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# Fatima Alihodi

ENS202- Thermodynamics
3rd of March, 2017.

Assignment 1
Manometer that I made can be used to measure absolute and gage pressure. Water that is
put inside will move at the scale after we put balloon that is blown by one single blow of air.
On the measuring scale it is than possible to see how much did water move up, on that way
enabling us to determine amount of pressure applied. So, since this is U manometer, when
exposed to athmosphere the hight of the liquid in the columns will be equal on both sides.
When pressure applied (in our case balloon with air inside), this state will change and
difference in column hights will indicate difference in pressure.

## Measuring range of this manometer is up to 50cm on scale. Using manometers for

measurements is based on gravity and density of the liquid, and both of those are physical
properties which give specific standard for U-tube manometer accuracy called NIST.
According to this, we can see that manometer measurement are quite accurate.

Pressure infiltrated into the balloon also shows us capacity of our lungs since we can
calculate the difference of pressures caused liquid to change the position, and according to it
we can see how much of air our lungs were able to uptake in order to produce this specific
amount of pressure.

1. How can you increase a measuring range of your manometer? Can you use similar
design to measure higher values of pressure, such as pressure in bicycle tail?
We can use longer pipe or different kinds of fluids for manometer. Instead of regular
water can be used mercury, oil or some other liquid with higher density than water.
Yes, similar designs can be used to measure pressure such in bicycle tail, similar as
that one used to measure wind speed.

## 2. Does diameter of tube affect your manometer measurements? Explain.

No, diameter does not affect manometer measurements. Height that will be reached
depends on the pressure drop across the manometer and the density of fluid which is
used in manometer. We know that differential pressure across our manometer
arms is equal to the density of the fluid which is multiplied by the acceleration due
to the gravity, and multiplied by the difference in hight between the manometer
arms, lower difference in height between the manometer arms can be achieved by a
denser liquid used. Since we used regular water at normal athmospheric pressure,
we can say our measurements are standard and accurate.

3. Can you use this type of manometer to measure wind speed? How?
U tube manometers can be used and were used in history to measure wind speed. It
was done by makind one end of bent which was in horizontal direction facing the
wind, and vertical one to remain parallel to wind flow. If the wind was blowing into
the mouth of the tube, it would cause an increase of pressure on one side of the
manometer. Due to this, wind over the open end of a vertical tube would cause little
change in pressure on the other side of the manometer and the resulting elevation
difference which would be obtained in U tube is indication of the wind speed.

II.
Prices: heating oil: 1,67 KM/l
natural gas: 21,24 KM/GJ
electricity: cheaper period 9,4 kf/kWh
expensive period: 18,7 kf/kWh

HEATING OIL:
If we taka in consideration that most houses in BiH are 7-liter houses (residents
simply open windows for ventilation) than we calculate price of heating oil is 1,67
KM/l with energetic value of 10kWh, than we get:
Cost = 1,67 KM/l/ 10 kWh= 0,167 KM/kWh
but, where usability is 90%, gives us price of 0,185 KM/kWh of heating evergy that
we get in places where people lives.

NATURAL GAS:
The price of natural gas is 21,24 KM/GJ (1GJ =277,8 kWh), than we get:
cost= 21,24 KM/GJ/ 277,8 kWh= 0,076 KM (usability 100%)
Cost= 0,076 KM/ 0,9= 0,084 KM (usability 90%)
0,084 KM/kWh of useful heating evergy in places where people live.

ELECTRICITY:
Period of cheap el. Is 0,0904 divided by 3,5 of COP gives us 2,7 kf/ kWh
Period of expensive el. Is 18,7 kf/kWh divided by 3,5 of COP, gives us 5,3 kf/kWh.
At my home bill for heating in January was 80 KM, since it is central heating system in
my hometown, and bill for electricity was 40 KM. Probably the most efficient heating
system in BiH is wood heating since price of wood per meter cube is 70KM. For
winter season you would need around 10 m3, depending on how big your flat is
(around 70m2 for living). Also, most efficient heating system would be solar heating,
which unfortunatelly is not present in our country in such a manner that everyone
could use it, since it's installation is very expensive.

III.

Claim of a somebody that one pannel can be used to replace the electric energy
reguirements is, according to this data, not true, since we can see at the final
calculation that we need 15 pannels in order to meet electrical needs of the house
which uses 13,33kW per day. If we presume that a day lasts on average 8 hours (1)
the power gained on daily bases would be 10,260 Wh and per year 3,744 kWh. This is
of course approximation only. On the other side, in places where the sunbeams hit
the ground exactly perpendicularly and the daylight lasts longer, the power gain
would be higher and the power consumption would be immensely lower (less
heating, longer days so less lighting required etc.). In such places, one panel would
more than suffice. If we look at the other extreme, one of the poles, where sunlight
hits the surface at a steep angle and where a lot of heating would be required, the
panels would not even remotely suffice.

Here I stated an 8 hour long day since one would have to take the average for both
winter and summer as well as the averages for power gain depending on the angle
(at 3 oclock sunbeams hit the surface at a more optimal angle than at 7 but both is
considered daytime). An 8 hour day seemed like a fer approximation.