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Ocjene i prikazi

kao to su, na primjer, odnos etnikog da se pozabave pitanjem reprezentacije


i klasnog na tritu rada u specifino- ena u popularnoj literaturi i tampi u
me sluaju pozorine umjetnosti (prvo treem dijelu studije.
poglavlje), ali i u sluaju rastue du- Za istraivae bosanskohercego-
hanske industrije kojoj je odgovarala vakog nasljea s kraja 19. i poetka
jeftina enska radna snaga (drugo po- 20. stoljea, etvrti dio studije moe
glavlje) ili pak proizvodnje i trgovine biti posebno zanimljiv zbog toga to
fesovima (tree poglavlje). Na taj nain ukazuje na potrebu da se materijal koji
oita je usmjerenost autora i autorica u je nastajao u ovom periodu, naime ra-
ovoj studiji da ensko pitanje s kra- znovrsni godinjaci, salname i asopi-
ja 19. i poetka 20. stoljea promotre si, izuava kao pokazatelj promjena u
iz perspektive ekonomski potinjene i drutvu i pokuaja da se pregovara iz-
neprivilegovane klase, iako studija, da- meu onoga to se percipira kao tra-
kako, tretira i preokupacije bogatih slo- dicija i novih utjecaja koji prijete da
jeva drutva u ovom periodu, pogotovo potpuno izmijene socijalne odnose.
u zadnjem dijelu studije. Na odreeni Nuno se namee pitanje kada mo-
nain, prvi i posljednji dio studije mogu emo oekivati slinu studiju o bosan-
se promatrati kao dvije naizgled oprene skohercegovakim enama istoga pe-
strane istog pitanja: dok je problematika rioda. U svakom sluaju, ova studija
enskog pitanja u prvom dijelu studije predstavlja dovoljno dobar metodoloki
zaokupljena pitanjima siromatva, radne putokaz koji nastoji izbjei zamke ge-
snage i etnike pripadnosti, posljednji neraliziranja i povrnog zakljuivanja.
dio donosi razmatranja o razliitim pri-
stupima rjeavanju enskoga pitanja iz Denita Kari
pozicije srednje ili visoke klase, kao i
pitanjima reprezentacije Orijenta u dje-
lima autorica koje su pripadale razlii-
tim kulturama istovremeno (dvanaesto
poglavlje). Da se obrazovanje smatralo John Jefferson, THE HOLY WARS OF
jednim od rjeenja mnogostrukih pro- KING WLADISLAS AND SULTAN
blema u ovom periodu u Osmanskom MURAD. HE OTTOMAN-CHRISTI-
carstvu ali i da se koristilo u ideoloke AN CONFLICT FROM 1438-1444,
i politike svrhe, pokuala su objasniti Brill, History of Warfare, Vol. 76,
poglavlja drugog dijela studije. en- Leiden Boston, 2012, 514 pp.
sko obrazovanje je skoro uvijek bilo u
slubi odreenog (nacionalnog) cilja:
ena se obrazovala da bi mogla posta- In the course of its rapid growth
ti majka djece u slubi nacije. U tom and development during the 14th and
kontekstu treba promatrati i osnivanje 15th centuries, the Ottoman Empire
razliitih institucija za obrazovanje en- unsurprisingly encountered resist-
ske djece (esto poglavlje). Ovaj peri- ance from the Balkan Christian states
od je svjedoio i sve veoj vidljivosti which it aimed to conquer. Therefore
ena, ali i razliitim cenzorskim poli- this process of expansion was inevita-
tikama, to je omoguilo istraivaima bly marked by almost constant border
Ocjene i prikazi 289

warfare broken up by periodical large- Gutenberg University in Mainz, Ger-


scale conflicts with far reaching con- many, where he currently works as a
sequences. The battles of Chernomen guest lecturer. Jefferson previously ma-
(1371), Kosovo (1389), Nicopolis jored history in the United States and
(1396), Lava (1415) and Varna (1444), obtained his Masters degree in 2002
from which the Ottomans emerged from the Jagiellonian University in
victorious, as well as their intermit- Krakow, Poland. This somewhat un-
tent conquests of important towns and conventional career path for a soldier
states, have understandably captured of the US Army was motivated by his
the imagination and roused the inter- knowledge of and willingness to learn
est of generations of historians, espe- new foreign languages, of which Latin,
cially of those primarily interested in Polish, Turkish and Arabic were key
military affairs. for the study of his chosen topic. It
Rarely did the Christians have the is precisely this fact that presents the
upper hand in the early struggle against strongest aspect of his work since he
the Ottoman Empire, and political cir- was able to analyse sources, as well as
cumstances were not always favourable read and evaluate the results of Polish
for their cause. However, this did not and Turkish historiography which were
dishearten the Balkan and European hitherto, and for the most part still are,
rulers who were left with no choice unavailable to many Western histori-
but to constantly attempt to defy and ans because of the language barrier.
oppose the Ottoman expansion. One Due to the fragmented linguistic na-
period when Christian victory seemed ture of the Balkans, a thorough study
most likely came after the death of Si- of the complex relations between the
gismund of Luxembourg in 1437 and Christians and Ottomans in the 15th cen-
culminated with defeat at the battle of tury would also have required access
Varna in 1444 where the Polish and to the vast secondary literature written
Hungarian King Wladislaw met his in Hungarian, Serbian, Greek, Bulgar-
end. The period was initially marked ian and Romanian. Even though the
by Ottoman attacks seeking to take book would have certainly been more
advantage of the political chaos in comprehensive if it had included, for
Hungary following the change on the instance, the most important results of
throne, but were then countered by in- Serbian historiography, embodied in
tensified activities to finally achieve the the works of Momilo Spremi, Ivan
union of the churches and to prepare Boi, Ivan uri, or Baria Kreki,
for a mass scale crusade. the author still managed to successfully
It is precisely the events from this bridge those gaps and provide a com-
timeframe that were carefully examined pelling narrative which encompasses
by John Jefferson in his first book titled all of the key aspects of the story.
The Holy Wars of King Wladislas and At the core of his book rests the un-
Sultan Murad. The work under review derlying question why King Wladislaw
has in fact evolved from the authors decided to charge against the Sultan
doctoral dissertation project which during the battle of Varna, at a moment
was finished in 2011 at the Johannes when the clash was almost settled in
290 Ocjene i prikazi

his favour. To put the issue into per- book improves vastly on this matter,
spective, it is worthwhile mentioning often providing long excerpts of Ot-
that it was exactly due to these kinds toman Turkish sources translated into
of delicate decisions that empires were English.
made or lost. The Sultan chose to stand The author supplemented data from
his ground, and therefore retained his the Ottoman chronicles with a critical
position at the head of an ever-growing approach to the works of contemporary
Empire, whereas Wladislaw lost both Western historians such as Jan Dugosz,
his head and his kingdoms. Intrigued Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini, Johannes
by this problem ever since his study de Thurocz, Callimachus, Antonio
days in Poland, Jefferson decided to Bonfini, and Konstantin Mihajlovi, to
dedicate his future research to the quest name just a few. He also used the pub-
of its solution. lished collections and compilations of
This task was not a simple one. diplomatic documents, letters, reports,
In order to fully understand the pe- proclamations, and others, which served
riod and actions of the main protago- as a backbone in propping up the main
nists, the author had to consult a mul- narrative and providing a chronologi-
titude of primary sources in diverse cal and geographical framework.
languages: Medieval Latin, Ottoman The book is divided into two ma-
Turkish, Byzantine Greek, Late Me- jor parts of unequal size which con-
dieval French, Late Medieval Czech, tain several chapters each. The first
Late Middle High German, Medieval part functions as a prelude to the main
Italian, Persian, Arabic, Old Serbian, topic of the work and concentrates on
and Late Medieval Polish. The most the prehistory and background of the
challenging of those were the 15 th Ottoman-Christian conflict until 1440.
century Ottoman chronicles which do In it the author presents the institu-
not contain any precise chronologi- tions and politics of the three principal
cal data and which were written with characters the Catholic Church, the
a clear agenda. Apart from the stand- Ottoman Turks and the Kingdom of
ard works of kpaazde, Ner and Hungary. He devotes significant time
Oru, the author also used the anony- and space to the analysis of crusad-
mous Gazavt- Sultan Murd b. Me- ing attempts of Christian powers, es-
hemmed Hn, which has recently been pecially in the context of the conciliar
made available in an English transla- movements which culminated with the
tion by Colin Imber. Historians who Councils of Basel and Florence. The
wrote about these topics in the past Western powers always considered
failed to include Ottoman source ma- Church union to be a prerequisite for
terials in their works. One author in any kind of military assistance to the
the sixth volume of the usually reli- threatened Balkan states, but despite
able A History of the Crusades even the Union, which was achieved in
went as far as to inaccurately state that 1439, military help was usually slow
the Ottoman sources for this period to come, mostly ineffective and some-
are sparse, and those which speak of times even non-existent. The second
Varna add relatively little. Jeffersons chapter focuses on the reign of Sultan
Ocjene i prikazi 291

Murad II and the institutions of the Ot- from the first siege of Belgrade in
toman Empire, with special attention 1440, through the wars of 1442 and
dedicated to the military ones which the Long Campaign in 1443, ending
were exemplified by the Janissary with the final crusade of 1444 which
corps, the timar system and the march- culminated in the Christian defeat at
er lords (tur. u beyleri) who operated Varna. The battle itself is the peak of
at the borders of the Empire and took the narrative and as such it is presented
on the initiative in the encounters with at great length and detail, in a way that
their Christian neighbours. The final will be of particular interest to military
chapter presents the Hungarian side of historians. The text is accompanied by
the conflict through the description of a considerable number of clear and
the roles played by the three Hungar- understandable maps which show the
ian Kings Sigismund, Albrecht and formations and progress of the battle,
finally Wladislaw. Apart from focus- making it easier to follow the some-
ing on their anti-Ottoman initiatives, times complex and intricate military
this segment also contains a short por- manoeuvres.
trayal of the Hungarian buffer-state Even though it may seem in hind-
system, implemented by King Sigis- sight that the Ottoman successes and
mund, which at various times included conquests in the Balkans were inevita-
Serbia, Wallachia as well as Bosnia. ble, the author is of the opinion that a
We can only express regret that the different outcome in any one of these
passages about Bosnia relied heavily closely contested battles would have
(exclusively?) on the second volume resulted with a significantly altered
of Konstantin Jireeks out-dated Ge- course of events, and considers that a
schichte der Serben (Gotha, 1918). Christian victory in the battle of Varna
This resulted in the replication of sev- would have been followed by a situ-
eral factual errors which, however, ation similar to the one which ensued
did not crucially affect the rest of the in the Ottoman Empire after the bat-
account. Far from being a mistake on tle of Ankara in 1402. The triumphal
the authors part, this instance is just campaigns of John Hunyadi in 1442
one more example which should serve and 1443 ushered a wave of optimism
as a reminder that more works about that victory against the Ottomans was a
Bosnian history should be made avail- possibility, but these hopes were even-
able in foreign languages. tually brought crashing down to ground
The second part of the book is sig- in the devastating defeat at Varna which
nificantly longer than the first one and affirmed the Ottoman domination of
focuses on the military campaigns from the Balkans and created conditions
1440 to 1444, during the reign of King for a new flood of offensive action,
Wladislaw in Hungary, describing the opening the door for the complete in-
strategy, tactics and order of battle. corporation of South-Eastern Europe
Jefferson provides a detailed account into the Ottoman Empire.
of the troops, mobilization, weapons, Relying on his extensive knowledge
technology, and all the specific op- of a number of foreign languages, suc-
erations on both sides of the conflict: cessfully combining the various and
292 Ocjene i prikazi

diverse available sources, John Jeffer- na primjerima relacija npr. Splita i Du-
son has managed to produce the most brovnika sa Istanbulom i Kairom i sl. U
comprehensive account of events re- tom smislu, svih trinaest autora u svojim
garding the Ottoman-Christian conflict radovima fokusirali su se na podruje
between 1438 and 1444 to date. His Dalmatinskog primorja i njegovog za-
book will certainly represent essential lea. Usljed injenice da je u literaturi
reading for anyone interested in the sam Mediteran esto posmatran kao
research of Ottoman expansion dur- granica izmeu civilizacijskih krugo-
ing the 15th century, and it will surely va kranstva i islama, ini se da se u
come to be considered as the standard osmiljavanju teme i samom pristupu
work for the study of the Long Cam- izuavanju Dalmacije krenulo od te
paign and the Battle of Varna. Because postavke. Stoga je teritorij Dalmacije
of the way in which it is structured and u radovima posmatran i predstavljen
how the arguments and the story in it kao pogranije, kao mjesto susreta,
are presented, the book will be of in- pri emu su isticane slinosti, meu-
terest not only to specialists, who will sobni utjecaji meu razliitim kultu-
find a wealth of new material in it, but rama i civilizacijama na tom podruju
also to the more casual reader seeking vie nego njihove meusobne razlike
to understand the broader context of i suprotnosti.
the conflict between the Ottomans and U uvodnom izlaganju pod naslovom
Christians in the Late Middle Ages. Introduction: The Republic of Sea,
(1-18), urednice knjige, Alina Payne
Emir O. Filipovi upoznaje nas sa Braudelovim poima-
njem ranonovovjekovnog Mediterana
kao jedinstvene mree kojom su cir-
kulisala brojna dobra i koja je nadila-
zila nacionalne granice. Obrazlaui
DALMATIA AND MEDITERRANE- razloge zbog kojih se, kao voditeljica
AN: PORTABLE ARCHEOLOGY programa i glavna urednica, opredi-
AND THE POETICS OF INFLUEN- jelila upravo za prouavanje Dalma-
CE, ed.by. Alina Payne, Brill, Leiden/ tinske obale, navodi da je presudna
Boston, 2014, xxi+469. injenica bila ta to je rije o regiji
koja obiluje arheolokim lokaliteti-
ma od izuzetnog znaaja, sauvanim
Knjiga pod gornjim naslovom na- rimskim spomenicima, ali i mjestu na
stala je kao rezultat dva seminara koji kojem su se odigravali brojni dogaaji
su odrani u Splitu i Firenci, na temu koji su obiljeili historiju Mediterana
Object as event, odnosno svih formi od antikih vremena pa do ranog no-
mobilnosti i prenosivosti arhitekture vog vijeka. Dalmatinska obala u ra-
i umjetnosti na Mediteranu u kasnom nom novom vijeku znatno se razliko-
srednjem i ranom novom vijeku. Knji- vala od svoga zalea zbog toga to je
ga dublje istrauje mehanizme koji su zalee esto mijenjalo vlast te prela-
povezivali razliite i esto meusobno zilo iz osmanskih u mletake ruke i sl.
veoma udaljene arhitektonske objekte Fokus na Dalmaciju pruio je nekim