),
n
=
2
k
1

Circuit Applications (3)

Solution Phasor of the circuit

5

j

2 n

π

+ j

2

n

π

V 0

=

V s

For dc component, (ω n =0 or n=0), V s = ½ => V o = 0

For n th harmonic,

 V S = ∠− 90 ° , V 0 = V s

n π

25

+ 4 n

2

π 2

2

4 ∠−

tan

1

2

n

π / 5

)

In time domain,

4
2 n
π
− 1
v
0 ( t ) =
c
os ( n
π t −
tan
2
25
+ 4 n
π 2
5
k = 1

Amplitude spectrum of the output voltage

Average Power and RMS Values (1)

v ( t )
=
V
+
V cos(
nω t
φ
)
and
i ( t )
=
I
+
I
cos(
mω t
φ
)
dc
n
0
Vn
dc
m
0
Im
n =
1
m = 1
1
P
=
V
I
+
V I
cos(
θ φ
)
dc
dc
n
n
n
n
2
n
= 1
2
2
2
F
=
a
+
(
a
+
b
)
rms
0
n
n
n
= 1

Given:

The average power is

The rms value is

Average Power and RMS Values (2)

Example

Determine the average power supplied to the circuit shown below if i(t)=2+10cos(t+10°)+6cos(3t+35°) A

Exponential Fourier Series (1)

• The exponential Fourier series of a periodic function f(t) describes the spectrum of f(t) in terms of the amplitude and phase angle of ac components at positive and negative harmonic.

jn
ω
t
f
( ) =
t
c e
o
n
n =−∞

c =

n

 1 ∫ T 0 f ( t ) − jn ω 0 t dt , where 2 / T e ω 0 = π

T

• The plots of magnitude and phase of c n versus nω 0 are called the complex amplitude spectrum and complex phase spectrum of f(t) respectively.

Exponential Fourier Series (2)

• The complex frequency spectrum of the function f(t)=e t , 0<t<2π with f(t+2π)=f(t)

(a) Amplitude spectrum;

(b) phase spectrum

Application – Filter (1)

•Filter are an important component of electronics and communications system.

•This filtering process cannot be accomplished without the Fourier series expansion of the input signal.

•For example,

(a) Input and output spectra of a lowpass filter, (b) the lowpass filter passes only the dc component when ω c << ω 0

Application – Filter (2)

(a) Input and output spectra of a bandpass filter, (b) the bandpass filter passes only the dc component when Β << ω 0

BSC Modul 4: Advanced Circuit Analysis

• Fourier Series

• Fourier Transform

• Laplace Transform

• Applications of Laplace Transform

• Z-Transform

Definition of Fourier Transform (1)

• It is an integral transformation of f(t) from the time domain to the frequency domain F(ω)

F(ω) is a complex function; its magnitude is called the amplitude spectrum, while its phase is called the phase spectrum.

Given a function f(t), its Fourier transform denoted by F(ω), is defined by

 ∫ ∞ F ( ω ) = −∞

f (t)e

jωt

dt

Definition of Fourier Transform (2)

τ
/ 2
j
ω t
F (
ω ) =
Ae
dt
− τ
/ 2
A
τ / 2
j
ω
τ / 2
j
ωτ
/ 2
− j
ωτ
/ 2
2 A
e
− e
=
 
ω
2 j
ωτ
= A
τ sin
c
2

=−

e

j

ω t

Amplitude spectrum of the rectangular pulse

Example 1:

Determine the Fourier transform of a single rectangular pulse of wide τ and height A, as shown below.

Solution:

Definition of Fourier Transform (3)

Example 2:

Obtain the Fourier transform of the “switched-on” exponential function as shown.

Solution:

− at
,
− at
f
( t )
=
e
u ( t )
=
 e
 0,
t > 0
t < 0
Hence,
− j
ω
t
jat
j
ω
t
F (
ω )
=
f
( t )
e
dt
=
e
e
dt
−∞
−∞
∞ − ( a +
j
ω )
t
=
e
dt
−∞
1
=
a
+ j
ω

Properties of Fourier Transform (1)

Linearity:

If F 1 (ω) and F 2 (ω) are, respectively, the Fourier Transforms of f 1 (t) and f 2 (t)

 [ F a 1 f 1 ( t ) + a 2 f 2 ( t )] = a F 1 1 ( ω+ ) a F 2 2 ( ω ) F [ sin( ω 0 t ) ] = 1 2 j [( F e j ω 0 t ) − ( F e − j ω 0 t )] = j [ πδω ω δω ω ( + 0 ) − ( − 0 )]

Example:

Properties of Fourier Transform (2)

Time Scaling:

If F (ω) is the Fourier Transforms of f (t), then

[

1
(
at
)
]
=
a

ω

a

a is a constant

F f

F (

),

If |a|>1, frequency compression, or time expansion If |a|<1, frequency expansion, or time compression

Properties of Fourier Transform (3)

Time Shifting:

If F (ω) is the Fourier Transforms of f (t), then

[
− j
F f
( t
0 )]
ω t
t
=
e
0 F
(
ω )

Example:

[

]

e

j 2

1 + j

ω

ω

F e

( 2)

t

u ( t

2)

=

Properties of Fourier Transform (4)

Frequency Shifting (Amplitude Modulation):

If F (ω) is the Fourier Transforms of f (t), then

 [ F f ( t ) e j ω 0 t ] = F ( − ω ω 0 ) [ F f ( t ) cos( ω 0 t ) ] 1 = F ( 2 ω−ω 0 ) + 1 2 F ( ω+ω 0 )

Example:

Properties of Fourier Transform (5)

Time Differentiation:

If F (ω) is the Fourier Transforms of f (t), then the Fourier Transform of its derivative is

Example:

df

j

F

dt

u(t)

 = ω

F(s)

  d    1   dt a + jω

F

(

e

at

u ( t )

)

=

Properties of Fourier Transform (6)

Time Integration:

If F (ω) is the Fourier Transforms of f (t), then the Fourier Transform of its integral is

Example:

t
F (
ω )
F 
 ∫ −∞
j
ω

f

t

( )

dt

=

F (0)

π

δω

(

)

1

j

ω

)

[

F u t

( )

]

=

+

πδ ω

(

Circuit Application (1)

• Fourier transforms can be applied to circuits with non-sinusoidal excitation in exactly the same way as phasor techniques being applied to circuits with sinusoidal excitations.

Y(ω) = H(ω)X(ω)

• By transforming the functions for the circuit elements into the frequency domain and take the Fourier transforms of the excitations, conventional circuit analysis techniques could be applied to determine unknown response in frequency domain.

• Finally, apply the inverse Fourier transform to obtain the response in the time domain.

Circuit Application (2)

Example:

Find v 0 (t) in the circuit shown below for

v i (t)=2e -3t u(t)

Solution:

2
The Fourier transform of the input signal is V (
ω ) =
i
3 + j
ω
V
(
ω )
1
The transfer function of the circuit is
V
(
ω
)
1
+ j
2
ω
i
Hence,
1
V (
ω ) =
0
(3
+
j
ω
)(0.5
+
j
ω
)
− 0.5
t
− 3 t
Taking the inverse Fourier transform gives
v
0 ( t )
=
0.4(
e
e
)
u ( t )

H (

ω ) =

0

=

BSC Modul 4: Advanced Circuit Analysis

• Fourier Series

• Fourier Transform

• Laplace Transform

• Applications of Laplace Transform

• Z-Transform

Definition of Laplace Transform

• It is an integral transformation of f(t) from the time domain to the complex frequency domain F(s)

• Given a function f(t), its Laplace transform denoted by F(s), is defined by

[
]
− st
F (s)
=
L f (t)
=
∫ ∞
f (t)
e
dt
0

• Where the parameter s is a complex number

s =σ+ jω

σ, ω – real numbers

Bilateral Laplace Transform

When one says "the Laplace transform" without qualification, the unilateral or one-sided transform is normally intended. The Laplace transform can be alternatively defined as the bilateral Laplace transform or two-sided Laplace transform by extending the limits of integration to be the entire real axis. If that is done the common unilateral transform simply becomes a special case of the bilateral transform.

The bilateral Laplace transform is defined as follows:

[

]

F (s) = L f (t) =

−∞

f (t) e

st

dt

Laplace Transform Definitions

Definitions of right-sided, left-sided, and two sided functions of time.

Examples of Laplace Transforms (1)

Determine the Laplace transform of each of the following functions shown:

a) The Laplace Transform of unit step, u(t) is given by

1

 [ L u t ( ) ] = F ( s ) = ∫ ∞ 0 1 e − st dt =

s

Examples of Laplace Transforms (2)

b) The Laplace Transform of exponential function, e -at u(t), a>0 is given by

c)

 [ L u ( t ) ] = F ( s ) = ∫ ∞ 0 e t α e − st dt = 1 s + α L [ u(t) ] = F (s) = ∫ ∞ 0 δ (t)e − st dt = 1

The Laplace Transform of impulse function, δ(t) is given by

Examples of Laplace Transforms (3)

1

s

F

(

s

) =

= s

1

+α

F

(

s

)

F(s) =1

Table of Selected Laplace Transforms (1)

Table of Selected Laplace Transforms (2)

Properties of Laplace Transform (1)

Linearity:

If F 1 (s) and F 2 (s) are, respectively, the Laplace Transforms of f 1 (t) and f 2 (t)

L a
[
f
( t )
+ a
f
( t )]
= a F
(
s
)
+ a F
(
s
)
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
2

Example:

1

 

2

s

s +

ω 2

L [

cos(

ω

t u t

)

( )

]

=

L

(

e

j

t

ω

+

e

j

t

ω

)

u ( t )

=

2

Properties of Laplace Transform (2)

Scaling:

If F (s) is the Laplace Transforms of f (t), then

Example:

[

]

1

a

s

a

L f

(

at

)

=

F (

)

L [

]

2

ω

= s + 4

ω 2

sin(2

ω

t u t

)

( )

2

Properties of Laplace Transform (3)

Time Shift:

If F (s) is the Laplace Transforms of f (t), then

L[f (t

a)u(t

a)]

=

e

as

F(s)

Example:

L [

]

s

s

+

ω 2

cos(

ω (

t

a

))

u ( t

a

)

=

e

as

2

Properties of Laplace Transform (4)

Frequency Shift:

If F (s) is the Laplace Transforms of f (t), then

L[e

at

f (t)u(t)]

=

F(s

+

a)

Example:

 [ ] s + a − at cos( ω t u t ) ( ) = 2

L e

(

s + a ) +

ω 2

Properties of Laplace Transform (5)

Time Differentiation:

If F (s) is the Laplace Transforms of f (t), then the Laplace Transform of its derivative is

L

df

 

dt

u ( t )

sF

 =

(

s

)

f

(0

)

Time Integration:

If F (s) is the Laplace Transforms of f (t), then the Laplace Transform of its integral is

L

1

  s

 ∫ t 0 f t ( ) dt = F ( s )

Properties of Laplace Transform (6)

Initial and Final Values:

The initial-value and final-value properties allow us to find f(0) and f() of f(t) directly from its Laplace transform F(s).

f (0)

= lim sF (s)

s→∞

f (

) =

lim

s0

sF

(

s

)

Initial-value theorem

Final-value theorem

Properties of Laplace Transform - Overview

The Inverse Laplace Transform (1)

In principle we could recover f(t) from F(s) via

1

j

σ +∞

f

( t ) =

F

(

s

)

e

st

d

s

2

π j

j

σ −∞

F =

1

x

But, this formula isn’t really useful.

The Inverse Laplace Transform (2)

Suppose F(s) has the general form of

N

D

(

(

s

s

)

)

F

(

s

)

=

numerator polynomial denominator polynomial

The finding the inverse Laplace transform of F(s) involves two steps:

1. Decompose F(s) into simple terms using partial fraction expansion.

2. Find the inverse of each term by matching entries in Laplace Transform Table.

The Inverse Laplace Transform (3)

Example Find the inverse Laplace transform of

 3 5 6 F ( s ) = s − s + 1 + s 2 + 4 f ( t ) = L − 1  3 −  L     − 1   s s 5 + 1 +  L   − 1   s 2 6 + 4    = (3 − 5 e − t + 3sin(2 ) t u t ( ), t ≥ 0

Solution:

Application to Integro-differential Equations (1)

• The Laplace transform is useful in solving linear integro-differential equations.

• Each term in the integro-differential equation is transformed into s-domain.

• Initial conditions are automatically taken into account.

• The resulting algebraic equation in the s-domain can then be solved easily.

• The solution is then converted back to time domain.

Application to Integro-differential Equations (2)

Example:

Use the Laplace transform to solve the differential equation

d

2

v ( t )

dt

2

+

6

dv ( t )

dt

+

8

v ( t )

=

2

u ( t )

Given: v(0) = 1; v’(0) = -2

Application to Integro-differential Equations (3)

Solution:

Taking the Laplace transform of each term in the given differential equation and obtain

2
[
2
]
s V
(
s
)
sv
(0)
v
'(0)
+
6
[
sV
(
s
)
v
(0)
]
+
8
V
(
s
)
=
s
Substituting
v
(0)
=
1;
v
'(0)
=−
2,
we have
1
1
1
2
s
2 +
4
s
+
2
2
(
s +
6
s
+
8)
V
(
s
)
= +
s
4
+
=
⇒ V
(
s
)
=
4
+
2
+
4
s
s
s
s
+ 2
s +
4
By the inverse Laplace Transform,
1
4

v ( t ) =

(1

+

2

e

2

t

+

e

4

t

)

u ( t )

BSC Modul 4: Advanced Circuit Analysis

• Fourier Series

• Fourier Transform

• Laplace Transform

• Applications of Laplace Transform

• Z-Transform

Circuit Element Models (1)

Steps in Applying the Laplace Transform:

1. Transform the circuit from the time domain to the s-domain

2. Solve the circuit using nodal analysis, mesh analysis, source transformation, superposition, or any circuit analysis technique with which we are familiar

3. Take the inverse transform of the solution and thus obtain the solution in the time domain.

Circuit Element Models (2)

Assume zero initial condition for the inductor and capacitor,

Resistor :

Inductor: V(s)=sLI(s)

Capacitor:

V(s)=RI(s)

V(s) = I(s)/sC

The impedance in the s-domain is defined as Z(s) = V(s)/I(s)

The admittance in the s-domain is defined as Y(s) = I(s)/V(s)

Time-domain and s-domain representations of passive elements under zero initial conditions.

Circuit Element Models (3)

Non-zero initial condition for the inductor and capacitor,

 Resistor : V(s)=RI(s) Inductor: V(s)=sLI(s) + LI(0) Capacitor: V(s) = I(s)/sC + v(0)/s

Circuit Element Models (4)

Equivalent Circuits in the s-Domain

Parallel and Series Connection

Z
() s
1
Z
() s
Z
() s
2
Zs
() ()
= Z
s
+ Z
()
s
1
2
()
s
V 1
V (s)
V
() s
2
Vs
() ()
=Vs +V
()
s
1
2
 Z (s) Z 1 () s Z 2 () s ⇒ Z s () = Z 1 () () sZ 2 s () Zs 1 + () Zs 2 I (s) I 1 ()