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This information sheet aims to ensure that students able to understand and identify method
and inspection procedures for quality control.
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Intertek's Product Quality Inspections will help to protect your brand and your companys
reputation by minimizing defective merchandise, customer complaints, non-compliant
products, and late shipments.

It is imperative that manufacturers verify that the products manufactured, shipped and
distributed under their brand name meet industry, government regulations or their own
specific requirements. As an independent, third party inspection and testing company,
Intertek can conduct a variety of on-site inspections to ensure that your brand, reputation and
consumers are protected. Quality Inspections can help manufacturers:

Ensure product safety prior to shipping

Minimize the amount of defective merchandise
Reduce customer complaints due to inferior products
Detect merchandise containing non-standard or non-compliant
Eliminate late shipments

Based on your specific needs throughout the manufacturing process, Intertek offers a wide
variety of quality inspection services.

Pre-Production Inspections

Intertek will inspect raw materials and components before production begins. After product
samples are provided, we will verify that the factory has ordered the correct materials,
components, and accessories. We will also randomly select and inspect a sample of partially
produced products for potential defects, then report our findings to you. If necessary, we can
provide the factory with the technical advice necessary to improve product quality and to
minimize the chance of defects during production.

During Production Inspections

During Production Inspections are ideal for shipments of substantial quantities; product lines
with continuous production; strict requirements for on-time shipments; and as a follow-up if
poor results were found during Pre-Production Inspection. Normally, During Production
Inspections are carried out when 10-15% of the merchandise is completed. Intertek will
inspect the production batch and examine products in the line for possible defects.
At this point we will identify deviations, if any, and offer advice on corrective measures that
will ensure uniformity of product and quality. We will also re-check any defects discovered
during Pre-Production Inspection and confirm that they have been rectified.

Final Random Inspections

Final Random Inspections can begin only after production has been completed and all
merchandise is ready and packed for shipment. Through a statistical method set by industry
standards, we will sample products to verify product safety, quantity, workmanship, function,
color, size, packing, and more. This ensures that your product is consistent and compliant
with all country, industry, or otherwise-specified requirements and that no critical major or
minor defects appear.
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Loading Supervision

During Loading Supervision, an Intertek representative will closely monitor the loading
process, verify product quantity, and ensure proper handling of the cargo. Upon completion,
the container(s) will be sealed with Intertek tape as proof of compliance. This service
significantly reduces the risk associated with importing cargo.

On-Site Checking

On-Site Checking can vary depending on a products nature and function. The following
examinations, however, can be performed on-site during Pre-Production, During Production,
and Final Random Inspections:
Bar Code Check
Earth Continuity Check
Hi-Pot Check
Power Consumption Check
Power On Check
Rub Check by Water
Tape Check by 3M Tape
Transportation Drop Check

Intertek can monitor your entire manufacturing process from sourcing the right supplier
through final delivery of finished product. With auditors located around the world, with
particular concentration in Asia, were able to provide extensive coverage in China, Korea,
Malaysia, Thailand, Taiwan, and Vietnam. Our global locations and accreditations provide
you with peace of mind and assurance that your products are the quality you expect and



Quality inspection are measures aimed at checking, measuring, or testing of one or more
product characteristics and to relate the results to the requirements to confirm compliance.
This task is usually performed by specialized personnel and does not fall within the
responsibility of production workers. Products that don't comply with the specifications are
rejected or returned to improve.

ORIGINS of quality inspection

Quality inspection is one of the first stages of evolution of management. The origins of the
quality inspection back to the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. In days of fast-
growing industry, FW Taylor developed the rules of scientific management. Quality wasn't up
to speed with rapidly increasing labor productivity. Often, the customer had to reckon with
defective products. To alleviate customer frustration, this problem was solved by replacing
the defective product with a new one. Conducting this type of procedure entailed generating
considerable cost. To reduce the excessive cost escalation manufacturers, introduced the
unknown to craft the position controller. The designated employee, through carried out
inspections, made sure that the greatest possible number of good products leave the gate of
the factory. This initial form of quality control based on the principle of quality by sorting.
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The importance of quality inspection

The key assumption relating to quality inspection is to adopt the principle that the ultimate
controller is a client. The optimum form of quality inspection is the man who's aim is the best
customer satisfaction. Quality inspection serves three main purposes:

1. Identification of the problem

2. Preventing its occurrence
3. Elimination of the problem

Effective quality inspection is dynamic, drawing attention to everything that is happening,

searching and providing for the problems associated with product quality. Effective
identification of the problem requires verification checks after each stage of production. One
option is to check the delivered components before they are used in further manufacture.
Second, the system of self-assessment by the workers.

The evolution of quality inspection

At the beginningl, quality inspection mainly concerned on the control of postoperative or post-
production control of production processes. Considering the quality inspection in a broader
sense, one might say that it is perceived as an activity associated with a diagnosis of a
selected aspect of product quality which informs about the partial quality, obtained at a given
stage of the formation or operation of the device, and being compared with the declared
quality such as product characteristics. At various stages of formation of the product the
quality inspection takes different forms, and is implemented using different methods.

Types of quality inspections methods

Quality inspection of product design - At the design stage, verification or validation

phase - refers to assessing the status of compliance with the requirements enunciated
by users or by the designers. The resulting quality of the design is essentially
unmeasurable and its evaluation is characterized by a considerable objectivity.
Quality inspection of the design process - At this stage the task of inspection
consists of checking whether accepted or held methods and means of production, can
produce quality performance in accordance with the quality of design.
Quality inspection in the production stage - Inspection used to determine the
compatibility of the resulting quality of the product or fractional part of the
documentation requirements contained in the design or technology.
Thorough quality inspection - shall be carried out after completion of all stages of
the production process. Final product and its compatibility with the standard design is
subject of inspection.
Inspection one hundred percent, - which consists of subjecting the inspection of all
units produced. Due to time-consuming, this method is applied only to products
manufactured individually or in small series.
Statistical inspection - a lot of statistical inspection is assessed on the basis taken in
a random sample. Therefore, this form of control is called a sample inspection.
Depending on the size and frequency of sampling and the use of audit information to
reverse effects on the production process, control may be statistical in nature
o Statistical inspection of the products
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o Statistical process control (SPC)

This article on the inspection of packing will provide you with information about packing
inspection of industrial equipment that is ready for shipment.

Wooden cases, crates, skid bases or saddles, bundles, shrink packaging and drums are
widely used for packing of industrial goods.

The purchaser must provide the packing procedure to the equipment manufacturer, and the
manufacturer's quality control team must take care of packaging process.

Most of packing procedure are prepared based the BS 1133-8 requirements. The purchaser
inspector either second party or third party inspector must carefully inspect the packing
based the approved procedure.

When there is no procedure in place, the packing must be inspected directly based the
requirements of BS 1138-8 requirements.

For a sample packing procedure, please review the Seaworthy Packing Procedure article.

Most packing falls in two categories: the first one is that the nature of equipment is different
for each order and the equipment manufacturer needs to deliver drawings and other
information to the packing company for construction.

The other is that the equipment is in unique size and not dependent to the order. In this case,
the manufacturers will purchase cases or crates and will do the packing with their own

Inspection of Packing - Important Points

Correct packing style i.e. case, crate, bundle

Making sure for application of new, sound and seasoned lumber

Correct thickness of sheathing (or outer plate)

Correct application of bottom cleats and skid runners for easy handling by forklift

Ensuring protection of content by waterproof and strong plastic foil

Ensuring dryness by using an adequate quantity of moisture absorbent (silica gel)

Correct application of material for padding or cushioning such as felt, cellophane

paper, polyester cuttings and crepe cellulose

Ensuring proper application of lubricant for equipment machinery parts

Ensuring application of two un-annealed steel straps in each of two right angled and
opposite directions, or where applicable wood re-enforces.
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Dimensional inspection of cases, crates and other packing style

Correct assortment of package

Correct package tag (i.e. PO No., LC No., JOB No., etc.)

Correct shipping marks

Correct cautionary symbols

Correct weight indication

Correct outer and inner package number


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A bill of materials (sometimes bill of material or BOM) is a list of the raw materials, sub-
assemblies, intermediate assemblies, sub-components, parts and the quantities of each
needed to manufacture an end product. No physical dimension is described in a BOM,
however the rough outline should include.

Creating a Bill of Materials should include:

BOM Level
Part Number
Part Name
Unit of Measure
Procurement Type
Reference Designators
BOM Notes

When creating or using a BOM you should consider who will be using it. It may be used for
communication between manufacturing partners, or confined to a single manufacturing plant.

A BOM can define products as they are designed (engineering bill of materials), as they are
ordered (sales bill of materials), as they are built (manufacturing bill of materials), or as they
are maintained (service bill of materials). The different types of BOMs depend on the
business need and use for which they are intended. In process industries, the BOM is also
known as the formula, recipe, or ingredients list. In electronics, the BOM represents the list of
components used on the printed wiring board or printed circuit board. Once the design of the
circuit is completed, the BOM list is passed on to the PCB layout engineer as well as
component engineer who will procure the components required for the design.

BOMs are hierarchical in nature with the top level representing the finished product which
may be a sub-assembly or a completed item. BOMs that describe the sub-assemblies are
referred to as modular BOMs. An example of this is the NAAMS BOM that is used in the
automotive industry to list all the components in an assembly line. The structure of the
NAAMS BOM is System, Line, Tool, Unit and Detail.

The first hierarchical databases were developed for automating bills of materials for
manufacturing organizations in the early 1960s. At present this BOM is used as a data base
to identify the many parts and their codes in automobile manufacturing companies.

A bill of materials "implosion" links component pieces to a major assembly, while a bill of
materials "explosion" breaks apart each assembly or sub-assembly into its component parts.
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A BOM can be displayed in the following formats:

A single-level BOM that displays the assembly or sub-assembly with only one level of
children. Thus it displays the components directly needed to make the assembly or
An indented BOM that displays the highest-level item closest to the left margin and the
components used in that item indented more to the right.
Modular (planning) BOM

A BOM can also be visually represented by a product structure tree, although they are rarely
used in the workplace.

A BOM may be configurable, also called a super BOM, if the product is configurable, i.e., can
be produced in a large number of variations. In this case, the BOM lists all possible
components, only a subset of which will be used in a specific variation.
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Examples Bill Of Material

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1. Describe about pre-production inspection?





2. List purpose of quality inspection.




3. What is Bill of Material(BOM)?






1. Monk, Ellen; Wagner, Bret (2007). Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning. Course Technology
Cengage Learning. pp. 9798. ISBN 1-4239-0179-7.
2. "Creating a Bill of Materials". Arena Solutions. Retrieved January
16, 2013.
3. Reid, R. Dan; Sanders, Nada R. (2002). Operations Management. John Wiley & Sons. pp.
457458. ISBN 0-471-32011-0.