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Matter, Solid, Lquid, Gas; Characteristics of Solid,
Liquid and Gas

1. Gaseous state. 7. (i) Rate of diffusion : solid < liquid < gas.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1 (ii) Particle motion : solid < liquid < gas
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1 + 1
2. CNG, LPG.
CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) +
8. Water is liquid at room temperature as it takes
the shape of the container in which it is put
3. Solubility in water.
and it shows fluidity.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1 + 1
4. Liquid. 9. (a) Particles of matter have space between
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1
5. Aerosols are mixture of liquid or solid in gas. (b) Particles of matter are continuously moving
Examples : Fog, Mist, Smoke. (Any two) 1 + 1 (c) Particles of matter attract each other
6. (a) solids, particles are closely packed (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014) 1 3
(b) solids, particles are closely packed. 10. (a) Solids are incompressible because the
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015) 1 + 1 particles are closely packed and there is no
space for their movement.
Detailed Answer :
(b) The particles of solids do not have any
(a) Solids have maximum force of attraction intermolecular space and hence no movement.
between the particles and are closely packed. Therefore, they have negligible kinetic energy.
(b) Solids have minimum spaces in between 1 + 1
particles as the particles are closely packed. 11. Rubber band changes shape under force and
regains the shape when the force is removed,
so it is classified as a solid. 3

Compressibility. 5. Gases are more compressible due to weak
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forces of attraction between molecules of
2. No. gases and more intermolecular spaces.
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(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1 + 1
3. Temperature and pressure.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 2 6. In case of gaseous state, due to negligible force

4. (a) Gas (b) Solid of attraction they can move freely. That is why
(c) Liquid (d) Solid rate of diffusion is faster in gases.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 4
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 2

S O L U T I O N S P-1
7. Boiling point decreases because boiling point is 9. (a) (i) Gases and liquids do not have fixed
the temperature at which vapour pressure of a
liquid becomes equal to atmospheric pressure.
3 (ii) Gases and liquids flow easily.
8. (a) Naphthalene being volatile converts from (or any other relevant points)
solid to gas directly by the process called (b) The shape does not change when pressed
sublimation. Therefore, no solid residue is i.e. it is hard and rigid.
left after sometime as it takes the heat from
It has a definite shape and has high
surroundings and sublimes.
(b) Particles of gas have negligible force of
(or any other relevant points)
attraction between them and possess high
kinetic energy. Therefore, they move very fast (c) The heat energy supplied is taken up
to fill the vessel completely in which they are by solid particles and helps in melting or
kept. 1 + 1 (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2013) 2 + 2 + 1

1. Water. and increasing the pressure gases can be changed
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1 into liquids and some solids can be changed into
gases on decreasing the pressure.
2. Potassium permanganate, Copper sulphate. This happens with gases as there is lots of
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) + space between the particles of a gas and upon
applying high pressure particles come close to
3. Diffusion. each other which upon cooling gets liquified.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1 1+1+1
4. (i) Rate of diffusion of liquids is higher 8. (a) Differences between Solids and Gases :
because particles of liquid move freely. S.
(ii) Particles of liquid have greater spaces Solids Gases
between each other than solids.
(i) Interparticle space is Interparticle space
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014) 1 + 1
small so the distance is maximum so the
5. (a) In minute pores of sponge, air is trapped. is less. distance is more.
When pressed, air is expelled out so it is (ii) Interparticle force Interparticle force of
compressible. It is a solid as it has definite
of attraction is attraction is minimum.
shape and volume.
(b) Rubber band changes shape under force
and regain shape when force is removed. (iii) Solids are rigid and Gases are not rigid and
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015, 2014) 1 + 1 non-compressible. they are compressible.
6. When pressure is applied on the surface of ice, (b) The two factors that determine the rate of
the change into liquid state is assisted. Thus, diffusion of a liquid in another liquid are :
melting point decreases. 3 (i) Temperature
7. The physical state of matter can be changed by
(ii) Pressure 3+2
changing the pressure. By lowering temperature

1. Particles of matter are continuously moving. 3. Oxygen < milk < salt.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1
4. (a) We can liquify gases by applying pressure
2. Liquids have less force of attraction between and reducing temperature.
molecules i.e. less mass and more volume as (b) On a rainy day, the amount of water vapours
compared to solids. present in air (humidity) is already high, so,
the rate of evaporation decreases.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2013) 1
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014) 1 + 1

P-2 S C I E N C E IX
5. A wooden chair is solid at room temperature (ii) Intermolecular space :
because : Iron nail < Kerosene < Oxygen gas
(i) It has definite shape and volume,
(b) (i) Rigidity : It is the property of matter
(ii) It cannot be compressed.
to maintain shape against external
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1 + 1
6. During the inter conversion of a solid into (ii) Compressibility : It is the property of
a liquid, and liquid into gas, on increasing matter by virtue of which molecules
the temperature the kinetic energy of the of matter are brought closer to each
molecules increases and force of attraction other.
among molecules decreases and vice versa.
(iii) Diffusion : The inter mixing of
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 3
the particles of matter is known as
diffusion. 1+1+1+1+1
7. (a) (i) Force of attraction :
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)
Oxygen gas < Kerosene < Iron nail

Change in State of Matter, Evaporation, Condensation

1. The amount of heat energy that is required 6. (a) The amount of heat energy required to
to change 1 kg of a solid into liquid at change 1 kg of a liquid to gas at atmospheric
atmospheric pressure at its melting point is pressure at its boiling point is called latent
known as the latent heat of fusion.
heat of vaporization.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2013) 1
(b) (i) Particles gain heat energy from the
palm and evaporate causing the palm
2. Evaporation.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1 to feel cool.
When we sit under a fan during
3. Sublimation is the change of solid directly into summer, rate of evaporation of sweat
the gaseous state without passing through the
increases due to increase in wind
liquid state. e.g. ammonium chloride and
naphthalene. speed. Sweat takes heat from body to
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1 + 1 evaporate leaving us cool.
4. Steam at 373 K will give more severe burns. (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2013) 1 + 1 + 1
Steam has more heat content because of latent
7. (i) The liquid is nail paint remover which
heat of vaporization. When it touches our body
contains an ether or acetone.
it gives this extra amount of heat causing more
severe burns. 2 (ii) Ether evaporates by taking heat energy
from the hand (body). Thats why she felt cold.
5. Particles of salt intermixed with the particles (iii) She exhibits knowledge, carefulness and
of water in spaces between them. educating nature towards her daughter.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016)2 1+1+1

1. 78 + 273 = 351 K 2.
100C + 273 = 373 K
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1 0C + 273 = 273 K
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) +

S O L U T I O N S P-3
3. False, it can occur at room temperature also. (vii) Keep a careful eye on the thermometer reading
e.g., Naphthalene balls sublimes at room till most of the water had vaporised.
temperature. 1+1 (viii) Record observations.
(b) The temperature remains constant during the
4. (a) Cotton clothes are good absorber of melting of ice even though heat is supplied
sweat. During evaporation of sweat, heat is regularly as the temperature is supplied for
lost by the body which makes us feel cool. changing the state of matter. The heat of
(b) On a hot day, evaporation of water from temperature is consumed by the particles of
the pot through its pores becomes faster. During ice and they vibrate faster and breaks the force
evaporation, it takes heat from the water of pot. of attraction and becomes liquid.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1 + 1 Thermometer
8. Evaporation is change of a liquid into vapours stand Glass stirrer
at any temperature below its boiling point.
Evaporation is a surface phenomenon; it
takes place at all temperatures. Boiling is a
bulk phenomenon. It takes place at fixed Beaker
When a liquid evaporates, it draws the latent
heat of vaporization from anything which
it touches or is in contact with. Thus causes
cooling. 1+1+1 Burner
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)
6. (a) Melting point of a solid is defined as the (a)
temperature at which a solid melts to become a Thermometer
liquid at the atmospheric pressure. Iron
Activity : stand Glass stirrer
(i) Take about 150 g of ice in a beaker and suspend
a laboratory thermometer so that its bulb is in
contact with the ice.
(ii) Start heating the beaker on a low flame.
(iii) Note the temperature when the ice starts
melting. Water
(iv) Note the temperature when all the ice has
converted into water.
(v) Record your observations for this conversion of
solid to liquid state.
(vi) Now, put a glass rod in the beaker and heat
while stirring till the water starts boiling. (b) 3+1+1

1. Gas : It is a stable state as compared to vapour. 3. Heat energy is needed to melt a solid because
e.g. O2, H2. there exist forces of attraction between the
molecules and heat energy is essential to
Vapour : It is an unstable state. On normal overcome the forces of attraction.
cooling, vapour changes into liquid state. Latent heat of fusion is the amount of heat energy
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) + required to change 1 kg of solid into liquid at
atmospheric pressure at its melting point.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1+1
2. Acetone has very low boiling temperature.
It will evaporate taking latent heat of 4. (a) Spreading the clothes for drying increases
vaporization from the palm. The hand looses the surface area which helps it to dry faster as
the rate of evaporation increases with increase
heat and gets cooled leaving temperature on
in surface area.
hand low. 1
(b) Humidity
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1 evaporation

P-4 S C I E N C E IX
On a rainy day humidity increases, which (i) At room temperature, wate has no shape but
decreases the rate of evaporation. 1+1 has fixed volume.
(ii) It takes the shape of the container is which it is
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)
5. Ice melts at 0C.
(iii) It can flow.
The temperature remain same when it changes
to liquid state because the heat supplied is 7. (a) The process of conversion of liquid
continuously used up in changing the state state into vapour state at any temperature
from solid to liquid by overcoming the forces below the boiling point of the liquid is
of attraction between the particles. The process called evaporation.
is known as latent heat of fusion.  1+2 Cotton is a better absorber of water than
nylon. So, during summer, cotton clothes
6. Fluidity, takes shape of the container, fixed absorb sweat, which on evaporation causes a
volume. cooling sensation in the body.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 3 (b) Not exactly same. Boiling of liquid takes
place at its boiling point, whereas evaporation
etailed Answer :
can occurs at any temperature or room
At room temperature, water is liquid because temperature.
it has the following characteristic of liquid : (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014) 1 + 2 + 2

1. Water has more energy than ice at same Detailed Answer :
temperature because particles in water have The temperature remains constant as the
heat gets used up in changing the state by
absorbed more energy during the change of
overcoming the forces of attraction between
state. the particles.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1 For example, a solid melts on heating. Its
temperature does not rise until the entire solid
2. TC < TB < TA. is converted into liquid. This heat energy gets
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1 hidden into the contents and is known as the
latent heat.
3. There are pores in an earthen pot through 6. (a) Worksheet 7 Ans 7 (a)
(b) Differences between Boiling and
which the liquid inside the pot evaporates.
Evaporation :
This evaporation makes the water inside the
pot cool. In this way, water kept in an earthen Boiling Evaporation
pot becomes cool during summers. 3
(a) Boiling occurs at a Evaporation takes
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015) particular temperature place when the liquid
4. i.e. boiling point of is placed in an open
Solid Liquid Gas that liquid. container at any
temperature below
(a) Density Highest Intermediate Lowest its boiling point.
(b) Diffusion Negligible Slower Rapid (b) Heating takes place Cooling takes place
during boiling. during evaporation.
(c) Particle No Yes, but Yes, free
confined motion (c)
(i) When temperature is increased, the
rate of evaporation increases because
1 +1 +1
with the increase of temperature, more
5. Latent heat.
number of particles get enough kinetic
Heat is used up in changing the state by
energy to go into the vapour state.
overcoming the force of attraction between
(ii) When humidity is decreased, the rate
the particles.
of evaporation increases and vice-
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015) 3
versa. 1+2+2

S O L U T I O N S P-5
Practical Based Answers

1. To determine accurate reading of boiling the bubbles do not form it can develop lot of
heat and possibly explode. Addition of stones
point of water.
given lots of surface area for bubbles to form
It is because uniform temperature of the and release the energy gradually. 2
vapours surrounds the bulb above the surface 5. The value of the boiling point does not depend
of boiling water. on the temperature of the liquid when pressure
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 2 is kept constant. Thus, all the three students
will observe same boiling point. 2
2. Range = 210C to 110C
6. (i) The bulb of the thermometer should be
The bulb of the thermometer should be kept completely inside the crushed ice.
surrounded with crushed ice so as to record
(ii) The solution should be stirred regularly
correct temperature of the melting ice.
to keep a uniform temperature.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 2
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015) 1 + 1
3. t1temperature when the ice starts melting. 7.
Least count = 10/20
t2temperature when the ice completely = 0.5 (s)
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014) 2
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 2
4. Pieces of pumice stones are placed in the 8. (i) Crushed ice preferably from distilled water.
container before heating to avoid bumping (ii) When whole of the ice melts and
of liquid when the temperature increase. On temperature becomes constant.
boiling, water releases energy as bubbles. If (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014) 1 + 1

P-6 S C I E N C E IX


Elements, Compounds, Mixtures, Heterogeneous and
Homogeneous Mixtures

1. A substance is a kind of matter that cannot be 6. Milk of magnesia - Sol, Smoke- Aerosol,
separated into other kinds of matter by any
physical process. 1 Cheese - Gel, Mist - Aerosol,
2. A substance which is made up of only a single Mud- Sol, Butter - Gel.
type of particle is called a pure substance. 1 6
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)
3. (i) Metalloids are the elements which have
intermediate properties between metals and
7. (a) S. No. Metals Non - Metals
(ii) Boron, silicon and germanium. (Any two) (i) Lustrous Non - lustrous
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1 + 1
(ii) Ductile Non-ductile
4. Concentration of a solution is the amount of (iii) Malleable Non-malleable
the solute present in a given amount (mass or
volume) of solution (or solvent). (iv) Good Poor conductors of
Dissolve 10 g of sugar in (100 10) = 90 g of conductors heat and electricity.
of heat and
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1 + 1
5. Metalloids : Elements having intermediate (b) Metalloids : Intermediate properties between
properties between those of metals and non- metals and non-metals e.g. silicon, boron.
metals e.g., Boron, Silicon, Germanium.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 3+2
(Any two)
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 1+2

8. Two types of pure substances are elements and compounds.

Difference between elements and compounds are :
S.No. Compound Element
(i) A compound contains atoms of different ele- An element is a pure chemical substance made
ments chemically combined together in a fixed of same type of atom.
(ii) Compounds contain different elements in Elements are distinguished by their atomic
a fixed ratio arranged in a defined manner number (number of protons in their nucleus).
through chemical bonds.
(iii) A compound can be separated into simpler Elements cannot be broken down into simpler
substances by chemical methods/reactions. substances by chemical reactions.
(iv) The list of compounds is endless. There are about 117 elements that have been
observed. Can be classified as metal, non-metal
or metalloid.
(v) A compound is represented using a formula. An element is represented using symbols.
(vi) Water (H2O), Sodium chloride (NaCl), Sodium Iron, copper, silver, gold, nickel etc.
bicarbonate (NaHCO3) etc.

S O L U T I O N S P-7
1. Mixtures are constituted by more than one kind Metalloids have properties intermediate
of pure form of matter, i.e. pure substances. 1 between those of metals and non-metals.
2. Homogeneous mixtures and heterogeneous (any one in each)
mixtures. 1 (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1 + 1
6. When no more solute can be dissolved in the
3. Heterogeneous.
solution at a given temperature then the given
This mixture will have :
solution is saturated. On cooling, crystals of
(i) Physically distinct parts, solute separate out from the solution. 3
(ii) Non-uniform composition 1+2 7. (a) (i) By increasing the temperature/by
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) heating the solution.
(ii) By increasing the amount of solvent
4. In smoke, dispersed phase is solid and
dispersing medium is gas. In fog, dispersed
S. Homogeneous Heterogeneous
phase is liquid and dispersing medium is gas.
No. Mixture Mixture
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) (i) Uniform Non-uniform composition.
5. Metals, non-metal, metalloids. (ii) No distinct Distinct boundaries of
Metals have lustre / conduct heat / ductile / boundaries of separation.
malleable / sonorous / conduct electricity etc. separation. e.g., sand + water.
Non-metals have variety of colours / poor e.g., sugar + water.
conductors of heat and electricity etc. 2+3

1. A mixture that has uniform composition Non-metals : (i) Non-metals are non-sonorous
throughout its mass is called a homogeneous as they do not produce any sound.
(ii) Non-metals are fragile.
mixture. 1
(iiii) Non-metals are non-ductile. 1+1
2. A mixture that does not have uniform
6. Air is a mixture.
composition throughout its mass is called a
(i) Air can be separated into its constituents like
heterogeneous mixture. 1 oxygen, nitrogen etc. by the physical process
3. A : Uniform composition/particles not visible. of fractional distillation.
B : Non-uniform composition/particle may (ii) Air shows the properties of all the gases
present in it.
be visible.
(iii) Air has a variable composition.

Therefore, A is homogeneous and B is (iv) Liquid air does not have a fixed boiling point.
heterogeneous. 2+1 (Any three) 1 3
4. (a) This means that 36 g of NaCl can dissolve (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)
in 100 g of water at 293 K and at 1 atm 7. (a) (i) Carbon and oxygen are present in a
pressure (Solubility). fixed ratio of 3 : 8 by mass in carbon dioxide.
(ii) The constituents of carbon dioxide cannot
(b) More than 36 g because increase in
be separated by simple physical methods.
temperature will increase the solubility of
a solid in a liquid. (b) (i) 24 carat gold is a pure substance.

(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1 + 1 (ii) Air is a homogeneous mixture in which the

5. Metals : constituents are uniformly distributed through

(i) Metals are sonorous i.e., they produce sound. out without any clear boundary of separation.
(ii) Metals can be beaten into thin sheets i.e., (iii) Concrete is a heterogeneous mixture that
malleable. does not have uniform constituents. 2+3
(iii) Metals can be drawn into wires i.e., ductile.

P-8 S C I E N C E IX
1. A homogeneous mixture of two or more
substances is called a solution. 1 mass of solute
4. Mass% = 100
2. Milk is a mixture of water, fat and proteins. 1 mass of solution

mass of solute 50
3. Mass % = mass of solution 100 = 100
50 + 350

40 = 125%
= 100
40 + 100
= 100 = 28.57 1 + 1
140 (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)

(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)

Property Soda water Milk Muddy water
(a) Homogeneity Homogeneous Homogeneous Heterogeneous
(b) Filtration Cannot be separated Cannot be separated Can be separated
(c) Tyndall effect Does not show Shows Shows
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 6

6. When no more quantity of X substance can be (b) (i) Centrifugation : Two components
dissolved in a solution at a given temperature, having difference in densities can be
then the solution is saturated with respect to separated by centrifugation. When
X. When a hot saturated solution is allowed the mixture is rotated fast, the lighter
to cool, crystals of substance separate out from particles come to the top and the
the solution. 3 heavier remain at the bottom.
7. (a) Concentration of solution (ii) Chromatography : This method is
Mass of solute used to separate a mixture of different
= 100 dyes. It is based on the difference in
Mass of solution
solubilities of different solutes in the
Mass of common salt is 60 g. same solvent.
Mass of water is 240 g. (iii) Distillation : Two miscible liquids can
Mass of solution = 60 + 240 = 300 g. be separated by simple distillation. It
60 is based on the difference in boiling
Concentration of solution = 100 = 20%
300 points of the liquid components of the

mixture. 2+1+1+1

Separation Techniques, Physical and Chemical

1. When the insoluble component is separated 3. (a) Chromatography,
by filtering the solution through a medium or
membrane it is called filtration. 1 (b) Centrifugation,
2. By centrifugation method. 1

S O L U T I O N S P-9
(c) Distillation,
One example in which both physical and
chemical change take place is burning of a
(d) Separating funnel candle. 2+1
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 4
6. (a) Iron sulphide
4. (a) Chromatography, (b) Hydrogen sulphide gas
(b) Centrifugation, Properties :
(c) Filtration, (i) It is colourless.
(d) Sublimation (ii) It has the smell of rotten eggs.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 4 (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014) 1 + 1 + 1
5. 7. (i) No.
(ii) Crystals of salt and sugar will appear. This
S. is because solubility of a solid decreases with
Physical change Chemical change
No. decrease in temperature. 2
(i) No new substance is A new substance is 8. (a) Separating funnel
formed. formed.
(b) Sublimation
(ii) Only physical properties Chemical properties (c) Evaporation
of matter change. of substance change.
(d) Filtration / using magnet
Example : Melting of Example : Burning
wax. of wax. (e) Centrifugation
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014) 15

1. By using a separating funnel. 1 5. Hydrogen gas.
2. By distillation. 1
Hydrogen sulphide gas.
3. (i) Immiscible liquids separate out in layers
In case I, a mixture of iron filings and sulphur
depending on their densities.
is treated with dil. H2SO4, hence H2 gas is
(ii) The denser particles are forced to settle at the
bottom and the lighter particles stay at the top
when spun rapidly. In case II, a compound (FeS) of iron and

(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1 + 1 sulphur is treated with dil. H2SO4, hence H2S
gas is produced.
4. A mixture of water and alcohol can be separated
by the process of distillation. (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) + +1 + 1
Method : Take a mixture of water and alcohol 6. (i) (a) Filtration.
in the distillation flask. Connect the flask to (b)
Sedimentation and Decantation.
the receiver, that is, a conical flask. Adjust the
Separating funnel.
apparatus firmly on stands. Heat the mixture.
Observation : At 78C, alcohol starts to vaporize. (d)
The vapours are condensed in the condenser (e)
and alcohol is collected in the receiver. Water is (f)
unaffected at this temperature. 1 (ii) (a) Water boils to form steam : Physical
(b) Burning of paper : Chemical change.
(c) An almirah gets rusted : Chemical
(d) Making a fruit salad with raw fruits :
Physical change. 6+4

Fractional Distillation

P-10 S C I E N C E IX
1. By fractional distillation. 1 5.
2. By crystallization. 1 S. Simple
Fractional distillation
No. distillation
3. When a bar magnet is brought closer to the
(i) By simple By fractional
mixture of iron filings and sulphur powder, distillation, we distillation, we can
iron particles stick to the magnet, while in case can separate two separate a mixture of
miscible liquids two or more miscible
of iron sulphide no change will be observed. having sufficient liquids for which the
difference in their difference in the boiling
When a mixture of iron and sulphur is added
boiling points. points is less than 25C.
to carbon disulphide, sulphur dissolves while (ii) It is done by using A fractionating column
in case of iron sulphide no dissolution takes an air condenser or is fitted in between the
a water condenser. distillation flask and
place. the condenser for the
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1 + 1
e.g., Different gases from air are separated
4. (a) Process : Using separating funnel. by fractional distillation.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 2 + 1
(b) 6. (i) Centrifugations Principle : Denser
particles are forced to the bottom and the
lighter particles stay at the top when spun
Separating funnel (ii) Used in dairies to separate butter from cream.
(iii) Multiple use of the available resources to avoid
wastage. 1+1+1
Water 7. (a) Sublimation is a process inn which a solid
is directly converted into vapour state on
Stop Cock heating and vice versa.
Sedimentation is a process of settling down
of solid particles at the bottom in a mixture of
1+2 solid and liquid.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) (b) Ammonium chloride by sublimation sand
and iron filings by sedimentation.
(c) No, Because the common salt dissolves in
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 2+2+1

1. Purification of salt that we get from sea water. (v) Cover the solution with a filter paper
1 and leave it undisturbed at room
2. Chromatography is used for the separation of temperature to cool slowly for a day.
those solutes that dissolve in the same solvent. (vi) You will obtain the crystals of alum in
1 the China dish.
3. (a) (i) Take some (approximately 5 g) impure This process is called crystallization.
sample of alum in a China dish. (b) Application : Purification of water
(ii) Dissolve it in minimum amount of (loading).
water. Antiseptic (after shave) 1++1
(iii) Filter the impurities out.
4. Air is a homogeneous mixture and can be
(iv) Evaporate water from the alum solution separated into its components by the process
so as to get a saturated solution. of fractional distillation. The flow diagram
shows the steps of the process.

S O L U T I O N S P-11
Air 6. (i) Centrifugation
(ii) Crystallisation
Compress and cool by increasing (iii) Fractional distillation
pressure and decreasing temperature (iv) Separation of immiscible liquids
depending on their densities.
Liquid Air Explanation (Any one) :

(i) Centrifugation : Centrifugation is a defined
Allow to warm up slowly in
fractional distillation column as the process of separating the components
of a mixture by continuously agitating the
Gases get separated at different heights mixture at a very high speed. It utilises the
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 2 + 1 centrifugal force, generated by spinning a

5. (a) (i) Compress and cool by increasing device manually or by spinning motor, to
pressure and decreasing temperature. separate molecules by size or density. The
(ii) Allow to warm up slowly in fractional principle is that denser particles are forced
distillation column. to the bottom and the lighter particles stay
(iii) Gases get separated at different heights.
at the top when spun rapidly. For example,
Two main components : Oxygen 21% and
Nitrogen 78%. butter and cream are separated from milk by
Oxygen gets liquified first because its centrifugation.
boiling point is higher than that of the other (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 2 + 3
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 2 + 2 + 1

Practical Based Answers

1. True solution : glucose powder with water. 5. Particles of a suspension are visible to the naked
eye. Suspension is a heterogeneous mixture in
Colloidal solution : milk with water.
which the solute particles do not dissolve but
Suspension : sand with water, soil with
remain suspended throughout the bulk of
medium. It is unstable as the solute particles
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2013) 2 settle down when it is left undisturbed. 2
2. Student D will be able to prepare the colloidal 6.
solution as egg is not completely miscible in
water. Solution Colloid Suspen-
Two properties of colloidal solution are : sion
(i) Particles of colloidal solutions cannot be
separated. T r a n s - T r a n s - Opaque Translu-
(ii) A colloidal solution appears to parency parent cent
be homogeneous but actually it is a
heterogeneous mixture of solute and Scatter of Do not Tyndall Tyndall
solvent. beam of show effect effect
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014) 2 light Tyndall
3. (a) Starch solution; it is a colloid. effect
(b) Heterogeneous solution scatters the beam of (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016, 15) 2
light, one can see the path of light through
7. When the sodium chloride is dissolved in a
it, as it shows Tyndall effect.
beaker with distilled water, a true transparent
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 2
solution is obtained. When starch is dissolved
4. Opaque solution; unstable; residue left on in dissolved water, a translucent colloid
filtration; particles in a fine suspension shows is formed. Lastly, when chalk powder is
Tyndall effect. dissolved, an opaque suspension is formed. 2
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 2

P-12 S C I E N C E IX


Laws of Chemical Combination, Atom and
Molecules, Valency, Chemical Formula of
Common Compounds

(ii) Mg2+
1. It states that mass can neither be created nor NO3
destroyed in a chemical reaction. 1
2. Law of constant proportion states that in a
chemical compound the elements are always Mg(NO3)2
(iii) Al3+ S2
present in a definite proportion by mass. 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
3. (a) Na CO3

+1 2 7. (a) Cu+2 Br CuBr2 1

+ 2
(b) NH4 CO3 [NH4]2CO3 1
+3 2
(c) Al O Al O
2 3 1
(b) NH4 Cl
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015]
+1 1
8. (a) International Union of Pure and Applied
Chemistry (IUPAC).
(b) When ice melts into water it is a physical
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011]
change. Take a piece of ice in a small flask,
4. (a) Zn3(PO4)2 1 cork it and weigh it and denote it as Wice gm.
(b) PbCO3 Heat the flask gently and ice (solid) slowly
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] 1 melts into water (liquid). Then, weigh the
flask again as Wwater gm.
5. (a) (i) Calcium hydroxide It is found that there is no change in the
(ii) Potassium sulphate weight i.e.,
(b) Bivalent cation Wice = Wwater
= Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Fe2+, Cu2+ Heat
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] (Any two) +
This shows law of conservation of mass holds
6. (i) NH4+ true for physical changes. 5
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015]


1. Phosphorus. 1 4. (a) Zn3 (PO4)2 1
2. Triatomic Ozone (O3) (b) The ratio by mass of constituting elements
Polyatomic Sulphur (S8) + in carbon dioxide is : 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] CO2 = 12 : 32
3 : 8
3. Sulphur (S8) or Phosphorus (P4). 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011]
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]

S O L U T I O N S P-13
5. The law states that matter can neither be (b) Mg HCO3
created nor destroyed or mass of reactants is 2 1
always equal to that of product. Mg(HCO3)2

C + O2 CO2 1 (c) Na SO4
Carbon + Oxygen Carbon dioxide 1 2
Mass of reactants = 12 + 32 = 44 g
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014]
Mass of product (CO2) = 44 g
8. (a) Number of moles
(One mole of C reacts with 1 mole of oxygen
Given no. of particles
to form 1 mole of CO2) =
Avagadro number
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011]
2.58 1019
6. Gold = Au, Copper = Cu, Potassium = K, 6.022 10 23
Silver = Ag, Platinum = Pt, Iron = Fe. 3 = 0.4284 10
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014] = 4.284 moles.
(b) (i) Law of conservation of mass.
7. (a) Al NO3 (ii) Ion
(c) (i) Na3(PO4)
3 1
Al(NO3)3 (ii) (NH4)2 CO3 1+2+2=5

1. Magnesium oxide MgO, Cation 6. (a) (i) E. Goldstein
magnesium (Mg2+) , Anion oxide (O2). (ii) Mass of proton = 1.67 1027 kgs
+ Charge on a proton = 1.6 1019 coulomb.
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
Also charge is + 1 and mass is 1 unit.
2. X2O3. (iii) Protons are located in the nucleus.
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 1 (b) Number of neutrons = 28 14 = 14.
Element is silicon.
3. Valency of X = 0. (K shell is completely filled) [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014] 3
1 7. (a) Law of constant proportion.
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
(b) A compound prepared by any method contains
4. NaOH, NaNO3. + the same elements in the fixed ratio by mass.
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] For example, H2O contains hydrogen and
oxygen in the ratio 2 : 16 i.e., 1 : 8 by mass.
5. (a) Electronic distribution of element B = 2, 8, 6 (c) Atoms can neither be sub-divided, created nor

(b) Valency of A is 1.
(c) Atomic number of element B is 16. (d) Atoms of different elements combine in
(d) Mass number of element D is 39. simple whole number ratios to form chemical
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] compound. 1+2+1+1=5

1. (i) H2SO4 = 7 (2 + 1 + 4) 3. NaHCO3, KHCO3, Al(HCO3)3, Mg(HCO3)2,
(ii) CCl4 = 5 (1 + 4). + Ca(HCO3)2, Zn(HCO3)2. 6=3
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 4. (i) FeCl3
2. (i) Lead Pb (ii) Mg(HCO3)2
(ii) Boron B + (iii) Na3PO4 13=3

P-14 S C I E N C E IX
5. When 30 gm of carbon is burnt in 80 C and D react to form CpDq. The valencies of C
and D are q and p respectively.
gm oxygen, 110 gm of carbon dioxide is
produced. It means carbon and oxygen are When A and D react :
combined in the ratio of 3 : 8 to form carbon
dioxide. Thus, when there is 3 gm carbon and
50 gm oxygen, then also only 8 gm of oxygen y p
will be used and 11 gm of carbon dioxide

will be formed. The remaining oxygen is not 1
used. 2
(Valencies are exchanged to find the formula of
This indicates the law of definite proportions. a chemical compound). 1
1 7. (a) The three sub-atomic particles and their
According to this law, the elements are always discoverers are :
present in definite proportion by mass in (i) Electron J. J. Thomson
a chemical substance. All pure samples of (ii) Proton E. Goldstein
a compound contain the same elements (iii) Neutron Chadwick 2
combined together in the same proportion by
(b) I support the scientists view point because
mass. 2
it is based on logic and proven facts. Old mans
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] views are figments of imagination without any
6. A and B react to form AxBy. The valencies of A scientific truth, and are superstitions. 1
and B are y and x respectively.

Atomic and Molecular Masses, Mole Concept,
Relationship of Mole to Mass of the Particles and

1. Sum of atomic masses of all the atoms in a (c) Diatomic molecules of a compound : HCl, CO,
formula unit of a compound is called formula NO
unit mass. 1 Triatomic molecules of a compound : CO2,
2. A number equal to the sum of atomic masses of H2O, SO2 31=3
the atoms in a molecule is known as molecular [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
mass. 1 5. (a) The exact number of atoms present in 12 gm
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015] of carbon-12 is called Avogadro constant. 1
m Given mass
(b) No. of moles = =
1 mole of H2O2 = 2 1 + 2 16 M molar mass
= 34 gm
34 gm of H2O2 = 1 mole = = 2.8 2
17 gm of H2O2 = 17
34 6. The magnitude of atomic mass is the same
1 as relative atomic mass, but atomic mass is
= = 05 moles
2 expressed in atomic mass units while relative
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] atomic mass is a number and has no unit. 3
7. (i) The mole is the amount of substance that
4. (a) It is the mass unit exactly equal to one-twelfth contains the same number of particles (atoms /
(1/12th) the mass of one atom of carbon-12 .
(b) The molecular mass of a substance is the sum ions / molecules / formula units, etc.). This was
of the atomic masses of all atoms in a molecule understood by Beenu. 1
whereas the mass of 1 mole of any substance (ii) The Avogadros constant 6.022 1023 is defined
is called its molar mass. Molecular mass is
measured by amu whereas molar mass by g/ as the number of atoms present in exactly 12
mol. gm of carbon-12. 1

S O L U T I O N S P-15
1. Atomic mass unit is equal to 1/12th the mass of 5. The sum of the atomic masses of all atoms in a
one atom of carbon-12. formula unit of a compound is called formula
unit mass. 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 1
NaCl = (1 23) + (1 355)
2. The molecular mass of a substance is the = 23 + 355
sum of the atomic masses of all the atoms in = 585 u 1
a molecule of the substance. It is, therefore, 6. 1 mole of hydrogen = 1 gm of hydrogen
the relative mass of a molecule expressed in Mass of 6.022 1023 of hydrogen atoms
atomic mass units (u). 1 = 1 gm
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 1 gm
Mass of 1 hydrogen atom = 1
6022 10 23
3. (a) K2SO4. 1
(b) (i) C2H2 = 2 12 + 2 1 = 24 + 2 = 26 u = 166 1024 gm 1

7. (i) (a) Two atoms of oxygen2O
(ii) P4 = 4 31 = 124 u
(b) Diatomic oxygenO2 molecule
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011]
(c) Triatomic oxygenO3 molecule
4. (a) The exact number of atoms present in 12 (d) Two atoms of hydrogen and one atom
gm of carbon-12 is called Avogadro constant. of oxygen forming one molecule of water
1 (H2O).
(b) Number of molecules (ii) K2CO3Potassium carbonate
Given mass Avogadro's number CaCl2Calcium chloride
Molar mass (iii) Al2(SO4)3
Al = 27 2 = 54 u
Molar mass of N2 = 14 2 = 28 S = 32 3 = 96 u
56 O = 16 12 = 192 u
N = 6022 1023
28 Formula unit mass = 54 + 96 + 192 = 342 u.
N = 12044 1023 [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 2
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]

1. 6.022 1023 atoms or one mole. 1 Number of moles of Mg
Given mass 6 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] = = =
Molar mass 24 4
2. Each mole of phosphate ion possesses 4 1
Number of moles of Na =
moles of oxygen atoms as represented by the 4
formula. 1
Number of moles of Na
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015]
Mass of sodium
3. Chemical formula of a compound shows Molar mass
its constituent elements and the number of 1 Mass of sodium
= 1
atoms of each combining element. 1 4 23
CaO - Calcium oxide 1 23
Mass of sodium = = 575 gm
Formula unit mass of CaO 4

= Atomic mass of Ca + Atomic mass of O 575 gm of sodium will have the same number
= 40 + 16 = 56 u + of atoms as 6 gm of magnesium.
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
5. Molar mass of ammonia (NH3) = 14 + 3 1
4. The mole is the amount of substance that = 17 gm/mole
contains the same number of particles (atoms/
ions/molecules/formula units, etc.) as there are 17 gm of NH3 contains 6022 1023 molecules
atoms in exactly 12 gm of carbon-12. 1

P-16 S C I E N C E IX
34 (c) (i) m = 8 gm, M = 32 gm, N = ?, N0 = 6022 1023
\ 34 gm of NH3 contains 6022 1023

17 m 8

n = = = 025 1
= 12044 1024 molecules 2 M 32
6. (a) A group of atoms carrying a charge is N = n N0
known as polyatomic ion. 1+1 = 025 6022 10
e.g., PO43, SO42, NH41+.
= 150550 10 molecules
(ii) m = 22 gm, M = 44, n = ?
(b) Mass of 10 moles of Na2SO3 m 22 1
n = = = = 05 mole 1
= 10 (23 2 + 32 + 16 3) M 44 2
= 1260 gm 1 [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]

Practical Based Answers

1. No, there is no change in mass when a chemical of a gas, or vapours may escape into the
reaction takes place. 2 surrounding and hence the mass in the
2. Yes, law of conservation of mass is obeyed in container no longer remains constant. Hence,
all types of chemical reactions. 2 the law of conservation of mass cannot be
3. Change in physical state, evolution of a gas, verified if products formed in a chemical
formation of a precipitate, noticeable odour, reaction are gaseous and if they escape into the
change in colour or change in temperature, etc. surrounding. 2
can be observed during a chemical reaction. 2 6. Mass of Na2CO3 = (111.5 53.5) gm = 58 gm
4. The identity of an element is not lost in a 7. The observation made by student C is correct.
chemical reaction. Only the old bonds break White precipitate is formed after mixing, mass
and new bonds are formed. During a chemical of reaction mixture in the beaker including
change simply a rearrangement of atoms of mass of beaker which is 373.3 gm. 2
different elements takes place resulting in no 8. Mass of iron sulphide = 28 + 16 = 44 g 2
loss or gain of mass. 2 9. The mass of ammonia gas, 2NH3 = 34 gm 2
5. When a chemical reaction is carried out in 10. To ensure that gaseous products do not escape
an open container, some mass in the form out. 2

S O L U T I O N S P-17


1. It is the number of protons in the nucleus of
an atom. P
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016] 1 N

2. Protons and Neutrons. +

3. (i) Positively charged atom : Cation 1 K shell of Na has 2, L shell has 8 and M shell
(ii) Group of atoms carrying a charge : has one electron. 3
Polyatomic ion. 8. Isotopes of hydrogen are :
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] 1 Protium 1H1 (1 proton, 0 neutron), Mass no. 1
Deuterium 1H2 (1 proton, 1 neutron), Mass no. 2
4. K L M K L K Tritium 1H3 (1 proton, 2 neutrons), Mass no. 3
Na = 2, 8, 1 Na+ = 2, 8 He = 2. 3 + 1 +1 = 3
Na+ has completely filled K and L shells. Na
atom gets converted into Na+ by losing one 9. (a) e = 20, p = 20, n = 40 20 = 20, Electronic
electron from its outermost shell. He atom has Configuration = 2, 8, 8, 2.
only K shell.
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] 2

5. (i) Electronic configuration 2, 8, 3

(ii) Atomic number 13 N
(iii) Number of protons 13
(iv) Valency 3 4=2
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011]
6. Electron : by J.J Thomson in 1897
Proton : by E. Goldstein in 1886 (b) Atom has K = 2 e; L = 8 e
Neutron : by James Chadwick 1 + 1 + 1 = 3 Total electrons = 2 + 8 = 10 e complete
7. Electronic configuration of Na is : 2, 8, 1 shell with 8 e
K L M Noble gas. [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014] 5

1. The charge / mass ratio of an electron is
Number of neutrons = Mass number Atomic
11 -1
1.76 10 C-kg . 1 number
2. The notation of an atom is represented as : A = 19 9 = 10
Electronic configuration of X = 2, 7
3. It will change into trivalent anion / Z . 1
Valency of X = 1 (since it requires one electron
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2010] to complete its octet) 4=2
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011]
No. of protons = Atomic number = 9

No. of (protons + neutrons) = Mass number 5. (a) Particle is neutron.
= 19
Neutron is present in the nucleus of an atom.

Number of electrons = 9 (b) (i) Total number of electrons = 10

Number of protons = 9 (ii) Valency is zero. 4=2
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011]

P-18 S C I E N C E IX
6. Hydrogen has one proton and one electron in (i) Most of the fast moving -particles passed
its atom. Neutron is not present in ordinary straight through the gold foil.
hydrogen. 2
(ii) Some of the -particles were deflected by the
7. (i) E.C. of Cl = 2, 8, 7 Valency =1 foil by small angles.
(ii) E.C. of Na = 2, 8, 1 Valency =1 (iii) One out of every 12000 particles appeared to
(iii) E.C. of Si = 2, 8, 4 Valency =4 rebound.
3 Conclusions :
(i) Most of the space inside the atom is empty
8. A 13 electrons 13 protons + 13 neutrons because most of the -particles passed through
Atomic number = 26 3 = 13 the gold foil without getting deflected.
(ii) Very few particles were deflected from their
B14 electrons 14 protons + 14 neutrons path, indicating that the positive charge of the
Atomic number = 26 14 = 12 3 atom occupies very little space.
They are isobars. (iii) A very small fraction of -particles was
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015] deflected by 180, indicating that all the
positive charge and mass of the gold atom
9. In this experiment fast moving -particles were concentrated in a very small volume
were made to fall on a thin gold foil. within the atom. 5
The following observations were made : [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014]

1. Electronic configuration of oxygen is = 2, 6.
6. Isotopes : Isotopes are the atoms of the same
Hence, valency = 8 6 = 2 1
element having same atomic number, but
2. Atomic number (Z) = Number of protons
different mass numbers.
= 15
Atomic mass (A) = Number of protons Three isotopes of hydrogen : 11 H, 21 H, 31 H

+ Number of neutrons
= 15 + 16 = 31
Isotopes show similar chemical properties
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2010] because the number of valence electrons in
these atoms are same. 1+1+1=3
3. (a) 12
(b) Atomic number = 12 [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
(c) X is a metal.
7. (a) Valency : The combining capacity of an
(d) Valency of X is + 2.
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] atom is known as its valency.

4. (a) The valency of Z is 3. 1

Valency is the no. of electrons in outermost
(b) Z is a metal because it is electropositive and shell of an atom. The no. of electrons gained
reacts with non-metals.
or lost or shared gives us the combining
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] 1
capacity of an atom and this decides whether
5. (a) This is because isotopes have same atomic
an atom is reactive or not ?
number, so the number of valence electrons
(b) The atomic number of Argon = 18, i.e., it has
present in them are same and it is the
valence electrons which take part in chemical 18 electrons.

reactions. So the isotopes of an element have

Hence, its electronic configuration will be 2, 8,
same chemical properties. 8
(b) Goitre Isotope of iodine
Since it has 8 electrons in its valence shell,

Cancer Isotope of cobalt

So, its valency = 8 8 = (zero) 5
(c) Atomic number of X = 12. 13=3
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016]
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015]

S O L U T I O N S P-19
1. Number of electrons = 11 4. (i) B (no. of protons > no. of electrons)
Mass number = 23 (ii) A (no. of electrons > no. of protons)
Atomic number = number of electrons (iii) C and E (same atomic number but different
= 11 mass number)
Hence, number of neutrons (iv) D (8 e in valence shell) 4=2
= mass number atomic number [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011]
= 23 11 = 12 5. (a) The atoms of same element having same
2. L = nucleons = 20 + 20 = 40 atomic number, but different mass numbers

M = nucleons = 18 + 22 = 40 are called isotopes.

Both have same atomic mass but different e.g., 1H1, 1H2, 1H3. (any other example)
atomic number. (b) The atoms of different elements with same
Relation between L and M : Isobars. 1 mass number and different atomic numbers

[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014] are called isobars.

e.g., : Calcium (atomic number 20) and argon
3. (i) Mass number i.e., Atomic mass of element X (atomic number 18)
= Number of protons + Number of neutrons
Mass number is same (i.e, 40) 1
=4+4=8u (i) Uranium (ii) Cobalt +
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
Mass number i.e., Atomic mass of element Y =
Number of protons + Number of neutrons 6. (a) (i) James Chadwick

= 4 + 6 = 10 u (ii) Charge = Zero,

Mass = equal to proton = 1 unit. +

Relationship between X and Y : Isotopes.
(iii) Nucleus

The atomic number of both the elements is
(b) Number of neutrons = Mass number
same, but their atomic masses are different. 1
Number of protons = 4 2 = 2 +
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]

1. Neutrons have no charge and their mass is 3. (i) B (no. of protons > no. of electrons)
equal to that of a proton. i.e., 1 unit.
(ii) A (no. of electrons > no. of protons)
J. Chadwick discovered neutrons.
2. (a) Electronic configuration 2, 8, 1 (iii) C and E (same atomic number but different

(b) Number of protons 11 mass number)

(c) Atomic number 11 (iv) D (8 e in valence shell) 4=2

(d) Valency of this element 1 4=2 [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011]

[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011]

P-20 S C I E N C E IX
Rutherford bombarded a stream of (i) Most of the -particles passed through the
-particles on a thin gold foil.
foil without any deflection.
A Beam of
(ii) A few -particles were deflected through
particles Small deflection
small angles and few through larger angles.
++ +
++ (iii) The number of -particles that bounced back

was very small.
Most of the The important conclusions drawn from the
++ alpha particles
experiment are :
pass straight
(i) An atom consists of positively charged centre
called nucleus. 1
++ + deflection (ii) The electrons revolve around the nucleus in
well defined orbits. 1
Turned back (iii) The size of the nucleus is very small as
++ compared to the size of the atom. 1
+ Nucleus
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011]

particles Atoms of the gold foil

S O L U T I O N S P-21


Cell as a basic unit of life, Prokaryotic and
Eukaryotic cell, Multicellular organisms

1. Amoeba and Euglena. + 8. (a)
2. Vacuoles. 1 S. Nuclear region of Nuclear region of an
3. Vacuoles.  1 No. bacterial cell animal cell
(i) Poorly defined and Well defined and
4. Many cells are visible only under a microscope
lacks any covering. membrane bound.
e.g., Mycoplasma is the smallest cell and (ii) Has single Has more than one
chromosome. chromosome.
longest cell in human body is nerve cell or
(iii) Lacks true Well defined mem-
neuron. 2 organelles. brane bound cell
organelles present.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014)
(b) Chromosomes bear genes. 2+1
5. Cell 9. (a) Amoeba, yeast, Euglena (Any two)
Robert Hooke. (b) Cell Tissue Organ Organ system
Under a microscope. Some are big enough (c) Prokaryotic - Bacteria, Eukaryotic - Amoeba
can be seen with naked eye like egg. (d) Yes, every cell of the multicellular organism
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 1 + 1 + 1 has come from a single cell. After fertilisation,
single cell is formed. The zygote is actually a
6. Cell. single cell. The zygote gives rise to all the cells
that we have today.
Basic building blocks of all living organisms. (e) do not have any shape.
Perform all the activities required to sustain (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 2+ 1 + 2
life. Detailed Answer :
(i) Amoeba and Euglena are unicellular organisms.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 1 + 2
(ii) Multicellular organisms are made up of
7. Unicellular organisms. millions and trillions of cells. All these cells
perform specific functions. All the cells

Single cell can perform all the life processes. specialised for performing similar functions
are grouped together as tissues in the body.
Amoeba, Paramecium etc. Hence, a particular function is carried out by
a group of cells at a definite place in the body.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 3
Similarly, different functions are carred out by
different groups of cells in an organism. This
Detailed Answer : is known as division of labour in multicellular
Yes single-celled (unicellular) organisms
(iii) Prokaryotic - Bacteria, Eukaryotic - Amoeba.
can live independently. Unicellular (iv) Yes every cell of the multicellular organism
has come from a single cell. After fertilisation,
organisms such as Amoeba Paramecium, single cell is formed. The zygote is actually a
single cell. The zygote gives rise to all the cells
carry out digestion, respiration, excretion that we have today.
and reproduction on their own. (v) Both, Amoeba and white blood cells of humans
do not have any fixed shape.

P-22 S C I E N C E IX
1. Endocytosis. 3. Concentration of water inside the cell is
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 1 greater. By osmosis, water moves out and
2. Endosmosis. When cell is kept in hypotonic causes shrinking.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016)1
solution, it will gain water.
4. Prokaryotic cells do not have a well defined
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 1
nuclear region which is known as nucleoid where
as Eukaryotic cells have a well defined nucleus.
cell wall
cell membrane
golgi vesicles Golgi
ribosome apparatus
smooth ER
(no ribosomes) vacuole
nucleus membrane

rough ER raphide
(endoplasmic crystal
large central crystal
(starch grain)

Plant & Cell

(Any 4 labelling) 1 + 4



golgi golgi
vesicles apparatus

rough ER nucleolus
reticulum) nucleus

smooth ER
(no ribosomes) centrioles (2)
Each composed of 9
microtubule triplets


cell (plasma) cytoplasm


Animal Cell

(Any 4 labelling) 1 + 4

S O L U T I O N S P-23
7. No, not all cells in our body look alike in terms
of shape, size and structure. The shape, size
and structure of cell are determined by the
function which it performs. The eggs of many ovum (egg-cell)

animals are spherical in shape, some are oval muscle cells red blood cells

in shape, smooth muscle fibres are spindle epithelial cell

shaped, nerve cells are elongated and RBCs
are discoidal in shape. The size and number
of cells also vary from organism to organism.
white blood cells
nerve cell
Similarities : All cells have the same sperm

organelles. Different Types of Cell

(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 2+ 1 + 2

Cell wall, Cell membrane, Cell organelles
Structure and Functions, Chromosomes Basic
Structure and Number

1. Robert Hooke. 7. Movement of solvent (usually water) from a
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014) 1 region of high water concentration to a region
of low water concentration; it takes place
2. Chromoplast. 1 through semi-permiable membrane whereas
3. The process through which an amoeba the diffusion does not require any membrane,
acquires its food from the external in osmosis movement of solvent is involved
environment is endocytosis. whereas in diffusion movement of solid,
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014, 2012) 1 liquid and gases are involved.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 3
4. Ribosomes is a cell organelle that lacks Detailed Answer :
membrane. It is prepared in the nucleolus. Osmosis is the process in which there is a
1+1 movement of solvent (usually water) from a
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014) region of high water concentration to a region
of low water concentration.
5. Endoplasmic reticulum is a membranous Difference between osmosis and duffusion :
network enclosing a fluid-filled lumen. The
two types of endoplamic reticulum are Rough S.No. Osmosis Diffusion
Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) and Smooth 1. It takes place The diffusion does not
Endoplasmic Reticulum. (SER). RER has through semi- require any membrane.
ribosomes attached to its surface. The ribosomes permeable
take part in protein synthesis. membrane.
SER does not have any ribosomes on it and
secretes lipids. Some proteins and lipids 2. Movement of Movement of solid,
synthesised in solvent is involved. liquid and gases are
ER are used for producing new cellular parts, involved.
specially the cell membrane, by biogenesis. 1 + 1
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014) + 1 + 8. The membrane that surrounds the vacuole is
called tonoplast. The vacuole contains cell sap
6. ATP; Adenosine Tri Phosphate
in it. 3
Mitochondria. 9. Chloroplast is a semiautonomous cell organelle
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 3 which on illumination can perform its function
Detailed Answer : of photosynthesis and release oxygen even
ATP is the energy currency of the cell. Its outside the cell provided it is kept in isotonic
expanded form is Adenosine Triphosphate. medium and receive raw material of carbon
Mitochondria. dioxide. 3

P-24 S C I E N C E IX
10. Diffusion.
Plasma membrane made up of proteins
Conc. of CO2 is more in air as compared to cell +lipids.
it moves in. O2 is produced in photosynthesis
thus conc. of O2 is higher in cell so it moves (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 1 + 2 + 2

1. Mitochondria; as energy is released from it. 7. Lysosomes are a kind of waste disposal system
+ of cell. They help to keep the cell clean by
2. Lysosomes. 1 digesting any foreign material as well as worn
Chromosome is the carrier of genetic out cell organelles.
information. Foreign material entering the cell such as
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1 bacteria or food ends up in lysosomes.
During the disturbance in cellular metabolism
4. Plasma membrane also called as cell membrane, lysosomes may burst and the enzymes digest
is the outer covering of a cell that separates its their own cell. Therefore, lysosomes are also
contents from the surrounding medium. It is

known as suicidal bags. Lysosomes are able
made up of lipids and proteins, and provides
to do this because they contain powerful
a mechanical barrier to protect the inner enzymes capable of breaking down all organic
contents of the cell. It encloses the nucleus and material. 1+1+1
cytoplasm of the cell. 1+2 (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)
5. In prokaryotes and lower organisms like 8. (i) (a) Endocytosis : The flexibility of the cell
bacteria, the nuclear region of the cell may membrane enables the cell to engulf food and
be poorly defined because of the absence of other materials from its external environment.
a nuclear membrane. Such an undefined and Such process is known as endocytosis.
incipient nucleic region containing only naked (b) Plasmolysis : When a living plant cell loses
water through osmosis, there is shrinkage or
nucleic acids without any membrane covering
contraction of the contents of the cell away
them is called a nucleoid. 2 from the cell wall. This phenomenon is known
6. Rough endoplasmic reticulum looks rough as plasmolysis.
(ii) When the organisation of a cell gets damaged,
under a microscope because it has particles
lysosomes will burst and their enzymes will
called ribosomes attached to its surface and eat up their own cell organelles. Therefore,
smooth endoplasmic reticulum do not have lysosomes are also known as the suicidal bags of
the cell.
ribosomes attached to it. (iii) Gases like CO2 and O2 move in and out

It helps in the manufacture of fat molecules of the cell by diffusion from their higher
concentration to lower concentration. Water
or lipids important for cell function. Some
enters the cell by endosmosis through semi-
of these proteins and lipids help in the permeable plasma membrane from its higher
building of cell membrane, the process called concentration to lower concentration.
Similarly, water moves out of the cell by
membrane biogenesis. exosmosis when a cell is placed in a hypertonic
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 2 + 1 solution. 1+1+1+2

1. Lysosomes. 4. The chromatin material mainly consists of
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) which stores and
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1
transmit the hereditary information from one
2. Mitochondria and chloroplast. + generation to another. 1+1
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 5. (i) Cell wall provides shape as well as rigidity
to the cell.
3. Cellulose. It provides structural strength to (ii) It protects the protoplasm.
plant. (iii) It is involved in the movement of materials in
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) + and out of the cell.

S O L U T I O N S P-25
(iv) Growth of cell wall determines the growth of 8. Chloroplast is a semiautonomous cell organelle
cell. 4 = 2 which on illumination can perform its function
6. Leucoplasts are colourless plastids. They store of photosynthesis and release oxygen even
starch, oil, proteins. outside the cell provided it is kept in isotonic
Chromoplasts are coloured plastids. They medium and receive raw material of carbon
contain pigments. dioxide. 3
9. (a) The thread shaped structures in the
e.g. Chloroplasts contain green pigment
nucleus are known as chromosomes. These are
present in the plant cell.
important because they contain information for

Chromoplasts provide colour to various
inheritance of features from parents to the next
flowers and fruits. 1+1++
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) (b)
7. Camillo Golgi. Nuclear envelope

Functions :
(i) Packages and dispatches materials synthesised Nuclear pores
by ER.
(ii) Complex sugar made from simple sugars.
(iii) Involved in formation of Lysosomes.
(Any two) 1 + 1 + 1 Chromosome

1. Chloroplast. Leucoplast : stores starch, oil and protein
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1 granules. 13
7. (i) Chromosomes are present in the nucleus
2. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum. 1
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) of a cell. Their chemical composition is of DNA,
RNA and proteins.
3. Chloroplast and mitochondria. +
(ii) Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)
4. (i) Chloroplast is the site of photosynthesis
and helps in preparing the food (in case of 8. (a) (i) When a cell possess higher water
plants). concentration than the surrounding
(ii) Leucoplasts are the site of storage of food. medium then exosmosis occurs in the
(iii) Chromoplast provide colour to various flowers cell due to difference in concentration
and fruits. (Any two) 1 + 1 and cell shrinks.
5. Shrinkage of protoplast from the cell wall (ii) When a cell has low water concentration
in presence of hypertonic solution due to than surrounding medium then
exosmosis is know as plasmolysis. endosmosis occurs that results in the

When a plasmolysed cell is placed in water, the swelling of the cell.
concentration of water in the outside medium
A cell having equal water concentration
is more than the concentration in the cell.
to its surrounding medium will not
Hence, water moves inside the cell leading to
its swelling. 1+1 show any changes.
6. Chloroplast : involved in the photosynthesis in (b) Cell wall is composed of cellulose and cell
plants. membrane is composed of lipids and proteins.
Chromoplast : impart attractive colours to
flowers and fruits.

P-26 S C I E N C E IX
Practical Based Answers

1. (A) Sclerenchyma, (B) Onion peel, 6. (i) Cheek cells are of irregular shape.

(C) Parenchyma, (D) Cheek cells 2 (ii) Cell membrane encloses a distinct nucleus
2. (i) Avoid over-staining or under-staining of and vacuoles. 2
the material. 7. Outer layer of cheek cell is Cell membrane and
that of onion peel is cell wall.
(ii) While mounting the coverslip, avoid entry
8. (i) Staining of peel must be appropriate.
of air bubbles. 2 Excess stain can be removed by rinsing the
3. (i) Cells are rectangular in shape. peel with water.
(ii) Each cell comprises cell wall, nucleus and (ii) While placing the coverslip, care should be
cytoplasm. 2 taken to avoid air bubbles. 2
4. Glycerine or water is used so that cells of the
Neclleolus Nucleus Cell wall
mounting material do not dry up or shrink. 2
5. Steps are :
l Rinsing the mouth with fresh water and Intercellular
disinfectant solution. space
l Taking scraping from inner side of the cheek
and spreading it on a clean slide.
l Adding two or three drops of methylene blue Cytoplasm
l Taking scraping from inner side of the cheek 2
and spreading it on a clean slide. 2

S O L U T I O N S P-27


Plant Tissues : Structure and Functions

1. Meristematic tissue is capable of dividing and is 6. Living component common to xylem and
found in the developing regions of the plant. 1 phloem tissues is parenchyma.
2. When meristematic tissues lose their ability Its function is to store food and help in
to divide and become permanent in shape, sideways conduction of water in xylem and
size and function, the process is called food in phloem.
differentiation. 1
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 2
3. Stomata are the small pores present in the
epidermis of leaf. 1 7. Apical meristemsincrease length of stem +
4. (a) A group of cells that are similar in roots.
structure and work together to achieve a Lateral meristemsincreases girth.
particular function is called a tissue. Blood is a Intercalarymeristemsincrease length, inter-
cluster of similar cells and they perform same nodes.
function in the body, hence blood is a tissue. (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 3
+ 8. (a) Phloem.
(b) (i) Apical meristem, (ii) Intercalary meristem. (b) ASieve plate, BSieve tube, CPhloem
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2013) + parenchyma, DCompanion cell. 1+2
5. Apical meristems are the meristematic tissues 9. Bone, Hard matrix which is composed of Ca
which are found at the growing tips of stems and P compounds.
and roots. Functions : (i) Forms framework of body.
It increases the length of the stems and roots (ii) Anchors muscles.
and is responsible for the growth of plant. (iii) Supports the main organs of body and
1+1 provides protection to them (e.g. brains,
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2013) lungs).
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 5

1. Stomata are enclosed by two kidney-shaped 5. Apical meristem is a kind of meristematic
cells which are called guard cells. 1 tissue which is present at the growing tips of

Vascular bundles consist of xylem and stems and roots. It increases the length of the
stem and the root. These cells are responsible
phloem. 1
for linear growth of an organ. Example : Root
3. Apical meristem.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014) 1 apical meristem and Shoot apical meristem.
4. Sclerenchymatous tissue.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)

The cells are dead with long and narrow walls
6. (a) Aerolar, (b) Ligament, (c) Cuboidal
thickened due to lignin. 1+1
epithelium, (d) Sclerenchyma. 4
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)

P-28 S C I E N C E IX
7. (a) 8. (i) Meristematic tissue.
Epidermal Cells Cork cells (ii) Apical meristem, lateral meristem, intercalary
Single layered Multi layered meristem.
Living Non-living
(iii) Apical meristem increases the height of the
Secrete cutin Secrete suberin
Present in younger Present in older plants.
Intercalary meristem increases the length of
(b) They are called protective tissues because organs.
(i) They protect from mechanical injury and
Lateral meristem increases the girth of stem.
(ii) They prevent loss of water. (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2013) 1 + 1 + 3
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014) 2 + 1

1. Sieve tubes, companion cells, phloem 8.
parenchyma and phloem fibres. 1 S.No. Meristematic tissue Permanent tissue
2. Xylem and phloem. +
1. Cells possess dividing Cells generally do
3. Meristematic tissue and permanent tissue. 1 ability. not divide.
4. (i) Parenchyma, (ii) Collenchyma. 1+1 2. Cells are living. Cells can be living
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) or dead.
3.Main function is to Performs various
5. S. Collenchyma Sclerenchyma bring about growth. type of functions.
No. tissue tissue 13
1. Consists of living Consists of dead
9. (a) (i) In such habitat, protection against
cells. cells. water loss is essential.
2. Contains cytoplasm. Cytoplasm is (ii) Protecting against water loss,
absent. mechanical injury.
3. The thickening of Cell wall (b) Cells are elongated, flattened, closely
packed. No intercellular spaces and form a
the cell wall is not thickening is
continuous layer.
uniform. uniform.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2013) 5
(Any two) 1 + 1 Detailed Answer.
6. Strip of secondary merisem replaces the (a) (i) In desert habitat, protection against
epidermis of the stem. Cells on the outside are water loss is essential.
cut off from this layer which forms the cork. (ii) The waxy covering aids in protecting
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 2 the plant against loss of water,
mechanical injury and invasion by
7. (i) Non-living parasitic fungi.
(ii) Compactly arranged (b) Epidermis is the outermost covering of cells in
(iii) No intercellular spaces plants. It is usually made up of a single layer
(iv) Multilayered of cells. On aerial parts of a plant epidermal
(v) Contains suberin (Any two) cells often secrete a waxy, water resistant layer
on their outer surface to prevent loss of water
A strip of secondary meristem replaces
from plant. The cells of epidermis are present in
the epidermis. Cells on the outside are cut a continuous layer without intercellular spaces.
forming cork. Small pores are present on the epidermis of
Protection, makes the plant impervious leaf. These pores are called as stomata, which
to gases prevents loss of water, prevents help in gaseous exchange and transpiration.
mechanical injury or infection. As the plant grows older, a strip of secondary
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014) 2 + 1 meristem replaces the epidermis of stem and
forms a thick cork. 2+3

S O L U T I O N S P-29
1. Three namelyapical, lateral (cambium) and
It provides flexibility in plants and easy
intercalary. 1
2. When the cells take up a specific role and lose bending and mechanical support. 1+1
their ability to divide. 1
8. (a) Xylem conducts water in the plant body.
3. Cork is obtained from the bark of a tree i.e., oak
plants stem. 1 Phloem transports food in the plant body.
4. Xylem and phloem. 1 (b)
5. The main adaptation of desert plants is to
minimise the water loss. Hence, layer of cutin pits
is present on epidermis, which is a thick
waxy coating. This waxy coating helps in
minimising water loss by transpiration.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 2 VESSELS- vessel elements TRACHEIDS
6. Cutin. 1+1+1
Advantages : Cutin has waterproof quality 9. (a) Lateral meristem : for increase in growth
of plant parts.
and provides protection against loss of water,
(b) Intercalary meristem : for formation of leaves,
mechanical injury, invasion by parasitic fungi. branches etc.
(Any three) 4 (c) Apical meristem : increases length of the
stem and the root. 1+1+1
7. Collenchyma is located in leaf stalks below the
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)

Animal Tissues : Structure and Functions

1. (i) Epithelial tissue-squamous epithelium. 6. Water Hyacinth has spongy petioles which
(ii) Nervous tissue. +
enclose a lot of air in its aerenchyma. Air makes
2. (i) Involuntary muscles, (ii) Ligament the plant lighter than water and so it is able to
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014) +
float on the surface of water. 1
3. Cuboidal epithelium. 7. (a) Complex tissues
FunctionProvides mechanical support. (b) Columnar epithelium
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 1 + 1
(c) Cuboidal epithelium
4. (i) Epithelial tissue, epidermal epithelium (d) Involuntary muscular tissues
(ii) Blood. (e) Cardiac muscles
(iii) FunctionVascular bundles / blood (f) Ciliated cuboidal epithelium. 6
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 1 + 1 (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014)

5. (a) Cartilage. 8. (i) Columnar (ii) Adipose (iii) Ciliated columnar

(b) Proteins and sugar. (iv) Aerenchyma (v) Squamous.
(c) Smoothens body surfaces at joints, helps (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014) 1 5
in easy bending. 1+1+1
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016)

P-30 S C I E N C E IX
9. (a) Sieve Tubes, companion cells, parenchyma, (d) (i) Squamous epithelium
phloem fibre.
(b) Creates an efficient pumping action of heart. (ii) Scleroid.
(c) (e) Adipose tissue stores fat and acts as an
Tendon Ligament
(i) It connects muscles It connects bone to
to bones. bone. (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015) 1 5
(ii) It is tough and non It is strong but elas-
elastic. tic.
(Any one)

1. (i) It helps in storage of fats. (b) Adipose tissue
(ii) It act as an insulator. (c) Phloem
(d) Collenchyma.
2. Stratified squamous epithelium. 1
(ii) (a) It prevents loss of water by evaporation.
3. (i) Alimentary canal, iris of the eye, ureters, (b) It protects plant from the invasion
bronchi, etc. (any one) of parasites and harmful micro-
(ii) Kidney tubules, ducts of salivary glands. organisms. 2+1
(iii) Below the skin, between internal organs.
(iv) Limbs tongue etc. 6. Tissue A : Adipose tissue, Present just below
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 2 epithelium.
Tissue B : Cardiac muscle, Present in heart.
4. (a) Tendons : Connect bones to muscles.
1 + 1
(b) Ligaments : Connect two bones. 1 + 1 (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)
5. (i) (a) Tendon
7. Differences between striated, unstriated and cardiac muscles :
S. Striated muscles Unstriated (Smooth) muscles Cardiac muscles
1. They are found in limbs, tongue, They are present in the wall of They form the heart.
pharynx etc. visceral organs.
2. Long, cylindrical with blunt ends. Short, spindle shaped with Short, branched and
pointed ends. cylindrical with flat ends.
3. Multinucleate, nuclei peripheral. Uninucleate, nucleus in the One or two nuclei in the
centre. centre.
4. They are voluntary in action. They are involuntary in action. They are involuntary in action.
5. Dark and light bands are present. No bands present. Bands present.

1. Stratified squamous eipithelium. 1 4. (a) Tendon, (b) Squamous epithelium, (c)
2. Shark fish. 1 Adipose tissue, (d) Xylem. 4
3. Functions of epithelial tissue in human body : (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)
(i) Covering of the organs.
5. (i) Blood : Transport of materials such as
(ii) Regulates exchange of materials between the
gases, waste, digested food etc.
body and the external environment.
(ii) Bone : Supporting framework of the body.
(iii) Glands present in them help in various
(iii) Ligament : Connects two bones together.
secretions. e.g., sweat, oil etc.
(Any two) 1 + 1 (iv) Tendon : Connects bones to muscle.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) (Any three) 1 3
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)

S O L U T I O N S P-31
Intercalated disks cross-striations Myocytes
6. (i) Cardiac muscles.
(ii) Smooth muscles or unstriated muscles.
(iii) Striated muscles. 13
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)

7. All cells of our body look different in terms

of shape, size as will as structure as they are
needed for different functions at different
Cardiac muscles
parts of the body. Dendrites

Cells in our body have no demarcation on the
basis of dividing and non-dividing tissue. Cells Axon

Specialised in one function are often grouped

together in the body.
Example : Heart muscle cells show rhythmic Nucleus
contraction and relaxation are cylindrical and
Cell body (Cyton)
branched. Also, the nerve cell is a long string
shape in order to stretch to connect to other
Nerve ending
Neuron 5

1. Transportation of oxygen and carbon dioxide (v) Squamous epithelium
and pH constancy. 1 (vi) Cuboidal epithelium 6
2. About 120 days. 1 (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)
3. It helps in the exchange of materials between
blood and body cells. 1 8. (a) Alimentary canalsmooth muscle-spindle
4. Simple epithelial tissue is unilaminar while shaped, long pointed ends, uninucleate,
compound epithelial tissues is multilaminar. 1 involuntary etc. (Any two)
Limbsstriated-long, cylindrical, unbranched,
5. (i) It carries O2 and CO2 to various parts of voluntary, multinucleate. (Any two)
the body and lungs. (b)
(ii) It transports food to various body parts. Spindle shaped
(iii) It transports hormones as well as metabolic Nuclei muscle cell
wastes. striations
(iv) It has a major role to play in the regulation of
body temperature. 4
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)
6. Plants are stationary thus their supportive
(a) Striated muscle (b) Smooth muscle
tissue is made up of dead cells.
Animals move, hence they possess living 1 + 1
cells to provide energy for movement. Also, 9. (a) Bone (Connective tissue)
for the many more differences and functions
(b) Cartilage (Connective tissue)
in plants and animals, they are made up of
different tissues. Bone :
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014) 2 (i) It has a hard matrix.
(ii) They are usually hollow.
7. (i) Squamous epithelium Cartilage :
(ii) Ciliated epithelium (i) This tissue is elastic and harder but softer than
(iii) Cuboidal epithelium bone.
(iv) Columnar epithelium (ii) The matrix of cartilage is solid but elastic.

P-32 S C I E N C E IX
Practical Based Answers

1. Safranin is a reddish pink solution mostly muscles are uninucleate whereas striated
used in laboratory for staining plant sections. muscles are multinucleate. 1+1
Safranin makes the various parts of plant 5. Two types of processes present in neuron are :
section appear very clearly. 2 (i) Axon : It carries impulses away from the cell
2. (i) The cells of the parenchyma tissue remain body.
turgid and provide rigidity or support to softer (ii) Dendrite : It carries impulses towards the cell
parts. body. 1+1
(ii) Parenchyma present in xylem and phloem 6. A is dendrite while B is axon. 2
takes part in some lateral movement of 7. It is the slide of Striated muscles fibre. Striated
materials. 1+1 muscle fibers are long and cylindrical and
possess light and dark bands. 2
3. Sclerenchyma cells are dead, as their walls are
8. Parenchyma tissues have living cells with thin
thickened due to lignin, a chemical substance, cell walls and intercellular spaces. 2
which acts as cement and hardens them. 2 9. X-narrow lumen, Y-Lignified thick wall 2
4. Unstriated or smooth muscles are called 10. (a) Sclerenchyma
involuntary muscles because we cannot stop (b) Parenchyma 2
or move them according to our will. Smooth

S O L U T I O N S P-33


Diversity of Plants and Animals, Basic issues
in Scientific naming, Basis of Classification,
Hierarchy of Categories/Groups

1. Species. 1 5. The system of scientific naming of organisms
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] is called binomial nomenclature. 1
Each name consists of two parts, generic name
2. Smallest number of organisms Kingdom. and specific name. Generic name should start
Largest number of organisms Species. in capitals and specific name in small letters.
When printed, the specific name is given in
italics, when handwritten, generic name and
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] specific name must be underlined separately.
(Any two) 2
3. (i) Classification makes the study of vast
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
diverse of organisms easier by clubbing them
into different groups. 6. There are certain characteristics in which plants
and animals differ from each other. Hence,
(ii) It also facilitates the study of evolution that
they are classified as separate categories. These
has taken place. characteristics are as follows :
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 2 (i) Are the cells of plants and animals eukaryotic
or prokaryotic ?
4. Primitive : Groups of organisms with simpler
(ii) Do the cells possess cell wall or not ?
body structure and ancient body design that
(iii) What are the levels of organisation ?
have not changed much over a period of time
(iv) Do the organisms produce their own food ?
or with evolution. e.g., Amoeba.
(v) What is the mode of nutrition ?
Advanced : Groups of organisms with
(vi) Where do the organisms live ? 6=3
complex body structure and, design, that have
changed over evolutionary time. e.g., Starfish. 7. (a) (i) Cells of plants have cell wall.
(ii) Cells of animals do not have cell wall.
(iii) Plants are autotrophic.
Amoeba has a simple body structure and
primitive features to that of starfish. Hence, (iv) Animals are heterotrophic.
an amoeba is considered more primitive than (b) Fungi are heterotrophic eukaryotic,
saprophytes. Permanent mutually dependent
starfish. 1
relationships are called symbiotic relationships.
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] They are found as slow, growing large,
coloured patches on the bark of trees. 2 + 3 = 5

1. Monera.
it is superior in any form. The changes are
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016] 1 the necessity to adopt and evolve according
2. Protista. 1 to the changing environment. Hence, a
3. Yes, evolved with complex body design and complex organism could be an advanced one
advanced in terms of evolution, resistance, in comparison to a simple organism. 1 + 1 = 2
immunity, body design. It does not mean tha [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]

P-34 S C I E N C E IX
4. It helps us in : The evidence for evolution comes primarily
(i) learning the importance of observation. from fossil record of change in earlier species,
(ii) learning to value the efforts put in by the the chemical and anatomical similarities of
other scientists/people in general. related life forms, geographical distribution of
(iii) to be objective.
related species and recorded genetic changes
(iv) to be open to change.
(v) developing scientific attitude/critical in living organism over many generations.
thinking. 3
Hence, classifying the organisms gives an
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014] idea about the evolution of life form that is
occurring continuously. 1+1+1=3
5. Monera is prokaryotic in nature.
Membrane bound cell organelles are absent. 7. (i) Complexity of cell structure
(ii) Form of body
Plantae show definite membrane-bound (iii) Mode of nutrition
organelles and multi-cellular body design. (iv) Phylogenetic relationship (Any three)
A characteristics is a particular form or a
Blue-green algae is prokaryotic in nature as particular function that distinguishes an
it does not show multicellular body design. individual or a group. This is because the
Hence it is included in monera. 1
basic designs are different, based on the need
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
to make their own food (plants), or acquire it
All living organisms are identified and
classified on the basis of some characteristics

The other characteristics such as presence
and these characteristics have greater effect on
or absence of skeleton etc. are used to make
the body design and functions.
subgroups among animals.
The characteristics that appear earlier are likely
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014] 5
to be more basic than man that appear later.

The cell wall of fungi is made up of tough 5. (i) Cell wall is made up of tough complex
complex sugar called chitin. sugar chitin. 1
(ii) Mode of nutrition is heterotrophic. 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015] 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
Cilia Paramecium, Flagellum Euglena. 1 6. (a) Mushroom.
(b) Fungi.
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015]
(c) (i) Cell wall is made up of chitin and cellulose.
3. The kind of cells the organisms are made of. 1 (ii) They are heterotrophic and eukaryotic
organisms. 1+1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
7. The saprophytes belong to group Fungi.
4. (a) Some fungal species live in a permanent They are called saprophytes because they use
mutually dependent relationship with decaying organic matter for their food.
blue-green algae / Cyanobacteria. Such
Species live in permanent, mutually-
relationships are called symbiotic. 1 dependent relationship. Such relationships
(b) Lichen. [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] are called symbiotic relationship.
Example : Lichen. 3
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]

S O L U T I O N S P-35
8. (a) Paramoecium :
Oral groove Cytosome

Anal pore

Vacuole Waste
Micronucleus cytopyge

Macronucleus Food
vacuoles Cilia
Contractile vacuole
(b) Protista. 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]

Major Groups of Plants

1. Mangifera indica. 1 6. (a) Monera consists of organisms which do not
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] possess well defined nucleus or organelles and
also do not exhibit multicellular body design. 1
2. Pteridophyta. 1 Protista are unicellular eukaryotic organisms
Marselia, fern, horse-tail. (Any one) 1 having membrane bound cell organelles. 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] (b) Protista. 1
(c) Certain conventions are followed while
3. Thallophyta : Do not have well differentiated writing the scientific names :
(i) The name of the genus begins with a
body design.
capital letter.
e.g., Spirogyra, Ulothrix, Ulva, Chara. (Any two) (ii) The name of the species begins with a
small letter.
Bryophyta : Plant body is differentiated to (iii) When printed, the scientific name is given
in italics.
form stem and leaf-like structures. (iv) When written by hand, the genus name
e.g., Riccia, Funaria, Marchantia. (Any two) and the species name have to be underlined
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] separately.
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
4. Symbiosis : Mutual relationship between
algae and fungal species. 7. (a) Nature of cells (prokaryotic is Eukaryotic),
Such life forms called Lichens. presence or absence of cell wall, mode of
They are found as coloured patches on the nutrition (autotrophic/heterotrophic), number
bark of trees. of cells (unicellular/multicellular). (Any three)
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016] 3 3
(b) (i) Like plants Euglena has chloroplast which
5. Three plants are algae, fungi, lichens. 1 help in photosynthesis.
Characteristics : (ii) Like animals it possess oral groove/
(i) Body is in the form of undivided thallus. flagellum/lack cell wall.
(ii) Vascular tissues are absent. (iii) Capable of obtaining ready made food.
(iii) There is no embryo formation after (Any two) 2
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
fertilization. 1

1. Gymnosperms. 1 2.
Difference between Pteridophytes and
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] Phanerogams :

P-36 S C I E N C E IX
S. No. 4. (i) Algae belongs to Thallophyta
Pteridophytes Phanerogams
Thallophytes body is not differentiated,
(i) Do not Produce seeds. predominantly aquatic. 1
produce seeds. Examples : Cladophora, Spirogyra, Celothrise,
(ii) Hidden Well-differentiated (Any Two) +
reproductive reproductive tissues. (ii) (a) Protista
organs. (b) Fungi
(c) Gymnosperms
(iii) Flowering plants, Angiosperms are classified
(iii) Primitive Advance vascular
as Monocots (1 cotyledon in seed) and Dicots
vascular tissue. tissue.
(2 cotyledons in seed) +
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
(Any two) 1 + 1 = 2
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]

3. Phanerogams are the plants with well

differentiated reproductive tissue that
ultimately makes seed. Two groups are :
(i) Gymnosperms With naked seeds.
(ii) Angiosperms Seeds enclosed in groups. 3
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014]

Marselia, ferns, horse tails (Any two)

[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015] 5

Major Groups of Animals

1. (i) Panthera tigris (iii) are triploblastic
(ii) Periplaneta americana (iv) have paired gill pouches
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] + (v) are coelomate (Any four) 4 = 2
2. Animals having two primary germ layers i.e., [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
ectoderm and endoderm in the embryo are
called diploblastic. e.g., hydra. + 5. (i) Hidden reproductive organs. 1

3. (i) Panthera represents genus while tigris refers (ii) Jointed legs, open circulatory system.
to the species to which tiger belongs to. 1 (Any one) 1
(ii) Name of the scientist : Carolus Linnaeus. 1 (iii) Vertebrates with mammary glands, give birth
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] to young ones. 1
4. (a) Provides space for muscles to attach for [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
ease of movement. 1 7. (a) Coelom is a body cavity that separates the
(b) Chordates : gut from the body wall and well developed
(i) have a notochord organs can be accommodated within this
(ii) have a dorsal nerve cord cavity. 1

S O L U T I O N S P-37
(b) Pinworm, round worm. 1 (ii) The earthworm is bilaterally symmetrical and
triploblastic, and has true body cavity. The
(c) Coelomic cavity is blood filled and such
body is segmented, lined up one after the other
condition is called open circulatory system.
from head to tail.
Blood does not flow in well-defined vessels.
(iii) The scorpion is also bilaterally symmetrical and
(Any two) 2
segmented, and has open circulatory system
(d) Mollusca.
i.e., blood does not flow in well-differentiated
Coelomic cavity is reduced in the organisms blood vessels. The coelomic cavity is filled with
of this phylum. coelomic fluid.
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] (iv) Starfish is free living marine animal, triploblastic
7. (i) The characteristic texture of an earthworm, and has a coelomic cavity. They have a peculiar
a scorpion and a starfish is the feature of water-vascular system made up of tube feets.
Annelida, Arthropoda and Echinodermata They have hard calcium carbonate structures
respectively. that they use as a skeleton. (Any three) 3

1. (i) Bilaterally symmetrical 6. (a) Pteridophyta
(ii) Triploblastic + (b) Chordate
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
(c) Angiosperm 13=3
2. Arthropoda. [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014]
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 1
7. (a) Organism : Octopus
3. (a) Arthropoda (b) Pisces Phylum : Mollusca +
(c) Echinodermata (d) Coelenterata Characteristics : Show bilateral symmetry
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 4 = 2

Open ciruculatory system
4. (a) Mollusca. 1
Reduced coelomic cavity 12=2
(b) Arthropoda.
Kidney-like organ for excretion (Any two)
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 1 (b) Salamanders, they have three-chambered
5. (a) They are viviparous i.e., they produce live heart. All other organisms have four-
young ones. chambered heart. 1
(b) They have mammary glands for the (c) Roundworm
production of milk to nourish their young
Filarial worm
(c) They show parental care. 3 [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015]

1. Echinodermata. 5. Because both : (i) are cold blooded.
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 1
(ii) have scales.
2. Arthropoda. (iii) breathe through lungs.
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 1
(iv) have three-chambered heart.
3. Dorsoventrally flattened without coelom. 1 (v) do not lay their eggs in water. 3

They are both free living and parasitic. 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
6. SpongillaNo true body cavity.
4. Nematodes possess pseudocoelomic type of

PlanariaNo true body cavity.
body cavity and bilateral symmetry. 1 + 1 = 2
ScorpionPresence of true body cavity.
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]

P-38 S C I E N C E IX
BirdsPresence of true body cavity. (iii) Body is covered by scales and they lay
AscarisA sort of body cavity or a pseudo- soft shelled eggs. Hence, they are considered
coelom is present. True body cavity is absent. as reptiles.
NeriesPresence of true body cavity. (b) (i) Dicots
6=3 (ii) Open 3+2=5
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]

7. (a) (i) They are considered mammals as they 8. (a) (i) Monera 1
suckle their young ones on milk. (ii) Pteridophyta 1
(ii) Forelimbs of birds are modified to reduce (b) Coelenterata/Annelida/Arthropoda/mollusca
body weight for flight. Echinodermata. (Any three) 1+1+1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]

1. Mollusca. 7. (i) Body is cylindrical in shape. 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 1 (ii)
Pseudocoelomate. 1
The parasitic worm that causes elephantiasis
2. Reptilia. is filarial worm.
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 1 [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 1

3. (i) Water-driven tube system. 8. (i) Homo sapiens 1

(ii) Hard calcium carbonate structures. 1 + 1 = 2 (ii) Mammalia 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
(iii) Characteristic features : Warm blooded,
4 chambered heart, respiration by Lungs,
4. It belongs to phylum Platyhelminthes. 1
Viviparous, mammary glands. Skin has hair
They are commonly called as flatworms.
sweat and oil glands. (Any five) 2
One exampleplanaria or liverfluke or tape
Exception : Platypus, Echidna which lay eggs.
worm. (Any one)
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
5. Those animals, which have mammary glands
for the production of milk to nourish their 9. (a) Mango tree : more complex and evolved,
young ones or offsprings, come under the eukaryotic. 1
group mammalia. Humans also possess the Autotrophic bacteria : unicellular,
mammary glands, and hence, they come under prokaryotic. 1
this group. 3 Fungi (Mushroom) : heterotrophic, simple
6. (a) Because they cause decomposition of thallophytic with no tissues. 1
organic matter. (b) Rat, cat, bat are mammals. 1
(b) Because they are flat worms. Platy means flat They have notochord at some stage of life.
and helminth means worm. They are warm blooded and have four
(c) To reduce body weight for flight. 1 3 = 3 chambered heart. 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]

1. Corals. (b)
Warm blooded, four-chambered heart,
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 1 mammary glands to produce milk for their
2. Porifera. off springs, skin has hairs, sweat and oil
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 1
glands. (Any two) 1
3. (a) Egg-laying mammals / oviparous, giving
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
birth to live young ones / viviparous. +

S O L U T I O N S P-39
4. Difference between Amphibians and Reptiles : (b) Angio means covered and sperma means
seed. Therefore, they are called angiosperm,
Amphibians Reptiles which means covered seeds. 1
No. (c) Fishes have scales on their body to protect
1. Found both in wa- Found on land. their bodies from rotting in water. 1
ter and on land. [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
2. Breathe either Breathe through 7. (a) Echidna and platypus lay eggs, but like
through gills or lungs only. mammals are warm blooded and feed their
lungs. young ones with milk.
3. Smooth skin with Rough dry skin (b) Crocodile is cold blooded hence is a reptile.
mucus. with scale. (c) Birds have pneumatic bones to make the
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 2 body light for flight. 1+1+1=3
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
5. The body temperature of aves and mammals
remain constant and do not change 8. (a) Earthworm. PhylumAnnelidan 1
according to the change in the temperature of
(b) AGenital papillae
environment. Hence, they are called as warm
blooded animals. 3
BAnus 2
6. (a) Protists bears cilia to move from one place (c)
Bilaterally Symmetrical 1
to another. 1 (d)
Nereis, Hirudinaria (Leech) 1

Practical Based Answers

1. It is the network of hyphae. A hypha is a 5. Gram seeds have dicotyledonous seeds and
thread-like structure in fungi. 2 pentamerous flowers. 2
2. (i) The female cone has a central axis on which 6. Presence of false roots rhizoids and spore
megasporophylls are spirally arranged. bearing capsule 2
(ii) Each megasporophyll has two ovules on 7. It is a pentamerous flower of dicotylodonous
the dorsal side. 1+1=2 plant. 2
3. (i) They are vascular plants. 8. The plant produces bisexual flower and seeds
(ii) They bear flowers. 1+1=2 are enclosed within fruit. 2
4. (i) They are non-vascular plants. 9. A has reticulate venation as it belong to dicot
(ii) The plant body is generally thalloid. plant and B has parallel venation as it belongs
1+1=2 to monocot plant. 2
10. A- Pileus, B- gills, C- stipe, D- hyphae 2

P-40 S C I E N C E IX


Health and its Failure : Disease and its Causes
and Means of Spread

1. An aspect of health, which deals with the
8. (a)
well being (physical, mental and social) of
people of a community is called community (i) Cholera Contaminated water
health. 1 (ii) HIV-AIDS Sexual contact
2. A doctor identifies a disease by its symptoms (iii) Malaria Mosquito / anopheles
and signs. 1 female
3. Vibrio cholerae. 1 (iv) Pneumonia Air
4. In HIV infection, the virus goes to the immune (b) Jaundice 1
system and damages its function. [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
9. Lack of feeling of ease or distress due to
5. (a) Diseases that can be spread from one impairment of health is stated as a disease. 1
person to another are called communicable When a person is suffering from disease, he
diseases, e.g., cough and cold, Pneumonia.
shows some symptoms. These symptoms
(b) They can spread through air, sneezing water appear in the form of dysfunction or
or air contact. 1++=2
malfunction and structural changes of the
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
organ or tissues in the body.
6. (a) AIDS, dengue fever 1 Therefore, the symptoms of disease are the
(b) Tuberculosis, typhoid, cholera 1 things we feel that something is wrong in
the body. Such as headache, loose motion,
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
vomiting, cough and swelling of body or
7. (a) Acute diseases : Diseases that last for only body part. 2
very short periods are called acute disease. Causes :
e.g., common cold 1 (a) Extrinsic factor : Water, food (only one
Chronic diseases : Diseases that last for long required).
time even as much as a life time are called (b) Intrinsic factor : poor eating habits, poor
chronic diseases. e.g., elephantiasis 1 nourishment. (only one)
(b) Japanese encephalitis, tuberculosis are chronic (c) Genetic constitution : Weak immune system.
diseases. 1
(d) Social reason : Poor public services. 4 = 2
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016]

1. Peptic ulcers. 1
5. Causal organism : HIV 1
2. Primary cause of haemophilia is change in
chromosome sequence. 1
A person suffering from AIDS can not
3. Primary cause of marasmus is protein fight even very minor infections because it
deficiency. 1
damages the immune system of the person
4. Elephantiasis and tuberculosis. 1
and damages its function.
Such diseases are called chronic diseases. 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 1

S O L U T I O N S P-41
6. (a) Diarrhoea, since it is a short term disease Acute disease : Fever, diarrhoea etc.
and does not cause drastic long term effect on Chronic disease : Elephantiasis etc.
the persons general health. + 1+1+1=3
(b) Genetic abnormalities, excessive weight, lack 9. (a) Symptoms indicate that there may be a
of exercise. (Any two) + disease, but dont indicate what the disease is.
(c) Liver. Sign of a disease is a definite indication of the
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 1 presence of a particular disease. Physicians get
7. (a) The HIV goes to the immune system and laboratory test done to pinpoint the disease.
damages its function. 1 (b) Acute and Chronic diseases.
(b) Sexual contact, from infected mother to child, Differences :
infected syringe/needle, blood transfusion. Acute
(Any two) + (i) Last for short period of time.
(c) No, antibiotics do not respond to viral
(ii) Do not cause effect on general health.
infections. They are mainly used to treat
bacterial diseases or infections. e.g., Common cold.
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 1 Chronic
8. Acute disease is a disease that lasts for very (i) Lasts for long time even for lifetime.
short period of time and those diseases that (ii) Causes major effect on general health.
lasts for a long time are called chronic diseases. e.g., Diabetes.
Hence, the statement means that the disease is
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014] 5
not a very long lasting one. For example :

1. Pathogens. 1 7. (a) Since common cold is a viral disease thus
2. Staphylococci. 1 antibiotics are not effective in common cold;
3. HIV-AIDS is a viral disease. Viruses do not have (b) Measles, tetanus, tuberculosis (Any two)
biochemical pathways on their own. Therefore 2 =1
medicines for curing it is not available. 1 (c) Symptoms of measles : 2=1
(i) Skin rash
4. Four ways by which AIDS virus spreads are : (ii) Fever
(a) Sexual contact with infected person. [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] 1
(b) Pregnant mother to her foetus.
8. (i) When we are closer to infected person, air
(c) Blood contact with infected person.
transmitted diseases are easily transferred.
(d) Using needle or syringe of infected person. 2 (ii) In closed areas, the droplet nuclei recirculate
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] and pose a risk to everybody.
Small droplets
5. AIDS is a fatal disease because immune system evaporate to droplet Droplet nuclei
nuclei in this zone
of the body get highly weakened and the body carried in air
currents for
suffers from severe infections repeatedly. 2 minutes to hours
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
6. (a) Lungs : Cough, breathlessness 1
(b) Liver : Digestive problems, metabolic problems,
Large droplets
immune disorders. 1 settle to ground
(c) Brain : Headache, vomiting, fits
(Any two symptoms) 1 2m 4m

[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 5

1. All viruses live inside host cells whereas 2. Acute diseases are the diseases lasting for a
bacteria very rarely do. Viruses, bacteria and short period of time while chronic diseases lasts
fungi multiply very quickly while worms for a long period even as much as lifetime. 1
comparatively very slowly. 1

P-42 S C I E N C E IX
3. Signs of a disease are more important than 8. (i) (a) LeishmaniaKalaazar
symptoms because symptoms do not specify
(b) StaphylococciAcne
the disease, but through signs the disease can
be easily identified. 1 (c) TrypanosomaSleeping sickness
(d) Ascaris lumbricoidesWorm 4 = 2
4. Infectious diseases can spread through air, (ii) High blood pressure is an internal and non-
water, vector, food etc. [Any two] 1 + 1 =2 infectious disease. Hence, the person suffering
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] from high blood pressure must control and
schedule his/her daily diet and keep exercising
5. Causal agent : Virus. regularly.
Prevention - Mosquito bite should be [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 1+1 = 2 9. (i)
6. Influenza is an infectious air-borne disease Column-I Column-II
and hence spreads easily. It is difficult to (a) Fungal disease Skin disease
control it as it is a viral disease. 2
(b) Viral disease Dengue fever
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
(c) Protozoan disease Malaria
7. Headache, cough, cold, loose motions, wound
(d) Bacterial disease Cholera
with continuous pain in the body parts, loss of
body weight, breathlessness, feeling tired all
the time. Because, we might be suffering from (ii) (a) Jaundice, (b) Cough. +
some disease. 3 [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011]
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011]

Manifestation, Treatment and Prevention of

1. Major drawback of principle of treatment is Prevention :
that till the person is not completely cured it (i) Keeping cleanliness in everything, be it
acts as a source of infection for others. 1 personal hygiene or public hygiene.
2. The process of inducing immunity by (ii) Availability of proper food and nourishment to
administering a vaccine to allow the immune keep immune system healthy.
system to prevent infections and illness is (or any other point) 1 + 1 + 1 = 3
called immunization. 1 5. (a) We should prevent water logging to avoid
Example : Chicken pox, typhoid. 1 mosquito breeding.
3. (i) Balanced diet. (b) We should keep our surroundings clean and
(ii) Disease free environment.
(c) There should be provision for safe drinking
(iii) Proper sanitation. water.
(iv) Mental and social stability. (d) We should consume healthy food.
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] (e) There should be periodic cleaning of toilets
4. By external agents : Infectious and non and use of disinfectants.
infectious diseases. (f) We should wear full sleeve shirt and full pants
to avoid mosquito bite.
By internal disorder of the body : Organic or
(g) The infected children should take leave from
metabolic diseases. school.
Causative agents : Various causative, agents [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015, 2012] 3
are, improper functioning of body parts,
disease causing microorganisms, unbalanced 6. (a) We should take bland and nourishing food.
diet, pollutants, genetic disorder, hormonal Such food does not contain fat, oil or spices,
imbalance etc. so digested easily.

S O L U T I O N S P-43
It provides sufficient energy and nutrients (v) Clean air
which are required for recovery and (vi) Exercises and relaxation
regeneration. 2 (vii) No addiction
(b) (i) Balanced diet (viii) Good economic condition (Any three) 3
(ii) Personal hygiene [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016]
(iii) Clean surrounding
(iv) Clean food and water

1. They are exposed to the virus through (b) This treatment will take time, so someone
uncleaned and polluted drinking water due to suffering from a disease is likely to be
poverty or lack of public services. 1 bedridden for some time.
2. (a) By avoiding direct contact with the infected (c) Person suffering from an infectious disease
persons. 1 may spread this infection to other people
(b) By not sharing articles used by infected acting as the source.
persons. 1 [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015] 3
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
7. (a) Food is necessary for the growth and
development of the body. Balanced diet
3. Penicillin is not effective against common cold
because cold is a viral disease and antibiotics provides raw materials and energy in
are not effective in preventing viral diseases appropriate amount in the form of protein,
as virus do not have their own biochemical carbohydrates, fats, minerals etc. which, in
pathways. turn, are essential for the proper growth and
Also, it acts by blocking cell wall formation functioning of the healthy body.
and virus do not have any cell wall. 2 (b) Health is a state of being well enough to
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] function well physically, mentally and
4. (a) Polio, tuberculosis, measles, tetanus, socially, and these conditions depend upon
diphtheria and whooping cough. + the surrounding environmental conditions.
(b) Small pox. 1 e.g., if there is an unhygienic condition in the
It is the principle of immunization. + surrounding area, it is likely we might get
infected or diseased.
5. (i) Once someone has a disease, their body
functions are damaged and may never (c) This is so because many water-borne diseases
recover completely. and insect vectors flourish in stagnant water
(ii) Treatment will take time, which means that which causes diseases in human beings.
someone suffering from a disease is likely to (d) Human beings live in societies and different
be bedridden for some time even if we can localities like villages or cities, which determines
give proper treatment. the social and physical environment, both
(iii) The person suffering from an infectious are to be kept in harmony. Public cleanliness
disease can serve as the source from where is important for individual health. A lot of
the infection may spread to other people. 3 money is required for maintaining better living
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016] conditions. We need good food for healthy
body and for this we have to earn more. For
6. The limitations are : the treatment of diseases also, one has to be in
(a) Once a person has an infectious disease, his good economic condition. 5
/ her body functions are damaged and may
never recover completely.

1. Biochemical pathways of virus are different 2. Immune system of individuals fight off
from bacteria. Virus do not have life-process, infection carrying microbes. 1
but bacteria does. Virus have few biochemical The immune system of those who did not
mechanisms of their own. They enter our cells suffer with cold and cough successfully
and use our machinery for their life processes. fought against the microbes to which they
Hence are difficult to be targeted. 2 were exposed. 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]

P-44 S C I E N C E IX
3. (a) The principle is that on administration of 5. In HIV infection, virus does not kill the person
vaccine, the body starts developing antibodies but virus affects the immune system, which
against it such that the person is protected consists of B-cells and T-cells. Virus generally
from the disease, body develops a memory affects the T-cell or helper T-cells. This makes
and immediately produces antibodies on the immune cells less efficient to fight against
further exposure. e.g., Polio, Typhoid. 1+1 = 2 other diseases such as common cold and
diarrhoea, and ultimately kills the person
(b) (i) Keeping cleanliness in everything, be it
suffering from HIV AIDS. 3
personal hygiene or public hygiene.
(ii) Availability of proper food and 6. (a) Yes, availability of proper and sufficient
nourishment to keep immune system food prevents from infectious diseases
healthy. + because functioning of immune system will
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] not be good if proper and sufficient food and
nourishment is not available.
4. (a) Immune system develops a memory for
(b) Yes, the general ways of preventing infection
a particular infection when it encounters it
for the first time. Hence, the next time when mostly relate to preventing exposure because :
that particular microbe enters the body the (i) For air borne microbes, we can prevent
immune system responds with even greater exposure by providing living condition that
vigour. 2 are not over crowded.
(b) Majority of children in many parts of India (ii) For water borne microbes, we can prevent
are already immune to Hepatitis-A because exposure by providing safe drinking water.
they are already exposed to the virus through (iii) For vector borne microbes we can prevent
contaminated water. exposure by providing clean environment. 5
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015]

S O L U T I O N S P-45


Motion, Force and Work

1. A body is said to be in motion if it changes its
Equation for position-velocity relation : From
position with respect to a reference point. 1 the graph, the distance travelled by the object
2. Motion in a straight line. 1 in time t, moving under uniform acceleration
3. They are relative terms. 1
a is given by the area enclosed within the
4. Instantaneous velocity is the velocity of a body
trapezium OABC under the graph. That is,
at any particular instance during its motion.
For example, the instantaneous velocity of a S = Area of the trapezium OABC
motor-cycle at a particular instance is 40 kmh1
if it is moving at 40 km h1 at that particular (OA + BC) OC
instance. It is measured by the speedometers
on the vehicles. 2
Substituting OA = u, BC = v and OC = t,
5. If the velocity of an object changes by unequal
amounts in equal intervals of time, the object ( v + u)t
we get S = .... (i)
is said to be in non-uniform or variable 2
acceleration e.g., if the speed of a bus travelling
From velocity-time relation (V = u + at)
along a straight road increases by unequal
amounts, then the bus is moving with non- vu
we get t = .... (ii)
uniform acceleration. 2 a
6. Speed is the distance travelled by an object
From equations (i) and (ii) we get
in a given time. Its SI unit is m/s. Velocity is
the speed of an object moving in a definite ( v + u)( v u)
S =
direction. SI unit of velocity is same as speed 2a
i.e. m/s. As the motion of the body is uniform
the velocity remains constant i.e. 15 m/s even or, 2as = v2 u2 3
after 10 s (acceleration is also zero). 8. (a) Average speed is obtained by dividing
1+1+1 total distance travelled by total time taken.
7. Velocity-time graph of an object that moves

Average velocity is arithmetic mean of initial
under uniform acceleration.
and final velocity.
E v B 60
(b) (i) Velocity of A = = 75 m/s
(ii) Velocity of B = = 25 m/s
(iii) Position is 50 m and time is 4 sec.
A u D 2+2+1
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2013)

P-46 S C I E N C E IX
1. Yes. An object may be at rest related to one
object and at the same time it may be in motion (c) Here, the motion is uniform motion. Motion
related to another object. 1 of the seconds hand of a clock. 1 + 1 + 1
2. The phenomena like coming of day and night
the motion of the earth. 1 8 .
3. It is a scalar quantity. 1 (a) S.
4. If the velocity of a body decreases with time, Distance Displacement
then its final velocity is less than the initial
velocity and thus its acceleration is negative. 1. Distance is Displacement
Negative acceleration is called retardation or the length is the shortest
de-acceleration. of the actual distance between
For example, when brakes are applied to a path covered the initial and
moving truck, its velocity gradually decreases. by an object, final positions
In other words, it is under retardation. 1 + 1 irrespective of of an object in a
5. The characteristics of distance-time graph for its direction of given direction.
an object moving with uniform speed are : motion.
(i) It is always a straight line. 2. Distance is a Displacement is
(ii) The uniform speed of the moving object is scalar quantity. a vector quantity.
equal to the slope of the straight line plotted.
3. Distance Displacement
60 covered can may be positive,
R never be negative or zero.
Di st ance (km)

negative. It is
s2 always positive
30 C or zero.
20 A
4. Distance Displacement
10 between two
between two
t1 t2 given points is
2 given points
O always the same.
20 40 60 80 may be same
Time (min) or different for
different paths
6. (a) Speed chosen.
(b) Displacement (Any two)
(c) Acceleration 1+1+1
(b) (i) Distance Displacement
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014)
A to B 10 m 10 m
7. (a) Here, the motion is accelerated motion, A car
A B C 10 + 2 = 12 m 10 2 = 8 m
moving on a road with increasing velocity.
(ii) A A
10 + 10 = 20 m 0 m
(b) Here, the motion is retarded motion. Brakes
applied to a moving car. (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 2 + 3

1. Velocity and acceleration. 1 (iii) It also gives us information about the velocity
2. The shortest distance moved by a body in the of the body at any instance of time.
direction from initial to final position is called (Any two) 1 + 1
displacement. 1
5. Balanced, because when we press the ball,
3. No, it is a vector quantity as it has both
magnitude and direction. 1 an equal and opposite force is developed
changing the shape of ball.
4. The various uses of a distance-time graph are
as follows : (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015) 2
(i) It tells us about the position of the body at any 6. Velocity : Rate of displacement.
instance of time. Acceleration : Rate of change of velocity.
(ii) From the graph, we can see the distance Yes, when the body is just released, u = 0
covered by the body during a particular
but g = 10 m/s2 1+1+1
interval of time.

S O L U T I O N S P-47
7. 8. (a) (i) Distance covered by the body is
Velocity - Time graph
directly proportional to time.
showing an object with
(ii) Not directly proportional to time.
constant acceleration
(b) Distance is the length of actual path travelled
between initial and final position whereas the
Velocity displacement is the shortest path between the
(in m/s) initial and final position of the particle.
(c) Initial velocity u = 90 km/h = 25 m/s,
Final velocity v = 0, acceleration a = 05 m/s2
Distance travelled s = ?
Time (in seconds) From v2 = u2 + 2as
From a velocity-time graph, we can find out : (0 25 25)
(i) The velocity of a body at any instance of time. s =
( 2 0.5)
(ii) The acceleration of the body, and
= 625 m
(iii) The total distance travelled by the body in a
given time-interval. (Any two) 1 + 1 + 1 (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 2 + 1 + 2

1. No. When the body comes back to the
6. The path travelled by a body is called distance.
same position after travelling a distance, its
displacement is zero though it has travelled Displacement is the shortest distance between
some distance. 1 initial and final points.
2. No, it is always either equal to or less than the
distance travelled by the object. 1 2r = 176
3. The magnitude of distance and displacement 2 22 r = 176
of moving object are same when the object 7
moves along the same straight line in the same
r = 28 m
fixed direction. 1

After 6 min, the body would have covered 1 1


Hence if it begins its motion from A, it will
reach till B after 6 min.
Distance from velocity - time graph can be
Total displacement after 6 min
calculated by finding the area beneath the graph.
= AB = 28 2 = 56 m 1+1+1
5. (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)

S. 7. Graph :
Speed Velocity
(i) Speed is defined as Velocity is the
the rate of change rate of change of
v = 5 m/s

of distance. displacement.
(ii) Speed is a scalar It is a vector
quantity. quantity.
(iii) Speed may or may A body may
not be equal to possess different
velocity. velocities but the t 5s
same speed. Distance s = area under the graph
(iv) Speed can never Velocity can be = 5 5 = 125 m2 2+1
be negative or negative, zero or
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)
zero. positive.

P-48 S C I E N C E IX
1. It may be of any durationsmall or large. 1 AB = (AO)2 + (OB)2 = (400)2 + (400)2
2. A car moving in a crowded street and a person
jogging in a park. 1 = 400 2 m 1
3. Speed. 1
6. (a) The average speed of an object is obtained
4. Uniform Velocity : An object with uniform velocity
by dividing the total distance travelled by
covers equal distances in equal intervals of time
the total time taken while average velocity
in a specified direction e.g., an object moving with
1 is given by the arithmetic mean of initial
speed of 40 km h towards west has uniform
velocity and final velocity for a given period
of time.
Non-uniform Velocity : When an object covers
unequal distances in equal intervals of time in a total displacement
(b) (i) Average velocity =
specified direction, or if the direction of motion total time
changes, it is said to be moving with a non-
uniform or variable velocity. e.g., revolving fan = = 20 m/s
at a constant speed has variable velocity. 1 + 1 18
5. (i) Circumference = 2r total distance covered
3 Average speed =
Circumference of circle total time
3 360
= 2r = = 20 m/s
4 18
3 (ii) Average velocity = 240 / 24 = 10 m/s
= 2 22 400
4 7 Average speed = 480 / 24 = 20 m/s
= 188571m 1 1+1+1+1+1
(ii) The displacement is the shortest path between (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)
A and B.

1. Metre per sec i.e. ms1. 1 6. (a)
2. Yes. 1
3. It can be changed by changing either :
v (ms-1)

v (ms-1)

(a) the objects speed, (b) direction of motion, or
(c) both. +
4. This is not possible because it would mean
that velocity is increasing without increase
t (s) t (s)
in time i.e. acceleration is infinite and infinite
(i) (ii)
acceleration is practically impossible. 2
(b) (i) Motion is uniformly accelerated when it
5. (a) (i) Uniform motion.
goes vertically downwards.
(ii) Uniform circular motion.
Motion is with uniform negative
2 r acceleration when it goes up. 1+1+1
(b) V =
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)
= 2 22 7. (a) 0 to 10 sec.
7 24 60 60
(b) Displacement = 125 m,
= 262 km/s
Average velocity = 4.17 m/s
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 1 + 1
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)

S O L U T I O N S P-49
Equations of Motion

1. When the body returns back to initial point, 5. (a) Let us consider that the object has travelled
e.g., when an athlete returns back to starting a distance S in time t under uniform acceleration
point, his average velocity is zero. 1 a.
2. Satellites revolve around their planets in B
almost circular orbits with constant speed.
Thus, during their motion, the speed remains
constant, while the direction of motion changes

Velocity (ms1)
continuously. As a result, there is a change in
their velocity.
Therefore, the motion of satellites around their A D
planets is considered as accelerated motion. 2
3. (a) Weight of an object is the force with t
which a body is attracted towards the earth. Time (s)

Its direction is vertically downwards. 1 As in the graph, the distance travelled by the
object is obtained by the area enclosed within
(b) Final velocity = 0, Initial velocity = 40 ms1
OABC under the velocity-time graph AB.
v2 = u2 + 2gh Thus, the distance S travelled by the object is
v2 u2 = 2gh given by
v 2 u2 S = area OABC (which is trapezium)
= h
2g = area of the rectangle OADC +

area of the triangle ABD
(0)2 (40)2 1
h = = OA OC + (AD BD)
2 10 2
+40 40 Substituting OA = u, OC = AD = t
= = 80 m. 1
+2 10 and BD = at, we get

As the directions are opposite and the stone S = u t + (t at )
returns back to origin, displacement is Zero. 2
1 2
or S = ut + at

Total distance covered = 80 + 80 = 160 m. 2
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014) B
Distance (m)

4. When a body travels equal distances in equal

intervals of time, its motion is called uniform
If an object travels in a straight line and
its velocity increases or decreases by equal B
amounts in equal intervals of time, then the time (s)
acceleration of the object is said to be uniform
Speed of the body is directly proportional to q,

and motion is said to be uniformly accelerated
motion. Larger the value of q, the greater is the speed of
Equations : v = u + at and v2 = u2 + 2as the body. Thus, B moves with higher speed. 5
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)

P-50 S C I E N C E IX
1. Average speed of a moving body can never be
zero. 1 v B
2. From the graph,

speed/velocit y
Velocity after 2s = 10 = 5 m/s
2 u D

Velocity after 4s = 20 = 5 m/s
4 C
0 Time t
Velocity after 6s = 30 = 5 m/s Derivation of the third equation of motion :
e.g. Velocity is constant, acceleration = 0 Equation for position-velocity relation.

Distance travelled,
So velocity time graph will be drawn as : 1
s = area of the trapezium OABC
10 s = (sum of the parallel sides) perpendicular
8 2
6 distance between the two parallel sides
(m/sec) 4 1
or, s = (OA + BC) OC
Putting the values of OA, BC and OC, we get
2 4 6 8 10 Time (sec) 1
s = (u + v) t ...(1)
3. Here a = 6 m/s2
t = 2 s, v = 0, s=? As we know, v =u + at
From v = u + at ( v u)
or, t =
0 = u 6 2 a
u = 12 m/s
Putting the value of t in equation (1), we get
From v2 = u2 2as
1 (v u)
v 2 - u2 s = (u + v)
s = 2 a

or, 2as = (u + v)(v u) = v2 u2
0 12 12
= or, 2as = v2 u2
26 This is the third equation of motion.
= 12 m (ii) u = 0; s = 20 m a = 10 m/sec2 v = ?
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 3 v2 = u2 + 2as
v2 = 0 + 2 10 20
4. (i) The speed-time (or velocity-time) graph for
v2 = 400
a body under uniform acceleration is given in
v = 20 m/sec 4+1
the fig. as :

1. The motion of a circulating fan is non-uniform 600
= = 20 sec. 2
because the direction of motion changes at 30
every point. 1
3. Here, u = 5 m/s, a = 0.2 m/s2, t = 10 s, s = ?, v = ?
2. Total length of path covered by train
From, v = u + at
= 500 m + 100 m
v = 5 + 0.2 10
= 600 m
= 7 m/s
Speed of train = 30 m/s.
From, v2 = u2 + 2as
Time taken by train to cover the bridge
distance 72 = 52 + 2 0.2 s
= 49 = 25 + 0.4 s

S O L U T I O N S P-51
49 25 = 0.4 s (b) Acceleration of a body is defined as the rate of
change of its velocity with time.
0.4 s = 24
Change in velocity
s = 24 / 0.4 Acceleration =
s = 60 m Time taken for change

(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014) 3 The acceleration is taken to be positive if it is
5. (a) Similarity : Both the graphs show uniform in the direction of velocity. Example : a bus
acceleration. moving with increasing speed.
Dissimilarity : In first graph the body starts The acceleration is taken to be negative when
from rest (u = 0) while in second graph the it is opposite to the direction of light. Example :
initial velocity is non-zero (u 0). when the brake is applied, the speed of car
decreases. The SI unit is ms2. 2+3

P-52 S C I E N C E IX

Force, Motion and Acceleration

1. The velocity with which a gun moves 20
= = 6.67 kg
backward after firing a bullet is called the 3
recoil velocity of a gun. (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 2
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1
6. (a) Accelerating unbalanced force.
2. Unbalanced forces. 1
(b) No force.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)
(c) Retarding unbalanced force.
3. Force of friction. (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016)1 + 1 + 1
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1
7. (a) The momentum, p of an object is defined
4. Pascal as the product of its mass, m and velocity, v.
Atmosphere (atm)
p = mv
Atmospheric pressure at sea level = 1 atm

unit of momentum p = unit of mass unit
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 1+1
of velocity
5. One Newton is the force that produces an = kg ms1 = kg ms1
acceleration of 1 ms2 on a body of mass 1 kg.
change in momentum
Here, F = 2N, u = 2 m/s, v = 5 m/s, t = 10s, m Force =
=? time

a = v - u
(b) (i)
t Ball B has more inertia than A as its mass is 2
5-2 times that of A
10 (ii) Momentum A = m 2v = 2 mv
= 0.3 m/s2
It is clear that both have same momentum.
F 2 (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 5
m = = 10
a 3

1. When forces acting on a body from all sides 3. Acceleration becomes half. 1
are equal, they cancel effect of each other and (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)
are known as balanced forces. On the other
hand, when forces acting on a body are not 4. (a) Yes, this is because of relative motion.
equal/do not cancel each other are called
unbalanced forces. 1 (b) Yes. This is because of inertia. We are in
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) state of motion when compared to the train
so we feel that the train is moving when
2. Sole of the shoe wears out due to friction
actually it is at rest.
between sole of the shoes and earths
surface. 1 (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 2
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)

S O L U T I O N S P-53
5. First law of motionmakes the forward Initial momentum of particle A is m1u1
motion slower during accidents. Initial momentum of particle B is m2u2
Example : Pedalling of bicycle. Final momentum of particle A is m1v1
When we stop pedalling, the bicycle begins
Final momentum of particle B is m2v2
to slow down. This is again because of the
friction forces acting opposite to the direction Rate of change of momentum of particle
of motion. In order to keep the bicycle A = m1v1 m1u1/t = m1(v1 u1)/t ..(1)
moving, we have to start pedalling again. Rate of change of momentum of particle
It thus appears that an object maintains its B = m2v2 m2u2/t = m2 (v2 u2)/t ...(2)
motion under the continuous application of
an unbalanced force. Let FAB and FBA, be the force exerted by particle
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 2 B on A and particle A on B respectively.
According to Newtons second law of motion
6. When two or more bodies act upon one FAB = m1v1 m1u1/t = m1 (v1 u1)/t and
another their total momentum remains FBA = m2v2 m2u2/t = m2 (v2 u2)/t
constant, provided no external forces are
Then, by Newtons third law of motion, we
Consider two particles A and B, which collide
head on. The particles move in a straight line FAB + FBA = 0
before and after collision. FAB = FBA
Let particle A have initial velocity u1 and i.e., m1v1 m1u1 = (m2v2 m2u2)
particle B has initial velocity u2. The two
m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2
particles will collide, if u1 > u2. Let after
collision the final velocities of A and B becomes or initial momentum of the system = final
v1 and v2 respectively. The two particles will momentum of the system, which is the law of
separate after collision, if v2 > v1. Let the two conversation of momentum.
particles A and B have m1 and m2 respectively. (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 3

1. Change in speed/change of direction/change has less momentum (mass velocity) than a
of shape. (Any two) 1 cricket ball. It is easier to stop tennis ball having
less momentum. 2
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)
6. Since masses are in ratio 3 : 5.
2. Change its shape and size. 1 Let the mass of the objects be 3x and 5x.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) LetF1 and F2 be the two forces with a1 and a2
3. By applying brakes we can slow down a car or F1 = m1a1 = 3xa1
any other relevant example. 1 and F2 = m2a2 = 5xa2
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) Since F1 : F2 = 5 : 3, we have
4. Newtons first law states that a body stays at 3xa1 : 5xa2 :: 5 : 3
rest if it is at rest and moves with a constant a1 : a2 = 5 5 : 3 3
velocity unit if a net force is applied on it.
a1 : a2 = 25 : 9 2
Newtons second law states that the net force
applied on the body is equal to the rate of 7. Here F = 5 N, a1 = 8 m/s2 a2 = 24 m/s2, a = ?
change in its momentum. F 5
F = ma Mass m1 = = kg
a1 8

m( v u)
or F = 5
t Mass m2 = kg
or Ft = mv mu
That is, when F = 0, v = u for whatever time, t is When masses are tied together (m1 + m2)
taken. This means that the object will continue 5 5 20
M = + = kg
moving with uniform velocity, u throughout 8 24 24
the time, t. If u is zero than v will also be zero,
F 5 24
i.e., object will remain at rest. 2 Now, a = = 2
5. Tennis ball is lighter (less mass) than a cricket M 20 = 6 m/s
ball. Tennis ball moving with same speed (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 3

P-54 S C I E N C E IX
1. To reduce the rate of change of momentum ( ve sign indicates that it is retardation)
and hence the force. Force applied by brakes
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1 = 1000 15 = 15000 N
= 15 KN 2
2. kg - ms-2, kg - m/s. + 5. A friction force (here it is kinetic or sliding
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) friction) always acts parallel to surface but in
direction of the opposing motion. Since the
wooden cabinet is moving with uniform speed,
3. Force of friction between metal surface and a horizontal force of 200 N acts on it. According
floor. (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1 to Newtons III law of motion, forces are
4. Given, mass of the car (m) = 1000 kg balanced. Hence, a frictional force of 200 N is
(i) As shown in graph, exerted on the cabinet. 2
Distance covered in first 2 secs 6. (a) Newtons second Law of motion states that
= Area of inscribed in first 2 s. the rate of change of momentum of an object
is proportional to the applied unbalanced
= base height force in the direction of force. It is expressed
2 mathematically as
1 m ( v u)
= 2 15 = 15 m F
2 t

(ii) Force (F) = mass (m) acceleration (a) F =
km ( v u) = kma
Time taken by force to stop the car = 6 5 = 1 t
second = k (1 kg) (1 ms2)
Initial velocity (i.e., velocity at B) = 15 m/s Force = kg ms2
Final velocity (at point C) = 0 m/s
(b) We well observe that the card moves ahead
Using equation v = u + at allowing the coin to fall vertically into the glass.
(v u) (0 15) This is due to inertia. The inertia of the coin
a= = = 15 m/s2
t 1 tries to maintain its state of rest. 3+2

1. F = ma 12 = 3 a, a = 12/3 = 4 m/s2. 1 7. A body continues to be in state of rest or in state
of uniform motion along a straight line unless
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)
an external force is applied on it to change the
2. 1 kg ms1. 1 state.
F = ma
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016)
m ( v u)
F =
3. According to IIIrd Law of Motion for every t
action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Ft = m (v u)
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 1 That is, when F = 0, then v = u. Thus the object
4. A frictional force always acts parallel to the will continue to move with uniform velocity.
surface and is directed to oppose sliding. m = 800 kg, F = 200 N
Banana skin reduces friction (or frictional force) F 200 1
and thus brings body in unbalanced state and a == = = 0.25 m/s2 2+3
we tend to fall. 2 m 800 4
5. According to Newtons third law of motion, 8. (a) According to first law of motion, everybody
action force is equal to reaction but acts on two tends to resist change of state whether in rest
different bodies and in opposite directions. or in motion. Qualitatively this tendency of the
When a horse pushes the ground, the ground body to stay at rest or keep moving with same
reacts and exerts a force on the horse in the velocity is called inertia.
forward direction. This force is able to overcome (b) Cricket ball (because its mass is larger, so inertia
friction force of the cart and it moves. 2 of motion is larger)
(c) u = 72 km/h = 20 m/s v = 0
6. (a) No effect. v = u + at
(b) No effect. a = 20/3 = 66 m/s2
(c) No effect. Now; F = ma
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 3 = 1200 6.6 = 7920 N 2+1+2

S O L U T I O N S P-55
Inertia and Conservation of Momentum

1. Mass. SI unit is kg. + 8. (a) No. It is not the violation of law of inertia.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) Law of inertia is obeyed only when no
external force acts on a body. But in this case
2. Force. the friction due to the ground acts on the ball,
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1 so it comes to rest.
(b) Player lowers his hand because by doing so
3. Zero as v = 0. he increases the time in which velocity of
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1 ball comes to zero. This decreases the rate of
4. Inertia is a tendency of the object to resist change of momentum and so the impact of
change in its state. Newtons first law of motion force is reduced. 1 + 1+ 1
also states similar i.e., the object will remain (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)
in its present state unless an external force is
applied. Thats why Newtons first law is called 9. Inability of the body to change by itself its
Law of inertia. 2 state of rest or state of uniform motion is
5. During the ride, pillion rider and driver are in called inertia.
a state of motion. But when the driver applies
Types : Inertia of rest : e.g. :
brakes, the body of pillion rider continues
moving forward on account of inertia of (i) When a card is flicked with a finger the coin
motion. Therefore, the pillion rider falls placed over it falls in the tumbler.
forward. 2 (ii) Only the carom coin at the bottom of a pile is
6. Colision between trucks, because more is the removed when a fast moving carom striker hits
mass, more is the inertia and therefore more it.
is the momentum. Mass of the trucks is more
Inertia of motion : e.g. :
than that of cars so collision of trucks will cause
more damage. 3 (i) When a moving bus stops suddenly, the
luggage might slide towards the front side of
7. (a) Five rupee coin, because it has more mass. the bus and fall.
(b) P1 = mv
(ii) We tend to fall forward when a bus suddenly
P2 = 4m 4v = 16mv
stops. 1+2+2
P1/P2 = 1 : 16 1 + 1
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)

1. Solid made of steel has the highest inertia Velocity of bullet = 400 m/s
because its mass is greater than aluminium Momentum of bullet = 102 kg 400 m/s

and wooden solids.
= 4 kg m/s
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1
2. Inertia of a body depends on its mass. A cricket Mass of cricket ball = 400 g
ball has more mass than a rubber ball, thus it = 400 103 kg
has greater inertia. 1
= 0400kg
3. As dust possess inertia of rest, it resists the
change and falls down. 1 Velocity of ball = 90 km/hr
4. When the driver of the bus in which a person is 90 1000 m
travelling applies brakes suddenly, the person = = 25 m/s
3600 m
tends to move forward due to inertia. 1
5. Momentum (P) = mass (m) velocity (v). Momentum of ball = 0400 25
Mass of bullet = 10 g = 10 103 kg = 10 kg m/s
= 102 kg
\ The cricket ball has higher momentum. 2

P-56 S C I E N C E IX
6. (a) (i) Stone. 7. (a) Momentum is the product of mass and
(ii) Box filled with clothes.
SI unit of momentum is -kgm/s.
(b) (i) This is done to prevent luggage from (b) v2 = u2 + 2gh
falling when the vehicle is suddenly stopped v2 = (0)2 + 2(10) (5)
or started because due to inertia the luggage v2 = 100 \ v = 10 m/s
momentum = m v
will experience a jerk in a direction opposite
= 10 10 = 100 kg m/s
to the direction of vehicle. 1 (c) The karate player strikes the pile of tiles with
(ii) On shaking, branch comes to state of
his hand very fast. In doing so, the large
momentum of fast moving hand is reduced
motion and leaves which are in state of rest to zero in a very short time. This exerts a
experience a jerk due to which these get very large force on the pile of tiles which is
detached and fall down. 1 sufficient to break them. 1+1+2+1
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)

S O L U T I O N S P-57

1. Galileo Galilei. 1 2. It is a scalar quantity. 2. It is a vector quantity.
2. Sir Issac Newton. 1
3. Gravitational force. 1 3. It is never zero. 3. It is zero at the
4. Henry Cavendish. 1 centre of earth.
4. Its unit is kg. 4. Its unit is N or kg wt.
5. Stone falls due to gravitational force exerted
by the earth. 1+2
Earth do not move towards the stone as the 8. (i) Universal gravitational constant is the
mass of earth is much more than that of the constant G appearing in Newtons law of
stone. gravitation.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 2 GMm
F= ,
6. (a) Due to less gravitational force exerted by r?
moon on man. where F is the force between two masses m and
(b) Mass do not have direction while weight M at a distance r apart. The numerical value of
has direction. G is equal to 6.673 1011 Nm2 kg2. The value
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016) 2 of G was found out by Henry Covendish (1731-
7. (a) Weight of a body is the force of attraction of 1810) by using a sensitive balance.
the earth on that body. This force depends on
(ii) Free fall : Whenever objects fall towards the
the mass (m) of the body and the acceleration
due to gravity (g). earth under the gravitational force alone, we
F = m a can say that the objects are in free fall. While
F = m g falling there is no change in the direction
W = m g of motion of the objects. But due to earths
The weight (W) of the body is directly attraction, there will be a change in the
proportional to the mass of the body. magnitude of the velocity. 1 + 1
(b) Difference between mass and weight : 9. (a) Weight is dependent on gravitational
Mass Weight force. Since, on equator, gravitational force is
1. Its value remains 1. Its value changes less, so the weight of the bar of metal decreases.
constant at all from place to place (b) Difference between mass and weight Refer
places. due to change in the Worksheet 82 ans 7 (b). 2+3

1. The unit of gravitational constant is Nm kg2. 6. (a) Gravitational force between the moon
1 and the earth keeps moon in uniform circular
2. Gravitation is the force of attraction between motion around the earth.
any two bodies while gravity refers attraction (b) They do not exert any force/weight on
between any body and the earth. 1 their spaceship due to the absence of gravity
3. No. 1 in space.
4. A small value of G indicates that the force of (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014) 1 + 1
gravitational attraction between two ordinary
sized objects is a very weak force. 1 7. Refer to detailed answer
5. On earth value of g is maximum at poles and (i) The force that binds us to earth.
minimum at the equator. At poles radius of (ii) The motion of the moon around the earth.
earth is less so value of g is more, at equator (iii) The motion of planets around the sun.
radius of earth is more so value of g is less. g (iv) The tides due to the moon and the sun.
= 1/R.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015) 3
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014) 1 + 1

P-58 S C I E N C E IX
Detailed Answer : 8. Acceleration due to gravity does not depend on
Universal law of gravitation states that the the mass of the falling body rather it depends
force of attraction between two objects is on the mass of the planet towards which the
proportional to the product of their masses body is falling. 3
and inversely propotional to the square of the 9. Differences between mass and weight : Refer
distance between them. Worksheet 82 ans 7 (b).
Mass of the astronaut on moon =70 kg, g = 1.6

Four phenomena which can be explained by
m/s2 on moon
this law are : W = m g
(i) The force that binds us to earth. = 70 1.6
(ii) The motion of the moon around the earth. = 112 N is the weight of astronaut on moon.
The mass of a body is constant everywhere
(iii) The motion of planets around the sun.
in the universe. So, the mass of the astronaut
(iv) The tides due to the moon and the sun. would be same on the earth as well as on the
moon i.e. 70 Kg. 3+2

1. At poles the radius of the earth is lesser than (b) Gravitational force : Downwards
that at the equator. Example : When we throw a ball in the air, it
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015) 1
returns to the ground. 1 + 1
2. The unit of mass is kilogram (kg). 1
8. No, his weight will not remain same as that at
3. No. 1
4. Mass of an object can never be zero because the poles. There will be a decrease in his weight

mass of an object is the measure of its inertia at the equator. As the radius of the earth
and the substance contained by the body. 1 increases from the poles to the equator, the
5. (i) The force that binds us to earth.
value of g becomes greater at poles decreasing
(ii) The motion of moon around earth.
(iii) The motion of planets around sun. towards equator. Also, the force of gravity
(iv) Formation of tides. 4 decreases from poles to the equator. 3

Gm1 m
9. (a) Let mass of first body be m1
6. F = 2
Let mass of second body be m2
Force on 1st body = Force on 2nd body
(i) If m1 = 2m, then F becomes twice. GMm1/R2 = GMm2/R2
(ii) If d = 3d1, then F becomes one-ninth.
G and G cancel. M and M cancel R2 and R2
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014)
This leaves
7. (a) Frictional force : Backwards m1 = m2
Example : If a book slides across the surface of Hence proved.
a desk, then the desk exerts a frictional force (b) g = GM/R2
in opposite (i.e. backwards) direction of its (c) Its value is constant in universe.
(Board marking scheme, 2014)

1. Weight of a body is the force with which a body 5. (i) Latitude of the place.
is attracted towards the centre of the earth. 1 (ii) Mass of the earth.
2. SI unit of weight is newton (N). 1
Value is maximum at poles and minimum at
3. Weight is a vector quantity. 1 equator of the earth. 1+1
4. W = mg. 1 (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)

S O L U T I O N S P-59
6. The falling of a body from a height towards F = G m1m2
earth under the gravitational force of earth r2
(with no other force acting on it) is called free Where, m1 and m2 are the masses of two
fall. bodies and r is the distance between them. G is
1 gravitational constant.
H = ut + gt2
2 When the distance is reduced to half,
1 r
= 0 10 + 98 102 r = then,
2 2

= 490 m 1+1 mm
F = G m1m2 = G r 2
1 2
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)
7. (i) This is because a piece of paper has larger
surface area and therefore experiences more
friction due to air than a stone which has less = 4G m1m2 = 4F
surface are. r2
(ii) Because acceleration due to gravity varies from Thus, when the distance between the objects is
place to place. reduced to half the gravitational force increases
(iii) The value of g depends on Latitude of the by four times the original force.
place and the mass of the earth while G is (ii) From Universal law of gravitation, force
called universal constant as its value remains exerted on an object of mass m by earth is
constant at all the places in the universe. 3 given by F = G
8. (a) F =
GMm R2
R2 (i) When mass of the object say m is increased
(b) (i) According to the law of gravitation, the by four times then
force of attraction acting between two bodies is F = G M 4m/R2 = 4F
given by, Thus, when the distance between the So as the mass of any one of the object is
objects is reduced to half the gravitational force increased four times the force is also increased
increases by four times the original force. four times. 3+2

1. 98 Newton. 1
Let the two bodies A and B be of masses M
2. At the poles. 1 and m respectively, which are separated by a
3. At the equator. 1 distance r.
4. It will remain the same on the moon, i.e.,
According to Universal law of Gravitation,
98 kg. 1
Then, F M m ...(i)
5. Acceleration of free fall is called as acceleration 1
and F 2 ...(ii)
due to gravity g =98 m/s2 r

Gravitational force between the earth and an
object is called weight. 1+1
Combining (i) and (ii),
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) Mm
F = G
6. (i) Masses of object, (ii) Distance between
Where G is called universal gravitation
them as
F m1 m2 and F 2 1+1 The numerical value of G = 667 1011 Nm2
d Kg2 1+2
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)
9. (a) (i) gearth = 9.8 = 1.63 ms2
7. (a) Backward 6
(b) Downward
F 110.84
(c) Towards the centre 1+1+1 (ii) Mass on moon = = 68 kg
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014) g 1.63

8. Universal law of gravitation states that the force (iii) Weight on earth = mg = 68 9.8 = 666.04 N.
of attraction between two bodies is directly
proportional to the product of their masses (b) Derivation of g = GM/R2

and inversely proportional to the square of the (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015) 5
distance between them.

P-60 S C I E N C E IX
Detailed Answer : Gm M
1 1 F = ... (i)
(a) (i) gearth = 9.8 = 1.63 ms2 r2
6 6
Force produces an acceleration g. So, from
(ii) Mass on moon will be constant and does not Newtons second law F = mg .... (ii)
change from place to place. Hence, mass of the From equation (i) and (ii) we get
person on moon will be 68 kg.
Gm M
(iii) Weight on earth = 110.84 6 = 666.04 N. mg =
(b) According to Newtons law of gravitation, the r2
force of attraction between earth and a body is GM
given by g = 5

1. Gravitational force is attractive in nature stated as,
always. 1 G ( m1 m2 )
2. Weightlessness is a state when an object does F =

not weigh anything. It occurs only when a

body is in a state of free fall under the effect of (a) Mass of one object is tripled :
only gravity. 1 G(3m1 )m2
3. Because its value remains constant at all the F =
places in the universe. 1
4. Weight of body depends on mass of body and 3G( m1 m2 )
F =
value of g at that place d

W=mg Force will be tripled.

Yes, in the centre of earth body has mass but no
(b) Distance between the objects is doubled :
weight because value of g = 0. 1+1
G( m1 m2 )
5. Force of attraction between the sun and the F = 2
2( d )
planets is centripetal force and direction is
towards the sun. G( m1 m2 )
F =
All planets will move along a straight line. 4d

(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1 + + 1

{G( m1 m2 )}
Mm F =
6. F = G and we know that F m1 m2 and d2
Force will reduce to one-fourth of its previous
1 value.
F 2 Now, if distance is increased four
d (c) Masses of both objects are doubled :
times, one of mass has to be increased 16 G{(2 m1 )(2 m2 )}
F =
times, it will keep F same. 1+1 d2

(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)
4G{ m1 m2 }
7. Refer Worksheet 86 ans 8. F =

8. The force between two objects is given by
Universal gravitation law. It is numerically Force will be four times greater than its
previous value. 1+1+1

1. The acceleration due to gravity is more at the 2. Galileo climbed to the top of the Leaning Tower
poles than at the equator. The time taken by of Pisa in the presence of a large gathering,
a body is smaller if the acceleration due to and dropped spheres of different masses and
gravity is more when the initial velocities materials from the top simultaneously. All the
spheres reached the earths surface at the same
and the distance travelled are the same. So,
time. So, he concluded that the acceleration of
when dropped from the same height a body
an object falling freely towards the earth does
reaches the ground quicker at poles than at the not depend on the mass of the object. 1
equator. 1

S O L U T I O N S P-61
3. Drop two balls with different mass from a tall 5. Mass is the quantity of matter contained in an
building at the same time. They will reach the object.
ground at the same time. Both the balls are at Weight is the force with which an object is
free fall and their initial velocity is same, that attracted towards the centre of earth.
is zero. You know that s = gt2. S.I. unit of mass is kg. and S.I. unit of weight is
So the only way that they touch the ground Newton
at the same time is that acceleration is same W = mg
for both the balls. This experiment proves that Mass of the body on moon = 20 kg
during free fall every object accelerate at the Weight on moon = mgmoon = 20 16
same rate, irrespective of its mass.
= 32 N 6
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014) 2
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)
4. h = 180 m, t = ?, g = 10 m/s2, u = 0
h = ut + gt2 6. (a) F m1 m2 1
1 2 (b) g =
or h = gt d2
1 6 7 10 11 7 31 10 22
or 180 = 10 t2 g =
2 (1 7 10 6 )2
180 2 = 169 m/s2 2
or t2 = = 36
10 (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)
t = 6 sec 2

P-62 S C I E N C E IX

1. A substance that can flow is called as fluid. 1 7. (a) Archimedes principle : When a body is
Density of substance
2. Relative density = 1 fully or partially immersed in a fluid, it loses
Density of water
. weight, which is equal to the weight of the
3. The upward force acting on the body when liquid displaced by it. 1
immersed in the liquid is called buoyancy. Applications : Archimedes principle is used
Buoyant force acts in upward direction. in designing submarines and also for checking
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 1 + 1 = 2 purity of milk. 1

4. The piece of iron will sink in the water as its (b) Both experiences same force because buoyant
density is more than the density of water. force depends on the volume of object. 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 8. (a) SI unit of density is kg/m3. Relative density
has no units because it is the ratio of density of
5. By making the area half, pressure will be
a substance and density of water. 2
doubled. This is because pressure is the thrust
(b) It means that the ratio of the density of gold to
per unit area,
the density of water is 19.3. 1
i.e., Pressure = F Mass
A 9. (a) Density is , while relative density
Thus, pressure is directly proportional to force
and inversely proportional to area. 3 Density of a substance
Density of water
6. When a body is immersed in a fluid, it
experiences an upward force. This upward SI unit of density = kg/m3.
force is the force of buoyancy. 1 Relative density has no unit. +
Forces acting an the body inside water are Density of gold
buoyant force and if the buoyant force is (b)
R.D. =
Density of water (at 4C)
greater than the gravitational force it floats,
otherwise it sinks. 2 19300
= = 19.3 2
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 1000

1. Because of upthrust of water exerted on the 4. Pressure exerted by the force is inversely
mug. 1 proportional to the area of contact. A thin strap
has a smaller area in contact with shoulder
2. It acts on an object in the vertically upward and thus the force of same magnitude exerts
direction. 1 more pressure on the shoulder which makes
3. The upward force exerted by a liquid on the it difficult to carry. 2
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
body that is immersed in the liquid is known
as the upthrust force. 5. Archimedes Principle states that when a body

The upthrust force depends on the following is immersed fully or partially in a fluid, it
experiences an upward force that is equal to
factors :
the weight of the fluid displaced by it.
(a) Density of liquid in which object is immersed. Its two applications are :
(a) It is used in designing ships and submarines.
(b) Volume of the object immersed. (b) Hydrometers are used for determining
density of liquids.
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016, 15] 3

S O L U T I O N S P-63
6. (a) Tip has less area, so there is more pressure, m 600
hence it pierces easily. V= =
d 1000
Head is broad so that area of contact is more,
so the pressure can be easily exerted. 600
Buoyant force = 1000 10 =6000N
(b) Snow shoes have broad base, so there is more 1000
area of contact. Therefore there is less pressure [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015] 5
on the snow and the person does not sink. 3 7. A body will float in a liquid if the liquid
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014] displaced by the immersed part of the body in
liquid is equal to the weight of the body. In case
8. (a) One factor responsible is density. If the of iron ship, which is hollow from within, the
density of an object is less than the liquid, the weight of water displaced by the ship is more
object floats and if it is greater than that of than the weight of the ship and hence, it does
liquid it sinks. The other factor is upthrust or not sink in water. But in case of iron needle
buoyant force. If it is greater than the object, which is compact i.e., not hollow and the
then the object floats in the liquid and if it is density of iron is more than that of the weight
less than the object sinks. of water displaced by iron needle is much less
(b) Mass = 600 kg, Buoyant force = Vrg, g = 10 than its own weight. Hence, it sinks in water. 3

1. This happens because upthrust acts on us 6. Archimedes principle, states that when a
and our apparent weight is less than actual
weight. 1 body is immersed fully or partially in a fluid,
it experiences an upward force that is equal to
2. Relative density of a plastic block is less than
the density of water, and hence, the upthrust the weight of the liquid displaced by it.
buoyant force of water on plastic block is more Laws of floatation :
and it floats on the water surface.
(i) When the force of gravitation by the earth
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 1
on the object is more than the buoyant force
3. If the upthrust is more than the weight of exerted by a fluid on the object, then the
an object in which it is immersed then it will
object sinks.
U>W (ii) When the force of gravitation by the earth
If the weight (W) of an object is greater on the object is less than the buoyant force
than upthrust (U) of the liquid in which it is exerted by the fluid on the object, then the
immersed, then it will sink. 2
object floats.
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
4. Downward gravitational force and upward Sea water has more density. So it will exert
buoyant force. 1+1=2 higher buoyant force than river water on the
5. Relative density measures the heaviness of a same object.
substance than the water. It is the ratio of the So in order to swim, less amount of water
density of a substance to that of water. needs to be displaced to balance our weight.
While density is mass per unit volume of a
substance. 1 Therefore it is easier to swim in sea water.
Relative density of silver = 10.8 The density of cork is less than that of water.
Density of water = 1000 kg/m3 It means that its weight is lesser than the
Density of silver = ? 1 buoyant force experienced by it under water.
Density of silver = R.D. density of water.
So when it is released, it comes to the surface
= 10.8 1000 kg/m3
of the water. But the density of an iron nail is
= 10800 kg/m3
= 1.08 104 kg/m3. more than that of the water so it sinks.
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014] 5

P-64 S C I E N C E IX
1. Wooden block will come upward due to the
less density compared to water. 1 Density of the substance
6. Relative density = 1
Density of water
2. The density of cork is less than that of water. It
means its weight is less than the buoyant force It gives an idea as to how many times a
experienced by it under water. So on releasing substance is heavier than the water. 1
it comes to the surface of water. 2 x
[CBSE Marking Sheme, 2015] Here, 13.6 = 3
3. (a) The weight of the water displaced is x = 13.6 103 kg/m3.
increased because the weight of the boat is [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
increased. Weight of water displaced will be
7. Force is any interaction that tends to change
equal to the buoyant force. 1 the motion of an object.
(b) The upthrust increases because when an While thrust is a type of perpendicular force
object floats in water then acting on any surface.
Buoyant force = Weight of fluid displaced by Thrust
Pressure =
object. Area
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014] 1 Force
Pressure =
4. (a) It is based on the Archimedes principle.
Case 1 : Mass = 100 kg,
Greater the density of liquid in which a body
Weight of the body = 100 10 = 1000 N
is immersed, lesser is the volume. Area = 102 square metre
Sharp knife has less surface area than blunt 1000
Pressure = 2
= 105 Pascal
knife. The pressure is inversely proportional 10
to area hence, it exerts more pressure. Case 2 : Mass = 50 kg,
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 1 + 1 = 2 weight of the body = 50 10 = 500 N
Area = 25 104 m2
5. (a) Archimedes principle : When a body
F = 500 N
is immersed fully or partially in a fluid, it 500
Pressure =
experiences an upward force that is equal to 25 10 4
the weight of the fluid displaced. 1 = 2 105 Pascal
(b) (i) Density of the substance, (ii) Density of the So, body with mass 50 kg will exert more
liquid. pressure on 25 square cm area. 5
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 2 [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015]

Practical Based Answers

1. A small porous solid, a ball filled with a liquid 3. Wt > Ws.
having a leakage. 2
It is based on Archimedes principle which
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014] states that when a body is immersed fully or
partially in a fluid it experiences an upward
2. The density of gold in CGS system
force that is equal to the weight of the fluid
= Density of gold in SI system/1000 1
displaced by it.
Density of salt water is more than tap water,
= gm-cm3
1000 so upthrust is also more. 2
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014]
= 19.6 gm-cm3. 1

S O L U T I O N S P-65
Mass 6. (d) Completely immersed in salt solution as
4. Density of solid = upthrust depends on the weight of the body
immersed and the density of the liquid. 2
40 [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015]
Mass 15
= 2.6 g/cm3 1 7. Density = = = 0.6gm / cm 3 2
Volume 25

Since the density of solid is more than water, [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015]
therefore it sinks. 1
8. (i) Float
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011]
(ii) Sink 1+1=2
Density = 7.8 gm/cm3
5. [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016]
Volume = 200 cm3 9. No, there will be no changes in the results as
Mass = Density Volume weight of object fully immersed in a liquid
= 7.8 200 does not depend upon shape of the container.
= 1560 gm. wt. 2 2
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014]

P-66 S C I E N C E IX


1. Work done by a force is zero when the 6. The work done by the force is negative because
direction of applied force and displacement of the displacement is opposite to the direction of
an object is perpendicular to each other. force applied.
W = Fscos 90 = 0 Example : (i) Work done by the force of friction;
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] 1 (ii) Work done by applying brakes.
1 + 1 +1=3
2. W = 0. 1 7. (a) Work is said to be done when a force acts
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] on an object and the object covers some
3. Work is done when a force acting on a body distance.
produces displacement in it. Its SI unit is Joule.
One joule : When a force of 1 N moves a body
SI unit of work is joule (J). 1++
through a distance of 1 meter in its own
4. Work done is W = F s when : direction.
(i) a force acts on an object 1 (b) u = 90 m/s; v = 0; F = 27000 N; m = 3000 kg
(ii) and the object is displaced. 1
F = ma
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
a = F/m = 27000/3000
5. Work done by a force is said to be positive = 9 m/s2
when the displacement in the object is in Also, v2 u2 = 2as, 02 (90)2 = 2(9)s
the direction of applied force whereas it is S = 450 m
negative when the displacement is in the W = F s
direction opposite to the applied force. 1
= 27000 450
Two forces : (1) Weight of the body acting
downwards. = 12150000 J
(2) Force applied on the body acting = 12150 kJ 5
upwards. ve sign shows retarding force.
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016; 2014]

1. Negative work. 4. (a) One joule of work is said to be done on an
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] 1 object when a force of one Newton displaces
it by one meter along the line of action of the
2. Zero. force. 1
(b) In fig (i), the direction of force, (F) and
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] 1 displacement are perpendicular to each other.
Detailed Answer : There is no displacement in the direction of
The displacement is zero after one complete force so the work done is zero. In fig (ii), the
rotation. direction of force F and displacement are in
the same direction. Hence, work done by the
3. No, as the displacement is zero. 1+1=2 force is positive. 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]

S O L U T I O N S P-67
5. Work done is zero. W = Fscos 90 = 0 J 1 (ii) Gravitational force : Doing negative work
[ cos 90 = 0] opposite to the direction of the displacement.
Displacement is perpendicular to the direction 1
of applied force while the force of gravity is [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
acting vertically downwards.
So, displacement is along the force, hence it is 7. (i) Work done = mgh 1
zero. 1 Difference in height of initial and final position
is zero. 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
Therefore, Work done = mg (h2 - h1)
6. Negative work : When the force is acting = mg(0) = 0 1
opposite to the direction of the displacement, (ii) Work done = Change in K.E
1 1
the work done by the force is said to be Work done = mv12 mv22 1
negative. 2 2
When we lift an object, two forces act on the 1 1
= 20 4 20 25
object : 1 2 2
(i) Muscular force : Doing positive work in the = 40 250 = 210 J 1
direction of the displacement. 1 [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]

1. No work is done as force is applied to keep the Here q = 90, W = Fscos 90 = 0. 1 + 1 = 2

trunk on the head but there is no displacement [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
of the body. Hence work done is zero. 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] 7. (a) (i) Force should be applied.
(ii) Body should move in the line of action of
2. Zero, as there is no displacement. 1 force.
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] (iii) Angle between force and displacement
should not be 90. 1
3. Given, F = 15 N, s = 5 m (b) Mass of luggage, m = 15 kg
Using W = F s = 15 5 and displacement, s = 1.5 m.
= 75 J
Work done, W = F s = mg s
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011]
= 15 10 1.5
= 225 J 1
4. Archer does the work in deforming the bow
while releasing the bow. 1 [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
Deformed bow possesses potential energy
and the moving arrow possesses kinetic 8. (a) F = 250 10 = 2500 N
energy. + s = 1 m
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
W = F s = 2500 1
5. W = F s = 2500 J 1
= 140 15 (b) Zero, as there is no displacement. 1
= 2100 J = 2.1 kJ 1 (c) To hold the box, men are applying a
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] force which is opposite and equal to the
gravitational force acting on the box. While
6. Work done is zero because force and
applying the force muscular effort is involved,
displacement are perpendicular. Also the
force of gravity of an object depends on and so they feel tired. 1
vertical displacement. [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]

1. Moon revolving in a circular path is always
As, cos 90 = 0
directed along the tangent to a circular orbit.
Work done = Fscos 90 = 0
The angle between the line of action of force
Therefore, work done is zero.
and displacement is 90. [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011]

P-68 S C I E N C E IX
2. Work done = 0 Since displacement , s = 0 1
Total Distance covered by the boy
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011]
S = 1.5 km + 1.5 (2 10 m) + 2.0 km
= 1500 m + 942 m + 2000 m
3. (i) No, as there is zero displacement of the = 4442 m
Work Done; W = FS
(ii) Yes, as the cart moves through a distance. = (5N) (4442 m)
(iii) Yes, as the trolley moves through a distance. = 2210 J
(iv) No, as there is no displacement. 4 = 2
Note, we should take the distance covered
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] while moving into the circular path as 1.5
times its circumference (2r) and not its
4. (a) Yes, it is possible, that a body is displaced
diameter since work is done against friction
and yet its work done is zero. For example, a
for the entire one and a half cycle.
satellite moving around the earth. 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015] 2
(b) Frictional Force F = 5 N

Energy, Types of Energy and Law of Conservation
of Energy

1. Mechanical energy. 1 positions. Then, it is converted to K.E. at the
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] mean position and so on.

2. Kinetic energy. 1
It comes to rest due to air resistance and friction
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] with the hook.

Energy is lost in overcoming friction and air
3. 3.6 106 Joules.
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] 1

But total energy remains constant. 3
4. The potential energy get converted into kinetic
energy during hitting a metal by a fast moving 8. (a) Sum of kinetic energy and potential energy
of an object is the total mechanical energy.
hammer. Due to which metal get heated. 2
Its two forms are kinetic energy and potential
5. (a) chemical energy to heat energy. energy. 1
(b) chemical energy of fuel to electrical energy. Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014] 1 + 1 = 2 but can be transformed from one form to
another. 1
6. Energy can neither be created nor be

Example is simple pendulum. 1
destroyed, but can be converted from one
form to another. 1 (b) m = 1000 kg, u = 72 km/h = 72 m/s

No, potential energy is converted to kinetic
= 20 m/s, v = 0,
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 1 + 1 = 2
Initial kinetic energy = mv2
7. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed
but can be transformed from one form to = 1000 202
Explanation of law : Let us take the example of = 200000 J = 2 105 J 2
simple pendulum. We draw a pendulum bob
Final K.E. = 0, work done = change in
to one side and allow it to oscillate. K.E. = 2 105 J

The pendulum bob has P. E. at the extreme [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]

S O L U T I O N S P-69
1. The energy possessed by a rolling stone is p2
K.E. =
kinetic energy. 2m
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015] 2
2. Kinetic energy. 6. (a) Potential energy. 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] 1
(b) Energy possessed by a body by virtue of its
3. Potential Energy. 1 position. 2
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] (c) It gets converted into heat and sound. 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
4. (a) Kinetic Energy and potential energy.
(b) Potential Energy
1 1
(c) Kinetic Energy 7. (a) (K.E.)1 = mv12, (K.E.)2 = mv22; 4 : 9
(d) Kinetic Energy 4=2 2 2
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 1+1=2
(b) Total energy = P.E. + K.E. 1
5. K.E. = 1 mv 2 (p = mv)
mgh/2 + mgh/2; (v = 2gh) 2

T.E. = mgh 1
mv mv p2
= = [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
2m 2m

1. Chemical to light energy, or chemical to sound 6. Using the formula for K.E. we get,
energy. 1
K.E. = mv 2
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] 1 2

1 m = 100 g = 0.1 kg
2. K.E. = mv2. Kinetic energy is directly K.E. = 500 J
2 500
proportional to mass. Therefore, horse v2 = = 10000
possesses more energy, due to its large mass.
v = 100 m/s
1 Momentum = Mass Velocity
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] = 0.1 100
= 10 kg m/s 3
3. P.E. becomes maximum. 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015]
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011]
7. (a) Given, m = 75 kg

4. S.l. unit of kinetic energy is joule. 1 1
v = 60 m/s K.E. = mv2
1 1 2
K.E. = mv2 = 15 42 1
2 2 = 75 60 60
= 120 Joule 2
= 135000 J
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
(b) P. E. = m.g.h. = 75 10 850
5. Initial K.E. = 25 J 1 = 637500 J
1 (c) Total mechanical energy
Since K.E. = mv2 = K.E. + P.E.
= 135000 + 637500 = 772500 J

As velocity doubles, K.E. becomes four
(d) Given, u = 60 m/s, h = 850 m
K.E. = 4 25 = 100 J 1 v2 u2 = 2gh
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] v2 3600 = 2 10 850 = 17000
v = 143.5 m/s

P-70 S C I E N C E IX
1 2 1
KE = mv = 75 (143.5)2
2 2
= 772209 J 5

1. No, it does not violate the law of conservation 6. One Joule is the amount of work done on an
of energy. Potential energy is converted into object when a force of 1 N displaces it by 1 m
total mechanical energy and hence, it remains along the line of action of force.
conserved. P. E. = mgh 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] 1 m = 150 kg, g = 10 ms2, h = 7 m 1
P. E. = 150 10 7 = 10500 J 1
1 [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
2. K.E. = mv2, if the speed of the body is
1 7. (a) When an object is placed at a greater
halved its kinetic energy is reduced to of height, the height increases from the reference
level. (Velocity remains constant i.e., zero).
its original value. Hence, by comparing the potential energy at
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] 1 two points, we can see that the P.E. at greater
height will be larger. 2
3. Heat energy to electrical energy.
Chemical energy heat energy kinetic (b)
m = 2 kg, v = 10 m/s
energy electrical energy. 1 1
Initial K.E. = mv2
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] 2
Maximum kinetic energy = Maximum = 2 (10)2 = 100 J 1
potential energy

Also, height reached
1 1 v 2 u2 0 2 ( 10 )
K. E. = mv2 = 2 25 25 1 h = =
2 2 2g 2 10
= 625 J 100
= = 5 m 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 20
Hence, magnitude of height = 5 m
5. (a) K.E. is the energy possessed by a body by
Hence, P. E. at highest point = mgh
virtue of its motion. 1
= 2 10 5
1 = 100 J. 1
(b) K.E. = m(v2 u2). 1
2 [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]


1. Watt. 4. Power is the rate of doing work. 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] 1 Work 1 joule
Power = =
Time 1 second
2. 1 kWh = 3.6 106 J. 1
= 1 watt or 1 W
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011]

If power of an electric bulb is 15 W, it consumes
15 joules per second
3. Electrical energy = Power time taken

Energy consumed by the bulb in 10 minutes =
= 1.2 10 = 12.kWh 2
15 W 600 s = 9000 Joules 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015]
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]

S O L U T I O N S P-71
5. Energy = power time = 1.5 2 = 3 kWh 8. (a) SI unit of electrical energy is Joules (J)
= 3 units.
Commercial unit of electrical energy is
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014] 3 kilowatt hour (kWh)
6. (a) m = 10 kg, t = 15 s, d = 15 m.
(b) m = 800 kg, h = 1500 cm = 15 m, t = 20 sec,
W mgh 10 10 15
P= = = = 100 W. 2 g = 10 m/s2
t t 15
W mgh
Potential energy from stretched string of the P = =
law. 1 t t

7. (a) 2 bulbs of 40 watts for 6 hrs. 800 10 15

= = 6000 W
E1 bulb = 2 40 6 = 480 W = 0.48 Kwh 20
(b) E2 tubelight = 50 8 2 = 0.800 kWh (c) E = 500 J, t = 20 sec
(c) ETV = 120 6 = 0.720 kWh
Total Energy = 0.48 + 0.80 + 0.72 = 2.00 units W 500

Power, P = = = 25 W 5
rate = ` 2.50 per unit t 20
Cost per day = 2 2.50 = ` 5.00 [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015]
Cost of 30 days = 5.00 30 = ` 150 5
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016]


60 6. If one joule of work is done in one second, the

3. P = = 1 J/s = 1 Watt 1 power is called one watt. 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] Power of lamp =
2. Work done = Energy consumed 1000
2 = = 100 W
Energy = Power Time taken 10
= 1000 W 2 hour [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
= 2000 W-hr or 2 kW-hour or 2 kWh
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 1 7. (a) The commercial unit of energy is kilowatt
(kWh) hour.
3. P. E. = mgh
(b) The SI unit of energy is joule.
m = 62 kg, g = 10 m/s2, h = 65
= 13 m Now, 1 kWh = 1 kW 1 or
= 1000 W 1 h
P. E. = 62 10 13 = 8060 J
= 1000 W 3600 s
P.E. 8060
P = = = 3600000 J
t 12
= 3.6 106 J
= 671.67 W 1 6
1 kWh = 3.6 10 J
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
4. m = 50 kg, t = 9 sec.
height of 45 staircases = 15 45 = 675 = 6.75 m. Appliance Power Time Energy consumed
W mgh 4 Bulbs 50 W 6 h 4 50 6 = 1200 Wh
P = =
t t 3 Tube lights 40 W 8 h 3 40 8 = 960 Wh
50 10 1.35 1 TV 100 W 6 h 1 100 6 = 600 Wh
1 Refrigerator 300 W 24 h 1 300 24 = 7200 Wh
= 50 10 0.75
Total energy consumed = 9960 Wh = 9.960 kWh
= 500 0.75
Electricity bill amount = 9.960 units ` 2.50
= 375 W. 3 = ` 24.90
W = F s = 900 10 = 9000 J 1 For 30 days = 30 24.90 = ` 747
P = W/t
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
= 9000/30 = 300 W 1

P-72 S C I E N C E IX

Sound : Its Nature, Production, Propagation,
Speed and Reflection

1. When the speed of an object exceeds the speed
of sound, it is said to travel in supersonic speed.
For example, bullets, jet crafts etc., travel in
supersonic speeds. 1 (ii)
2. Longitudinal mechanical wave. 1
3. (i) The time taken by two consecutive
compressions or rarefactions to cross a fixed
point is called the time period of a wave. Low Pitched Sound
(ii) Speed of sound (v) = Wavelength ()
Frequency () 1
v = [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011]
(iii) Given, velocity, v = 339 ms1 5. Three features of transverse waves are :
Wavelength, = 1.5 cm
(a) The particles of the medium vibrates at right
= m angles to the direction of propagation of wave.
(b) Transverse waves travels in the form of crests
We know, Velocity = Wavelength
Frequency and troughs.
Velocity (c) They cannot travel through vacuum. 1 3 = 3
Therefore, Frequency =
Wavelength 6. (a)
= S. No. Music Noise
(i) Music produces Noise is unpleasant.
a pleasing effect
339 100 on our ears and
1.5 mind.
Frequency = 22600 Hz 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] (ii) Frequency is high Frequency is low and
and produces reg- has irregular wave-
4. (a) The pitch of a sound depends on the ular waveform. form.
frequency of vibration. The pitch of a sound is
directly proportional to its frequency. 1 (iii) Musical sound Noise shows sudden
(b) shows no sudden changes in amplitude
changes of am- and wavelength.
plitude or wave-

(b) Bats and Dolphins.
High Pitched Sound
Process : SONAR. 1+1=2

S O L U T I O N S P-73
1. The vibration of the medium that travels along 6. (a) Sound is produced by the vibration of
or parallel to the direction of the wave is called objects. When objects vibrate, it collides with
a longitudinal wave. In a sound wave, the the molecules in the medium. This collision
particles of the medium vibrate in the direction produces mechanical oscillations in the
parallel to the direction of the propagation of medium. Because of this, sound waves are
disturbance. Hence, a sound wave is called a known as mechanical waves.
longitudinal wave. 1

(i) Megaphones, horns, musical instruments
2. Quality or timbre. + as trumpets etc.
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2010]

(ii) Stethoscope.
3. (a) (i) Amplitude (b) Speed of sound = 340 m/s; g = 10 m/s2; u = 0;
(ii) Frequency.

h = 125 m; t = ?
(b) Ceiling of concert halls are curved so that
sound, after reflection, reaches all the corners 1 2
h = ut + gt
of the hall. The sound after reflection from 2
the curved surface spreads evenly across the
width of the hall. 1 1
125 = 0+ 10 t2
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] 2

Frequency = 512 Hz, Speed of the sound =
t = 5 s
340 m/s
Let t be the time taken by sound to reach the
Since v = l v top after splash
v 340
u = 340 m/s, h = 125 m, t1 = ?
l == = 0.66 m
h 125
t1 = = = 0.37 s
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 2 u 340
5. (i) Burning of wood.
Splash will be heard after t+t1 = (5+0.37) s
(ii) Combustion of coal and petroleum fuels. = 5.37 s
(iii) Use of chemicals in the form of fertilizers and
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 5
pesticides. 1+1+1=3
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]

1. The frequency of the vibration of a sound 4. (a) In two sec, the number of waves produced
produced by a guitar is greater than that = 20
produced by a car horn. Since the pitch of a 20
sound is proportional to its frequency, the f = = 10 Hz 1
guitar has a higher pitch than a car-horn. 1 2

2. 20 Hertz. (b) 1.5 m =
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] 1
= 3 m 1
Given : [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011]

Distance between the crest and next trough
5. (a) Longitudinal wave.
= 10 cm (b) Sound waves. 1
(c) If T is the time period of the wave then, 1
or = 10
2 (i) after time interval T/2, the point will have
a rarefaction
= 20 cm = 0.20 m (ii) after time T, the point will have a
Velocity v = v compression.
= 12 0.20 [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011]
= 2.40 m/s 6.
Distinction between longitudinal and
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2013] transverse waves :

P-74 S C I E N C E IX
7. (a) x-amplitude 1
S. (b) y-wavelength 1
Longitudinal waves Transverse waves
No. (c) Frequency, = Number of oscillations /
1. In longitudinal In a transverse Time
waves, the individual wave, particles do 1
particles of the not oscillate along 360
medium move in the line of wave = = 3 Hz 1
a direction parallel propagation, but 2 60
to the direction of oscillate up and (d) Time period, T = 1/ = 1/3 s 1
propagation of the down about their
disturbance. mean position.
2. Wave travels in the Wave travels in the
form of compression form of crest and
and rarefaction. trough.
3. Sound waves. Light waves.
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 3

1 1
1. f = =
T 0.025
f= = 40 Hz. Time
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2010]
Wave shape for a high pitched
sound (more frequency)
2. Because velocity of sound is much more than
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] 2
the velocity of car. 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2010] 6. (a) v = f 1
v 440
3. Whistle. 1 (b) = = = 2 m 2
f 220
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2010]
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
4. (i) In air, the waves produced are longitudinal, 7. (i)
because the particles of the medium vibrate to
and fro about their mean position, with the
direction of propagation of wave. 1
(ii) In wire, the waves produced are transverse

as the particles of the medium vibrate (ii)
perpendicular to the direction of propagation
of wave. 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011]




Wave shape for a low pitched

sound (less frequency)
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]

S O L U T I O N S P-75
Echo, Applications of Sound, Range of Hearing
and Structure of Human Ear

1. Reverberation is the repeated reflection of
In a small hall the distance is less than 17.2 m.
sound waves that results in persistence of 1
sound for sometime. CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011] 1 5. (i) Waves with frequency higher than 20 kHz
are ultrasonic waves.
2. Usage of ultrasound in SONAR is known as (ii) In detecting flaws or cracks in metal blocks, in
echo ranging. 1 cleaning odd-shaped machines.
This method is used to determine the depth (iii) Certain moths can hear the high-frequency
of sea, to locate underwater hills, valleys, sub- squeaks of the bats and are able to know when
marine, icebergs, sunken ship etc. (Any one) 1 a bat is flying nearby. 1+2+2=5
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011]
6. (a) (i) Pitch : The way the brain interprets the
3. The repeated reflection that results in the frequency of an emitted sound is called its
persistence of sound is called reverberation.
(ii) Loudness : The degree of sensation of
It can be reduced by covering roof and walls
sound is known as loudness. The magnitude
of auditorium with sound absorbent materials of the maximum disturbance in the medium
and seats are made of material having sound on either side of the mean value is called
absorbing properties. amplitude. Loudness or intensity of sound is
Two applications of reflection of sound waves : proportional to the square of amplitude.
2 (iii) Timbre : It enables us to distinguish one
(a) Echo. sound from another having the same pitch
(b) In Megaphones. and loudness. 3
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014] (b) Given , Echo returned in 3 seconds.
Speed of sound = 342 m/s
4. Definition of echo : Echo is the repetition of Distance travelled by sound = 342 3
sound due to the reflection of original sound = 1026 m
by a large and hard obstacle. 1 Distance of reflecting surface
If speed of sound is 344 m/s and persistence of 1026
sound is 1/10 second then, = = 513 m 2
minimum distance between the observer
and the reflecting surface should be at least [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
17.2m. 1

1. Between 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz. 1 (c) Frequency less than 20 Hz is infrasonic while
greater than 20 kHz is ultrasonic. +
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2010]
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]
2. Ultrasound more than 20 kHz.
Bats send ultrasonic signals and receive it 4. Waves whose frequency is more than 20 kHz
back after reflection from obstacle / prey. 2 and cannot be heard by human beings.
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016] Dolphins.
They use ultrasonic waves to detect fish in
3. (a) Repeated reflection/ Reverberation is the water.
cause of sensation of sound due to rolling
Ultrasonic waves are used to diagnose disease
thunder. 1 by ultrasound scanning technique. 1 + 1 = 2
(b) 20 20,000 Hz. 1 [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012]

P-76 S C I E N C E IX
5. The clear reflected sound is called distinct echo. 342
To hear a distinct echo, it is necessary that the = = 17.1 17 m.
time interval between the sensation of sound
and reception of the reflected sound should be 1+4=5
1 6. (a) SONAR stands for Sound Navigation
second. To obtain a loud and clear echo,
10 And Ranging. It is based on the principle of
the dimensions of the obstacle should be very reflection of sound waves. It uses ultrasonic
large and there must be certain minimum waves for the purpose.
distance between the source and obstacle. 1 Three informations that SONAR gives are :
Distance between the source of sound and the (i) Distance
obstacle is : (ii) Direction
Speed of sound in air = 342 m/s (iii) Speed of underwater objects
Distance travelled by sound in 0.1 sec Distance
= speed time (b) v =
= 342 0.1
2d = v t
= 34.2 m
So, echo will be heard if the minimum distance d =
between the source of sound and the obstacle 2
is [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015] 5

1. The rolling of thunder is due to the successive Detect or flaw
reflection of the sound from a number of
reflecting surfaces such as the clouds and the
land. 1

2. Speed of light is 3 108 m/s while the speed of
sound in air is 330 m/s. Hence, thunder can be
seen before it can be heard.
It is due to multiple reflections of sound from Metal block 3
reflecting surfaces like clouds and land. [CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014]
6. (a) Take an electric bell and an airtight glass
3. Speed of sound v = 1.7 km/s = 1700 m/s bell jar. The electric bell is suspended inside
Frequency v = 4.2 MHz = 4.2 106 Hz the airtight bell jar. The bell jar is connected
to a vacuum pump. If we press the switch,
Wavelength, l = ? we will be able to hear the bell. Now, start the
vacuum pump to pump out the air in the jar
v gradually. The sound becomes fainter though
the same current is passing through the bell.
When the air is removed almost completely,
1700 no sound will be heard, inspite of the fact that
= 6 the hammer is striking against the gong.
4.210 2+1=3
= 4 104 m
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2011]

4. Ultrasound can be used to detect cracks and

flaws in metals blocks. The cracks or holes
inside the metal blocks, which are invisible
from outside reduces the strength of structure.
Ultrasonic waves are allowed to pass through
the blocks and detectors are used to detect the
transmitted waves. If there is a small defect, the
ultrasound gets reflected back. To vacuum pump

S O L U T I O N S P-77
(b) Uses of ultrasonic waves :
(iii) Ultrasonic waves are used in
(i) Ultrasonic waves are used to detect cracks echocardiography.
and flaws in metal blocks.
(iv) It is used in scanners to detect kidney stones
(ii) It is used to clean the parts located in hard-to- and for examining foetus during
reach places. regnancy.
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012] 4 = 2

Practical Based Answers

1. Pulse is a wave of short duration produced by (ii) Slinky or string should be of suitable length,
a single disturbance in a medium. 2 flexible and elastic. 1+1=2
2. (i) The sound waves are mechanical. 7. Velocity of wave = Wavelength Frequency
(ii) Sound waves cannot travel through vacuum v = 2
and travels in the form of a longitudinal wave. 2 10
1+1=2 8. Velocity of pulse = = 6.66 m/s 2
3. (i) The length of the tubes should be at least 50
cm. 9. The distance between a crest and the next
trough is half the wavelength i.e., /2. 2
(ii) Angles should be measured carefully using a
protractor. 1+1=2 10. Distance covered is four to and fro motions
4. The best results can be obtained by using the = 2 4 25 cm
combination of a narrow tube and strong = 200 cm = 2 m
source of sound. 2 Time = 2.8 sec.
5. (i) The metal plate used as reflector may not be Distance
Speed of pulse =
at right angles to the table top. Time
(ii) The ends of toothpicks may not be aligned. 2
(Or any other) 1 + 1 = 2 =
6. (i) Table top should be smooth.
= 0.71 m/s. 2

P-78 S C I E N C E IX

The Breath of Life : Air, Role of Atmosphere in
climate control, Movement of Air : Winds, Rain,
Air Pollution, Water : A wonder Liquid, Water
Pollution, Mineral Riches in the soil

1. Life supporting zone where atmosphere, Low temperature brings about precipitation. 1
hydrosphere and lithosphere interact. 1 8. It regulates body temperature; all cellular
2. Plants and animals. + processes take place in water medium;
3. Humus. 1 digestion of food; transportation of nutrients
4. NO2 and SO2. 1+1 through blood; excretion of waste. (Any three)
5. Lichens 3
Lichens secrets organic acids, which develops 9. (a) (i) Increased the consumption of fossil fuel -
cracks in stones. 1+1 increased the production of pollution like CO,
6. Constituents of Abiotic component are : SO2, NO2, CO2 etc.
(i) Soil or Lithosphere : Land (or soil) on the (ii) CFC has led to depletion in ozone layer, which
earths crust. results in one entry of U-V rays into earths
(ii) Water or Hydrosphere : Water that covers 75% atmosphere.
or crust (iii) Acid rain.
(iii) Air or Atmosphere : Blanket of gases that (iv) Production of greenhouse gases. 3
covers earth. (b) Measures :
The three provide support to all living (i) Reduce consumption of fossil fuels.
organisms which constitute biotic component (ii) Planting more trees.
of biosphere. 1 (iii) Using Isolentanes instead of CFC.
7. Continuous evaporation of water. 1 (iv) Usage of non-conventional sources of energy,
Cooling of water vapour as it goes up and e.g., solar, wind, tidal energy. 4=2
formation of droplets. 1

1. Lichens. 1 7. The fossil fuels like coal and petroleum contain
2. SO2 and NO2 + small amounts of nitrogen and sulphur. When
3. Wells or Tube wells. these fossil fuels are burnt they produce
4. (a) Burning of fossil fuels. different oxides of nitrogen and sulphur. When
(b) Deforestation. 1+1 these oxides dissolve in rain they gives rise to
5. Garbage should be thrown into water bodies, acid rain. 3
all industrial wastes from the factories should 8. (a) Combustion of fossil fuels increases in the
be treated before releasing into river or water content of suspended particles in air (unburnt
bodies. 2
hydrocarbons or carbon particles), these
6. Three reasons are :
particles reduce visibility, and water of the
(i) Addition of undesirable substances like
atmosphere condenses to form smog. 1
pesticides, poisonous salts etc.
(ii) Removal of nutrients, depletion of oxygen. (b) Inhaling this air increases incidences of allergy,
(iii) Sudden change (rise) in temperature due to cancer and heart disease. (Any two)1
hot water released by factories. 13

S O L U T I O N S P-79
9. (a) Biogeochemical cycles balance intake and radiation 1+1
release of these gases. 1+1 (c) Burning of coal and petroleum release oxides
(b) No atmosphere, thus cannot trap Infra Red (IR) of N, C, S etc. 1

1. It prevents sudden increase in temperature (c) Fresh water is found frozen in the ice-caps at
during the day light hours. It slows down the the two poles and on snow covered mountains.
escape of heat into outer space during the (d) The underground water and the water in
night. 1 rivers, lakes and ponds is also fresh. (Any two)
2. (i) Increased use of vehicles run by fossil fuels. +
(ii) Emission of factory waste in rivers. + 6. (i) Presence of high levels of suspended
3. Sun, water, wind. (Any two) + particles like unburnt carbon particles in the
4. (a) This is because moon has no atmosphere. atmosphere, cause visibility to be lowered. In
(b) Mathura refinery pose problem to the Taj cold weather when water condenses out of air.
Mahal due to the following reasons : This forms smog.
(i) Acid rains (ii) It increases the incidences of allergies, cancer
(ii) Corrosion and pitting of marble substance. and heart disease.
1++ (iii) On burning oxides of nitrogen and sulphur are
formed. They dissolve in rains to give rise to
5. (i) (a) All cellular processes take place in water
acid rain. 13=3
7. (a) Removal of useful components from the
(b) All reactions that take place within our body
soil and addition of other substances, which
and within the cells occur between substances
adversely affect the fertility of the soil. This
that are dissolved in water.
kills the diversity of organisms that lives in it. 2
(c) Substances are also transported form one part
(b) It destroys the soil structure by killing soil
of the body to the other in a dissolved form.
microorganisms that recycle nutrients in the
(Any two) + soil. 1
(ii) (a) Water occupies very large area of earths (c) It will destroy biodiversity and cause soil
surface. erosion. +
(b) It exists in the form of water vapour in the (d) Help in percolation of water into the deeper
atmosphere. layers. 1

Biogeochemical CyclesWater cycle, Nitrogen
cycle, Carbon cycle, The Greenhouse effect,
Oxygen cycle, Ozone Layer
1. Carbon dioxide. 1 5. (i) (a) Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). 1
2. Through carbon cycle. 1 (b) Proteins. 1
3. 78%. 1 (ii) Nitrogen fixing bacteria are found in root
4. A part of the sunlight that falls on the earth nodules of legumes and they convert
is reflected back in the form of infrared light. atmospheric nitrogen into soluble nitrates and
This infrared light is absorbed by the carbon
nitrites. 1
dioxide molecules present in atmosphere.
6. (i) Photosynthesis
Due to increase in CO2 concentration in the
(ii) Denitrification.
atmosphere, larger proportion of the infrared
rays is trapped by CO2 molecules. This (iii) Biogeochemical cycles. 13=3

phenomenon is called the greenhouse effect. 2

P-80 S C I E N C E IX
CO2 in 7. Life can exist on any planet but the proper
composition of air should be present there.

Ph hes
ot is
In the planets such as Mars and Venus, life

Organic compounds
(plants) doesnt exist because the major component
of air is the carbon dioxide which make upto

95-97% of the atmosphere while in our earth,
(animals) Carbonates
carbon dioxide make up to 0.03% to 0.04%. 3
in water
Coal 8. (a) Carbon dioxide. 1
Petroleum Limestone

Carbon-cycle in nature 4

1. Azotobacter. 1 oxygen dissolved has an adverse effect on
2. SO2. 1 aquatic organisms.
3. Nitrification. 1 (ii) Sudden change in the temperature is
4. (a) Ozone is known to absorb harmful UV dangerous for them or affects their breeding,
radiation. (iii) Addition of undesirable chemicals. (Any two)
(b) Lichens are bio indicators and sensitive to 1+1
sulphur dioxide which is a major pollutant 7. (a) Nitrogen fixation. 1
from automobiles. The compound in them (b) Nitrogen Cycle 1
reacts with sulphur dioxide to form a poisonous Nitrogen in
chemical that kills the plant itself. This is Nitrogen
because lichens grow in areas where sulphur fixation

dioxide pollution is very less, e.g. in Manali and

Darjeeling. Delhi has maximum automobiles Nitrates
and is hence highly polluted and thus lichens (green plants)
cannot grow in such environment. 1+1 Protoplasm
5. (a) In the upper regions of the atmosphere, a
layer of ozone is formed, which gets deflected Nitrification Nitrites
due to chloro-fluoro carbons and creates a hole,
known as ozone hole. 1 Ammonification

(b) Above Antarctica over North Pole. 1 Ammonia

(c) U-V radiation will reach the earth and cause
disease like cancer, reduce immunity, reduce A tm 1
crop yield. 1 ospher
ic and industrial fixa

6. (a) Ozone prevents harmful ultraviolet (c) Nitrification is conversion of ammonia to

radiations to reach earths surface. 1 nitrites / nitrates. +
(b) (i) Any change that reduces the amount of Nitrogen fixation is conversion of atmospheric
nitrogen to compounds of nitrogen. +

1. Nitrogen fixing bacteria fix nitrogen in the root 5. CFCs harmful effects are :
nodules of these plants. 1 (i) CFCs are very stable.
2. They fix atmospheric nitrogen and convert it (ii) Not degraded by any biological process.
into usable form. 1 (iii) Found to persist in the atmosphere.
3. Chloro-fluoro carbon (CFCs). 1 (iv) Reacts with the ozone layer.
4. (i) When stable, ozone, means O3, which is (v) Causes hole in the ozone layer.
poisonous. Nearer to the earth, it is unstable (vi) Ultraviolet radiation enters the earth through
and hence is a diatomic molecule of oxygen. 1 this hole and affects various forms of life.
(ii) The suspended particles increases due to the 6. A closed structure or enclosure made of glass,
unburnt carbon particles or hydrocarbons even a bell jar, could be used to function as a
present in fossil fuels. 1 green house. 1

S O L U T I O N S P-81
Green houses are used in regions of cold CO2 in
climate to maintain proper temperature for

Ph hes
tropical plants to service. 1

ot is
Greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, methane

or any other. + Organic compounds
7. (a) Lightning and nitrogen fixation by
bacteria. 2
(b) Diagram of Carbon cycle : Organic
(animals) Carbonates
Inorganic in water
Petroleum Limestone

Carbon-cycle in nature 3

P-82 S C I E N C E IX

Plant and Animal Breeding, Selection for Quality
Improvement and Management

1. Animal husbandry is the scientific management (b) Some of the factors for which crop variety
of animal livestock and includes feeding, improvement is done are :
breeding and disease control. 1 (i) Higher Yield : Variety improvement has
2. The cattle husbandry is done mainly for been done to increase the productivity of the
two purposes-milk and draught labour for crop per acre. This is very important in order
agricultural work such as tilling, irrigation and to meet food demand for rapidly growing
carting. 1 population.
3. Red Sindhi and Sahiwal. 1 (ii) Improved Quality : The definition of
4. (a) Improved varieties and cross-breeds have quality is different for different crops e.g.,
been developed, baking quality is important in wheat, protein
(b) Proper health and disease control have also quality in pulses, oil quality in oil seeds and
improved the yield. 1+1 preserving qualities in fruits and vegetable.
5. There is good scope for fisheries in India (iii) Wider Adaptability : Varieties that
because : can grow under any condition and can
(a) India has 16 million hectares of inland water adapt themselves to various environmental
bodies. conditions, help in stabilizing the crop
(b) Its coastline is 7500 km long. 1+1 production.
(iv) Biotic and Abiotic Resistance : Biotic
6. Layers are the birds, reared for egg production.
factors like (pathogens, insects and nematodes)
Limestone is added in their diet to form the
and abiotic factors (drought, salinity, water
shell of eggs.
logging, heat cold and frost) affect crop
Other example : Proteins and roughage. production a lot. Varieties resistant to such
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014) 1 + 1 + 1 factors are always preferred and improve crop
7. Macronutrients are nutrients required in large (c) Two ways to control weeds :
quantity. e.g., nitrogen.
(i) Preventive methods : Proper seed
Micronutrients are nutrients required in small bed preparation, timely sowing of crops,
quantity. e.g., boron. intercropping and crop rotation.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014) 1 + 1
(ii) Chemical methods : Spraying of herbicides
8. (a) Genetically modified crop : In this or weedicides. e.g., Atrazine. 2, 4 - D.
method, a gene that would provide the desired 1+2+2
characteristics is introduced into the crop.

1. A healthy animal feeds regularly and has a 4. Advantages of Holstein-Friesian over the Red
normal posture. 1 Sindhi are :
2. Worms, Liverfluke. 1 (a) Average milk production is more.
3. To raise domestic fowl for egg production and (b) Lactation periods extend throughout the year.
chicken meat. 1 1+1
5. Animal husbandry is essential because of the
following reasons :

S O L U T I O N S P-83
(i) To increase milk production, which and utilisation of animals.
automatically fulfils the need of the growing Needs of improving livestock production :
population. It also increases the production of (i) It is required to meet the increasing demands
various milk products like butter and cheese. of animal based goods like milk, meat, egg,
(ii) To increase egg and meat production, which leather etc.
are highly nutritious. (ii) Animal husbandry sets guidelines for proper
(iii) To increase fish production. management and systematic approach to
(iv) For the proper utilization of animals wastes. animal rearing.
4 (iii) It also helps in proper utilisation of animal
6. There are three ways : wastes like animal dung. 1+2
(i) Crop Variety Improvement : This approach 8. (i) Higher Yield : To increase the productivity
aims at finding a crop variety that can give a of crop per acre.
good yield variety that can produce high yield (ii) Improved Quality : Quality considerations
under different conditions and can withstand such as baking quality, protein quality, oil
different situations like weather changes, soil quality and preserving quality of crop products
quality, water availability etc. vary from crop to crop.
(ii) Crop Production Management : Farmers have (iii) Biotic and Abiotic Resistance : Crop production
to look into the financial aspect of a crop. They can go down due to biotic and abiotic stresses
have to think about the capital to invest on under different situations. Varieties resistant to
the land and the benefits they get from it. It these stresses can improve crop production.
is the financial condition that allows farmers (iv) Change in Maturity Duration : The shorter the
to grow a particular crop. The purchasing duration of the crop from sowing to harvesting,
capacity for inputs decides cropping system the more economical is the variety.
and production practices. (v) Wider Adaptability : Developing varieties for
(iii) Crop Protection Management : Field crops are wider adaptability will help in stabilising the
infested by a large number of weeds, insect crop production under different environmental
pests and diseases. If they are controlled at conditions.
correct time, it will ensure increased crop (vi) Desirable Agronomic Characteristics :
production. 1+1+1 Developing varieties of desired agronomic
7. Animal husbandry can be defined as the characters helps to give higher productivity. 5
science of rearing, feeding, caring, breeding

1. Culture fishery. 1 8. Advantages of composite fish culture :
2. Photosynthesis. (i) It helps to get a variety in fish yield.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2013) 1 (ii) Food in the pond gets evenly used up due
to different varieties of fish having different
3. Potato and Rice. + food habits present in a pond.
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2013) (iii) Fish do not compete for food as all type of fish
4. Murrah and Mehsana. 1 get their kind of food. (Any two)
5. Increased food grain production. 1 Hormonal stimulation ensures the supply of
6. Chicken C will have maximum laying output. pure fish seed in desired quantities.
This is because it is exposed to moderate 1+1+1
sunlight. Moderate light intensity and duration (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)
has a favourable effect on the egg laying output
of the hens. 1+1 9. Definition of sustainable agriculture.
(i) Mixed farming
(ii) Intercropping
7. While designing a shelter for cattle we must
(iii) Crop rotation
have a shelter that is :
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014)
(a) Well ventilated,
(b) Protects animals from rain, heat and cold, Detailed Answer :
Sustainable agriculture is the successful
(c) The floor of the cattle shed needs to be sloping management of resources for agriculture to
so as to stay dry and facilitate cleaning. satisfy the changing human needs, while
(CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1 + 1 + 1 maintaining or enhancing the quality of

P-84 S C I E N C E IX
environment and conserving natural resources. (ii) Intercropping
The scientific practices that you can undertake (iii) Crop rotation
to obtain higher yield from agriculture are : (iv) Integrated farming practices 3+2
(i) Mixed farming

Use of Fertilizers and Manures; Irrigation, Protection
from Pests and Diseases; Organic Farming, Types of

1. It is a farming system with minimal or no use of
enus) or intergeneric hybridization (i.e.,
chemicals and with maximum input of organic between different genera).
manures, recycled farm wastes and bio-agents (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012) 1 + 2
with healthy cropping system. 1
2. Mixed cropping is growing two or more crops 7. (a) Biotic insects, rodents, fungi, mites,
simultaneously on the same piece of land. 1 bacteria.
3. It is growing two or more crops simultaneously
Abioticinappropriate moisture +
on the same field in a definite pattern. 1
4. Differences between Fertilizers and Manure :
(b) (i) degradation in quantity.
Fertilizers Manure (ii) loss in weight.
(iii) poor germinability
1. They are chemical Manure is an organic
in nature and these substance that (iv) poor marketability
are manufactured is obtained from (c) (i) Drying first in sunlight, then in shade.
in factories. decomposition of
vegetable and animal (ii) Fumigation. 2+2+1
wastes. (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016)
2. Microbes are not Microbes are needed
8. (a) Combination of 5 or 6 fish species in a
needed for their to form manure since
formation. they degrade the single fish pond.
organic substances. (b)
Species are selected so that they do not
3. Easy to transport, It is difficult to compete for food. Food available in all parts
store and apply to transport, store and of the pond is utilized.
crops. apply manure to crops.

This increases fish yield.
4. They do not restore They restore soil
soil texture. texture. (c)
Hormonal Stimulation.

5.They do not help in They help in the (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2015) 5
retention of water. retention of water. Detailed answer :
(Any four) 4 (a) Composite fish culture is the poly culture
5. Fresh water resources : Lakes, rivers, ponds. system in which combination of 5 or 6 fish
Brackish water resources : Estuaries, lagoons,
species are selected and grown in a single fish
creeks. 1 + 1
6. Hybridization refers to crossing between
(b) The selection of different species of fish is done
genetically dissimilar plants.
so that they do not compete for food and the

This crossing may be intervarietal (i.e.,
food available in all the parts of the pond is
between different varieties), interspecific (i.e.,
utilized. This increases the fish yield.
between two different species of the same
(c) Hormonal stimulation.

S O L U T I O N S P-85
1. It is growing different crops on a piece of land 5. Crop rotation : Growing of different crops on
in a pre-planned succession. 1 a piece of land in a pre planned succession
2. Insects, rodents, fungi, mites and bacteria. 1 is called crop rotation. The availability of
3. Farm Yard Manure. 1 moisture and irrigation facilities decides the
4. Differences between Mixed cropping and choice of the crop to be cultivated after one
inter-cropping : harvest. 1+1+1
S. (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)
Mixed cropping Inter-cropping
6. Manures contain organic matter and supply
1. There is no definite Crops are grown in nutrients to soil. 1
pattern of rows. definite pattern of Kinds of manure : Green manure, compost or
rows like 1 : 1, 1 : 2 vermicompost. (Any two) +
or 1 : 3.
Manure helps in enriching soil with nutrients
2. It is undertaken to It is undertaken and organic matter and thus increases soil
reduce the chances to enhance the fertility. 1
of crop failure. production of crops (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)
per unit area.
7. Five methods by which we can increase the
3. Harvesting and In inter-cropping, yield of crops and livestock are as follows :
threshing cant be crops can be (i) By including better crop management like
done separately for harvested as well as mixed farming, crop and fodder yields can be
crops. threshed separately. improved.
4. Seeds are mixed up Seeds are not mixed (ii) By improved varieties of seeds etc. and
before sowing. before sowing. cropping practices, we can improve the yield
5. Application of ferti- As per the need of of crops which indirectly provides improved
lizers and spraying of the individual crop, food for livestock.
pesticides separately fertilizers can be (iii) By minimizing the application of fertilizers and
for each crop is sprayed. pesticides.
not required as (iv) By adopting integrated farming practices, e.g.,
well as pesticides combining agriculture with livestock.
can be applied (v) By promoting the usage of livestock excreta
easily. for production of compost, we can supply
(Any four) 4 required nutrients through soil. 15

1. (i) Compost and vermicompost. 5. All the plants require specific nutrients for
(ii) Green manure. +
their growth to increase the yield. The soil
2. Neem. 1
can be enriched by supplying these nutrients.
3. Because of scarcity or irregular distribution of
rains. 1 Manure is used because it helps in enriching
4. Following are the main advantages of mixed the soil with nutrients, organic matter and
farming : increasing soil fertility.
(i) The risk of complete crop failure is minimized
Fertilizers are used to ensure good vegetative
due to undertain monsoon.
growth, giving rise to healthy plants.
(ii) Higher yield is obtained with better soil
fertility. This is not a correct practice because excess
(iii) It provides work to all the members of a family fertilizers can lead to water pollution.
throughout the year.
(iv) By adopting exact combination in mixed
farming, a variety of produce can be obtained (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2012)
to fulfill family needs. 4

P-86 S C I E N C E IX
S. and gram, wheat and mustard, ground nut and
6. Compost Vermi Compost sunflower etc. are some common examples of
mixed cropping. Mixed cropping also increases
(i) Manure prepared Compost which soil fertility by maintaining microbial diversity.
from farm waste is prepared In mixed cropping, crops are chosen in such
material, vegetable by using a way that they require different amounts of
waste, animal earthworms. minerals.
refuse, sewage (ii) Intercropping allow farmers to grow two or
waste, domestic more crops simultaneously in the same field in
waste, straw etc. on a definite pattern. For example, cauliflower and
decomposition in chilli plants are grown together in alternating
pits. rows. To ensure the maximum utilization of
nutrients applied, crops are selected in such
(ii) It takes 3-6 months It takes 1-2
a way that their nutrient requirements are
to prepare. months to
different. Other examples include soyabean
and maize, finger miller (bajra) and cowpea
(iii) Organic remains Organic remains (lobia) etc.
are decomposed by are pulverized (iii) Crop rotation is the practice of growing two
microbes naturally. by earthworms. or more varieties of crops in the same region
1+1+1 in sequential seasons. A common example of
7. Three different cropping patterns, namely crop rotation is to cultivate maize followed by
mixed cropping, intercropping, and crop soyabean. This system also helps in preventing
rotation are generally practised. crops from pests and diseases. The crops
(i) Mixed cropping allows two or more crops to be selected, vary in nutrient requirements. This
sowed simultaneously in the same land. Wheat ensures complete and uniform utilization of
nutrients. 1+4

S O L U T I O N S P-87