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PEL was established in 1956 with the technical collaboration of M/S AEG,
West Germany. It is the oldest composite electrical equipment-
manufacturing unit of Pakistan with the object of initially producing
transformers, switchgears and electric motors. In 1962 after conclusion of
joint venture agreement with AEG, total shareholding was purchased than by
sponsors M/S Malik Brothers Limited.

In October 1978, PEL was taken over by SAIGOL GROUP OF COMPANIES,

which is the largest and well-know industrial and commercial group in
Pakistan. The Saigol Group belongs to the Saigol family that is an old
business family and has contributed a lot towards Pakistan’s industrial and
believes in continuous development and growth. The result is a global
business activity monitored through the various offices worldwide. Meeting
Saigol’s traditions, since its takeover by the group, PEL is also a “Company
on the go”. The high growth rate proves the complete success of the
professional management and provides sufficient confidence to trust in its
future development schemes.

Company’s Mission Statement

• To grow the size of the organization, develop better business practice

and build-up greater resource.
• To practice actively and consistently in Pakistan’s economic
• To build up better operating philosophy.
• To build a better commercial outlook for operating successfully in this
competitive environment.
• To keep pleasant working environment.
• To always maintain exclusive service standards.

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• To promote professional co-operation.

• To motivate the employees by making them feel that management
cares about them by recognizing their efforts by remuneration or by
promotion depending on the individual efficiency and what he
• To create feeling of co-operation so that all employees are satisfied.
• To build up customer satisfaction.
• To provide wide range of products and services to customers.

Company’s Objectives:

• The continuous improvement of all products and services through total

involvement of employees.
• The development and strengthening of joint ventures and partnerships
with external and internal customers and suppliers.
• Providing innovative and higher quality products to achieve total
customer satisfaction by understanding their requirements and
anticipating their future expectations or needs through:

1. Monitoring Annual Targets for quality improvement in all areas

and function of the organization.
2. Valuing people by understanding and drawing upon their
strengths i.e. abilities and knowledge and make efforts for their
training and development.

• With a dedicated team of professionals the company is striving to

improve the quality of life in Pakistan homes through reliable
equipment for power distribution and home appliances.
• The growth in the size of the organization develops better business
practices and builds up greater resources.

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• Total Quality Management implementation for getting ISO 9002 for

their other products.
• The aspiration to capture the complete product family of the product.

The company Comprises of Two Divisions:

• Power Division
• Appliances Division

PEL Current Power Division

• Power Transformer
• Distribution Transformer
• Dry Type Transformer
• Energy Meter
• Switchgear

PEL Current Appliances:

• Refrigerator
• Air conditioner
• Microwave oven
• Washing machine
• Water Dispenser
• Generator
• PEL media

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SWOT Analysis:


• PEL has a Strong Brand Image in the market

• Strong Dealer Network is one of the core competency of the PEL

• It occupies a monopolistic hold in Power market due to its energy


• PEL also have a strong position in Appliances Market in Pakistan

• Few years back it made Strategic Alliance with LG

• PEL also have Contracts with Government of Punjab


• During economic crunch PEL faces financial problems

• PEL lacks in the area of advertisement

• It also lacks in the product range


• Exploration of new markets in Pakistan is a big opportunity for PEL

• Rising population provides a good opportunity for the PEL to grow

• By increase in its product range, PEL can increase its market share

• Export Opportunity is also an option to expand the business

• Increase in production capacity can increase its market share

• Due to increasing population, Increase in Investment in Power Sector is

another opportunity

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• Strong Competition in the market is a big threat to PEL

• Invasion of Chinese products is a big to threat to whole industry

• Continuous decrease in Pakistani Rupee value reduces the people’s

buying power

• All the industries in Pakistan are facing decreasing growth rate

• Instability of Government is major threat to the business

Departments at PEL:

There are 6 major departments in PEL, they are:-

1. Marketing Department

2. Finance Department

3. Production Department

4. Human Resource Department

5. Administration Department

6. Research & Development Department

Human Resource Department:

This department overseas the selection criteria for employees i.e. it sets
different guide lines for selection of employees. After selection of employees
it also offer the training and to upgrade their skills.

The head of HR department is called HR manager. It has 180 employees

working in it. Among which 27 are doing clerical job.

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Functions of HR Department:

• Recruitment

• Selection

• Learning and Development

• Firing decisions

• Labor Affairs

• Staff welfare

• Manpower planning for next 5 years

Training & Development:

According to Miss Lubna Badar, Learning & Development Executive at PEL;


“Training and development refers to a planned effort by a company to

facilitate the learning of job-related knowledge, skills, or behavior by
employees. It is critical to our future business success. Our company’s
performance will only continue to improve if we develop our people. To
develop our people is to invest in our future. We know if our employees have
the motivation to succeed, they can be good at their job and progress as far
as they can.”

At PEL, training is a partnership between the employee and the organization.

PEL provides a framework within which the employee can identify the
training and development needs. Such training provides a consistent
standard of management learning throughout PEL. It also enables the
employees to take all of the programs or study for individual modules
according to their particular development needs.

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Development Programs are carried out right after joining and throughout the
year, applicable to all management and trainees, across the organization.
Each department’s Head of department along with HR manager decide the
appropriate development needs for each individual, within this overall

The Importance of TNA:

Needs assessment is the most important process of training and

development. It is the process which identifies whether the training is
necessary for the employees. Needs assessment involves three types of

1 -Organization Analysis

It determines the appropriates of training, given the business strategy of the

company, the resources available for the training process and managers and
peers’ support


1- Miss Lubna Badar; Learning & Development Executive at PEL.

2-Person Analysis

Person analysis involves

• “Determining whether the performance deficiencies are the result of a

lack in knowledge, skills, abilities or from a motivational or work-
design problem “says Raymond A. Noe.(2)

It identifying who needs training in particular

• It evaluates the employees’ readiness for the training

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3-Task Analysis

Task analysis involves determining which tasks, knowledge, skills and

abilities should be focused in the training. It is helpful in judging that either
training is the solution of the problem faced by the employee or it can better
be managed by some other way; lectures or coaching.

Why is Need Assessment required?

The need assessment is necessary for the organization to know that either it
is going for the right way to improve the performance of the employees. The
HR department concentrates on the TNA as it have to arrange the resources
for the training. The HR department is also responsible directly for the
creation of an environment that will support the training and its transfer for
the employees. HR will be answerable to the company if the training is
incorrectly used as a solution to performance problems.

TNA is also vital as if there will be no TNA in the organization before the
training is held:

• Training can have contents, methods and objectives which are not

• Training may not bring the required results for the company.


2- Employee Training and Development by Raymond A. Noe.

• Money spent on the training can go in vain.

• Training will not make the employees learn what is required and
desired by the company.

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Basis of Training Need Assessment in PEL:

PEL pays a lot of attention on the needs of employees, on every level, for
learning and development. As “we have passed the stage of training and are
now on the level of learning in PEL”, says Lubna, Head of HR

1-Need Assessment on Individual level:

PEL is currently having seven thousand employees, out of whom six

thousand are the technical employees and rest one thousand are the
managers and executives. PEL focuses on the individual needs of its staff by
looking into the department the employee belongs.

Technical Staff:

The employees from technical job are assessed by their manager. The
manager checks that the performance of the employee for past three
months and judge the problem after sittings with the employee and asking
the questions from its peers. Then the manager asks the employee; say a
technician, what he feels he is lacking. If the employee is unable to judge its
need, the manager relies on his assessment and suggests a type of training
and the readiness of the employee. He then forwards the report to the HR
department for the scheduling of the training/learning. PEL has so far been
training its employees/ technicians for:

• Enhancing the Communication skills

• Increase in Technical expertise

• Training to cope with behavioral problems like adjustment in

environment, de-motivation, work shirking & lack of co-ordination

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2-Need Assessment on Departmental Level:

In PEL, Head of the Department is liable for the need of training on teal and
department level. The head of the department sends the query to the HR
about the problem of employee. Then the HR investigates the problem by
meeting the employee, his manager and the team members. As team work is
highly focused in PEL; “we are aimed to have our employees working in their
team”, says Miss Lubna, Learning and Development Executive. (3)

Who Participates in the Needs Assessment?

Generally the upper level managers, middle level manager and the trainer
are involved in the process of need assessment in the following ways:

Organizational Analysis:

In the organizational level analysis, the upper level manager assesses either
is training important to achieve the business objectives & how does training
support the business strategy. The middle level manager assessed that does
he wants to spend money on training and how much. The trainer estimates
that does he have the budget to buy training services (in case of
outsourcing) & will managers support training

Person Analysis:

In the personal level analysis, the upper level manager assesses that what
functions or business units need training. The middle level manager see’s
that who should be trained; managers, professionals or core employees. The
trainer decides the way to identify which employees need training.


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3- Lubna Badar providing information during her interview.

Task Analysis:

In the task analysis, the upper level manager analysis that does the
company has the people with the knowledge, skills, and ability needed to
compete in the marketplace. The middle level manager notices that for what
jobs training can make the biggest difference in product quality or customer
service. Whereas the trainer participates by analyzing the tasks that should
be trained & the knowledge, skills, ability or other characteristics necessary
for the training to be successful.

Determining whether training is “The Best Solution”

PEL believes that training is not the only solution .Therefore it conducts
couching and counseling of the employees as needed. Last week training
was conducted in LUMS which titled as “leadership back to basis” which
focused on how to motivate and how to lead.

Miss Lubna Badar told that sometimes it happens that after analyzing the
employee(s), we come to know that the there is no problem of training rather
than it is a problem of employee motivation. In this regard we have a strong
motivation and incentive system.

Motivation and Incentive Systems:

Sometimes the psychological components are not enough for motivating the
employees. In this case, monetary incentives play a vital role for increasing the
commitment of the employees toward their jobs and in return enabling them to
have job satisfaction. These monetary incentives and rewards are given in various
forms to the employees who act as a strong motivational factor. These could be
given as:

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1. Spot Award + Rs. 5000 as cash prize

2. Surprise Award

3. Best Performance Award

4. Service Quality Award

Methods in Needs Assessment:

1. Observation: It is one of the methods for judging the need for

training. Observation is conducted by quietly noting the performance
of the employee at work. It is helpful as it generates data relevant to
work environment and minimizes interruption of work. But it has a
disadvantage that it requires skilled observer & the employees’
behavior may be affected by being observed.

2. Questionnaire: A questionnaire is a detailed list of questions asked to

inquire the problem and need of the employee. It is useful as it is
Inexpensive, can collect data from a large number of persons & the
data can easily be summarized. But it requires time, has possible low
return rates & inappropriate responses due to lack of proper
understanding of the questions, lacks detail and only provides
information directly related to questions asked.

3. Interviews: An interview is a face to face questioning about the

problem area to understand the level of need of learning. It is helpful
at uncovering details of training needs, good at uncovering causes and
solutions of problems, can explore unanticipated issues that come up&
the questions can be modified while asking one to one. But it is time

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consuming, difficult to analyze, needs skilled interviewer & can be

threatening to SMEs.

4. Focus group: It is a loosely structured discussion between a group of

8-12 people with a similar characteristics on a given issue or field. It is
useful with complex or controversial issues that one person may be
unable or unwilling to explore. But it is time consuming to organize &
group members provide information they think you want to hear.

TNA Methods in PEL:

One to one meetings:

One to one meetings one to one meetings are conducted to address the
problems to know if there are issues of lack of motivation in the employees.
This method is used in PEL for the executives and the managers. When the
department head sends the report for the inquiry, HR arranges a one to one
meeting with a skilled interviewer with the employee. The results of the
interview are then analyzed and a written report is given to the department
& HR. this report helps for the arrangement of learning & growth opportunity
and is also kept to evaluate the results of the training.


As team work is the main focus in PEL, it uses the questionnaires to dig out
the problem regarding teamwork. When the manager of the technical staff,
from any department reports the HR about the need for learning / training or
asks for the solution, HR designs the questionnaire with the suggestions in-
charge, who acts as an SME. These questionnaires are filled by the proposed

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trainee and are kept in record for tracking the transfer of training later in the

Methods of Training in PEL:


Every staff member joining PEL has to attend a 1-day comprehensive orientation to
get a feel about the PEL and its business. This orientation program provides a good
chance to meet with seniors & colleagues and to build up the team spirit.

Product Training:

Product training is provided e.g. refrigerators, air conditioners, electric meters etc.
to help the related staff to learn more about the products that the PEL is providing.

Skill Training:

The PEL provides a lot of skill related training e.g. workshops, sales & negotiation
skills, project management, etc. to help staff enhance their skill in particular

On-job Training:

Staff members are continuously involved in the learning process in the form of on-
job training. Thus, a lot of on-job training opportunities and job rotation to increase
staff’s exposure are provided.

Management Development Training:

In this training program, the employees are given strategic perspectives and
business goals management skills; people management, networking and customer
focus abilities to better understand and manage their jobs. Adventure learning is
also used for this purpose to analyze the leadership, planning and management
skills of the employees.

Specific Competency Training:

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Specific Competence Training is to ensure that the staff excels in product

knowledge, regulatory and unique techniques needed for the particular position.
e.g. in PEL power division, when they launched energy meters, PEL hired software
engineers to train their engineers.

Learning and Development:

PEL recognizes that it is essential that they have the best people equipped with the
right skills and knowledge to perform their roles to the highest standards. They
went for talented professionals, who seek self-development opportunities including
continuing professional development. In return the PEL offers excellent training and
development. They focus development on where they believe that they will get the
greatest return, by developing employee’s strengths.

Outsourcing of Training:

PEL also outsources its training programs to different training houses like CMD
(Center for Management Development), Possibilities, Business Rituals etc.

In house trainings:

The decision of training the employees in house or outsourcing depends on

the availability of resources and the extent to which the type will be helpful
for better learning of the employee. All the technical trainings are conducted
in-house, to keep the trade secrets safe.

Team Building Programs

If the lack of coordination is found in any area, team building programs are
manages by the company to grow the feeling of teamwork and collaboration.

Learning and Development of Executives:

PEL assigns its learning and development executives who are responsible to
train the employees under them. It is the part of their job. When an
employee comes from training from outside the company, or is trained on

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some specific course, he becomes the part of the PEL’s internal training pool.
Like if an employee is trained for ERP in the supply chain department of PEL,
he is then responsible to train the other employees in the company. This cost
effective method is vastly used in PEL to create a culture of knowledge
sharing & learning.

Decentralized Training in PEL:

Training is decentralized in PEL. The employees of every department are

trained within its own division of work instead of training everyone in the HR
department. The technical side of the training is managed by the technical
experts within the production or any other department.

Perception of PEL Employees about the Trainings:

Training as opportunity:

The employees of PEL on every level take the training as an opportunity to

enhance their learning and perceive it as a step ahead in their career

Training as a Reward:

PEL believes in investing in its human capital and values its employees in
every way. The executives are also sent to other cities as Karachi and
Islamabad, and the chosen employees take the training as a reward. As the
executives are also selected for training for further development on the basis
of their performance, so they also value it and become the part of PEL’s
internal pool of trainers.

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Planning the Training:

After the training need analysis is done, it’s the time to plan the training
program. The planning is done in a joint meeting of head of concerned
department, HR manager and Learning and development executive. In this
meeting each and every aspect of training is discussed and decided, which
includes the area of training, time, date and place of training, what will be
the learning objective, what will be the training methodology, who will be
the trainer etc. these all things are planned at this time.

Miss Lubna told that all of their training programs are pre planned and they
have a full plan of one year that which training will be conducted at what
time. Following is the sample training plan.

Time Duration: Two-day Training Workshop

Topic: Change Management

Date: Thursday-Friday, March 12-13, 2009

Venue: Royal Palm Golf & Country Club, Lahore

Time: 09:00 AM to 05:00 PM

Learning Objectives:

After attending this workshop participants would be able to:-

1. Know and understand a wide range of ideas and approaches to

managing change.
2. Understand the psycho dynamic approach to change.
3. Understand the humanistic approach to change.

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4. Grasp different types of team, the process of team development and

the way in which different types of team contribute to the organization
5. Perceive the nature, significance and role of leadership in change.
6. Comprehend the change scenarios vis-à-vis organizational
restructuring and cultural change.

Teaching and Learning Methodology:

This two day workshop will include discussions, case analyses, participant
responses, exercises, videos and dyadic learning.

The workshop participation would reflect maturity of ideas, creative zest,

intrusive urge for knowledge and incessant attempts to relate theory with

Trainer’s Profile:

Syed Hussain Haider has been working as a management and legal

consultant for the past 12 years with various private and public sector
companies. He has been a management consultant with the Government of
the Punjab since 7 years and has been actively involved with reengineering
and restructuring organizational processes.

Currently he is associated as a consultant / resource person with the

Management and Professional Development Department. (The umbrella
training organization for Government of the Punjab) TEVTA and PRMP,
Government of the Punjab. He is Professor of Management and Law teaching
MBA and M.Com students at University of Central Punjab and as Principal
Management Consultant has developed the Research and Development
Centre for University of Central Punjab. He has also been Principal
Coordinator for Punjab Development Forum (Government of the Punjab)
2003-2007 and has been associated as a Policy Review Specialist and
subsequently as Capacity Building & Training Expert with Asian Development

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Bank. He is currently a resource person for Asian Development Bank, DFID,

U.K and numerous international financial institutions.

He is a certified trainer for Small and Medium Development Authority,

Government of Pakistan, Pakistan National Accreditation Council,
Government of Pakistan, National Productivity Organization, Government of
Pakistan and Government of the Punjab. He has been a resource person for
British Council, Pakistan and Management Development Institute at Habib
Bank Limited. He is a certified Productivity Consultant and Certified
Advocacy Trainer by Bar Council of England and Wales. He is an International
Resource Person for Asian Productivity Organization, Japan, Colombo Plan,
Sri Lanka and Bank Rakyat, Malaysia.

A United Nations University Alumni and an M.B.A, M.A, LLB and PGD’s in Labour
Laws, Intellectual Property Right Laws and International Leadership. He has
extensive knowledge and experience in Law, Human Resource Management,
Organizational Behavior and Capacity Building.

Transfer of Training

Transfer of training may be defined as the degree to which trainees apply to their
jobs the knowledge, skills, behaviors, and attitudes they gained in training.

Problems in the Transfer of Training:

There are so many causes for which the transfer of training becomes
ineffective or does not take place in the organization. Some of them are:

Working conditions:

Time pressures on the employees that they have to join daily right
after the training session ends that create discouragement. Another
factor is a barrier the use of Inadequate equipment which are out
dated because of this there are few opportunities to use those skills
learned in training session.

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Lack of peer support

That is discouraging use of new technology and skills on the job, peers
are not willing to provide feedback, and they assume the training as
the wastage of time.

Lack of management support

That is managers are too rigid that they do accept any ideas or
suggestions that are learned in the training session. They do not
recommend using the learned skills in the organization and are not
willing to provide the feedback, reinforcement and encouragement
that are needed to transfer the learned skills.

The Effectiveness of the Transfer of Training in PEL:

Learning and development in PEL has become very strong in last few years.
They have encouraged their employees to move with the time as it changes.
They have also increased their motivation level by communicating them the
importance of new learning for their development.

PEL provides a very healthy environment to the employee who gets training.
They provide a work environment that influence transfer of training.
Management support is there that is at high level. They encourage them,
help them in implementing new learning in the organization, and provide
proper feedback to the management. Climate of transfer is given to the
trainee to that facilitates them. Peers are also there to help their colleagues
in transfer. PEL has become a learning organization in this era when
everything is getting change with the passage of time. Employees in PEL are
becoming more socialize to adapt change and learn form each other. So, the
distance of the transfer is near that can be change easily.

Evaluation of Training in PEL:

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Evaluation of training is vital for a company to know the after-effects of

training. It is the scale on which the company measures itself in terms of
success in training. Evaluation is primarily of two types:

Formative Evaluation:
It is the evaluation which is conducted during the program design and
development. It ensure that the training is going smooth and the trainees are
satisfied with the training contents and process.

Summative Evaluation:
Summative evaluation is conducted to judge the effects of the training on
the employees in terms of change in the trainees. It aims at ensuring that
the trainees have learnt the required skills, attitudes knowledge and
behaviors. It also includes quantitative outcomes of the training.

Summative Evaluation of Training in PEL:

PEL conducts its training sessions and evaluates these trainings in the end to
know the outcomes of the training. They evaluate the changes in the skills,
knowledge & behaviors in the employees.

Outcomes of Training:
A company measures the outcomes of its training processes on the basis of
skills, cognition, effectiveness, reactions and results.

PEL measures the outcomes of the training to its employees on the basis of :

The company compares the skills of the employees and workers before and
after the training.

PEL is very much conscious in to determine whether the trainees have learnt
the principles, facts and techniques required and desired for the company.


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The HR department of PEL is keen to weigh and measure the behaviors and
attitudes of the trainees before and after the training is complete.
Questionnaires are provided to the trainees to give feedback on the
contents, process and effects of the training.

Financial calculations are definitely the vital concern for the company.PEL
calculates its ROI and the total investment on the training process.

Determining whether the Outcomes are Good:

PEL makes sure that the outcomes of the training are good and desired for
the company through:

Relevance which refers to the relatedness of the outcomes to the capabilities

learnt in the training.

Reliability which refers to the consistency of the results.

Practicality which refers to the ease with which you can measure the

Evaluation Design in PEL:

PEL uses only post-test evaluation design and evaluates its trainings after the
training processes are complete.

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How can you increase the transfer of training in your organization? For any
given training program, you will need to look into three areas:

Training Participant Attributes:

Training participant attributes may be influenced when introducing new

employees to your organization through an effective recruitment, selection
and induction process. Attributes can also be influenced before training
begins through prequalifying nominees during the registration process.

Training Program Design and Delivery:

The second factor, training design and delivery, can be made more effective
through ensuring that the training program objectives are clearly focused on
your organization's priorities and goals. Tied in with this, participants’
learning outcomes must be stated in terms of behavior required in the
workplace and measurable performance standards. Along with effective
design, to maximize training transfers to the workplace ensure that the
training is delivered in accordance with what we know about how adults
learn best.

Workplace environment:

The most significant, yet most neglected, factor influencing the extent of
training transfer is the third area mentioned above, the employee's
workplace environment. What happens before employees attend the training
event and what happens after they return to work are the most important
variables determining workplace performance following training. If your
organization is struggling to see tangible benefits from training, ask these
key questions:

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• Did instructional designers, trainers and line managers work together

in partnership or was work on the program done in isolation with little

• Were non-training solutions seriously considered or was a training

request received and an off-the-shelf solution delivered?

• Were training outcomes stated in behavior and performance terms or

were outcomes unstated or stated in fuzzy terms?

• Were training objectives tied to stated organizational objectives or

were they left floating in the organizational ether?

• Were managers and supervisors actively involved before, during and

after the program or was the program divorced from the employee's
day to day work?

• Was post-training support provided back in the workplace, such as

coaching and on-the-job aids, or were employees left to flounder with
no opportunity to practice?

• Were new procedures and role expectations clearly communicated to

employees or were they left wondering why they were nominated for
the program?

• Were workplace performance expectations agreed with employees

prior to the training, or was it back to "business as usual"?

• Was the training integrated with a well thought-out and implemented

change or improvement program, or was the training a single point
"silver bullet" solution?

• Did you measure the organizational impact of the program or rely

solely on "happy sheets" for feedback?

There is another approach called as PRACTICE approach which includes:

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Tell them how to perform and what are the policies and procedures, update
relevant policies and procedures before training begins and use actual policy
and procedural documents during training program. The strength behind the
PEL’s learning and development department is that they follow the

Roles & Responsibilities:

Tell them what level of performance is required by them. Clarify roles,

responsibilities and update relevant role descriptions of the particular
trainee. Develop links between learning outcomes to role descriptions. PEL
specifies the roles and responsibilities of the trainee before and after the
training sessions.

Aids on the Job:

Tell them extend the training room into the workplace replicate training aids
on the job encourage employees to use on-the-job aids.


Overcomes individual barriers to skill application, plan for and dedicate on-
the-job coaching resources and train coaches in how to coach effectively
when it is required.


Measurement proves people are performing as per the requirement, agree

and set measurable organizational and individual goals that motivates the

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employees, link program learning outcomes to organizational and individual

goals, and then translate goals into required on-the-job behaviors.


Give a personal reason to perform, modify incentives to reward goal

achievement and expected behaviors and provide employee feedback
frequently and using a variety of methods to evaluate their performance.


Informs and involves all stakeholders, communicate information to all

appropriate levels in organization and use a variety of communication
mediums and styles to convey your massage effectively.


Motivates participants to apply skills on the job to enhance their skills, tell
employees briefly before training on purpose and application of program,
managers and supervisors introduce training and attend sessions, review
learning after training and identify opportunities for skill application, follow
up regularly progress on skill application with employee that shows
employees that how much the company is concerned about them.

Training and Development Jaweria, Saima, Sehrish, Sulman, Umer

PEL 27


• Miss Lubna Badar; Learning & Development Executive at PEL.

• Employee Training and Development by Raymond A. Noe.




Training and Development Jaweria, Saima, Sehrish, Sulman, Umer