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Original Title: Process Control Seborg Chapter 1

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Course Outline

Basic concepts of chemical process control:

incentives for process control; design aspects;

Chapter 1

hardware elements.

models; linearization of nonlinear systems; input-output

model; transfer functions.

first, second and higher order processes;

transportation lag; systems in series.

Dr.M.A.A.ShoukatChoudhury 1

Course Outline (contd)

Analysis and design of feedback control

systems:

concept of feedback control; feedback

controllers and final control elements; block

Chapter 1

stability; stability testing.

Bode diagrams; Nyquist plots;

Bode and Nyquist stability criteria;

control system design by frequency response

analysis.

Dr.M.A.A.ShoukatChoudhury 2

Course Outline (contd)

Analysis and design of advanced control systems:

control of system with large dead time or inverse

response; multiple-loop control systems;

feedforward and ratio control; adaptive and

Chapter 1

inferential control.

processes:

synthesis of alternative control configurations for

multiple-input and multiple-output processes;

interaction and decoupling of control loops.

Dr.M.A.A.ShoukatChoudhury 3

Course Info

Teacher: Dr. M. A. A. Choudhury

Textbook:

1. Seborg, D. E., Edgar, T.F., Mellichamp, D. A., (2004), Process

Dynamics and Control, 2nd edition, John Wiley

Chapter 1

Reference Books:

1. Karim, M.N., Riggs, J. B. (2006), Chemical and Bio-Process

Control, 3rd edition, Prentice Hall

2. Marlin, T. (2000), Process Control: Designing Processes and

Control Systems for Dynamic Performance, McGraw Hill

Course Website:

http://teacher.buet.ac.bd/shoukat/

Then click courses Process Control

Dr.M.A.A.ShoukatChoudhury 4

Chapter 1

Chapter 1

Authors

UC, Santabara UT, Austin UC, Santabara

Dr.M.A.A.ShoukatChoudhury 6

A Career in Process Control

- Requires that engineers use all of their chemical

engineering training (i.e., provides an excellent

technical profession that can last an entire career)

- Allows engineers to work on projects that can result

Chapter 1

provides good visibility within a company)

- Provides professional mobility.

- There is a shortage of experienced process control

engineers.

- Is a well paid technical profession for chemical

engineers.

Dr.M.A.A.ShoukatChoudhury 7

What is a Process?

Process:

- A Heat Exchanger (heating/cooling)

- A Chemical/Biological Reactor (make

Chapter 1

- A Separator (Distillation column or a

chromatographic column for separating

proteins)

- A Feed or holding tank

- Human body

- A Car

- A Computer Drive

Dr.M.A.A.ShoukatChoudhury 8

Chemical Process Industries (CPI)

Hydrocarbon fuels

Chemical products

Chapter 1

Agrochemicals

Man-made fibers

Dr.M.A.A.ShoukatChoudhury 9

Bio-Process Industries

useful products

Chapter 1

Pharmaceutical industry

Ethanol from grain industry

Dr.M.A.A.ShoukatChoudhury 10

Chapter 1

Dr.M.A.A.ShoukatChoudhury 11

Chapter 1

Dr.M.A.A.ShoukatChoudhury 12

CONTROL

Chapter 1

Empty vessel

Adjusting valves: Do you believe in automation?

plant to adjust the

valves when required?

Chapter 1

Adjusting valves: Do you believe in automation?

Overview of

entire process

Make

immediate

Chapter 1

adjustment

anywhere

Safe location

History of past

operation

What is Process Control?

Outputs

Inputs

Chapter 1

(effects)

(cause)

Process

Output:

off-specification

Consequence:

Less profit!

Dr.M.A.A.ShoukatChoudhury 16

Benefits of Improved Control

New Controller

Old Controller

Concentration

Limit

Concentration

Limit

Impurity

Impurity

Chapter 1

Time Time

Improved Performance

Concentration

Limit

Impurity

Time

Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury 17

Objectives of Process Control

Maintain a stable process operation

Appropriate instruments/sensors are to be

implemented to operate under fail/safe

conditions.

Chapter 1

output(s).

Make sure when we make desired changes (set

point) to the process, it does achieve the desired

goal.

Make sure the process always remain within a

tight specification.

Maximize the profitability of the plant

Dr.M.A.A.ShoukatChoudhury 18

Process Dynamics

a) Refers to unsteady-state or transient behavior.

b) Steady-state vs. unsteady-state behavior

i. Steady state: variables do not change with time

ii. But on what scale? e.g., noisy measurement

Chapter 1

situations:

i. Examples: ChE 111, 201, 203, 405

d) Continuous processes: Examples of transient behavior:

i. Start up & shutdown

ii. Grade changes

iii. Major disturbance: e.g., refinery during stormy or hurricane

conditions

Dr. M. iv.

A. A.Equipment

Shoukat Choudhury or instrument failure (e.g., pump failure) 19

e) Batch processes

i. Inherently unsteady-state operation

ii. Example: Batch reactor

1. Composition changes with time

2. Other variables such as temperature could be constant.

Chapter 1

Process Control

Objective: to maintain or operate a process at the desired

operating conditions safely and efficiently, while satisfying

environmental and product quality requirements.

a) Large scale, continuous processes:

i. Oil refinery, ethylene plant, pulp mill

ii. Typically, 1000 5000 process variables are measured.

1. Most of these variables are also controlled.

Dr.M.A.A.ShoukatChoudhury 20

Process Control (contd.)

iv. Sampling rates:

1. Process variables: A few seconds to minutes

Chapter 1

b) Manipulated variables

i. We implement process control by manipulating process

variables, usually flow rates.

1. Examples: feed rate, cooling rate, product flow rate,

etc.

ii. Typically, several thousand manipulated variables in a

large continuous plant

Dr.M.A.A.ShoukatChoudhury 21

Process Control (contd.)

c) Batch plants:

i. Smaller plants in most industries

1. Exception: microelectronics (200 300 processing

steps).

Chapter 1

d) Question: How do we control processes?

i. We will consider an illustrative example.

Dr.M.A.A.ShoukatChoudhury 22

1.1 Illustrative Example: Blending system

Chapter 1

Notation:

w1, w2 and w are mass flow rates

x1, x2 and x are mass fractions of component A

Dr.M.A.A.ShoukatChoudhury 23

Assumptions:

1. w1 is constant

2. x2 = constant = 1 (stream 2 is pure A)

3. Perfect mixing in the tank

Control Objective:

Chapter 1

x1(t). Flow rate w2 can be adjusted for this purpose.

Terminology:

Controlled variable (or output variable): x

Manipulated variable (or input variable): w2

Disturbance variable (or load variable): x1

Dr.M.A.A.ShoukatChoudhury 24

Design Question. What value of w2 is required to have

x = xSP ?

Overall balance:

0 = w1 + w2 w (1-1)

Chapter 1

Component A balance:

w1 x1 + w2 x2 wx = 0 (1-2)

x2 = 1 , then solve Eq. 1-2 for w2 :

xSP x1

w2 = w1 (1-3)

1 xSP

Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury 25

Equation 1-3 is the design equation for the blending

system.

If our assumptions are correct, then this value of w2 will keep x

xSP

at . But what if conditions change?

Chapter 1

the set point xSP ?

As a specific example, if x1 > x1 and w2 = w2 , then x > xSP.

Method 1. Measure x and adjust w2.

Intuitively, if x is too high, we should reduce w2;

Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury 26

Manual control vs. automatic control

Proportional feedback control law,

w2 ( t ) = w2 + K c xSP x ( t ) (1-4)

1. where Kc is called the controller gain.

2. w2(t) and x(t) denote variables that change with time t.

Chapter 1

the deviation from the set point, xSP x(t).

Chapter 1

Method 2. Measure x1 and adjust w2.

Thus, if x1 is greater than x1, we would decrease w2 so that

w2 < w2 ;

x1(t) and w2(t) to get a control law:

Chapter 1

xSP x1 ( t )

w2 ( t ) = w1 (1-5)

1 xSP

Chapter 1

Because Eq. (1-3) applies only at steady state, it is not clear

how effective the control law in (1-5) will be for transient

conditions.

This approach is a combination of Methods 1 and 2.

Chapter 1

If a larger tank is used, fluctuations in x1 will tend to be damped

out due to the larger capacitance of the tank contents.

However, a larger tank means an increased capital cost.

Chapter 1

1.2 Classification of Control Strategies

Method Measured Manipulated Category

Variable Variable

Chapter 1

1 x w2 FBa

2 x1 w2 FF

3 x1 and x w2 FF/FB

4 - - Design change

Feedback Control:

Distinguishing feature: measure the controlled variable

It is important to make a distinction between negative feedback

and positive feedback.

Engineering Usage vs. Social Sciences

Advantages:

Corrective action is taken regardless of the source of

Chapter 1

the disturbance.

Reduces sensitivity of the controlled variable to

disturbances and changes in the process (shown later).

Disadvantages:

No corrective action occurs until after the disturbance

has upset the process, that is, until after x differs from

xsp.

Very oscillatory responses, or even instability

Dr.M.A.A.ShoukatChoudhury 34

Feedforward Control:

Distinguishing feature: measure a disturbance

variable

Advantage:

Correct for disturbance before it upsets the process.

Chapter 1

Disadvantage:

Must be able to measure the disturbance.

No corrective action for unmeasured disturbances.

Dr.M.A.A.ShoukatChoudhury 35

The key elements and principles of a feedback loop

Cause and Effect

Exercise: The key

elements and

principles of a

feedback loop

Chapter 1

Is this a valid feedback

valve L control loop?

sensor

pump

pump valve

Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury 36

The key elements and principles of a feedback

loop Cause and Effect

Exercise: You want to control the level, but you can

only measure the flow in. What is your

strategy? Are you using feedback?

Chapter 1

sensor F

valve

pump

pump valve

Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury 37

The key elements and principles of a feedback

loop Cause and Effect

Exercise: The key elements and principles of a

feedback loop

What is being measured?

Chapter 1

Empty vessel

The key elements and principles of a feedback

loop Cause and Effect

Exercise: The key elements and principles of a

feedback loop

What is being measured?

Chapter 1

v8

F2 F5

v3

T5 P1

T4

F1 T1 T3 F3 T6 F4

L1

v1 v5 v6 L2

T7

v2 v7

T2 T8

T9 F6

Hot Oil Hot Oil

2. The key elements and principles of a

feedback loop Cause and Effect

Exercise: The key elements and principles of a

feedback loop

What is being measured?

Chapter 1

v8

F2 F5

v3

T5 P1

T4

F1 T1 T3 F3 T6 F4

L1

v1 v5 v6 L2

T7

v2 v7

T2 T8

T9 F6

Hot Oil Hot Oil

v4

The key elements and principles of a feedback

loop Cause and Effect

Exercise: The key elements and principles of a

feedback loop

Chapter 1

into shell

Cooling water into

tubes

We want to

control the hot

outlet

temperature.

The key elements and principles of a feedback

loop Cause and Effect

Exercise: The key elements and principles of a

feedback loop

Chapter 1

Cooling water into shell

into tubes

We want to

control the hot

outlet

temperature.

TC

Figure 1.7 Hierarchy of

Chapter 1

Chapter 1

steps in control

system development

Acknowledgement

2. Prof. T. Marlin

Chapter 1

Dr.M.A.A.ShoukatChoudhury 45

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