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BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION


A base transceiver station or cell site (BTS) is a piece of equipment that
Facilitates wireless communication between user equipment (UE) and a
network. UEs are devices like mobile phones (handsets), WLL phones,
Computers with wireless internet connectivity, Wi-Fi and Wi-MAX
gadgets etc. The network can be that of any of the wireless
Communication technologies like GSM, CDMA, WLL, WAN, Wi-Fi,
WiMAX etc. BTS is also referred to as the radio base station (RBS),
node B (in 3G Networks) or simply, the base station (BS). For discussion
of the LTE standard the abbreviation eNB for enhanced node B is
widely used. So, to understand BTS we have to go through the basics of
GSM system because BTS is a part of a GSM system.

A BTS can be considered as a complex radio modem that takes the


uplink radio signal from MS and converts it into data for
transmission to other machine within the GSM Network, and
accept data from the GSM network and converts it into a radio
signal that can be transmitted to the MS.

A BTS performs all the transmissions and receptions functions


relating to the GSM radio interface along with a degree of signal
processing.

The BTS is used to form the coverage Cells in GSM and it are their
position that determines the network coverage and capacity.

Although a BTS is concerned with transmission and reception over


the radio interface. The management of the radio interface is
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performed by a BSC. The management functions includes the


allocations of radio channels to MS on call setup, determining
when a handover is required and indentifying a suitable target
BTS, and controlling the initialized power of an ms to ensure that
it is just sufficient to reach its serving BTS.

A BSC can control up to 40 plus BTS s. The BTS and BSC are

collectively known as base station sub system, BSS.

ASSESSORIES

TOWER
Tower is physical equipment, which gives the radio coverage to a geographical
area.

Types of Tower

Ground Base Tower (GBT)


Roof Top Tower (RTT)
Pole Type Tower (PTT)

ACCESSORIES OF

TOWER

Mount Pole
GSM Antenna
Microwave Antenna

Aviation Lamp
Horizontal and Vertical Ladder
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ACCESSORIES OF

SHELTER ROOM

Power Interface Unit


Switch Mode Power Supply
Battery Bank
Smoke Detector
PCM Module [used cooling the shelter room in the absence of electricity]

Diesel Generator
Digital Distribution Frame [crone Block]
Internal Ground Base
External Ground Base

DIESEL GENERATOR
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Power Supply to the BTS

1 CELL = 2 VOLT
TOTAL NO. OF CELLS = 24

= 48VOLT
TOTAL VOLTS POWER
DIESEL GENERATOR A.C CABLE
INTERFACE UNIT SMPS BATTERY BANK
D.C CABLE BTS
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Types (Equipments):

The Equipment providers provides several types 0f BTS there are NOKIA-
SEMEINS, ALKATEL LUSENT, MOTOROLA, ZTE, ERICSSION, Huawei etc.

Types of BTS Model (Ex. NOKIA)


METRO
Over the platform
ULTRA
Ground
FLEXI
Platform
Indoor
Outdoor

MR (MULTI RADIO)

Types of Ultra and Flexi

BTS:

INDOOR
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OUTDOOR

Caze
Open land
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CONFIGURATION
It is an equipment which makes easy the wireless connection between the user
equipment and the network.

The main configurations of equipments inside the BTS are:


1. Main Processor Unit

2. Clock Source
3. Interface Unit
4. Base band Unit
5. Power Supply Unit
6. RF Unit
7. Antenna
8. TMA

9. GPS
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MAIN PROCESSOR UNIT


The functions of this unit are as a brain for the
BTS: BTS initialization and self-testing
Configuration
O&M signaling
Software download
Collection and management of external and internal alarms
CLOCK SOURCE UNIT
The basic function of this unit is like a heart for the BTS:
Deliver a stable clocking pulse to all digital equipment
inside BTS.
INTERFACE UNIT
Interface unit have function to translate between Source data which has specific Electrical
Standard (E1, T1 or IP) to digital data and this data will deliver to other digital unit to
be next processed
BASE BAND UNIT
In the base band unit, the digital data will be processed and following the GSM
standard, this unit creates a data which ready to be feed to RF Unit.
POWER SUPPLY UNIT
The basic function of power supply unit is like a stomach for the BTS which produce a
power for whole equipments in the BTS. With input the AC voltage like food in the
human and produce DC voltage as a power. Power consumption of 1 Macro Outdoor BTS
which have 6 Transceivers
Unit is around 150Watt.
RF UNIT
RF Unit converts the digital signal to Radio Frequency --RF-- Signal (air interface signal)
following the GSM Standard. This signal type is still as an electrical signal.
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ANTENNA UNIT
Antenna as a traditional unit, have a function to convert electrical signal to
electromagnetic signal. This unit is very important unit for creating cell dimension.
Combination of horizontal - vertical polarization, antenna height and antenna tilting
influence the radiation pattern of cell.

TMA

TMA TMA Dual Duplex TMA Duplex TMA Simplex

A TMA unit comprises high Q band-pass filters, low noise amplifier (LNA) in a Balanced
configuration, current extractor and a LNA bypass circuit. The unique Patented mechanical
design has all electronics integrated within the filter body. This combined with the ventilation
system gives the unique field proven LGP Reliability. Lightning protection is implemented on all
ports. A micro processor Based system supervises parameters such as current consumption on
each RF Transistor, input voltage, VSWR and data communication to the BTS.
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NOKIA FLEXI BTS :-


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INDOOR OUTDOOR

Cooling fan, AC inside the shelter room Cooling fan inside the cabinet

No dust filter Dust filter present

At the time of commissioning indoor is selected At the time of commissioning outdoor is selected

RX1 TO RXIN RX1 TO RX1

RX2 TO RXIN RX2 TO RX2

GSM ANTENNA DUPLEXER MULTICOUPLER TRX

BB2F RRI GSM MICROWAVE D2 BUS .


D1 BUS . ITS A
ITS A BACK BONE
BACK BONE LINK
LINK

D1 BUS . ITS A
TX1 TO TX1
D2 BUS . ITS A
BACK BONE BACK BONE LINK TX2 TO TX2
LINK
BB2F TRX
GSM MICROWAVE RRI

COMBINER
TXOUT TO DUPLEXER GSM ANTENNA
TX1

TXOUT TO
TX2
D2 BUS ITS A LINK
. BACK BONE
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ULTRA BTS
P P P
O O O B B B B B B B R R R
W W W
E E E B B B B B B O
R
C
R
C
R
C 2 2 2 2 2 2 I R R R
A A A
R
D
R
D
DRX1
R
D
F F F F F F A I I I TX1
D2 BUS
TRX
RX1

RX1 DRX1
DRXIN RX1 DRX1 TX1 TX2 TXOUT
RXIN

RXIN
RX2

RX2
DRXIN
DRX2

DRX2
RX2 DRX2 TRX TX2 TX1 RX1 RX1ext

MULTI RX1 DRX1 TRX TX1


TX2 RX2 RX2ext

COULE RX2 DRX2 TRX TX2


TX2 TX1
R
TXOUT

MULTI TRX COMBINER


COULE TRX
R DUPLE
TRX
MULTI XER
COULE TRX COMBINER
R
MULTI TRX COMBINER
COULE TRX
R DUPLE
TRX
XER
TRX COMBINER
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ULTRA BTS CONFIGURATION


MULTICOUPLERE TRX
DUPLEXER
R

2+2+2 configuration
1+1+1 configuration
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3+3+3 configuration 4+4+4 configuration


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6+6+6 configuration
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II. Used for power supply.


III. 3 slots
IV. 1 power card control 6 TRX.

2. BASE BAND DOUBLE FREQUENCY


I. BB2F
II. 6 slots
III. It is use for transmission and receiving of signal.
IV. 1 BB2F control 2 TRX.
3. BASE OPERATIONAL INTERFACE
I. BOIA CARD
II. 1 slot
III. Its the mind of the BTS.
IV. It is use for commissioning.

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DUPLEXER

I. 3 slots, 6 port
II. Its a device which allows a transmitter operating on one frequency
and a receiver operating on a different frequency to share one
common antenna with a minimum interference.
III. RF receivers can be damaged if high level RF signal, like those
directly from a transmitter output, is applied to the receiver
antenna. Additionally receivers may not receive weak signals when
high noise levels or another signal near the receiver frequency is
present at the receivers antenna input.

IV. GSM 900 GSM 1800


DVJA DVDA

4. TRx
Synchronizing Signals Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling
Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling

I. 8 slots, 3 port
II. Use for transmission and reception of signals.
5. POWER AMPLIFIER
I. Amplifies the signal from TRx for transmission through the antenna

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6. COMBINER

Transmitting several frequencies from a single broadband antenna system requires the use of a
combining system, or combiner, composed of RF filters and interconnecting transmission line.
Generally, a combiner can be categorized as branched (star point) or balanced (constant-
impedance). These types may use band-reject (notch) or band-pass filters.

I. 3 or 6 ports
II. Combines feeds from several TRx so that they could be sent out
through a single antenna.
III. Two types:
Wide Band Combiner
Remote Band Combiner

7. MULTI COUPLER

I. 6 ports
II. A device for connecting several receivers or transmitters to one
antenna in such away that the equipment impedances are
properly matched to the antenna impedence.
III. GSM 900 GSM 1800
M2LA M2HA

8. TRANSMISSION MODULE

RRI
I. Radio Relay Interface.
II. 3 slots.
III. Use for transmission of E1.
IV. Two types of port:
Flexi Bus 1
Flexi Bus 2

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E1/T1
I. Even Transmission
II. Four types of ports:
INTERFACE1
IF2
IF3
IF4
T1
E1 Its the interference of 24 time slots each with bit
Its the interference of 32 time slots each with bit rate of 64 kbps
rate of 64 kbps The T1 system operates at 1.544MHz with a
The E1 system operates at 2.048MHz with a total of 24 time slots.
total of 32 time slots. The T1 pulse shape contains overshoot and
The E1 pulse shape is a perfectly rectangular undershoots and is driven on a line impedance of
pulse shape and is driven on a line impedance of 100.
120 or 75. In T1 systems, the frames are numbered 1 to
In E1 systems, the frames are numbered 0 to 12 in the SF/D4 format, and 1 to 24 in the ESF.
15 in the CRC-4 and CAS multiform formats. The The channel time slots are numbered 1 to 24.
channel time slots are numbered 0 to 31. The The bits are numbered 1 to 8, with the 8th bit
bits are numbered 1 to 8, with the 8th bit being being the least significant bit (LSB).
the least significant bit (LSB).

1-12 used as TCH


1-4 is 1st sector, 5-8 2nd sector, 9-12 3rd sector.
Every sector there is a synchronization &
signaling frame
12 signaling channel for 12 TRx. in 13 & 14
Enhanced Data for Protocol (EDAP): its use for GPRS activation. It
depends upon the
subscribers to use the GPRS system. It has max. 12 slots
There are 4 (OMU) Operation Maintains Unit

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ULTRA BTS CONFIGURATION

MULTICOUPLER TRX DUPLEXER


ER

1+1+1 configuration 2+2+2 configuration

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3+3+3 configuration 4+4+4 configuration

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COMBINER
TRX DUPLEXER

MULTICOUPLER

6+6+6 configuration

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SIGNAL PASSING IN A BTS


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FLEXI BTS
5

BUS CABLE RF CABLES POWER CABLE

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Grounding the Plinth


The plinth is grounded to the site main ground. The plinth must be grounded after
is installed.
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ESMA System Module Interfaces


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TRANSMISSION UNIT
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Transmission unit:

DTRX Module Interfaces

ER_
A
PWR
DP RxB
RxA RxB
Div Div
TxA RxA

Bus
25

TxB

Grounding
point
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Dual Duplexer Module interfaces


RxA4 RxB1
RxA3 RxB2
RxA2 RxB3
ExtA RxA1 RxB4
ANT A

ANT B

TxA
RxAO ExtB
RxAI
TxB
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Creating a cost-optimized 3+3 configuration
(splitting a sector)
A cost-optimized 3+3 Flexi EDGE
configuration can be installed in a stack, in
Flexi Cabinet for Indoor (FCIA) and Flexi Cabinet
for Outdoor (FCOA).
For creating this configuration, you need:
One System Module (ESMA)
three Dual TRX Modules (EXxA)
Two Dual Duplexer Modules (ERxA)
one transmission sub-module (FIxA)
Four Wideband Combiner Sub-modules (EWxx)

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Various Cards Description


1. POWER CARDS
I. PWSB
II. Used for power supply.
III. 3 slots
IV. 1 power card control 6 TRX.

2. BASE BAND DOUBLE FREQUENCY


I. BB2F
II. 6 slots
III. It is use for transmission and receiving of signal.
IV. 1 BB2F controls 2 TRX.
3. BASE OPERATIONAL INTERFACE
I. BOIA CARD
II. 1 slot
III. Its the mind of the BTS.
IV. It is use for commissioning
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DUPLEXER

I. 3 slots, 6 ports
II. Its a device which allows a transmitter operating on one frequency and a receiver
Operating on a different frequency to share one common antenna with a minimum interference.
III. RF receivers can be damaged if high level RF signal, like those directly from a transmitter output,
is applied to the receiver antenna. Additionally receivers may not receive weak signals when high
noise levels or another signal near the receiver frequency is present at the receivers antenna input .
IV.
GSM 900 GSM 1800
DVJA DVDA

4. TRx
Synchronizing Signals Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling
Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling Calling
I. 8 Slots , 3 Ports

II. Use of transmission and reception of signals.


5. POWER AMPLIFIER

I. Amplifies the signal from TRx for transmission through the antenna

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6. COMBINER

Transmitting several frequencies from a single broadband antenna system requires the use of a
combining system, or combiner, composed of RF filters and interconnecting transmission line.
Generally, a combiner can be categorized as branched (star point) or balanced (constant-
impedance). These types may use band-reject (notch) or band-pass filters.

I. 3 or 6 ports
II. Combines feeds from several TRx so that they could be sent out
through a single antenna.
III. Two types:
Wide Band Combiner
Remote Band Combiner

7. MULTI COUPLER
I. 6 ports
II. A device for connecting several receivers or transmitters to one
antenna in such away that the equipment impedances are
properly matched to the antenna impedance.
III.
GSM 900 GSM 1800
M2LA M2HA

8. TRANSMISSION MODULE

RRI
I. Radio Relay Interface.
II. 3 slots.
III. Use for transmission of E1.
IV. Two types of port:
Flexi Bus 1
Flexi Bus 2

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ALARM
Auto BTS Site Alarm Manager (ABSAM)

The ABASM is based on high speed microcontroller integrated with GSM Modem. The
Heart of the ABSAM is based on a ASTER GENERATOR AND BTS SITE CONTROLLER (GBSC)-1.2.
ABSAM is provided with sufficient Input & Output capability to perform the
monitoring of various site parameters and generate Alarms. The Alarms can be transmitted
to remote user using GSM Modem through SMS text messages.
Major functions of the Auto BTS Alarm Manager:

1. Monitors the output to load for managing the DG set.


2. Monitors the fuel level in the DG Set.
3. Monitors the engine of DG Set (Cylinder temperature, Oil Pressure) to
indicate fault in case of generator not producing the output.
4. Monitors the temperature of the enclosure/shelter.
5. Monitors the Power Plant and DG battery health.
6. Monitors the DG Run hours, Commercial Mains Run Hours and the
Power Plant Battery usage time.
7. Sends periodic reports of DG, Commercial Mains and Power Plant Battery Usage
Hours and transmits the same to remote location over GSM Modem in SMS format.
8. Can monitor upto 28 Alarm signals from the BTS site and transmits the
same to remote location over GSM Modem in SMS format.
Data Logging
Logs and records the events with date-time stamps. Hence it is possible
to go through the history.
Interfaces/Ports
GBSC in the panel provides 232 uplink - to send SMS to remote location using a GSM
Modem.
Parameters Monitored
1. Commercial Power voltage 3 phases RN, YN, BN and NE
2. DG voltages 1/3 phase and frequency
3. Load current 1/2/3 phases.
4. BTS Battery (48V) voltage.
5. DG Battery (12V) voltage.
6. DG cylinder temperature.
7. Fuel level.
8. DG Engine Oil pressure as digital input.

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Keypad
9 keys programming keypad
1. Auto/ Manual mode selection
2. Manual Start
3. Manual Stop
4. Up
5. Down
6. Left / Reset alarms
7. Right / Manual Load On
8. Escape
9. Enter
ABSAM Indications:
1. Visual indications through LEDs:
a) Mains Present ---- Green Led
b) Load on Mains ---- Amber Led
c) DG present ---- Green Led
d) Load on DG ---- Amber Led
e) Manual/Auto mode---- Yell
f) Low Fuel ---- Yellow Led
g) Global Alarm ---- Red Led
h) DG fault ---- Red Led

2. Faults/Alarms which are extended over SMS (GSM MODEM):


ALARMS SMS
a) DG Failed to Start Y
b) DG Failed to Stop Y
c) DG Fuel Low Y
d) DG Low Lube Oil Pressure Y
e) DG Alternator Fail Y
f) DG Low 12V Battery Y
g) DG Cylinder Hot Y
h) DG Over Speed Y
i) DG Freq Not OK Y
j) DG Volts Not OK Y
k) DG Low Fuel Warning Y
l) DG Under Speed Y

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m) DG V-Belt Fail Y
n) Fuel Theft Alarm Y
o) DG Contactor Fail Y
p) EB Contactor Fail Y
q) Mains Fail Y
r) Over Load Y
s) Room Hot Y
t) RT Sensor Faulty Y
u) Neutral Fail Y
v) GCU-RTC Failure Y
w)GCU-EEP Failure Y
x) SMS Link Fail Y
y) Emergency Shut OFF Y
z) Shelter Door Open Y
aa Low Power Plant Y
bb DG FAULT (Any Fault) Y

3. Visual Indications through LCD:


a) Low Oil Pressure
b) DG failed to start
c) DG failed to stop
d) Low fuel level
e) DG volts Not OK
f) Low 12V Battery
g) Fuel Warn Level
h) DG Frequency not ok
i) Over load
j) Emergency shutoff
k) Neutral Fail
l) GBSC EPROM failure
m) GBSC RTC failure
n) SMS Link Fail
o) Low 48V Battery
p) Room Hot
4. Status Information:
a) PC Mode (AUTO/Manual)
b) Mains /3 Phases Voltages (in Volts)
c) Load on EB
d) DG 1/3 Phases Voltages (in Volts)
e) Load on DG
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f) DG OFF
g) DG Running

h) DG Battery Voltage (in Volts)


i) 1/2/3 Phases load currents.(in Amps)
j) DG Run Hours ( HH:MM:SS format)
k) Current fuel levels in DG (in Liters)
l) DG frequency (in Hz)
m) DG running status
n) Status Time
o) Telecom Battery Voltage (in Volts)
p) Alarms None (if Alarms are not present)
q) Room Temperature (in centigrade)
r) Current Time in 24Hours Format
s) Status Log Description
ABSAM Module Metering

The ABSAM Controller will have following Metering


1. AC Load Currents in the 1/2/3 phases
2. Mains Voltages in the1/2/3 phases
3. DG voltages in 1/3 Phases
4. DG Frequency
5. Power Plant battery Voltage
6. DG Battery Voltage
7. DG Run Hours
8. Current Fuel Level
9. Current Time in 24 Hours format
10. Room Temperature
Generator and BTS Site Controller
I/P Range 7 to 15 V. reverse polarity
protection. Brown out voltage < 5 V
Over voltage with stand 38 V max.
Reverse voltage with stand 100V max.
Minimum Operating current 60 mA (LCD Back light off)
Maximum operating current 150 mA (LCD Back light ON)
Input from DG Set
Input Range 0 to 300 V AC (Ph-N) @ 50 Hz (1/3-
phases) Maximum Over Voltage 500 V
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Total Harmonic Distortion 15%

Input from commercial mains


Input Range 0 to 300 V AC (ph-N) @ 50 Hz (1/2/3 phases)
Maximum Over Voltage 500 V
Total Harmonic Distortion 15%
Other specifications
Operating Temperature Range -0 C to +70C
Dimension (GBSC) 196X96X100 mm
Weight 2.5kgs
Product Supply
The product Aster Auto BTS Alarm Manager is supplied with the following: Aster
Generator and BTS Site Controller (GBSC)-1 GSM MODEM (with coaxial cable and
Antenna)- 1 set RS 232C Cable (for connecting GBSC with MODEM- 1
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PART-1
Fill up all the cards as per requirement
Before commissioning give the power to BTS
Login the laptop in the LMP port . after that
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PART-2
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PART-3
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PART-4
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PART-5
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PART -6
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PART-7
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The Effects of VSWR on Transmitted Power


SWR: It is an indicator of reflected waves bouncing back & fore within the
transmitting line.

VSWR: It denotes 1.2:1 which means that the maximum standing wave amplitude i.e
1.2 times greater than the minimum.

Reflection occurs in transmission line due to discontinuity.

Discontinuity happens because:

I. An imperfection in an otherwise uniform transmission line.


II. When a transmission line is terminated with other than the characteristic
impedence.

Relationship to reflection coefficient


volt V max

V min

Frequency

The voltage component of SWR in an uniform transmission line consist of forward wave
(Vf) & super imposed on the reflected wave (Vr).

The reflection coefficient ()

Reflected Wave
= -------------------------
Forward Wave

Reflection coefficient is a complex number.


Reflection coefficient consists of real & imaginary parts. But we consider
the real part removing imaginary part.
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II =
Vr = Vf

Vmax is superimposed of reflected wave

Vmax = Vf + Vr = Vf + Vf
Vmin = Vf - Vr = Vf - Vf

V f + Vr 1+
SWR = --------------- ---------
Vf - Vr 1-

Conditions of reflection coefficient:

= +1 ; Maximum +ve reflection when transmission line is open circuit

=0 ; When no reflection when transmission line is perfectly match

= -1 ; Maximum -ve reflection when transmission line is short circuit

is the magnitude of always fall in the range of 0 & 1


VSWR 1

The intensity of the standing wave is referred to as the "Voltage


Standing Wave Ratio", or VSW R.

There are four quantities that describe the effectiveness of transferring power from
a line to a load or antenna:
i. The VSWR,
ii. The reflection coefficient
iii. The mismatch loss,
iv. The return loss.

For now, to obtain a feeling for their meaning, we show them graphically on
the next figure.
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This graphs three conditions:


a. line connected to a matched load;
b. line connected to a short monopole antenna that is not matched (antenna input
Impedance is 20 - j80 ohms, compared to the transmission line impedance of 50 ohms);
c. The line is open at the end where the antenna should have been connected.

Red Curve: Standing wave on line with open circuit at left end (antenna terminals)
[This is very bad: no power transferred past end of line]
Load Impedance =
Reflection Coefficient = 1
VSWR =
Mismatch Loss = dB
Return Loss = 0 dB
Blue Curve: Standing wave on 50-ohm line into short monopole antenna
[This is not too good; power into load or antenna is down -4.5 dB from that available
traveling down line]
Load Impedance = 20 - j80 ohms
Reflection Coefficient = 0.3805 - j0.7080
Absolute Value of Reflection Coefficient = 0.8038
VSWR = 9.2
Mismatch Loss = - 4.5 dB
Return Loss = -1.9 dB
Green Curve: Standing wave on 50-ohm line with matched 50-ohm load at end
[This is perfect; no standing wave; all power goes into antenna/load]
Load Impedance = 50 ohms
Reflection Coefficient = 0
VSWR = 1
Mismatch Loss = 0 Db
Return Loss = dB
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Formal Definition of VSWR and Seasoned Measurements


The voltage component of a standing wave in a uniform transmission line consists of the
forward wave (with amplitude Vf) superimposed on the reflected wave (with amplitude
Vr). Reflections occur as a result of discontinuities, such as an imperfection inane
otherwise uniform transmission line, or when a transmission line is terminated with other
than its characteristic impedance.

Since the antenna is usually located some distance from the transmitter, it
requires a feed line to transfer power between the two. If the feed line has no
loss, and matches Both the transmitter output impedance and the antenna input
impedance, then the Maximum power will be delivered to the antenna. In this
case the VSWR will be 1:1 and The voltage and the current will be constant over
the whole length of the feed line. Return loss is a measure in dB of the ratio of
power in the incident wave to that in the reflected wave, and we define it to have a
negative value.

Return loss = 10 log(Pr / Pi) = 20 log (Er / Ei)

Also of considerable interest is the mismatch loss. This is a measure of how much the
transmitted power is attenuated due to reflection.

It is given by the following relation:

Mismatch Loss = 10 log ( 1 -2 )

Formulas:
VSWR = Emax/Emin = (Efrd + Eref)/ (Efrd - Eref)
Where:
Emax = maximum voltage on the standing wave
Emin = minimum voltage on the standing wave
Efrd = incident voltage wave amplitude
Eref = reflected voltage wave amplitude
VSWR =(1 + )/(1 - )
Where:
is the reflection coefficient of the antenna (absolute value of voltage reflection)
Return loss = 10 log(Pr / Pi) = 20 log (Er / Ei)

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Ideally, with a perfect 1:1 VSWR there would be no reflected power. Consequently the
return loss on the feed line would appear to be infinite.

From the SeaSonde monitor below, you will get the forward and reflected power:

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RF FEEDER:
1. Low level of loss.
2. Low level of pickup & radiation.
3. Reasonably flexible.

WHEN VSWR INCREASE:


i. There is increase in the power line beyond the actual transmission power.
ii. Increase power will increase the RF loss.
iii. The increase voltage will cause dielectric loss
iv. The increase current will increase resistive loss.

Match impedance keep ideal power transfer.


Mismatch impedance keep high SWR & an increase loss in the transmission
line.

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E1/T1
I. Even Transmission
II. Four types of ports:
INTERFACE1
IF2
IF3
IF4
1-12 used as TCH
1-4 is 1st sector, 5-8 2nd sector, 9-12 3rd sectors.
Every sector there is a synchronization &
signaling frame
12 signaling channel for 12 TRx. in 13 & 14
Enhanced Data for Protocol (EDAP): its use for GPRS activation. It
depends upon the
subscribers to use the GPRS system. It has max. 12 slots
There are 4 (OMU) Operation Maintains Unit

E1 T1
Its the interference of 32 time slots each with bit Its the interference of 24 time slots
rate of 64 kbps each with bit rate of 64 kbps

The E1 system operates at 2.048MHz with a total The T1 system operates at 1.544MHz
of 32 time slots. with a total of 24 time slots.

The E1 pulse shape is a perfectly rectangular pulse The T1 pulse shape contains overshoot
shape and is driven on a line impedance of 120 or and undershoots and is driven on a line
75. impedance of 100.

In E1 systems, the frames are numbered 0 to In T1 systems, the frames are numbered 1 to
15 in the CRC-4 and CAS multiform formats. The 12 in the SF/D4 format, and 1 to 24 in the ESF.
channel time slots are numbered 0 to 31.
The bits are numbered 1 to 8, with the 8th bit being The channel time slots are numbered 1
the least significant bit (LSB). to 24. The bits are numbered 1 to 8,
with the 8th bit being the least
significant bit (LSB).
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TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Without cabinet, indoors and outdoors:
Installation Option with modules stacked on the floor or a shelf, mounted on
a wall, pole or mast
With cabinet, indoors and outdoors:
inside a Nokia Flexi cabinet or any 19 rack

Frequency Bands GSM/EDGE 800,900,1800,1900 MHz

Output Power
47/49.5/53 dBm
Maximum Capacity 216 TRx

Maximum number of 6
sectors
BTS dimensions 4+4+4 with 7 modules stack installation:
BTS height 800 mm (18 U)*
BTS width 447 mm
BTS depth 560 mm

Module
dimensions 133 mm (3U); 89 mm (2U)
447 mm
Module height
560 mm outdoor (422 mm without covers)
Module width
Module depth
11 kg heaviest single unit in stack configurations
Maximum weight
148 kg for 4+4+4 TRX indoor/outdoor BTS*

Power consumption 1 kW with 4+4+4 configuration

Nominal DC voltage 40.5 57 VDC

Nominal AC voltage 184 276 VAC

Operating 35 to +55 C
temperature

Ingress protection IP55


class
E1 (asymmetric): 8 x 2M PCMs
Transport E1/T1 (symmetric): 8 x 2M PCMs
RRI: Integrated microwave radio indoor and interconnect
unit with 2 x Flexbus interfaces
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TO CALCULATE NO. OF BTS


To determine the no and layout of BTSs the no of subscriber and GOS have
to be known.
The GOS is % of allowed congested calls and defines the quality of services.
If n=1 & T=90sec, then traffic per subscriber
A= (n*T)/3600= (1*90)/3600=25mE.

If following data exit for a network.

No of subscriber :10,000

Available frequency :24

GOS : 2%

Traffic per subscriber : 25mE this leads to calculate

Frequency per cell = 24/12=2

Traffic per cell=2*8-2(control ch.)=14 TCH.

Traffic per cell= 14 TCH with 2% GOS implies 8.2 Enlarge per cell.

No of subscriber per cell = 8.2E/25mE=328 sub/cell.

If there are 10000 subscribers then no. of cell needed is 10000/328=30 cell.

Therefore, no of 3 sector needed is 30/3=10.

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NIV-TECH SOLUTIONS PVT.LTD

MUX:

Multiplexer:-
It means transmitting a large number of information units over a smaller
number of channel and lines.

Advantages:
We use multiplexer for cost saving by connecting a multiplex and
demultiplex.

CONCLUSION

The information contained in this book has been compiled from various
sources for classroom discussions Only . We acknowledge respective sources .

NOT FOR SALE