Sie sind auf Seite 1von 12



Is a process of operationalising 1-luman Resource polibes. It can also be,

A process of enforcing putting to use approved Human Resource polices.

Human Resource policies can be implemented using two approaches;

L Top bottoni approach

In this approach, policies ate designed by specific tQp managers and-there is none involvement of
subordinates. Thisin turn becomes the responsibility of top managers m inform the Line managers and
employees the belElefitsof the policy.

Advantages of top-bottom approach

It requires less cooperation at the start. This is because employees have no say therefore simply had to
follow and comply with the policies set and approved by top management.

It saves time and other resources. Since it requires fewer consultations thereby saving time as well as
resources such as of funds in form of allowances that would have been spent in consultative meetings. -

It is appropriate where the policy implementation is urgent. For example in areas where-- - Labor
Legislation-is made and compliance is made needed io a short time, this is whie

V such approach is appropriate like occupation and health act 2006. V V

It enables top Vrnaliagers exercise their powers. Since in such approach there is no V consultation
from by superiors to subordirates, therefore top managers have the ability

- and power to enforce the set policies as they see fit. - V V

- It promotes organization culture. Such as the Organizational Vision, Mission and values are upheld
hence organizatioll growth. Policies like dress code hours of work when embedded in the policy help
organization to achieve its strategic goals.

Disadvantagesof top-bottom approach -

Resistance from employees. Since employees dont easily comply with the set policies due to the fact
that they were riot involved in any part of the policy formation, this makes it difficult for the employees
to easily accept the policies and carry them out as required.

Discourages employee commitment. Employees lose attachment to the organization as

V they are not involved and feel they are not valued in organization. This reduces their loyalty and
willingness to remain working for the organization. V

Positive effect of policy implementation is not realized immediately. Since information Only flows from
top manaemeut down to the subordintes, this gives no room for feedback alid disourages open
communication in th organfzation.

Limited cOvrg of the Human Resource Policy at the start. This aries due to the fact that the policy
affects few employees at first as it begins with senior employees.

Likely to incur high cost, during implementation if the top management faces resistance in the
implmentation process, for example Of time spent on convincing employees to boprate thus reducing on
employee productivity which in turn affects organization performance.

IL Bottom top approach.

In this approach, employees are involved in all activities right from designing and

operationalising ofthepolicy.

Advantages of bOttom-up approach

Positive.effects of the-policy are immediately felt. This is due to employee involvement ______ in the
activities of the organization. This opens doors of open communication which

encourages feedback, thus management to know whether the policies put in p1ce are

Scope coverage of the policy is large right from the start many employees are involved right froin
designing and implementation.

Encourages employees commitment. This fs due to the fact that employees are involv&l in the pOlies
developed and. mplcmented in the organization, thus they feel valued and part of the organization
hence willing to continue working with the organization.

Less Employee resistance. Employees are given the OpportUnity to get involved in the decision making
process in the organization through various ways such as meetings, consultations and so on, this makes it
easy for them to accept policies in which they have been involved in from the start.

Less interruption of employees day to day activities. Day to day activities are not interrupted because
they already know what to do because they are involved in all policy development stages.

Improved employee employer relations. Due to constant involvement of employees in the important
decisions of the organization such as policies, this creates a better working relationship between the top
managers and the subordinates.
Disadvantages of Bottom-up approach

Sensitive policies that affect employees ma take long to be implemented. Since employees will be
involved in the implementation process of the polices, they may take long to implement the policy and
thus fail them for example a policy on dress code may

: : fail if not handled well. V

Requires a great coope1atiou at the stait and if it is absent or low, the policy may fail Bottom up
approach necessitate great employee cooperation to succeed.

. It is driven byVexisting infrastructure instead of the existing business set up. The approach

to be usedwill be based on the currentorganizational set up rather thait the kid of

V V V businessit carries out. For exanl open offices can easily carry Out the bottom-up

V V V approach. V V V V V V V V V V

Its time consuming. This is due to the constant employee consultations during the implementation
process. V

4Liole of employees IflV policy implementation V

V V Seek for information about company policies. Employees, showing interest in knowing - V

V out!p2licies set in the organizatIon makes it easy for.thern to implement since V employees will be
interested in what goes on in the orgamzation

Attend policy trainings to acquire knowledge that enables them to comply with policy V

V V statements. For earnple training employees on safety matters to comply with safety V

V policies at work place. V

Complying with the Policy. It makes it easy for the toi managers to implement the policy V if the
employees are willing to accept and quickly adapt to the set policies. V

Seeking clarity about theV policy. Employees showing interest in knowing about the policy especially a
policy that has technical issues for example policies on recuitment and

selection like terms in appointment letters. -. V

1ole of Human Resource Manager iii Human resource policy implementation

Convincing the line managers that the policy is necessary, so as to speed up the process of

To provide training and support to all key stake holders such as shareholders, employees
V and so on necessary for policy implementation.

TO communicate the policy using various avenues, in regards to the set policy for example in the 1-
luman resource manual, meetings.

Interpret key technical issues such as policy on recruitment and selection, training and develOpment

Role of line managers in unan resource policy implementation

Monito and Ovaldation of the policy. That is making sure the policy is working and thu meet its
objectives in the organization.

. Communication of the 5o1icy. Line managers are able to explain the policy in a way that is
understandable to all the suboidinates in their different capacities

. Training nployees according to the stated policy, especially policies on technical issues

that require employees to have extra knowledge and skills to easily carry out the policy.

Managing resistance of employees during policy implementation through counseling.

. Clarify policies to employees by explaining technical issues to employees hence implementation of the

Making decisions about people in policy implinentatioi. Most of policy statements give

power to line managers decide on most of matters in policy implementation.

Eey success factors ofpolicy irnplementnton

Effective leadership. In organizations that ei1ourage participatory leadership, it makes it easily for policy
implementation since there will be constant communication between employees and employers.

Planning of the policy. In terms of good scope of the policy to be implemented, time need for
implementation, availability of resources such as finances.

Supervisors support. If supervisors are on board and in agreement with the policy, this makes it easy
for the policy implementation. V

Scope of the policy. The policy should cover all required areas and non discriminatory in V nature. This
reduces resistance of employees hence success of the policies.

Employee support.Ernployees should be engaged in the policy implementation to enable its success in
the organization.

Training of employees. Training equips employees with skills, knowledge to implement

the policies for example if a new policy om salary based on performance training helps to

know how to measure performance, key result areas hence success of the policies.

Effective communication. A policy is likely to succeed if it is communicated to all key stake holders the
vay it is. This reduces resistance that would arise if they do not understand the policy hence their

Availability of resources. Presence of resources facilitates impleineitation of policies such as finances are
required in implementation of salary and compensation policies in pursuit for employee motivation.

Manageihent support. Management support in form of committing more resources and. provision of
necessary information required to implement the human resource policy.

Success of previous policies in the organization aids success of new policies as policy implementers and
designers have necessary competence.s

Supportive legal frame work. The policies succeed because they are supported by existing laws. For
exampl employment Act 2006 requires companies with tweiity five. and above to have anti-sexual
harassment policies as well as safety policies.

Conformity to culture. The policy succeeds if it is in line with orgallization culture like vision, mission
and society culture. For example unifonn of long skirts is likely to

succeed in Muslim community . -

Stable macro and micro envirohmen fo, m of low inflation, stable exchange rates, high- firm
profitability supports success of some policies especially salary and compensation policies. . .

Success of simiir poiic by competitors enables organizations policies to succeed as policies faces
minimal resistance it is what is a given industry. For example a policy of putting on uniform in a financial
institution is likely to succeed because it. is what is in

banking industry.


How training is done

Workshops. A brief intensive course of education for a small group of people emphasizing interactions
and practical problem solutions which allows smooth. implementation of policies.

Mentoring. Attach junior employees to senior employers to guide them on how to implement the

Seminars. A meeting held for the exchange of information by members of a common business in a
community especially on how to implement the policy smoothly.
Who carries out the training

. Line managers

o Goiisiltants

Human Resource Department.

Row training aids in policy implementation

Reduces resistance from employees since employees will be able to understand the policies set as they
are being implemented.

Eas) understanding of the policies set since they will be explained to employees during

the implementation process. V

V Encourgs tam work between the employees and the employers or line managers,

duringthis process thus aiding the success of the policies set.

Easy supervtsion from line managers, since employees have been equipped with the V

requlredVknowledge skills and ability to carry out the. policies, thus line managers can

focus on other managerial issues. V V

Bow do you handle employee resistance in polity implementation V V V V V

Training. Where by subordinates are prepared for the policies Vby equipping them with the necessary
skills, knowledge and abilities required to comply with the policy. V

Counseling. Especially when employees shovsome concern of the set policy for

example policy on dress code, they are psychologically prepared to cope up with the new policy. V V

Carry out effective communication during the implementation process, so as to aid in easy
understanding of the human resource policies.

Motivation of employees through recognizing the employees or subordinates that follow the policies
set for example through promotions.

Termination of service, for employees who fail to comply with the set policies, to encourage the rest of
the employees o agree to the policies.

General challenges in policy implementation.

Inadequate resources to foster the successful implementation of policies. FOr example limited finances
to encouiage the implementation of tiaimng on policies, lemuneration
policies. .. .

Coffiplicated language used in policy formulation. This makes it difficult for some CiCiCS to be expiamed
and thus hard to implement for example policy on employment contracts when poorly designed
hard to implement.

Pdor communication especially frOni line managers. This makes it difficult F subordinates to understand
the policies thus challenge to nnplementation

Lak of management support. This may slow down the implementation process or in the long run lead
to its failure for example where top management takes long in making decision on the policy.

, Changes in technology make some policies to fail. For example policies on V

confidentiality can be by passed using new superior technologies.

Changes in the legal environment. Once the legal environment is very unstable, it makes it difficult for
policy implementation because new policies

frequently to ev legal requirements. . V

Resistance from. employees. Employees, who are unable to accept the set policies, inake it diffkait fo the
implementation process in the organization as they do activities aimd

V at sabotaging the policies.. V


T rvr r ,-r- ri


Employees, managers and key stakeholder must have access to up-to-date copies of the policies and
procedures that are relevant to their rolein the organization

Communication should be done for;

New policies

>Clianges to policies coming into effect

Why communicate HR POLICIES.

HR policies & procedures can be viewed. by courts as part of the contract of employment

A well written policy is likely to be legally binding on both employees and the organization itself as long
as it
is reasonable and complies with relevant laws.

If the organization fails to communicate its policies then it may be seen as failing in its duty to inform
employees of their legal obligations and may expose the organization to actions via vicarious liability.

Clarify employee expectations.

Avoid the defensive behaviour of employees An indicator of effective leadership.

Principles of effective HR policy

UI 1.111 IUI IIIULi.yii

Make sure the written version of the policy

can be understood by the total population of

the workforce;

o Ensure managers a properly trained to

understand and use the policies

Ensure staff are briefed on the content of

the policy;


Principles contd

Ensure the policy is accessible to all members

of your workforce;

Ensure employees, their representatives and

other stakeholders are consulted on the content

of policies at the time of development and


Ensure that managers and staff are trained

properly in relation to behaviour related

policies (i.e Anti-bullyingfDis crimination);

Ensure there is an ongoing program of

communication on HR Policies



When selecting methods tO communicate

policies consider:.

> Concerns and issues likely to be raised

about the policy and how will they be

dealt with

>Easy access (electronic copies or hard


>Ease of implementation (is training


Communication Methods

Employee llandbooks-describes the

organizations policies and procedures.

Its vital because;

. A comprehensive source for understanding

the practices of the organization

Useful for orienting employees

Employees can independently find answers

to their questions, supporting confidentiality


Saves: management time spent on

clarifying expectations

Helps others quickly understand. your

workplace practices

Supports communication and


Mlows you to tie in the broader context,

such as the organizations vision,

objectives and values

Components fEmployce Handbook

Company Overview, history, past




* Core Values

Responsibilities V

Policies and procedures

Disclaimer V

51Y205 20 V


Saves management time spent on

clarifying expectations

. Helps others quickly understand. your workplace practices

Supports communication and accountability

Allows you to tie in the broader context, such as the organizations vision, objccfives and values
Components of Employee Handbook V

Company Overview, history, past performance

Vision V


Core Values


Policies and procedures






Employee Handbook;

must be updated as policies are updated and changed Designate someone with this responsibility

needs to include all the key points of the policy and reference where staff can access the full versions
of the policies.

Emphasize employers right, to add, amend, or

delete any policy or procedure in its handbook

5!5!2I5 21


Information session - Consider the following:

>Business decisions that led to the development of the policy

>GoaI of the policy

>Process taken in developing the policy (e.g., consultation, research, benchmarking

>How the new policy impacts employees and expectations

>Plans for future reviews

Keep records of attendance

_______________ I

Cont, V

Intranet . and shaied Drives- This is advantageous as employees can access the

policy directly and, old versions. can easily be removed and replaced with updated versions.

E-mail Provide the link to: where the

employee can access the policy rather than the .actual policy so that it is always the most recent version
of the policy being accessed An organizational newsletter

Notice bords for key policies

Effective HR policy V V V

Communication strategy

Consider who will be impacted by the new policies, and procedures

Designate a staff member with a , strong grasp of technical writing and communication

Announce the new policies and procedures, using multiple avenues! methods

Consider policy training sessions

Employees sign statements of understanding

Need for an ongoing communication