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Treating Free Variables in Generalized Geometric
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DOI 10.1007/s10898-005-2098-3

Global Optimization Programs

HAN-LIN LI1 and JUNG-FA TSAI2

1

Institute of Information Management, National Chiao Tung University, No. 1001, Ta Hsueh

Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan

2

Department of Business Management, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec.

3,Chung Hsiao E. Road, Taipei 10608, Taiwan

(e-mail: jftsai@ntut.edu.tw)

neering design and management. Recently, some exponential-based decomposition methods

[Maranas and Floudas, 1997, Computers and Chemical Engineering 21(4), 351370; Floudas

et al., 1999, Handbook of Test Problems in Local and Global Optimization, Kluwer Academic

Publishers, Boston, pp. 85105; Floudas, 2000 Deterministic Global Optimizaion: Theory,

Methods and Application, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, pp. 257306] have been

developed for GGP problems. These methods can only handle problems with positive

variables, and are incapable of solving more general GGP problems. This study proposes a

technique for treating free (i.e., positive, zero or negative) variables in GGP problems. Com-

putationally effective convexication rules are also provided for signomial terms with three

variables.

1. Introduction

Generalized Geometric Programming (GGP) Problems are frequent in vari-

ous elds, such as engineering design, location-allocation, chemical process,

and management problems. Many theoretical and algorithmic contributions

of GGP have also been proposed. The developments of global optimization

methods for GGP problems focus mainly on deterministic and heuristic

approaches. Horst and Pardalos (1995) and Pardalos and Romeijn (2002)

provided an impressive overview of these approaches. Recently, Maranas

and Floudas (1997), Floudas et al. (1999) and Floudas (2000) (these three

methods are called Floudas methods in this study) developed methods

for solving GGP problems to obtain a global optimum. However, their

methods are only applicable to GGP problems with positive variables. This

study proposes a technique for improving these methods such that they can

also handle GGP problems containing free (i.e., positive, zero or negative)

variables.

2 HAN-LIN LI AND JUNG-FA TSAI

expressed as follows:

GGP:

T0

Minimize Z(X) = cp zp

p=1

Tk

subject to hkq zkq lk , k = 1, . . . , K,

q=1

zp = x1 p1 x2 p2 xn pn , p = 1, . . . , T0 , (1)

zkq = x1 kq1 x2 kq2 xn kqn ,

k = 1, . . . , K, q = 1, . . . , Tk , (2)

X = (x1 , . . . , xm , xm+1 , . . . , xn ), x i xi x i ,

xi are free variables, pi and kqi are integers, for m + 1 i n,

al terms of the objective function and of the constraints, and x i and x i

are lower and upper bounds of the continuous variable xi , respectively. If

pi , kqi then xi should be positive; and if pi and kqi are integers then

xi can be free variables. These restrictions are illustrated in Examples of

Section 5.

For solving the GGP Problem with xi , where xi x i , is a small pos-

itive number for i = 1, . . . , n, Floudas methods denote xi = eyi and group all

monomials with identical sign. They reformulate the GGP problem as the

following exponential-based non-linear optimization problem:

P1 (Floudas Model):

Minimize G0 (Y ) = G+

0 (Y ) G0 (Y )

subject to Gk (Y ) = G+

k (Y ) Gk (Y ) lk , k = 1, . . . , K,

ln yi y i , y i = ln x i , i = 1, . . . , n,

n

pi yi

+

G0 (Y ) = cp e i=1 , p = 1, . . . , T0 ,

Cp >0

n

pi yi

G

0 (Y ) = cp e i=1 , p = 1, . . . , T0 ,

Cp <0

n

kqi yi

G+

k (Y ) = hkq ei=1 , k = 1, . . . , K, q = 1, . . . , Tk ,

hkq >0

n

kqi yi

G

k (Y ) = hkq ei=1 , k = 1, . . . , K, q = 1, . . . , Tk ,

hkq <0

TREATING FREE VARIABLES 3

k and Gk , k = 0, . . . , K , are

positive posynomial functions, and is a small positive number.

P1 is an exponential-based decomposition programming problem where

both the constraints and the objective are decomposed into the difference

of two convex functions. A decomposition program has good properties for

nding its global optimum (Horst and Tuy, 1996). A convex relaxation of

the decomposition can be computed easily based on the linear lower bound

of the concave parts of the objective function and constraints.

Floudas methods can reach nite -convergence to the global minimum

by successively rening a convex relaxation of a series of non-linear convex

optimization problems. However, the usefulness of their methods is limited

by two difculties as detailed below:

(i) Since Floudas methods require to replace xi by eyi , xi must be strictly

positive. However, xi may be zero or negative values in some appli-

cations. For instance, in a portfolio investment problem, xi > 0, xi =

0, and xi < 0 respectively mean that the ith item of an asset is being

treated as buying, without buying and selling, and selling. Further-

more, some variables (e.g., temperature, force, acceleration, speed etc.)

of many engineering design problems are allowed to be zero or nega-

tive values.

(ii) For certain classes of signomial terms zp in Equation (1) (or zkq in

Equation (2)), it is inefcient to replace each xpi in zp with eypi to line-

arize zp since this requires the new non-convex constraint ypi = ln xpi

to be added to the constraint set. In fact, for a zp where pi satis-

es some conditions, some effective techniques can be developed to

convexify zp .

This study proposes some techniques for overcoming the above difcul-

ties in Floudas methods. The proposed techniques can be applied to free

variables as well as positive variables. Additionally, the proposed techniques

can effectively convexify signomial terms with three variables (i.e., zp and

zkq in Equations (1) and (2)).

The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 formulates some

propositions for treating free variables. Subsequently, Section 3 proposes a

modied Floudas model based on the propositions discussed in Section 2.

The convexication strategies for signomial terms with three variables are

analyzed in Section 4. After that, various numerical examples are demon-

strated.

2. Propositions

Consider xi , x i < xi x i , x i can be zero or negative. Denote i and i as

two 0-1 variables, as dened below:

4 HAN-LIN LI AND JUNG-FA TSAI

(ii) xi < 0 if and only if i = 1 and i = 1.

(iii) xi > 0 if and only if i = 1 and i = 0.

The above conditions can be represented by a set of linear inequalities

as described below:

then:

(i) x i i xi x i i

xi = xi i (1 2i )

0

(ii) x (

i i 2 i 1) + xi0 xi x i (1 i + i ) + xi0

(iii) x i (i + i 2) xi0 xi x i (3 i 2i ) xi0

Proof. Let us rst prove that constraints (i), (ii), and (iii) imply xi =

xi0 i (1 2i ); as stated below:

If (i) is activated then i = 0, which results in xi = 0 and xi0 i (1 2i ) = 0.

If (ii) is activated then i 2i 1 = 1 i + i (means i = 1 and i = 0),

which implies xi = xi0 and xi0 i (1 2i ) = xi0 .

If (iii) is activated then i + i 2 = 3 i 2i (means i = 1 and i = 1),

which implies xi = xi0 and xi0 i (1 2i ) = xi0 .

The next step is to prove that the equality xi = xi0 i (1 2i ) is fully con-

verted into constraints (i), (ii), and (iii). If i = 0 then the equality means

xi = 0, which is the same as in (i), and does not violate with (ii) and (iii). If

i = 1 and i = 0 then the equality is the same as in (ii) and does not vio-

late with (i) and (iii). Similarly, if i = 1 and i = 1 then the equality is the

same as in (iii). The above demonstrates that the equality xi = xi0 i (1 2i )

is equivalent to constraints (i), (ii), and (iii).

expressed as xi = xi0 i , 0 < xi0 x i , and

(i) 0 xi x i i .

(ii) x i (i 1) + xi0 xi x i (1 i ) + xi0 .

From Proposition 1, it is clear that

TREATING FREE VARIABLES 5

negative), and denote I as a set of all i (where i J and i is odd), J and

I are expressed as

and

z = z0 1 2 n (1 2i )i , i , i {0, 1}. (4)

iI

Proof.

/ J then xi 0, therefore i = 0 and (1 2i )i = 1.

(i) If i

/ I then i is even, therefore (1 2i )i = 1.

(ii) If i J but i

i

Remark 2. If iI i is an odd value, then iI (1 2i ) = 1. If

i

iI i is an even value, then iI (1 2i ) = 1.

PROPOSITION 3. Let

{0, 1} and

t an integer variable, where =

i

iI i 2t and 0 t 2 iI i + 1 , then iI (1 2i ) = 1 2 .

1

Proof. If iI i is odd then is 1, and if iI i is even then is 0.

This proves the proposition.

For instance, if i = 4 then = 4 2t for 0 t 2, which forces t = 2

iI

and = 0. If i = 5 then = 5 2t for 0 t 3 , which requires t = 2 and

iI

= 1.

n

able , where i for i = 1, 2, . . . , n, and i n + 1.

i=1

By referring to Proposition 3 and Remark 3, Equation (4) becomes

z = z0 (1 2 ). (5)

described below:

6 HAN-LIN LI AND JUNG-FA TSAI

then:

z = w 2r

0 w z

z0 + z( 1) w z0 + z(1 )

z = z0 (1 2 )

0 r z

r z

0

z + z( + 2) r z0 + z(2 )

Proof.

If = 0 then w = 0 and r = 0 based on (i) and (iv), which results in z =

w 2r = z0 (1 2 ) = 0.

If = 1 and = 0 then w = z0 (from (ii)) and r = 0 (from (iii)), which results

in z = z0 = z0 (1 2 ).

If = 1 and = 1 then w = z0 (from (ii)) and r = z0 (from (v)), which results

in z = z0 = z0 (1 2 ).

The above cases support that z = z0 (1 2) = w 2r.

z . Following Proposition 4, z is simplied as z = w where (i) 0 w z

0

This section merges the technique in Section 2 into the Floudas Model

of P1. Denote ypi = ln xpi 0

and ykqi = ln xkqi

0

, where xpi 0

and xkqi

0

8

for to be a value indicating machine precision (as = 10 ). The prod-

uct terms

n

zp0 = x1 p1 x2 p2 xn pn and zkq

0

= x1 kq1 x2 kq2 xn kqn are expressed as

n

zp0 = e i=1 pi yi and zkq

0

= e i=1 kqi yi . Based on the above discussion, the GGP

model can be converted into the following linear mixed 01 program:

P2 (Modied Floudas Model):

T0

Minimize cp (wp 2rp )

p=1

Tk

subject to hkq (wkq 2rkq ) lk for k = 1, . . . , K,

q=1

TREATING FREE VARIABLES 7

(a1) 0 wp zp , p = 1, . . . , T0 ,

pi ypi

(a2) wp e + z(1 p ) 0, p = 1, . . . , T0 ,

pi ypi

(a3) wp + e + z(p 1) 0, p = 1, . . . , T0 ,

(a4) 0 rp zp , p = 1, . . . , T0 ,

(a5) rp zp , p = 1, . . . , T0 ,

pi ypi

(a6) rp e + z(2 p + p ) 0, p = 1, . . . , T0 ,

(a7) rp + e pi ypi + z(p + p 2) 0, p J , p = 1, . . . , T0 ,

n

(a8) pi n + 1 p , p = 1, . . . , T0 ,

i=1

(a9) p pi , p = 1, . . . , T0 , i = 1, . . . , n,

(a10) p = pi 2tp , p = 1, . . . , T0 ,

iI

(a11) 0 tp 21 ( pi + 1), p = 1, . . . , T0 ,

iI

(a12) x pi pi xpi x pi pi , p=1, . . . , T0 , i=1, . . . , n,

ypi

(a13) x pi (pi 2pi 1) + e

xpi (1 pi + pi )x pi + eypi , pi J, p = 1, . . . , T0 ,

i = 1, . . . , n,

(a14) x pi (pi + pi 2) eypi

xpi x pi (3 pi 2pi ) eypi , pi J, p = 1, . . . , T0 ,

i = 1, . . . , n,

(a15) x pi (pi 1) + eypi

xpi x pi (1 pi ) + eypi , pi

/ J, p = 1, . . . , T0 ,

i = 1, . . . , n,

(a16) ln ypi ln x pi , p=1, . . . , T0 , i=1, . . . , n,

p = 1, . . . , T0 . z = Max{0, zp , zkq , for all p and kq} is a constant.

(b1)(b16): the same as in Equations (a1)(a16) where all subscripts p

and pi are changed to kq and kqi, respectively. All kpi , kqi , kq , kq are

0-1 variables, and tkq is an integer variable.

Each of the constraints (a2), (a3), (a6), (a7), (a13), (a14), (a15) is the

difference between two convex functions. All other constraints in P2 are

linear inequalities composed of 01 variables and continuous variables.

Using the branch-bound algorithm, the P2 program can be computed to

nd a point sufciently closed to the global optimum based on the pre-

specied precision through the linear lower bounding of the concave parts.

8 HAN-LIN LI AND JUNG-FA TSAI

Remark 5. For a general signomial form z = x11 x22 xnn where the num-

ber of variables with free lower bounds is k(k < n), the number of extra

binary variables used to transform z into some proper forms solvable using

Floudas methods is 2 + 2n. Moreover, the number of additional constraints

in the transformation is 13 + 7n + 2k.

P2 provides a model for convexifying general signomial terms in a GGP

problem based on an exponential-based decomposition techniques. How-

ever, there are more computationally efcient convexication strategies for

signomial terms with specic features. To simplify the expression, this study

takes a signomial term with three variables as an example illustrating the

convexication techniques. Consider the following propositions:

convex function in one of the following conditions.

(i) c 0, 1 , 2 , 3 0, and i is even for corresponding xi , xi < 0,

i = 1, 2, 3. (i.e., if xi < 0, then i must be even. Otherwise, i can be

odd or even.)

(ii) c < 0, 0 1 , 2 , 3 < 1, 3i=1 i 1, and x1 , x2 , x3 0.

(iii) c < 0, 1 , 2 , 3 0, and odd number of all i are odd for corresponding

xi , xi < 0, i = 1, 2, 3. (Referring to Tsai et al. (2002))

the ith principal minor of a Hessian matrix H (X) of f (X). The determi-

i 2

nant of Hi can be expressed as detHi = (1)i ( ij =1 cj xj j )(1 ij =1 j )

for i = 1, 2, 3.

(i) Since c 0, 1 , 2 , 3 0, and i is even for corresponding xi , xi < 0(i =

1, 2, 3), then detH1 0, detH2 0, and detH3 0. Hence, f (X) is con-

vex. 3

(ii) Since c < 0, 0 1 , 2 , 3 < 1, i=1 i 1, and x1 , x2 , x3 0, then

detH1 0, detH2 0, and detH3 0. Hence, f (X) is convex.

(iii) If odd number of i are odd for corresponding xi , xi < 0(i = 1, 2, 3),

then x11 x22 x33 < 0. Since c < 0, 1 , 2 , 3 0, and x11 x22 x33 < 0, then

detH1 0, detH2 0, and detH3 0. Therefore, f (X) is convex.

For a given signomial term z, if z can be converted into a set of con-

vex terms satisfying Proposition 5, then the whole solution process is more

TREATING FREE VARIABLES 9

nential-based decomposition.

0, x2 , x3 > 0, if 1 is even, then z is convex. Otherwise, z can be expressed

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

as z = cx11 x2 x3 + cx12 x2 x3 (x1 x11 0, 0 < x12 x1 ) where cx12 x2 x3 is

convex.

1 2 1 1 2 1

expressed as z = x11 x2 x3 + x12 x2 x3 (5 x11 0, 0 < x12 5) where the

1 2 1

term x12 x2 x3 is a convex term requiring no transformation, and the

1 2 1

term x11 x2 x3 can be transformed into some proper forms solvable by

Floudas methods.

1 2 3

0, x2 , x3 > 0, if 1 is odd, then z is convex. Otherwise, z = cx11 x2 x3 +

1 2 3 1 2 3

cx12 x2 x3 (x1 x11 0, 0 < x12 x1 ) where cx11 x2 x3 is a convex term.

1 2 1 1 2 1

be expressed as z = x11 x2 x3 x12 x2 x3 (5 x11 0, 0 < x12 5)

1 2 1

where x12 x2 x3 is a convex term and needs no transformation, and

1 2 1

x11 x2 x3 can be transformed into some proper forms solvable by

Floudas methods.

5. Examples

EXAMPLE 1.

subject to

x1 x22 5,

x2 x1 + x3 13,

0 x1 3, 2 x2 3, 2 x3 3.

methods. This study introduces non-negative continuous variables w1 , w2 ,

w3 , w4 , w5 , r1 , r2 , and r3 as follows:

as follows:

10 HAN-LIN LI AND JUNG-FA TSAI

z10 = e2.1y1 +y2+ +3y3 , z20 = ey1 , z30 = e2y2 , z40 = ey2 ,

z50 = ey3 , and xj0 = eyj , for j = 1, 2, 3.

814 and x = {x 1 , x 2 , x 3 } = 3, respectively.

According to (a1)(a16) and (b1)(b16), this example is converted into

the following program:

subject to

w2 w3 5,

(w4 2r2 ) w2 + (w5 2r3 ) 10,

(a1) 0 w1 z1 , 0 w2 z2 , 0 w3 z3 , 0 w4 z4 ,

0 w5 z5 ,

(a2), (a3) e2.1y1 +y2 +3y3 + z(1 1) w1 e2.1y1 +y2 +3y3 + z(1 1 ),

ey1 + z(2 1) w2 ey1 + z(1 2 ),

e2y2 + z(3 1) w3 e2y2 + z(1 3 ),

ey2 + z(4 1) w4 ey2 + z(1 4 ),

ey3 + z(5 1) w5 ey3 + z(1 5 ),

(a4) 0 r1 z, 0 r2 z1 , 0 r3 z2 ,

(a5) r1 z1 , r2 z4 , r3 z5 ,

(a6), (a7) e2.1y1 +y2 +3y3 + z(1 + 2) r1 e2.1y1 +y2 +3y3 + z(2 1 ),

ey2 + z(4 + 1 2) r2 ey2 + z(2 4 1 ),

ey3 + z(5 + 2 2) r3 ey3 + z(2 5 2 ),

(a8) 2 + 4 + 5 3 + 1 1 ,

(a9) 1 2 , 1 3 and 1 5 ,

(a10) = 1 + 2 2t,

(a11) t 21 (1 + 2 + 1),

(a12) 0 w2 32 , 24 w4 2r2 34 ,

25 w5 2r3 35 ,

(a13) 3(4 1 1) + ey2 w4 2r2 3(1 4 + 1 ) + ey2 ,

3(5 2 1) + ey3 w5 2r3 3(1 5 + 2 ) + ey3

(a14) 3(4 1 2) + ey2 w4 2r2 3(3 4 21 ) + ey2 ,

3(5 2 2) + ey3 w5 2r3 3(3 5 22 ) + ey3 ,

(a15) 3(2 1) + ey1 w2 3(1 2 ) + ey1 ,

ln y1 ln 3, ln y2 ln 3, ln y2 ln 3,

TREATING FREE VARIABLES 11

unrestricted in sign.

By adding eight more binary variables, the above program is solved by

Floudas methods with the global optimal solution (x1 , x2 , x3 ) = (3, 2, 3),

(w1 , w2 , w3 , w4 , w5 ) = (542.4359, 3, 4, 2, 3), t = 0, (r1 , r2 , r3 ) = (542.3459, 2, 3),

(y1 , y2 , y3 ) = (1.0986, 0.6931, 1.0986), (1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ) = (1, 1, 1, 1, 1), and

(, 1 , 2 ) = (1, 1, 0). The objective value is 539.4359.

subject to

x2 = exp(3950/(x3 +460)+11.86),

144(80x3 ) = x1 x4 ,

0 x1 15.1,14.7 x2 94.2,459.67 x3 80, 0 x4 .

nia inside the tank, may be a negative value. This problem cannot be

treated directly by Floudas methods. After converting the program with

the proposed techniques, the program is solved to obtain the global solu-

tion (x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ) = (0, 94.1779, 80, 0) with the objective value 5194.87.

EXAMPLE 3.

Minimize Z(X) = x12 x20.5 x31 + 8x11 x42 8x4

subject to

x1 x20.5 x30.5 3,

2x1 + x2 x3 + x4 6,

1 x1 5, 3 x2 7, 1 x3 10, 1 x4 5.

By referring to the proposed convexication rules in Proposition 5, the

non-linear terms x12 x20.5 x31 and x20.5 x30.5 are convex, and 8x11 x42 can be

transformed into a convex term 8x11 z1 where z = x42 . By piecewisely line-

arizing a single term z, the whole program can be reformulated as a convex

program solvable to obtain a global optimum. However, solving this pro-

gram by Floudas methods requires piecewisely linearizing four logarithmic

terms ln xi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4) and a non-convex term x20.5 x30.5 . Table 1 lists the

computational results of solving the program by Floudas methods and the

proposed method on the same computer with LINGO (2001). Table 1 dem-

onstrates that the proposed method is more computationally efcient than

Floudas methods.

12 HAN-LIN LI AND JUNG-FA TSAI

Objective value 9.9962 9.9979

CPU time (mm:ss) 02:15 00:03

(y1 , y2 , y3 , y4 ) (1, 1, 0, 1) (1, 1, 0, 1)

Objective value 4.5969 4.5796

CPU time (mm:ss) 07:12 00:02

log(y4 + 1) + (x1 1)2 + (x2 2)2 + (x3 3)2

subject to

y1 + y2 + y3 + x1 + x2 + x3 5,

y32 + x12 + x22 + x32 5.5,

y1 + x1 1.2, y2 + x2 1.8, y3 + x3 2.5,

y4 + x1 1.2, y22 + x22 1.64,

y32 + x32 4.25, y22 + x32 4.64,

0 x1 1.2, 0 x2 1.8, 0 x3 2.5,

yi {0, 1}, i = 1, 2, 3, 4.

this program is a convex program solvable by the proposed method directly

without any transformation. Table 2 compares the computational time

between Floudas methods and the proposed method.

6. Conclusions

This study proposes a method for improving Floudas methods to treat free

variables in GGP programs. The improvement is achieved by converting the

logical relationship among the variables in a product term into a set of lin-

ear mixed 0-1 inequalities, which can be merged conveniently into Floudas

TREATING FREE VARIABLES 13

methods. This study also develops some useful rules to effectively convexify

more general signomial terms in GGP programs.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the anonymous referees for contribut-

ing their valuable comments regarding this paper, and thus signicantly

improving the quality of this paper.

References

Floudas, C.A., Pardalos, P.M., Adjiman, C.S., Esposito, W.R., Gumus, Z.H., Harding S.T.,

Klepeis, J.L., Meyer, C.A. and Schweiger, C.A. (1999), Handbook of Test Problems in Local

and Global Optimization, Kluwer Academic Publisherers, Boston, pp. 85105.

Floudas, C.A. (2000), Deterministic Global Optimization: Theory, Methods and Application,

Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, pp. 257306.

Horst, R. and Pardalos, P.M., ed. (1995), Handbook of Global Optimization, Kluwer

Academic Publishers, Boston.

Horst, R. and Tuy, H. (1996), Global Optimization: Deterministic Approaches,

Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp. 505543.

LINGO Release 7.0. (2001), LINDO System Inc., Chicago.

Maranas, C.D. and Floudas, C.A. (1997), Global optimization in generalized geometric pro-

gramming, Computers and Chemical Engineering 21(4), 351370.

Pardalos, P.M. and Romeijn, H.E., ed. (2002), Handbook of Global Optimization-Volumn 2:

Heuristic Approaches, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.

Ryoo, H.S. and Sahinidis, N.V. (1995), Global optimization of Nonconvex NLPs and MIN-

LPs with applications in process design, Computers and Chemical Engineering 19(5),

551566.

Tsai, J.F., Li, H.L. and Hu, N.Z. (2002), Global optimization for signomial discrete pro-

gramming problems in engineering design, Engineering Optimization 34, 613622.

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