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Type your name in the top right corner.

Centre the title about 4 cm from the top edge


of the paper.
Leave 4 blank lines between the title and the
first line.
Indent five spaces to begin the paragraph.
Leave 2,5 cm margins on both sides and the
bottom of the paper.
Double space. (Leave one blank line between
each line of typing.)
Capitalise the first and important words in a
title : e.g. Choosing a Vacation Spot
Do not capitalise short prepositions such as
on, to, in, for; short conjunctions such as
and, or, so; and the articles a, an, the
e.g. How to Fight Stress
Capitalise a short word if it is the first word in
the title: e.g. The Problems of Single
Parenting
To pardon not to hang.
To pardon, not to hang.
To pardon not, to hang.
Stop Bill!
Stop, Bill!
Lets eat grandma!
Lets eat, grandma!
A woman without her man is nothing.
A woman, without her, man is nothing.
An essay has three main parts:
1. An introductory paragraph
2. A body (at least one, but usually two or
more paragraphs)
3. A concluding paragraph
An introduction has four purposes:
1. It introduces the topic of the essay.
2. It gives a general background of the topic
3. It often indicates the overall plan of the essay

4. It should arouse the readers interest in the


topic.

Consists of two parts:


1. A few general statements
2. A thesis statement
Introduce the topic of the essay

Give background information on the topic


The most important sentence in the
introduction.
States the main topic
Often lists the subdivisions of the topic or
subtopics
May indicate the method of organisation of
the entire paper
Is usually the last sentence in the
introductory paragraph
Any person who has lived in the twentieth century
has seen a lot of changes take place in almost all
areas of human existence. Some people are excited
by the challenges that these changes offer; others
want to return to the simpler life-style of the past.
The twentieth century had certain advantages such
as a higher standard of living for many, but it also
had some disadvantages such as a polluted
environment, the depersonalisation of human
relationships and the weakening of spiritual values.
Being the oldest son has more disadvantages
than advantages
Young people in my culture have less
freedom than young people in the United
States.
The large movement of people from rural to
urban areas has major effects on cities.
The large movement of people from rural to
urban areas has major effects on a citys
ability to provide housing, employment and
adequate sanitation services.
Colon (:)
Prejudice arises from three basic causes:
childhood conditioning, ignorance and fear.
Correlative conjunctions (both...and, not
only...but also, neither...nor, either...or)
Young people in my culture have less freedom
than young people in the United States not
only in their choice of life-style but also in
their choice of careers.
Put the sentences in the following introductory
paragraphs in the right order
1. Beginning in World War II and continuing
through the period of economic boom,the
status of women in Xanadu has changed
remarkably.
2. Although the status of women in Xanadu
has improved in recent years, it is still very
low when compared to the status of women
in the countries of the industrialised world.
Thesis statements where both the method of
organisation and the major subdivisions of the
topic are indicated:
1. The status of women in Xanadu has changed
remarkably in recent years due to increased
educational opportunities and change in the
countrys laws.
2. The status of women in Xanadu has improved
in recent years in the areas of economic
independence, political rights, educational
opportunities and social status.
How many paragraphs? Which topics?
Analyse the following thesis statements.
1. Locate the main topic and subtopics in each
of the thesis statements
2. Underline the subtopics.
3. Draw a circle around the words or
punctuation marks that are used to introduce
the subtopics.
Consists of
1. a topic sentence
2. supporting sentences
1. Decide which of the following sentences is
the topic sentence.
2. Decide the order of supporting sentences.
Every good paragraph has unity, i.e. only one
main idea is discussed, which is introduced in
the topic sentence.
Every supporting sentence must directly
explain or prove the main idea that is stated
in the topic sentence.
Do not write supporting sentences that
are off the topic , i.e. irrelevant sentences.
1. Find paragraphs.
2. Underline the first sentence of each
paragraph.
Latin verb cohere means hold together .

Coherence in writing means:


Logical and smooth movement from one
sentence/paragraph to the next.
No sudden jumps.
1. repeat key nouns
2. use pronouns
3. use transition signals
4. arrange sentences in logical order
1. Well constructed sentences
2. No unnecessary repetition
1. Read through both paragraphs about gold:
one with and the other one without
coherence.
2. Read through the paragraph and replace the
pronoun with the key noun English wherever
needed
3. Read through the third paragraph and
replace some of the pronouns with nouns.
Words : first, second, next, finally, therefore,
however, etc.
Phrases: in conclusion, on the other hand, as
a result, etc.
Traffic signs that tell the reader when to go
forward, turn, slow down and stop.
They tell the reader when you are giving
1. a similar idea (similarly, moreover,
furthermore, in addition);
2. an opposite idea ( on the other hand,
however, in contrast);
3. an example (for example);
4. a result (as a result);
5. a conclusion (in conclusion).
Paragraph
A difference among the worlds seas and oceans is
that the salinity varies in different climate zones. The
baltic Sea in Northern Europe is only one-fourth as
saline as the Red Sea in the Middle East. There are
reasons for this. In warm climates water evaporates
rapidly. The concentration of salt is greater. The
surrounding land is dry and does not contribute
much fresh water to dilute the salty sea water. In cold
climate zones, water evaporates slowly. The runoff
created by melting snow adds a considerable amount
of fresh water to dilute the saline sea water.
1. A summary of the main points or
restatement of your thesis in different words

2. Your final comment on the subject, based


on the information you have provided
In short, although the twentieth century has
indeed given some of us a lot of advantages by
making us richer, healthier and freer to enjoy our
lives, it has, in my opinion, not made us wiser.
The twentieth century has also made our earth
dirtier, our people less humane and our spiritual
lives poorer. We wish to continue to enjoy the
benefits of technological advancement because
they free us to pursue our other interests and
goals. However, we must make a concerted effort
to preserve our natuaral environment for future
generations.
Parallel structure with correlative
conjunctions
1 My sister not only gives the dog treats but
she also brushes him twice a day.
My sister not only gives the dog treats but also
brushes him twice a day.
2 Either people go to pet stores to buy a pet or
just to enjoy looking at the animals.
People go to pet stores either to buy a pet or
just to enjoy looking at the animals.
3 Not only does Sam expect a good return on
his money but also an increase in the stocks
value.
Not only does Sam expect a good return on his
money, but he also expects an increase in the
stocks value.
Or: Sam expects not only a good return on his
money but also an increase in the stocks value
4 Not only are you wrong, but also reckless.
Not only are you wrong, but you are also
reckless
Or: You are not only wrong but also reckless.
5 She is either buying a new house or she will
rent an apartment for a year.
She is either buying a new house or renting an
apartment.
Or: Either she is buying a new house or she is
renting an apartment.
6 The advertisement promised both
satisfaction and it promised success.
The advertisement promised both satisfaction
and success.
7 Tell me where you were, what you were doing
and the reasons for doing it.
Tell me where you were, what you were doing
and why you were doing it.
1 The weather service predicts that it (get) cold
in a week.
will get
2 The outer rings of the disc cracked after the
centre (dry) out from age.
had dried
3 The students (work) on their projects as we
are speaking.
are working
4 By next Thursday, he (talk) to the assembly
twice.
will have talked
5 Her brother (kept) a diary for over ten years
now.
has kept
1 An inventory of cars and trucks are now
available.
An inventory of cars and trucks is now
available.
2 Michael Phelps won a huge amount of medals
in the 2008 Olympics.
....a huge number of medals...
3 Browns lawyer argued passionately for his
innocence.
Browns lawyer argued passionately for the
defendants innocence.
4 The situation in Guyana is more serious than
El Salvador.
The situation in Guyana is more serious than
the situation in El Salvador.
5 Since returning in 2005, much of Bills time is
devoted to his garden.
Since he returned in 2005, ....
6 the candidate spoke clearly, persuasively and
with grace.
... and gracefully