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BA 932
Quantitative Techniques and
Analysis
Prepared
Prepared By: by:
Asst.Wellisa Pacilan-Milca
Prof. Jay Kaiser S. Lariosa
Course Description
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The course deals with the study of


quantitative tools and techniques
generally applied to business problems
such as maximizing or minimizing the
use of resources thereby resulting to
optimum profit or cost.
Course Objectives
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Apply quantitative techniques to solve problems for


appropriate decision making;
Formulate quantitative models applicable to finding
solution of problems;
Learn the various quantitative tools/techniques
relevant to decision making;
Use the appropriate quantitative models for a
specific type of problem.
Content Outline:
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Part 1
CJC vision, mission, goals, philosophy and spirituality
CJC Research Agenda

Course requirements & grading system


Content Outline:
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Part 2
Review of Basic Algebraic Operations, Laws and
Signed Numbers
Linear Equations and Linear Inequalities

Principles Used in Equation-solving

Finding Common Solutions


Content Outline:
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Part 3 Part 4
Linear Programming
The Graphical Method
Steps in Using Graphical Method
Graphing of the Constraints
Finding the Optimum Solution
Exercise
Content Outline:
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The Simplex Method


Maximization Problems
Steps in Solving Maximization Problems

Converting the Constraints to Equations Table

Setting Up the Initial Table and Developing Subsequent


Tables
Exercises
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Minimization Problems
Steps in Solving Minimization Problems

Converting Constraints to Equations

Exercises
Content Outline:
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Part 5 Part 6
The Special Purpose Algorithms of Linear Programming
The Transportation Method
The Stepping Stone Method
Balanced and Unbalanced Supply and Demand

Computation for Improvement

Exercises
Content Outline:
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The Modified Distribution (MODI) Method


Degeneracy
The Break-Even Point Analysis
Linear Functions
Non-linear Functions
Basic Rules for Derivatives
Finding the Critical Points
Applications of Maxima and Minima in Business
Exercises
Content Outline:
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Part 7 Part 8
Decision Theory
Steps in Decision Theory Approach
The Different Environment in which Decisions are Made
The Criteria for Decision-making under Uncertainty
Decision-making under Condition of Risks
Mathematical Expectation (ME) or Expected Values (EV)
Content Outline:
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The Concept of Probability


Types of Probability
Probability Rules
The Decision Tree Analysis
The Option to Bay Perfect Information
Computing for the Value of Perfect Information
Exercises
Content Outline:
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Part 9
Business Forecasting
Forecasting by Extension of Post History
Averaging Forecast
Moving Average Forecast
Forecasting by the Use of Exponential Smoothing
Forecasting by Trend Projection
Associative/Causal Forecasting
Regression Analysis
Content Outline:
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Part 10 Part 12
Inventory
Inventory Functions
Inventory Decisions
Carrying Costs
Ordering Costs
Economic Order Quantity (EOQ)
Concept of Average Inventory
Using EOQ Formula
Instantaneous Receipt Assumptions in EOQ Models
Content Outline:
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Using EOQ Models when Annual Demand cannot be Forecast


Using EOQ Models when Cost Information are not Available
Applying the EOQ Model to Protection Processes
Some Conclusions about EOQ Models
When to Reorder: Determining Reorder Point
Determining Optimum Safety Stock Level when Out-of-Stock Costs
are Known
Evaluation of Quantity Discount
Inventory Management with Planned Stockouts
Exercises
Content Outline:
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Part 13
Independent Study/Research
Part 14
Written Examination
Course Requirement
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Assigned Exercises, case study, research project and


examinations.
House Rules:
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The student is required to attend all class meetings


and should participate in all group discussions.
The students is evaluated on the following criteria:
Class Participation 30%
Requirements 30%
Final Examination 40%
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A B C D E

F G H I J
Review: Evaluate
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1. 14 + 26
2. (-28) + (-33)
3. 12 + (-37)
4. -19 + 22
5. 23 + (-20) + (-3)
6. -96 + 24 + (-4)
Review: Evaluate
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1. 14 + 26
1. 40
2. (-28) + (-33) 2. -61
3. 12 + (-37) 3. -25
4. -19 + 22 4. 3
5. 23 + (-20) + (-3) 5. 0
6. -96 + 24 + (-4) 6. -76
Law on Adding Signed Numbers
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To add integers with the same sign, add without regard


to the signs. Then affix the common sign of the integers.
To add two integers with different signs, consider the
distance of each integer from zero (that is, consider the
absolute value of each addend). Subtract the shorter
distance from the longer distance. In the answer, use the
sign of the number farther from zero.
Exercise 1
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1. What is the result of borrowing Php 20 and then


paying Php 8?
2. Randy has Php 10, 500 in her savings account. He
withdrew Php 1,125 and then deposited Php 800.
How much is the balance in her passbook?
3. Magic squares are square arrays of numbers. The sum of the numbers
in each row, column, and the diagonal is the same. Complete the magic
square below:
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1 -3 The sum of the numbers in


each row, column, and
4 diagonal of this magic
-2 square is 0.
Subtraction of Signed Numbers
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To find the difference between two signed numbers,


add the negative (or the opposite) of the
subtrahend to the minuend.
Drill:
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1. -84 (-31)
2. 24 (-71)
3. 54 78
4. -56 - 24
Drill:
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1. -84 (-31) 1.-53


2. 24 (-71) 2.95
3. 54 78 3.-24
4. -56 - 24 4.-80
Exercise 2
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1. A car dealer sold a total of 35 cars in April and 3


less than that in May, but 7 more than during the
month of June. How many cars did the dealer sell
in three months?
2. A businessman earned Php 32,300 in one month.
He spent Php 19,850 of his earnings. How much
was he able to save?
Multiplication of Signed Numbers
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The product of two integers with the same sign is


positive.
The product of two integers with different signs is
negative.
Drill
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1. (-12)(3)
2. (25)(-8)
3. (-11)(-11)
4. (-45)(4)
Drill
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1. (-12)(3) 1.-36
2. (25)(-8) 2.-200
3. (-11)(-11) 3.121
4. (-45)(4) 4.-180
Exercise 3
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1. A daily newspaper costs Php 12 per issue. How


much will Randy pay for a weeks supply of
newspaper?
2. Every week, Randy spends Php 72 of his
allowance. How much does he spend in four
weeks? If his allowance is Php 100 a week, how
much is his savings in four weeks?
Division of Signed Numbers
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The quotient of two integers with the same sign is


positive.
The quotient of two integers with different signs is
negative.
Drill
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45
1.
9

182
2.
14

420
3.
15
Drill
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45
1.
9 1.-5

2.
182 2.-13
14

3.28
420
3.
15
Exercise 4
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1. 3(8 + 3) 4
2. 2(62 - 9)
3. (6 + 7)2 1
16(9 22)
4.
4
Linear Equations and Inequalities
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An equation is a mathematical sentence indicating


that two expressions are equal. The symbol = is
used to denote equality.
An inequality is a mathematical sentence indicating
that two expressions are not equal. The relation
symbols <, >, , , are used to denote
inequality.
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A linear equation in one variable is one which can


be written in the form ax + b = 0, where a and b
are real number constants and a 0.
4x + 2 = 10
x 2 = 15
Solution Set of Linear Equations/inequalities
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Find the solution of the following


equations/inequalities:
1. x+3=7
2. x3=3
3. 4y = 12
4. 5y 7 = 13
5. 23z + 11 = 3z + 189
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6. x + 19 > 11
7. 2x 9 < 11
8. x 14 18
9. 3y + 9 15
Systems of Linear Equations
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Solve the system:


2x + y = 5
xy=1
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1
x+ =5
2
3y 2x = 6
Exercise 5
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Find the solution of the following:


1. 3x 5 = 2x + 7
2. y = 2x 4
y = -3x + 1