How Things Float
E. N. GILBERT,
AT& T Bell Laboratories, MurrayHill, New Jersey 07974
_{E}_{D}_{G}_{A}_{R}
_{S}_{i}_{n}_{c}_{e}
_{N}_{.} _{G}_{I}_{L}_{B}_{E}_{R}_{T}
_{r}_{e}_{c}_{e}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{d}_{t}_{h}_{e} Ph.D.in mathematicsfromM.I.T.in 1948.
then
he
has been
a member of
the
Mathematics and Statistics
_{R}_{e}_{s}_{e}_{a}_{r}_{c}_{h}_{C}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{t} _{A}_{T}_{&}_{T} _{B}_{e}_{l}_{l} _{L}_{a}_{b}_{o}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{o}_{r}_{i}_{e}_{s}_{.}_{H}_{i}_{s} maininterestshavebeen communicationtheory, queueing and other applicationsof probability, routingproblems,and acoustics.
ABSTRACTS. M. Ulam once askedif _{s}_{p}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{a}_{r}_{e} the _{o}_{n}_{l}_{y} _{h}_{o}_{m}_{o}_{g}_{e}_{n}_{e}_{o}_{u}_{s}_{b}_{o}_{d}_{i}_{e}_{s} that can float in _{e}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{y}_{o}_{r}_{i}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{.}_{H}_{e}_{r}_{e} an affirmativeansweris _{g}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{n}_{f}_{o}_{r} a _{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{a}_{l}_{c}_{l}_{a}_{s}_{s} of bodies of revolutionthat seemedlikelyto containcounterexamples.Traditionally,the _{f}_{l}_{o}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g}_{b}_{o}_{d}_{i}_{e}_{s}_{o}_{f} mostinteresthavebeen ships,whicharenot homogeneous.However,homogeneousbodiesarefoundto floatin surprisingways. _{B}_{o}_{d}_{i}_{e}_{s} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{s}_{y}_{m}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{y}_{o}_{f}_{t}_{e}_{n} float _{a}_{s}_{y}_{m}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y}_{.}_{T}_{h}_{u}_{s}_{,} circularcylinderscan float with the axis of symmetrytilted awayfromverticalat strangeangles.A cube or regulartetrahedroncan float with _{n}_{e}_{i}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{a} _{v}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{e}_{x}_{,}_{a}_{n} _{e}_{d}_{g}_{e} _{c}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{,}_{n}_{o}_{r}_{a} face centerdown.Indeed,like the circularcylinder,a cube _{m}_{a}_{y} have infinitely many indifferentlystable floating orientationsthat are not isolated, but form a oneparameterfamily.
1. Introduction.The stable orientationsof
a _{f}_{l}_{o}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{b}_{o}_{d}_{y} _{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{e}_{n}_{t} _{a} _{c}_{l}_{a}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{c} a wellknownstability condition
problem of hydrostatics.Naval architects use
(Theorem 1 below)to designship hullsthat float stablyundera varietyof loading conditions. With the exception of icebergs (Section 4), floating homogeneous bodies have little practicalimportance.Howeverthey have interestingmathemati cal properties.A simple law connects the stable floating positions of congruent homogeneousbodies of densities p and 1  p (Theorem2). Spheresmay be the only homogeneousbodiesthatcan float in all orientations(Ulam[8]),but that has neverbeen provedor disproved(Section3). Theorem4 provesit for a specialclass of bodies.A homogeneousbodywith an axisof rotationalsymmetryalwayshas an equilibriumorientationwith the axisvertical,but the equilibriummaybe unstable. For example,onlythe shortestsemiaxesof a homogeneousellipsoidprovidestable equilibria(Section6). Dependingon its dimensionsand density,a circularcylinder _{m}_{a}_{y}_{f}_{l}_{o}_{a}_{t}_{w}_{i}_{t}_{h}_{i}_{t}_{s} axisvertical,horizontal,or _{t}_{i}_{l}_{t}_{e}_{d} _{a}_{t} _{s}_{o}_{m}_{e} _{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{a}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}_{a}_{w}_{a}_{y}_{f}_{r}_{o}_{m} vertical(Section8). Regularpolyhedrahavemanysymmetryaxes(throughvertices, face centers, and edge centers)but, again,these orientationsneed not be stable. All of them are unstablefor a tetrahedronof density1/2 and so this tetrahedron floatsin a waythatis not easilyguessed(Section5). Likewise,for somevaluesof p, the cube floats in an asymmetricway. In fact, like manycircularcylinders,some cubes do not float in isolatedstableorientations;insteadthey have infinitelymany indifferentlystableorientations,forminga oneparameterfamily(Section 10).
2. _{P}_{o}_{t}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{a}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{d} _{m}_{e}_{t}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{.}_{I}_{t} _{i}_{s} convenientto use coordinatesfixed in _{t}_{h}_{e}
body.The problemthen is to predictwherethe waterlinewillbe on the bodywhen _{i}_{t} _{i}_{s} _{f}_{l}_{o}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g}_{s}_{t}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{y}_{.}_{L}_{e}_{t} _{n} _{b}_{e} _{a} _{u}_{n}_{i}_{t} _{n}_{o}_{r}_{m}_{a}_{l}_{t}_{o} _{t}_{h}_{e} watersurface,directedup _{f}_{r}_{o}_{m} the water. It _{s}_{u}_{f}_{f}_{i}_{c}_{e}_{s} _{t}_{o} _{f}_{i}_{n}_{d} n _{s}_{i}_{n}_{c}_{e} then Archimedes'principledeterminesthe waterline.
Stable positions for a floating body occur at minima of a potential energy _{f}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{U}_{(}_{n}_{)}_{.} _{U}_{(}_{n}_{)} is the work done to _{b}_{r}_{i}_{n}_{g} the _{b}_{o}_{d}_{y} into a _{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} with _{n}
201
_{2}_{0}_{2}
[March
_{u}_{p}_{w}_{a}_{r}_{d} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{w}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{e} _{a}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{l}_{e}_{v}_{e}_{l} where the body displaces its own weight
E.
N.
GILBERT
in 
water. The work done against gravity is mgS1 where 
m is the mass of the body, 
g 
the acceleration of gravity, and S1 the height of the center of gravity G of the 
_{b}_{o}_{d}_{y}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{e} _{w}_{o}_{r}_{k} _{d}_{o}_{n}_{e} against buoyancy forces is just the work required to raise the
particles of the displaced water up to the water level. This work is mgS2 where S2
_{i}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{d}_{e}_{p}_{t}_{h} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{r}_{o}_{i}_{d} B of the submerged part of the body. B is called the
center of buoyancy. Thus
U(n)
=
mg(Sl
+
S2)
=
mgn
(G

B).
(1)
_{S}_{i}_{n}_{c}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{g}_{r}_{a}_{v}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{f}_{o}_{r}_{c}_{e} _{a}_{c}_{t}_{s} _{d}_{o}_{w}_{n}_{w}_{a}_{r}_{d} from the center of gravity and the _{b}_{u}_{o}_{y}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{y} force acts upward from the center of buoyancy, the line joining B and G _{m}_{u}_{s}_{t} _{h}_{a}_{v}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{v}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l} _{d}_{i}_{r}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} n in equilibrium. Some equilibrium directions are _{m}_{a}_{x}_{i}_{m}_{a} _{o}_{r} _{s}_{a}_{d}_{d}_{l}_{e} _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{p}_{o}_{t}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{a}_{l} _{f}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} U(n) and represent unstable _{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{b}_{r}_{i}_{u}_{m} orientations of the body. If _{n}_{o} is an equilibrium direction, the behavior of S(n) n (G  B) near _{n}_{o} _{d}_{e}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{m}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{t}_{y}_{p}_{e} _{o}_{f} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{b}_{r}_{i}_{u}_{m}_{.} _{T}_{o} perturb n away from n0, rotate the body _{t}_{h}_{r}_{o}_{u}_{g}_{h} _{a} _{s}_{m}_{a}_{l}_{l} _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e} a _{a}_{b}_{o}_{u}_{t} _{a}_{n} _{a}_{x}_{i}_{s} with unit direction vector t normal to _{n}_{o}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{n} = _{n}_{O} _{c}_{o}_{s} _{a} _{+} _{(}_{n}_{o} x _{t}_{)}_{s}_{i}_{n} _{a}_{.} _{I}_{f} _{S}_{(}_{n}_{)} _{h}_{a}_{s} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{u}_{o}_{u}_{s} partial derivatives of order 3 at _{n}_{o}_{,}
_{S}_{(}_{n}_{)}
= _{S}_{(}_{n}_{o}_{)}
+ const a 2+
0(a
3).
_{B}_{u}_{o}_{y}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{y} _{f}_{o}_{r}_{c}_{e}_{s} _{w}_{i}_{l}_{l} _{t}_{e}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{o} _{m}_{o}_{v}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{b}_{o}_{d}_{y} _{b}_{a}_{c}_{k} to orientation _{n}_{o} if the constant _{i}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{q}_{u}_{a}_{d}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{c} _{t}_{e}_{r}_{m} is positive, or further away from _{n}_{o} if the constant is negative. The main theorem about floating bodies expresses this constant in terms _{o}_{f} _{a} _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} _{M}_{,} _{c}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{e}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{m}_{e}_{t}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{,} which is defined as follows. _{F}_{o}_{r} a given equilibrium direction _{n}_{o}_{,} let V denote the volume of the submerged _{p}_{a}_{r}_{t} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{b}_{o}_{d}_{y} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{l}_{e}_{t} A _{d}_{e}_{n}_{o}_{t}_{e} the twodimensional figure in which the plane of the waterline intersects the body. Let I denote the moment of inertia of A about _{a}_{n} axis with direction t (t . _{n}_{o} = 0) and passing through the centroid of A. Then _{t}_{h}_{e} metacenter for _{n}_{o} and t is the point
M = B +
n01/V
_{l}_{y}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{o}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{(}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l}_{)} _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{r}_{o}_{u}_{g}_{h} _{G} _{a}_{n}_{d} B _{a}_{t} _{h}_{e}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} I/V above B.
_{1}_{.} _{W}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{n} _{i}_{s} rotated away from equilibrium direction _{n}_{o}_{,} small _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e} a about axis t,
_{T}_{H}_{E}_{O}_{R}_{E}_{M}
n .(GB)
^{=} S(n)
^{=} S(no)
^{+}
_{n}_{o}
_{(} M 
(
G)ao2
+ 0(a
3).
(2)
through a
(3)
_{B}_{u}_{o}_{y}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{y} _{f}_{o}_{r}_{c}_{e}_{s} _{a}_{c}_{t} _{t}_{o} _{m}_{o}_{v}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{b}_{o}_{d}_{y} _{b}_{a}_{c}_{k} to orientation _{n}_{O} if M lies above G and _{a}_{w}_{a}_{y} _{f}_{r}_{o}_{m} _{n}_{O} _{i}_{f} M lies below G.
_{T}_{h}_{e} _{i}_{d}_{e}_{a} _{o}_{f} _{m}_{e}_{t}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{r} and its connection with stability date back to Huyghens. _{T}_{h}_{e}_{o}_{r}_{e}_{m} _{1} _{a}_{p}_{p}_{e}_{a}_{r}_{s} _{i}_{n} _{m}_{a}_{n}_{y} books on mechanics ([1], [9]) and naval architecture
([6]).
_{S}_{i}_{n}_{c}_{e} the metacenter _{d}_{e}_{p}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{s} on t, an equilibrium orientation _{n}_{o} may be stable _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{r}_{e}_{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{t} _{t}_{o} _{s}_{o}_{m}_{e} _{p}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{u}_{r}_{b}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} axes t and unstable for others (saddlepoint _{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{b}_{r}_{i}_{u}_{m}_{)}_{.} _{I}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{p}_{r}_{i}_{n}_{c}_{i}_{p}_{a}_{l} _{m}_{o}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{i}_{n}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{a} of A about its centroid are _{I}_{,} and
' _{2}_{,} let the metacenters for rotations about the corresponding princi
_{p}_{a}_{l} _{a}_{x}_{e}_{s} _{b}_{e} _{M}_{1} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{M}_{2}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{n}_{o} _{i}_{s} a minimum _{(}_{s}_{t}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e} _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{)}_{,} saddle point, or
_{I}_{2}_{,} with I
<
_{m}_{a}_{x}_{i}_{m}_{u}_{m} _{o}_{f} _{S}_{(}_{n}_{)} if _{G} lies below _{M}_{1}_{,} between _{M}_{l} and M2, or above M2. In naval _{a}_{r}_{c}_{h}_{i}_{t}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{u}_{r}_{e} _{M}_{1} _{a}_{n}_{d} M2 are the metacenters for rolling and pitching.
1991]
HOW THINCS
FLOAT
203
B, _{M}_{I}_{,} and M2 are determined entirely by the shape of the submerged part of the body but G may be moved about by redistributing cargo. To make a ship float stably in a particular orientation _{n}_{(}_{,}_{,} its mass must be distributed to put G below _{M}_{l}_{.} For instance a small boat, originally stable, can become unstable if its passenger stands up. A vessel partly filled w,h liquid (a tanker, leaky ship, or halfempty bottle) requires a more complicated treatment; its cargo includes liquid that moves as the body is perturbed. In what follows the body is a solid made from homogeneous material of density p < 1. This is not an important case for naval architecture but it contains some mathematical curiosities. Symmetry axes of bodies like regular polyhedra, cylin ders, or cones are obvious equilibrium directions. The kinds of stability that these bodies exhibit are often surprising.
3. Indifferent _{s}_{t}_{a}_{b}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{t}_{y}_{.} Because of its symmetry, a homogeneous sphere has
the same potential U(n) = mgn *(G  B) for all orientations n. Every n is then
an equilibrium direction. But these equilibria are indifferently stable. That is, the perturbed body tends neither to return to its original orientation nor to move away from it. Likewise a long circular cylinder has the same potential U(n) for all directions n normal to the _{c}_{y}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{r}_{'}_{s} axis. These directions are equilibria, indiffer ently stable with respect to rolling although stable with respect to pitching. _{U}_{l}_{a}_{m} _{[}_{8}_{]} _{a}_{s}_{k}_{e}_{d}_{,} "A solid S of uniform _{d}_{e}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{p} has the _{p}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{y} that it will float in equilibrium (without turning) in water in every orientation. Must S be a sphere?" No nonspherical body with this property is known. H. Auerbach [2] settled a similar problem for cylindrical bodies by constructing noncircular cylin ders that float indifferently stably with respect to rolling, in the manner of a _{c}_{i}_{r}_{c}_{u}_{l}_{a}_{r} _{c}_{y}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{r}_{.} FIGURE 1 is the cross section of one of Auerbach's _{i}_{n}_{d}_{i}_{f}_{f}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{l}_{y} _{s}_{t}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e} _{c}_{y}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{.} _{C}_{h}_{o}_{r}_{d}_{s} drawn in _{F}_{I}_{G}_{U}_{R}_{E} 1 _{r}_{e}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{e}_{n}_{t} waterlines for different floating positions. These chords cut the figure in two halves of equal area
_{(}_{p}
_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} are other solutions that are not heartshaped. For a _{b}_{o}_{d}_{y} to have constant _{U}_{(}_{n}_{)}_{,} as _{U}_{l}_{a}_{m} required, (1) shows B = G  hn with h a constant. As n varies, the center of buoyancy remains on a sphere of
=
_{1}_{/}_{2}_{)}_{.}
_{D}_{i}_{f}_{f}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{t}
_{h}_{e}_{a}_{r}_{t}_{}_{s}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{e}_{d} _{c}_{r}_{o}_{s}_{s} _{s}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} work for other densities
and
~~~
FIG. 1. Cross section of indifferentlystable floating cylinderof density 1/2. Chords are possible waterlines.Centersof _{b}_{u}_{o}_{y}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{y}_{B} lie on a circleaboutG.
204
radius h and center G. Moreover, (3) requires M = G and then (2) shows I = _{h}_{V}_{,}
a constant for all n and t. In Auerbach's cylinder problem, the same reasoning requires that centers of
_{b}_{u}_{o}_{y}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{y} lie on a _{c}_{i}_{r}_{c}_{l}_{e}_{,} as FIGURE 1 shows. To achieve constant moment of inertia
_{I} _{f}_{o}_{r} _{r}_{o}_{l}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{g}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{w}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{e} _{c}_{h}_{o}_{r}_{d}_{s} in _{F}_{I}_{G}_{U}_{R}_{E}
_{c}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{s} _{s}_{u}_{p}_{p}_{l}_{y} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{d}_{i}_{f}_{f}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{a}_{l} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} that determined the _{s}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{e} of FIGURE
E. N. GILBERT
[March
1 all have the same _{l}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h}_{.} These
^{1}^{.} _{W}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{p} _{i}_{s} _{s}_{m}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{,} the _{b}_{o}_{d}_{y} floats with small _{s}_{u}_{b}_{m}_{e}_{r}_{g}_{e}_{d} volume _{a}_{n}_{d}_{,} in the limit as _{p}  0, as though resting on a flat table. Ulam also asked, "If a body rests in _{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{b}_{r}_{i}_{u}_{m} _{i}_{n} _{e}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{y} _{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{o}_{n} a flat horizontal surface is it a _{s}_{p}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{?}_{"} The _{a}_{n}_{s}_{w}_{e}_{r} _{t}_{o} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{q}_{u}_{e}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{m}_{u}_{s}_{t} _{b}_{e} _{"}_{y}_{e}_{s}_{,}_{"} at least for bodies that touch the flat surface at _{o}_{n}_{l}_{y} one _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} P(n). For, as _{p}  0, B must approach P(n); then boundary points P(n) all lie on a sphere. For a purely geometric argument, not using the potential or metacenter, see Montejano [4].
4. _{C}_{a}_{p}_{s}_{i}_{z}_{e}_{d} bodies. The stable _{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{b}_{r}_{i}_{u}_{m} _{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} of a _{f}_{l}_{o}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{b}_{o}_{d}_{y} made
from homogeneous material of density p will ordinarily depend on p. If equilibria are known for p < 1/2, the following theorem will immediately supply equilibria for p > 1/2.
2. Consider a homogeneous floating body that may have either _{d}_{e}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{p}_{.} _{L}_{e}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{p}_{o}_{t}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{a}_{l} _{f}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{o}_{f} the _{b}_{o}_{d}_{y} with densities _{p} and _{p}_{'} be
_{p}
THEOREM
_{o}_{r} _{p}_{'} =
1 
U(n) and U'(n). Then U'(n)
_{P}_{r}_{o}_{o}_{f}_{.} _{L}_{e}_{t} the _{b}_{o}_{d}_{y} have volume K. The _{b}_{o}_{d}_{y} with _{d}_{e}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{p} or _{p}_{'} _{d}_{i}_{s}_{p}_{l}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{s} _{w}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{r} _{v}_{o}_{l}_{u}_{m}_{e}_{s} _{V} = _{p}_{K} _{o}_{r} _{V}_{'} = _{p}_{'}_{K}_{.} For a _{g}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{n} direction vector n let B denote
_{t}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{r} of _{b}_{u}_{o}_{y}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{y} of the _{b}_{o}_{d}_{y} with _{d}_{e}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{p}_{.} Write B' for the centroid of the _{p}_{a}_{r}_{t} of the _{b}_{o}_{d}_{y} above the water level. This _{p}_{a}_{r}_{t} has volume K  V = V' and so B'
_{i}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{r} _{o}_{f} _{b}_{u}_{o}_{y}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{y} _{w}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{b}_{o}_{d}_{y} with _{d}_{e}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{p}_{'} is oriented with direction
vector  n.
= U(n).
From
_{K}_{G} =
VB +
V'B' one
finds
_{V}_{(}_{G}

_{B}_{)}
+
_{V}_{'}_{(}_{G}

_{B}_{'}_{)}
=
0 and then
n
(G ^{} B')V'
= n
(G
^{} B)V.
_{(}_{4}_{)}
Now (1) and (4) show that U'(n)
= U(n).
a
An immediate consequence of Theorem 2 is If _{n}_{(} is an equilibriumdirectionfor a _{b}_{o}_{d}_{y} _{o}_{f} _{d}_{e}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{p} then _{}_{n}_{(}
COROLLARY.
is
one for the same body with density 1  p. The two equilibriaare alike (both _{m}_{i}_{n}_{i}_{m}_{a}_{,}
both maxima, or both saddle points). Bodies with p = 1/2 rightsideup.
2 illustrates the _{c}_{o}_{r}_{o}_{l}_{l}_{a}_{r}_{y} _{b}_{y} _{s}_{h}_{o}_{w}_{i}_{n}_{g} stable _{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} for a _{b}_{o}_{d}_{y} with
_{f}_{l}_{o}_{a}_{t} as stably capsized as
_{F}_{I}_{G}_{U}_{R}_{E}
densities
_{p} and
1

p.
^{p}
p
FIG. 2. Stable floating positions for congruent homogeneous bodies of density p and p =
1 
p.
1991]
(a)
HOW TH1NGS
FLOAT
(b)
_{2}_{0}_{5}
FIG.3. Two stable orientations _{o}_{f} _{t}_{r}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{d} _{s}_{p}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{.}
For another example, consider a sphere truncated by a plane cut. In _{o}_{n}_{e} equilibrium position the plane cut is horizontal and above the water level _{(}_{F}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{r}_{e} 3a). The submerged part of the body is spherical and _{s}_{o}_{,} as Section 2 _{r}_{e}_{m}_{a}_{r}_{k}_{e}_{d}_{,} the metacenter M lies at the center of the _{s}_{p}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{.} _{T}_{r}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{p}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} _{h}_{a}_{s} moved G from the center M of the _{s}_{p}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} _{t}_{o} _{a} _{l}_{o}_{w}_{e}_{r} _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{b}_{r}_{i}_{u}_{m} is stable for any p. But now the corollary shows that truncated _{s}_{p}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{s} of all densities also float _{s}_{t}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{y} _{w}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{c}_{a}_{p}_{s}_{i}_{z}_{e}_{d}_{,} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{u}_{t} _{s}_{u}_{b}_{m}_{e}_{r}_{g}_{e}_{d} _{(}_{F}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{r}_{e} _{3}_{b}_{)}_{.} The corollary can help show how icebergs float. Ice has density about p = .9 relative to sea water. Consider, instead, a fictitious _{i}_{c}_{e}_{b}_{e}_{r}_{g} with _{d}_{e}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{p}_{'} = _{1}  p = .1. This light body may be expected to float in _{n}_{e}_{a}_{r}_{l}_{y} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{o}_{r}_{i}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{i}_{t} _{w}_{o}_{u}_{l}_{d} assume resting on a flat plane. Then the real _{i}_{c}_{e}_{b}_{e}_{r}_{g} floats in the _{c}_{a}_{p}_{s}_{i}_{z}_{e}_{d} orientation. For example, an iceberg with a _{l}_{a}_{r}_{g}_{e} flat face is _{l}_{i}_{k}_{e}_{l}_{y} to float _{f}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{}_{u}_{p}_{.} Of course, as Figure 3b illustrates, it may also float in other orientations, although not as stably.
5. Counting equilibria. In looking for equilibrium _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{s} a useful 
_{i}_{d}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{t}_{y} 

relating the numbers of _{m}_{a}_{x}_{i}_{m}_{a}_{,} _{m}_{i}_{n}_{i}_{m}_{a}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{s}_{a}_{d}_{d}_{l}_{e} _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{s} _{i}_{s} 

N(max) 
+ N(min) 
= N(saddle) 
+ 
2, 
_{(}_{5}_{)} 
where N(
applies to functions _{U}_{(}_{n}_{)} with continuous second _{d}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{v}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{s}_{,} _{d}_{e}_{f}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{d} _{o}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} sphere (see [5] and [7]). It assumes equilibrium _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{s} are isolated and _{o}_{n}_{l}_{y} of the three kinds indicated. _{T}_{h}_{u}_{s}_{,} _{n}_{e}_{a}_{r} an _{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{b}_{r}_{i}_{u}_{m} _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{,} _{U}_{(}_{n}_{)} _{m}_{u}_{s}_{t} _{a}_{g}_{r}_{e}_{e} _{t}_{o} _{t}_{e}_{r}_{m}_{s} of second order with a nondegenerate quadratic form in local coordinates. The identity provides a check that all equilibrium _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{s} _{h}_{a}_{v}_{e} _{b}_{e}_{e}_{n} _{f}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{d} _{a}_{n}_{d} properly classified. For example, tlXedirections _{o}_{f} the _{s}_{i}_{x} _{s}_{e}_{m}_{i}_{a}_{x}_{e}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{a} _{h}_{o}_{m}_{o}_{g}_{e}_{} neous ellipsoid are obvious equilibrium points. In Section _{6}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{s}_{e} _{a}_{r}_{e} _{s}_{h}_{o}_{w}_{n} _{t}_{o} _{b}_{e} the only equilibria; there are two maxima, two minima, and two saddle _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{s}_{,} in agreement with (5). The identity (5) has an interesting application to the equilibria of a _{f}_{l}_{o}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} regular polyhedron. The directions from _{t}_{h}_{e} _{p}_{o}_{l}_{y}_{h}_{e}_{d}_{r}_{o}_{n}_{'}_{s} _{c}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{r} _{t}_{o} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{v}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{e}_{s}_{,} face centers, and edge centers are obvious equilibrium directions because of _{s}_{y}_{m}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{y}_{.} _{I}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{e}_{d}_{,} in the limit as _{p} * _{0}_{,} the _{b}_{o}_{d}_{y} can touch the water _{s}_{u}_{r}_{f}_{a}_{c}_{e} _{o}_{n}_{l}_{y} on a face, edge, or vertex, and these equilibria are the only possibilities. Moreover their numbers _{s}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{s}_{f}_{y} _{E}_{u}_{l}_{e}_{r}_{'}_{s} _{i}_{d}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{t}_{y}
". Equation (5) is a topological _{i}_{d}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{t}_{y} that
_{)} is read "number _{o}_{f}
N(faces)
+ N(vertices)
_{=} N(edges)
_{+}
_{2}_{.}
_{(}_{6}_{)}
[March
206
With the light regular polyhedron resting on the water surface as though on a _{t}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{,} _{e}_{a}_{c}_{h} _{f}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{,} _{v}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{e}_{x}_{,} or edge provides a minimum, maximum, or saddle point of _{U}_{(}_{n}_{)} _{(}_{t}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{n}_{e}_{e}_{d} _{n}_{o}_{t} _{b}_{e} _{t}_{r}_{u}_{e} _{o}_{f} _{i}_{r}_{r}_{e}_{g}_{u}_{l}_{a}_{r} _{p}_{o}_{l}_{y}_{h}_{e}_{d}_{r}_{a}_{)} and _{(}_{5}_{)} is an instance of (6). _{O}_{n}_{e} _{m}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} _{e}_{x}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{t} _{d}_{i}_{r}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{a}_{l}_{o}_{n}_{g} _{a}_{x}_{e}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{s}_{y}_{m}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{y} _{t}_{o} be the only equilibria
0. Axes through faces and vertices are axes of 3fold symmetry or
even when p >
_{m}_{o}_{r}_{e}_{;} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{M}_{l} = _{M}_{2} _{f}_{o}_{r} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{s}_{e} _{a}_{x}_{e}_{s} and their equilibria can be only maxima or minima. Axes through edge centers have only 2fold symmetry and so might give
the saddlepoint equilibria that (5) demands. However, the situation can be more
complicated. A regular tetrahedron with p = 1/2
_{c}_{o}_{r}_{o}_{l}_{l}_{a}_{r}_{y} _{t}_{o} _{T}_{h}_{e}_{o}_{r}_{e}_{m} _{2} _{s}_{h}_{o}_{w}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{i}_{t} _{f}_{l}_{o}_{a}_{t}_{s} _{a}_{s} _{s}_{t}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{y} _{f}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{}_{d}_{o}_{w}_{n} as vertexdown; indeed the metacenters, obtained from (2), show both orientations to be maxima of _{U}_{(}_{n}_{)}_{.} _{M}_{o}_{r}_{e}_{o}_{v}_{e}_{r} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{o}_{r}_{i}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{e}_{d}_{g}_{e} _{d}_{o}_{w}_{n} _{a}_{l}_{s}_{o} turn _{o}_{u}_{t} to be maxima. Then
other orientations, not along symmetry axes, will minimize U(n) and even more will provide saddle points. _{F}_{I}_{G}_{U}_{R}_{E} _{4}_{a} _{w}_{i}_{l}_{l} _{h}_{e}_{l}_{p} _{f}_{i}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{m}_{i}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{b}_{r}_{i}_{a}_{.} It is convenient to represent _{e}_{a}_{c}_{h} _{n} _{b}_{y} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} _{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{r}_{a}_{y} _{f}_{r}_{o}_{m} _{G}_{,} with direction _{n}_{,} crosses a face of the
tetrahedron (gnomonic projection). The corollary to Theorem 2 states that equilib _{r}_{i}_{u}_{m} _{d}_{i}_{r}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{c}_{o}_{m}_{e} in _{p}_{a}_{i}_{r}_{s}_{,} _{r}_{e}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{d} _{b}_{y} diametrically opposite points, such
_{a}_{s} _{v}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{e}_{x} _{P}_{4} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{f}_{a}_{c}_{e} center _{F}_{,} or the _{e}_{d}_{g}_{e} centers E and E'. The plane of P4, E', _{P}_{3}_{,} _{F}_{,} _{E}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{G} _{i}_{s} _{a} _{p}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{e} _{o}_{f} _{m}_{i}_{r}_{r}_{o}_{r} _{s}_{y}_{m}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{y} of the tetrahedron. Then maxima _{a}_{n}_{d} _{m}_{i}_{n}_{i}_{m}_{a} _{o}_{f} _{U}_{(}_{n}_{)}_{,} with n restricted to vectors _{l}_{y}_{i}_{n}_{g} in the plane, occur only at _{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{b}_{r}_{i}_{u}_{m} _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{s}_{.} _{S}_{i}_{n}_{c}_{e} _{P}_{3}_{,} _{F}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{E} are maxima there must also be two minima,
_{Q} _{b}_{e}_{t}_{w}_{e}_{e}_{n} _{P}_{3} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{F}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d} R _{b}_{e}_{t}_{w}_{e}_{e}_{n} F and E. To locate Q exactly, note that the
_{p}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{e} _{o}_{f} _{P}_{1}_{,} _{E}_{'}_{,} _{P}_{2}_{,} _{E}
E. N. GILBERT
provides a quick example. The
_{i}_{s} another _{p}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{e} of mirror symmetry, and hence a waterline
P3
Q
(a)
P3
Q
p1
~~E
(b)
_{F}_{I}_{G}_{.}_{4}_{.} _{E}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{b}_{r}_{i}_{u}_{m} points and equipotential lines on a regular tetrahedron of density 1/2.
1991]
HOW THINGS
FLOAT
_{2}_{0}_{7}
of an equilibrium orientation of the _{t}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{h}_{e}_{d}_{r}_{o}_{n}_{.} The _{n}_{o}_{r}_{m}_{a}_{l} _{t}_{o} _{t}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{p}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{e} _{i}_{s} parallel to edge P4P3 and represented by Q, the _{m}_{i}_{d}_{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} of the _{d}_{o}_{t}_{t}_{e}_{d} _{a}_{l}_{t}_{i}_{t}_{u}_{d}_{e} _{P}_{3}_{E} of face P12 P3. A metacenter calculation shows Q to be a _{s}_{t}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e} _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{.} The point R is more complicated _{b}_{u}_{t}_{,} _{l}_{y}_{i}_{n}_{g} between F _{a}_{n}_{d} _{E}_{,} R _{i}_{s} _{d}_{i}_{a}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y} opposite a point R' on edge _{P}_{3}_{P}_{4}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{u}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{m}_{i}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{b}_{r}_{i}_{a} _{i}_{n}_{c}_{l}_{u}_{d}_{e} _{1}_{2} _{m}_{i}_{n}_{i}_{m}_{a} like Q, on midpoints of facealtitudes, 12 points like R, and 12 like R'. _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} (5) will be satisfied if R and R' are saddle _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{s} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} _{a}_{r}_{e} _{n}_{o} _{f}_{u}_{r}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r} equilibria. The laborious calculations, required to locate R and _{R}_{'}_{,} _{f}_{i}_{n}_{d} their _{t}_{y}_{p}_{e} of equilibrium, and verify that all equilibria have been found, have _{n}_{o}_{t} _{b}_{e}_{e}_{n} _{m}_{a}_{d}_{e}_{.} Figure 4b is only an artist's conception of the lines of constant _{U}_{(}_{n}_{)} _{o}_{n} _{a} _{f}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{.} The stable orientations of a tetrahedron of _{d}_{e}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{1}_{/}_{2} _{a}_{r}_{e} _{r}_{e}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{d} _{t}_{o} _{s}_{y}_{m}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{y} because they hold one edge vertical. However, with p slightly _{d}_{i}_{f}_{f}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{t} _{f}_{r}_{o}_{m} _{1}_{/}_{2}_{,} these orientations are no longer equilibria and the body must float _{a}_{s}_{y}_{m}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y}_{.}
6.
Ellipsoid. The stability of a _{f}_{l}_{o}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{e}_{l}_{l}_{i}_{p}_{s}_{o}_{i}_{d} will be _{d}_{e}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{m}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{d} _{b}_{y} _{f}_{i}_{r}_{s}_{t}
showing how compressing a body affects its stability. Consider any floating body F made of homogeneous material of _{d}_{e}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{p}_{.} If _{n}_{o} _{i}_{s} an _{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{b}_{r}_{i}_{u}_{m} _{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{f}_{o}_{r} _{F}_{,} introduce cartesian bodycoordinates x, y, z with the zaxis in the direction _{n}_{o}_{.} A transformation
x'=
_{a}_{x}_{,}
y' =
_{b}_{y}_{,}
z' =cz
_{(}_{7}_{)}
compresses F into a body F'. Volumes V and V' of corresponding regions in F and F' are related by
V' = abcV.
If F' is also made of homogeneous material of density p, the compression (7) maps the waterline of F to the waterline of F' for the same direction _{n}_{o}_{.} Centers of gravity G and buoyancy B of F _{a}_{l}_{s}_{o} _{m}_{a}_{p} to the _{c}_{o}_{r}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{p}_{o}_{n}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{c}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{s} _{G}_{'} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{B}_{'} of F'. Then _{n}_{o} is also an equilibrium direction of _{F}_{'}_{.} _{H}_{o}_{w}_{e}_{v}_{e}_{r} F _{a}_{n}_{d} _{F}_{'} _{m}_{a}_{y} _{h}_{a}_{v}_{e} different types of equilibrium at _{n}_{o} because _{(}_{7}_{)} _{d}_{o}_{e}_{s} _{n}_{o}_{t} _{m}_{a}_{p} _{m}_{e}_{t}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{s} _{i}_{n}_{t}_{o} metacenters. Let M and M' be the metacenters of F and F' for small _{r}_{o}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{n} _{a}_{b}_{o}_{u}_{t} the xaxis. These metacenters are related because the waterline figures A, A' of _{F}_{,} F' have moments of inertia _{I}_{,} I' _{s}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{s}_{f}_{y}_{i}_{n}_{g} I' = _{a}_{b}_{3}_{I}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{(}_{2}_{)} _{s}_{h}_{o}_{w}_{s}
_{n}_{O} ^{.}
(M'
^{}
B') = I'/V' = ab3I/(abcV)
=
_{}_{n}_{O}
C
(M
^{}
B).
The stabilitycondition0 < _{n}_{O} _{*} _{(}_{M}_{'} 
_{n}_{O} ' (M'
^{}
B'), or
_{G}_{'}_{)} for F' is _{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{v}_{a}_{l}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{t}_{o} _{n}_{o} . _{(}_{G}_{'}  _{B}_{'}_{)} _{<}
b2n<
^{c} 2no
_{(}_{M}

^{B}^{)}
^{(}^{G} B)
>
1.
(8)
Now, in particular, let F be a unit sphere so that the compression (7) produces an ellipsoid F', with semiaxes a, b, c, floating with csemiaxis vertical. Because the sphere is indifferently stable, (3) shows that all its metacenters M coincide with G. The condition (8) for stability with respect to small rotations about the _{a}_{}_{s}_{e}_{m}_{i}_{a}_{x}_{i}_{s}_{,} starting from a configuration with _{n}_{o} along a csemiaxis, reduces to c < b. Similarly F' will be stable with respect to small rotations about a bsemiaxis if c < a. It follows that the shortest semiaxes _{o}_{f} F' are stable _{d}_{i}_{r}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{n}_{,} the longest semiaxes maximize the potential U(n), and the middlesized semiaxes provide saddle _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{s}_{.}
208
If the semiaxes a, b, c of an ellipsoid F are all different, they provide six equilibrium directions, two each of minima, maxima, and saddle points. Equation _{(}_{5}_{)} _{s}_{u}_{g}_{g}_{e}_{s}_{t}_{s} that these _{m}_{a}_{y} be the _{o}_{n}_{l}_{y} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{b}_{r}_{i}_{u}_{m} directions. A proof that there are no other equilibrium directions follows. Consider the ellipsoid (x'/a)2 + (y'/b)2 + (Z'/c)2 = 1 obtained from a unit sphere X2 + _{y}_{2} + Z2 = 1 by the compression (7). Suppose a < b < c. Imagine the ellipsoid floating with upward direction n' = (A',pt', v'); let A'x' + _{,}_{t}_{'}_{y}_{'} + v'z' = d' denote the water surface. On the unit sphere the corresponding water surface is
E. N. G,ILBERT
[March
Ax
+
_{/}_{y}
+
vz
=
d
where
n
=
(A,
_{t}_{,}
v)
is
a
unit
vector
with
the
direction
of
(A'a, _{W}_{t}_{b}_{,} v'c). The center of buoyancy B of the sphere lies below the origin G, in
the direction of n,
Since affine transformations
carry centroids into centroids, the center of buoyancy of the ellipsoid is at
say
B =
_{}_{(}_{,}_{3}_{A}_{'}_{a}_{,}_{,}_{f}_{3}_{,}_{t}_{'}_{b}_{,}_{t}_{/}_{v}_{'}_{c}_{)}_{.}
B' =
^{}
(/3a
A,
/3
,,
/3c2vJ).
In order for n' to be an equilibrium direction of the ellipsoid, n' and B' must have
the same direction. Since a2, b2, c2 are all different, the only possibilities for n' are
( 1, 0, 0), (0, _{?} 1, 0), (0, 0, _{?} 1), the semiaxis directions.
7. Body of revolution. For bodies of revolution, U(n) simplifies to a function
_{u}_{(}_{0}_{)} _{o}_{f} _{j}_{u}_{s}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e} _{0} _{b}_{e}_{t}_{w}_{e}_{e}_{n} n and the axis a of revolution _{(}_{0} _{<} 0 _{<} _{i}_{r}_{)}_{.} The axial _{d}_{i}_{r}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} n = _{?}_{a} are obvious _{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{b}_{r}_{i}_{a}_{.} Other equilibrium directions n are _{n}_{o}_{t} _{i}_{s}_{o}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{d}_{,} _{b}_{u}_{t} lie on _{c}_{i}_{r}_{c}_{l}_{e}_{s} of constant 0. Then (5) does not apply. For equilibria other than n = ? a it is convenient to use the term pitch for a rotation about a horizontal axis p that is normal to a. Then a roll is a rotation about a horizontal axis normal to _{p}_{,} _{i}_{.}_{e}_{.}_{,} an axis in the _{p}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{e} of n and a. Because
the plane of n and a is a plane of mirror symmetry of the waterline figure A, the _{p}_{i}_{t}_{c}_{h} and roll axes are _{p}_{r}_{i}_{n}_{c}_{i}_{p}_{a}_{l} directions for A. Then _{M}_{,} and M2 are the metacenters for pitching and rolling (although perhaps not in that order).
3. _{C}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{r} a _{h}_{o}_{m}_{o}_{g}_{e}_{n}_{e}_{o}_{u}_{s} _{f}_{l}_{o}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{b}_{o}_{d}_{y} _{o}_{f} revolution with axial
the roll metacenter _{M}_{r} is at
direction vector a. At an _{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{b}_{r}_{i}_{u}_{m}_{d}_{i}_{r}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{n}_{o} = the center of gravity G.
Proof. Introduce body coordinates x, y, z with z axis along the axis of rotation
_{a}_{n}_{d}
_{(}_{s}_{i}_{n} _{0}_{0}_{,} _{0}_{,} _{c}_{o}_{s} _{0}_{(}_{)}_{.} A _{r}_{o}_{l}_{l} is a rotation about the _{x}_{}_{a}_{x}_{i}_{s}_{.} A roll of size _{a} moves the
vertical cos 0 = tial at n
THEOREM
+a,
_{x}_{}_{a}_{x}_{i}_{s}
in
the
_{p}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{e}
of
a
and
_{n}_{(}_{.}
Write
_{n}_{o}_{,}
a
=
cos _{0}_{(}_{.}
Then
n
_{n}_{o} =
a
=
direction from _{n}_{o} to n = _{(}_{s}_{i}_{n} _{0}_{(}_{,} cos _{0}_{(} sin _{a}_{,} cos _{0}_{(} cos _{a}_{)}_{.} Then
cos _{0}_{(} cos a is
and, for small a,
0 =
_{9}_{(}_{)} + (a 2/2)cot
_{0}_{(}
+
0(a 4).
The poten
U(n) =
u(0)
= u(00)
+
du
do
 _{0}_{(}_{)}
l
+ o(Io 
_0
1
001)
.
_{A}_{t} _{n}_{o}_{,} _{d}_{u}_{/}_{d}_{O} = _{0} _{b}_{e}_{c}_{a}_{u}_{s}_{e} _{n}_{(}_{;} is an _{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{b}_{r}_{i}_{u}_{m} direction. Then _{U}_{(}_{n}_{)} = _{U}_{(}_{n}_{0}_{)} +
_{O}_{(}_{l}_{o}
_{}
_{0}_{(}_{,}_{1}_{2}_{)} =
_{U}_{(}_{n}_{(}_{)} + _{O}_{(}_{a}_{4}_{)}
and (3) shows _{M}_{r} = G. E
_{T}_{h}_{e}_{o}_{r}_{e}_{m} _{3} _{s}_{h}_{o}_{w}_{s} that a _{b}_{o}_{d}_{y} of revolution is _{i}_{n}_{d}_{i}_{f}_{f}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{l}_{y} stable with _{r}_{e}_{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{t} to _{s}_{m}_{a}_{l}_{l} _{r}_{o}_{l}_{l} _{p}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{u}_{r}_{b}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{r}_{e}_{s}_{u}_{l}_{t} can _{a}_{l}_{s}_{o} be deduced from the observation that the body is indifferently stable to rotations about its axis a of symmetry. For the sake of _{s}_{i}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{y}_{,} an _{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{b}_{r}_{i}_{u}_{m} of a _{b}_{o}_{d}_{y} of revolution will be called stable if it is pitchstable.
COROLLARY.
An _{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{b}_{r}_{i}_{u}_{m} _{n}_{o} 0
+a _{o}_{f} a body of revolution is stable _{i}_{f}_{f} _{I}_{p} and
_{I}_{r}_{,} the moments _{o}_{f} inertia _{o}_{f} A _{f}_{o}_{r} _{p}_{i}_{t}_{c}_{h}_{i}_{n}_{g} and _{r}_{o}_{l}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{g}_{,} _{s}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{s}_{f}_{y} _{I}_{r} < _{I}_{p}_{.}
The corollary follows immediately from (2) and Theorems 1 and 3.
HOW THINGS FLOAT
_{1}_{9}_{9}_{1}_{1}
An ellipsoid with two semiaxes equal is an ellipsoid of revolution, a spheroid. The results of Section 6 show that the rotation axis a must be either vertical (0 = 0 or _{r}_{)} or horizontal (0 = v/2) in any equilibrium position of a spheroid. Oblate _{s}_{p}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{o}_{i}_{d}_{s} are stable with a _{v}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l} and _{p}_{r}_{o}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{e} _{s}_{p}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{o}_{i}_{d}_{s} are stable with a horizontal. Other bodies of revolution can have more complicated equilibria. The circular cylinder of the next section is a typical example.
8. _{C}_{y}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{r}_{.} In this section the _{b}_{o}_{d}_{y} is a _{c}_{i}_{r}_{c}_{u}_{l}_{a}_{r} _{c}_{y}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{r} of radius R and
height H. In one equilibrium position the cylinder floats on end, with 0 = 0 or G= w in the notation of Section 7. A _{s}_{i}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e} calculation of the _{p}_{i}_{t}_{c}_{h} metacenter shows that this orientation is stable if
209
H
^{2}
^{1}
2.
2
In another equilibrium the cylinder floats on
p(l
P)l
<
(9)
1RJ
The
_{w}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{e} _{f}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{r}_{e} A is a _{r}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}_{,} with sides H and _{w}_{,} where Archimedes'
principle determines w as a root of
its side, with
0 =
_{7}_{r}_{/}_{2}_{.}
arcsin
_{w} ^{}
_{2}_{R}

2R
w2
^{}
1
(
'2R1
_{)}
=
The _{c}_{o}_{r}_{o}_{l}_{l}_{a}_{r}_{y} _{t}_{o} Theorem 3 shows that this _{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{b}_{r}_{i}_{u}_{m} is stable if
w < H.
Both (9) and (10) may hold if p is small, only (9) if H/R is small, only (10) if H/R is large, and for some parameter values (e.g., p = 1/2, H/R = 1.7) neither (9) nor (10) hold. Then some cylinders must float with axis tilted at other angles 0, not 0, 7r/2, or vr.There are several cases to consider because the waterline may intersect either end of the cylinder, neither, or both. In what follows x, y, z are cartesian coordinates, fixed in the body, with the zaxis placed along the axis of
revolution.Then the cylinderis X2 + y2 < R2, 0 < z _{<} H.
In the simplest configuration, the end z = 0 is completely submerged and the end z = H is _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e}_{t}_{e}_{l}_{y} out of the water. The waterline _{p}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{e} _{p}_{a}_{s}_{s}_{e}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{r}_{o}_{u}_{g}_{h} the points (R, 0, pH  R tan 0), (0, 0, pH), and (R, 0, pH + R tan 0). This configura tion is possible only if
(10)
R

H
tan 0 _{<} Min{p, 1 _{p}_{}} _{.}_{(}_{1}
_{I}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{o}_{r}_{i}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} is an _{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{b}_{r}_{i}_{u}_{m}_{,} it is _{s}_{t}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{.} _{F}_{o}_{r}_{,} the waterline _{f}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{r}_{e} A is an
ellipse with semiaxes R and R sec.0 > R; the corollary to Theorem 3 ensures pitchstability. The equilibrium condition is that G be directly above B, i.e., the line GB must make _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e} 0 with the axis of the _{c}_{y}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{r}_{.} Now G = _{(}_{0}_{,} _{0}_{,} _{H}_{/}_{2}_{)} and
B = (Bx, 0, Bz) where
Bx
R2tan _{0}
4pH
The condition for _{s}_{t}_{a}_{b}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{t}_{y} is _{B}_{x} =
p(l1P)l
Bz
(H/2
IH\2
R =
pH
2
i
(R _{t}_{a}_{n} 0
l
2pH

_{B}_{z}_{)}_{t}_{a}_{n} _{0}_{,} _{o}_{r}
1
2
+
1
tan20.
2
J)
(12)
[March
_{2}_{1}_{0}
If p(l  p)(H/R)2 _{<} 1/2, there is no equilibrium of this kind, but then (9) shows that the cylinder floats stably on its end. For larger values, (12) determines an angle 0. If 0 satisfies (11), then the cylinder floats stably tilted at angle 0. If (11) is violated, (12) no longer applies and the equilibrium is one with waterline passing through one or both ends. To simplify the problem, only the case p = 1/2 will be considered. Formula (12) with p = 1/2 determines an angle 0 satisfying (11) if 2 < (H/R)2 < 8/3. When H/R = _{8}_{/}_{3} = _{1}_{.}_{6}_{3}_{2}_{9}_{9}_{,} the tilt angle is 0 = 39.23? and the two ends of the cylinder are just tangent to the water surface. For larger values of H/R, consider a configuration with waterline plane passing through ( (H/2)cot 0, 0, 0), (0, 0, H/2), and ((H/2)cot 0, 0, H). The formulas that follow are simplified by the notation
E.
N.
GILBERT
t=
H ftk
2R 2cotO,
JkJx
X2dX
_{(}_{1}_{3}_{)}
for k = 0, 2. The integrals _{J}_{k} are elementary,
J( =
12 _{1} 
_{}
_{t}_{2} + arcsin _{t}_{}}
J2
=
1 j
_{}
_{t}_{(}_{1}

t2)3/2}.
The _{w}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{e} in _{t}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{f}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} passes through both faces. That requires
(H/2)cot
0 <
R, i.e.,
t <
1.
Now V = nrR2H/2 and B = (Bx, 0, Bz) with
_{V}_{B}_{x} =
4
R4(J(
3
J2)
_{V}_{B}_{Z} =R2H 2
The equilibrium condition
is
_{B}_{x}_{=}
tan2

H
_{2}
_{J}_{(}_{)}
+ 2R4 tan2
Bz)tan0
^{2}
3 J0t2 ^{}
JJ2
_{J}
_{2}_{J}
(14)
The _{s}_{t}_{a}_{b}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{t}_{y} of this _{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{b}_{r}_{i}_{u}_{m} must be determined by finding the principle
moments of inertia of the waterline _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} semiaxes R and R sec &because
the cylinder. To get A, pieces at the ends of the ellipse must be cut off to leave a figure of length H csc 0 (see FIGURE 5). The moments for pitching and rolling are
that ellipse protrudes beyond the ends of
figure A. A is no longer the entire ellipse,
_{I}_{p} = 4R4 sec3 _{O}_{J}_{2}
Ir = 4R4sec
0(JoJ2).
The corollary to Theorem 3 now gives the stability condition _{I}_{p} > _{I}_{,}_{,} or
c2 _{0} _{K}
Cos20
3J2
(15)
_{1}_{9}_{9}_{1}_{1}
HOW THINGS
FLOAT
211
_{F}_{I}_{G}_{.}_{5}_{.} Waterline figure A of floating circular cylinder.
900
600
6
300
_{1}_{.}_{3}
_{C}_{2}
H/R=
1.5
1.3
_{V} _{/}_{3}
1.5
1.7 
_{1}_{.}_{8} 
_{1}_{.}_{9} 
2.0 
2.1 
H/R 

8/3 
1.9 
2.1 
FIG.6. Stable orientation of cylinder of density 1/2 as function of H/R.
Each value of t in 0 < t < 1 determines an angle 0 in (14) and then (13) gives H/R = 2t tan 0. _{A} check on _{t}_{h}_{e} condition _{(}_{1}_{5}_{)} shows that the equilibrium is stable _{t}_{h}_{r}_{o}_{u}_{g}_{h}_{o}_{u}_{t} 0 < t < 1. As t _{v}_{a}_{r}_{i}_{e}_{s}_{,} H/R and 0 _{r}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{e} over 2 > H/R > _{8}_{/}_{3} and
_{9}_{0}_{0}_{>} 0 > 39.230.
a unique angle 0 at
_{w}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{h} it floats _{s}_{t}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{y}_{.} FIGURE _{F}_{o}_{r}_{m}_{u}_{l}_{a}_{s} _{0} = _{0}_{?}_{,} _{(}_{1}_{2}_{)}_{,} _{(}_{1}_{4}_{)}_{,}
_{T}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{y}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{r} with _{d}_{e}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{p} = _{1}_{/}_{2}
_{h}_{a}_{s}_{,} for each H/R,
6 shows how the stable orientation varies with H/R.
and
0 =
_{9}_{0}_{0} hold
in the
_{r}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{e}_{s} 0 < H/R
<
_{2}_{,}
_{V}
_{<} _{H}_{/}_{R}
_{<}
_{8}_{3}_{,}
_{8}_{3}_{<}
_{H}_{/}_{R}
< _{2}_{a}_{n}_{d} _{2}
<H/R
<oo.
9. Inversionsymmetry.A _{b}_{o}_{d}_{y} has inversion symmetuy if, when the origin 0
of coordinates is _{p}_{l}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{d} at the centroid _{G}_{,} the _{i}_{n}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{(}_{x}_{,} _{y}_{,} _{z}_{)} _{(}_{}_{x}_{,}  _{y}_{,}  _{z}_{)}
leaves the body unchanged. If a body has inversion symmetry, then any plane
_{2}_{1}_{2}
through G cuts the body into two congruent halves. If a body has p = 1/2, as well as inversion symmetry, then its waterlines are easy to find. The waterline, for any given n, lies in the plane normal to n that passes through G. Bodies of revolution, being already indifferently stable with respect to rolling, _{s}_{e}_{e}_{m} _{l}_{i}_{k}_{e}_{l}_{y} _{c}_{a}_{n}_{d}_{i}_{d}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{s} to be indifferently stable to all perturbations, as requested by Ulam.
indifferently stable bodies of
revolution with p = 1/2
Proof Introduce spherical polar coordinates (r, y, 8) with origin at G and with polar angle y (the axis of revolution is y = 0 and y = rT). An equation of form
r = r(y) will describe the surface of the body. Consider the body floating with upward direction vector n and let n have angle _{c}_{o}_{o}_{r}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{s} _{y} = _{0}_{,} 8 = 0. Now introduce a second system of spherical polar _{c}_{o}_{o}_{r}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{s} _{(}_{r}_{,} _{a}_{,} /3) with pole a = 0 at n. The original polar angle y is related to the new coordinates by
E.
N.
GILBERT
[March
THEOREM
4. Except for
spheres, there are no
that also have inversion symmetry.
cos y
=
cos 0 cos a
+
sin 0 sin a cos/.
(16)
The potential U(n) is (1) with
_{S}_{(}_{n}_{)}
=
 _{(}_{f}
_{P}
_{n}_{)}_{r}_{2} sina dr da _{d}_{/}_{,}
wherein the integration extends over points P of the body below the waterline plane. The range of integration is
O<
r _{<}
r( y),
O< /
_{<} 2rr,
2 <

a
<
rr,
_{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} _{y} _{d}_{e}_{p}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{s} on a and _{/}_{3}_{,} as in _{(}_{1}_{6}_{)}_{.} Because P *n = r cos a, the rintegration
is 
immediate; 

S(n) 
= 
 ffr4(y)cos a sina 
da d/3. 
(17) 

_{E}_{x}_{p}_{a}_{n}_{d} _{r}_{4}_{(}_{y}_{)} in a Neumann series 

r4(y) 
= EAkPk(cos 
y) 
(18) 
with _{P}_{k}_{(}_{}_{)} the kth Legendre polynomial. Because the body has inversion symme _{t}_{r}_{y}_{,} _{r}_{4}_{(}_{r}  _{y}_{)} = _{r}_{4}_{(}_{y}_{)}_{,} and coefficients _{A}_{k} with odd k vanish. With cos _{y} _{g}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{n} _{b}_{y} _{(}_{1}_{6}_{)} the addition theorem for Legendre polynomials ([3]) expresses Pk(cos y) in _{t}_{e}_{r}_{m}_{s} of _{L}_{e}_{g}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{r}_{e} polynomials _{P}_{k}_{(}_{}_{)} and associated Legendre polynomials _{P}_{k}_{f}_{(}_{}_{)} _{o}_{f} _{c}_{o}_{s} a and cos 0
_{P}_{k} (cos
y)
=
_{P}_{k} (cos
a) _{P}_{k} (cos
Q)
+
2
k
(k
^{(}^{k}

^{+}
m)!
^{)}^{!}
_{P}_{k}_{"} (cos
_{0}_{)} _{P}_{k} (cos
a) cos m/3
Then when _{(}_{1}_{8}_{)} is substituted into (17), the integration on /3 removes the terms containing associated Legendre polynomials, and leaves
_{S}_{(}_{n}_{)}
=
IAo
+
_{E}_{A}_{k}_{P}_{k}_{(}_{c}_{o}_{s}
_{f}_{I}
Pk(x)xdx}.
_{(}_{1}_{9}_{)}
Now suppose the body is indifferently stable, so that S(n) is constant. In (19), the coefficient of each term Pk(cos 0) must vanish. With k even, say k = 2r > 2,
^{P}^{=}
4r(2r1)(2r
+
1) (r)
_{1}_{9}_{9}_{1}_{]}
HOWTTHINGS
FLOAT
213
_{a}_{n}_{d} _{s}_{o} _{A}_{k} = 0. Also, as was mentioned above, Ak = 0 for odd k because of the _{i}_{n}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{s}_{y}_{m}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{y}_{.} Then (18) becomes r4(y) = _{A}_{(} and the body is a sphere. 
_{B}_{o}_{d}_{i}_{e}_{s} with inversion symmetry are so special that the theorem does not _{s}_{t}_{r}_{o}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{y} _{s}_{u}_{g}_{g}_{e}_{s}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{p}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} _{m}_{a}_{y} _{b}_{e} the only indifferently stable body. For _{e}_{x}_{a}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e}_{,} in _{t}_{h}_{e} _{p}_{r}_{o}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{m} of indifferently rollstable cylinders, a very similar _{a}_{r}_{g}_{u}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t} _{w}_{o}_{u}_{l}_{d} _{s}_{h}_{o}_{w} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} are no noncircular examples with inversion symmetry. _{Y}_{e}_{t}_{,} _{A}_{u}_{e}_{r}_{b}_{a}_{c}_{h} _{p}_{r}_{o}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{e}_{d} _{e}_{x}_{a}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e}_{s} without inversion symmetry.
_{1}_{0}_{.} _{C}_{u}_{b}_{e}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{s}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{w}_{i}_{l}_{l} show that a homogeneous cube can float in _{s}_{u}_{r}_{p}_{r}_{i}_{s}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{w}_{a}_{y}_{s}_{.} _{A}_{g}_{a}_{i}_{n}_{,} _{x}_{,} _{y}_{,} _{z} _{w}_{i}_{l}_{l} _{b}_{e} _{b}_{o}_{d}_{y} _{c}_{o}_{o}_{r}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{s}_{,} now in the interval [0, 1]. Then G = (1/2,1/2,1/2). Three planes through G, each normal to a coordinate _{a}_{x}_{i}_{s}_{,} _{a}_{r}_{e} _{p}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{e}_{s} of mirror symmetry of the cube. It follows, with n = (A, uv),L, that _{U}_{(}_{n}_{)} _{d}_{e}_{p}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{s} only on the magnitudes _{J}_{A}_{l}_{,}_{I}_{I}_{,} _{l}_{v}_{l}_{.} In what follows A, _{t}_{,}_{u}_{v} will be _{a}_{s}_{s}_{u}_{m}_{e}_{d} _{n}_{o}_{n}_{}_{n}_{e}_{g}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{.} It will _{a}_{l}_{s}_{o} suffice to restrict p to 0 _{<} p _{<} 1/2 because Theorem 2 will then show how denser cubes behave. Equilibria with n along axes _{o}_{f} _{s}_{y}_{m}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{y} _{w}_{i}_{l}_{l} _{b}_{e} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{d} _{f}_{i}_{r}_{s}_{t}_{;} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{m}_{e}_{t}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{s} for these equilibria are easily calculated. _{W}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{u}_{b}_{e} floats facedown, n *(G  B) = (1  p)/2. Also n *(M  B)
_{f}_{o}_{r} _{r}_{o}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{a}_{b}_{o}_{u}_{t} _{a}_{n}_{y} axis t. Then the cube floats stably on its face if
_{p}_{(}_{l}  _{p}_{)} _{<} _{1}_{/}_{6}_{,} _{i}_{.}_{e}_{.}_{,} if p < .211325.
= _{1}_{/}_{(}_{l}_{2}_{p}_{)}
When the cube floats edgedown,
n(G

B)
=
1

2

p
_{T}_{h}_{e} _{m}_{e}_{t}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{r} _{n}_{o}_{w} _{d}_{e}_{p}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{s} _{o}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{a}_{x}_{i}_{s} _{t}_{.} _{I}_{t} will be convenient to use the terms _{r}_{o}_{l}_{l} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{p}_{i}_{t}_{c}_{h} _{a}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{o}_{u}_{g}_{h} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{u}_{b}_{e} _{w}_{e}_{r}_{e} _{a} _{s}_{h}_{i}_{p} with the submerged edge as its keel.
The
metacenters _{M}_{r}_{,} M,) for rolling and pitching satisfy
n *
M, 
B)
2
3

3
p
n
( MI) ^{}
B)
^{=}
1
6r
.
_{F}_{o}_{r} _{0} _{<} _{p} _{<} _{1}_{/}_{8} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{b}_{r}_{i}_{u}_{m} _{i}_{s} a _{s}_{a}_{d}_{d}_{l}_{e} _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} of _{U}_{(}_{n}_{)}_{,} rollunstable and
_{p}_{i}_{t}_{c}_{h}_{}_{s}_{t}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{.} _{F}_{o}_{r} _{1}_{/}_{8} < _{p} < _{9}_{/}_{3}_{2} it is a maximum. For _{9}_{/}_{3}_{2} < p _{<} 1/2 it is again a saddle _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{,} but rollstable and pitchunstable.
a
_{B}_{u}_{t}_{,} _{w}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{1}_{/}_{6} _{<} _{p} < _{1}_{/}_{2} the waterline
_{p}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{e} _{c}_{u}_{t}_{s} _{a}_{l}_{l} _{6} _{f}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{u}_{b}_{e} and the _{f}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{r}_{e} A is an irregular hexagon. The _{c}_{a}_{l}_{c}_{u}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} of B and M are _{l}_{o}_{n}_{g}_{e}_{r}_{,} although still elementary. Floating vertexdown _{t}_{u}_{r}_{n}_{s} _{o}_{u}_{t} to be unstable _{(}_{a} maximum) for 0 _{<} p < 1/6 and stable for 1/6 < p _{<}
1/2.
_{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{(}_{5}_{)} _{s}_{h}_{o}_{w}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{a}_{x}_{e}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{s}_{y}_{m}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{y} _{n}_{e}_{e}_{d} not be the only equilibrium
directions. When 1/8 < p < 9/32 these axes provide no saddle points. A curious _{p}_{h}_{e}_{n}_{o}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{o}_{n} _{o}_{c}_{c}_{u}_{r}_{s} when .211325 < _{p} < .224602. In that _{r}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{e} the _{p}_{o}_{t}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{a}_{l} U(n) _{o}_{f} the unstable facedown orientation is actually lower than the potential of the _{s}_{t}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e} _{v}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{e}_{x}_{}_{d}_{o}_{w}_{n} _{o}_{r}_{i}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{;} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} _{m}_{u}_{s}_{t} be other stable orientations with even lower potential. _{T}_{o} find the _{m}_{i}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{b}_{r}_{i}_{a} numerically one can just plot U(n) as a function _{o}_{f} _{n} _{o}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{u}_{n}_{i}_{t} _{s}_{p}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{e} _{f}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{U}_{(}_{n}_{)}_{,} _{w}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{h} will be derived _{n}_{e}_{x}_{t}_{,} can _{o}_{n}_{l}_{y} be _{p}_{i}_{e}_{c}_{e}_{w}_{i}_{s}_{e} _{a}_{n}_{a}_{l}_{y}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{;} its form _{d}_{e}_{p}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{s} on which vertices are submerged. _{F}_{o}_{r} _{f}_{i}_{x}_{e}_{d} _{n} = _{(}_{A}_{,} _{t}_{,} _{v}_{)}_{,} the derivation introduces an integral
_{t}_{r}_{i}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{u}_{l}_{a}_{r} _{p}_{y}_{r}_{a}_{m}_{i}_{d} _{f}_{o}_{r} _{0} _{<} _{p} _{<} _{1}_{/}_{6}_{.}
When
the
cube
floats
vertexdown the
submerged
part of
the
body
is
_{F}_{(}_{s}_{)}
_{=}
fff&(Ax
_{+}_{Y}
+vz)s
_{d}_{x}_{d}_{y}_{d}_{z}
_{2}_{1}_{4}
taken over the entire body. For the unit cube,
E. N. GILBERT
F(s)
^{=}
1 
eAS
As
1 
e/Is
,us
1
evs
v
,
[March
(20)
but the same argument will apply to a general body as long as the origin is located so that the body lies entirely in the positive octant.
THEOREM 5. For k = 1,2, write fk(h) for the inverse Laplace transform of F(s)/sk. When the water surface is the plane Ax + ,uy + vz = h, _{f}_{l}_{(}_{h}_{)} is the displaced volume V and f2(h)/V is the depth of the center of buoyancy B below the water level.
Proof. Write A(h) for the area of intersection of the plane Ax + ,uy + vz = h with the body. Then
_{F}_{(}_{s}
_{=}

h ^{s} dx dy dze
00
hsA (h ) dh,
the Laplace transform of A(h). F(s)/s
is the inverse Laplace transform of
_{f} _{l}_{(}_{h}_{)}
=
fhA(h')
dh',
but that integral is just the displaced volume V below the plane Ax + _{,}_{A}_{y} + vz = h.
Likewise, F(s)/s2
is the Laplace transform of
f2(h)
A(h")
dh"dh'
_{=} 

 
fh(h 
 
h")A(h") 
dh", 
the second line following by interchanging the order of integration. But this
integral is just V times the depth of the center of buoyancy.
*
In general, Archimedes' principle specifies V. Then the equation
f
(h)
^{=}
V,
(21)
from Theorem 5, determines h and the depth f2(h)/V of B. G is at height n *G _{a}_{b}_{o}_{v}_{e} the _{o}_{r}_{i}_{g}_{i}_{n}_{,} or n _{G}_{C}  h above the water level. Then the _{p}_{o}_{t}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{a}_{l} _{U}_{(}_{n}_{)} in (1) is proportional to
n
(GB)
=
n
C G +
^{f}^{2}^{(}
V
h.
(22)
For the unit cube, V
in _{(}_{2}_{2}_{)}_{.} _{T}_{o} find
_{m}_{u}_{l}_{t}_{i}_{p}_{l}_{y} out (20) into a sum of 8 terms, each an exponential divided by
p
in _{(}_{2}_{1}_{)} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{n}
CG =
_{(}_{A} +
_{,}
+ v)/2
_{f}_{k}_{(}_{h}_{)}_{,}
_{A}_{1}_{a}_{v}_{s}_{k}_{+}_{3}_{.} Transforming this ekpression termbyterm produces
fk(h)
fk(h)
=
A1tt(
1
+
r) {IIk+2
ll11hllk+2_Illh


II1AIk+2
A
+11h ^{}^{A}
^{_}
A11k+2
+
^{+}

Ilh
Ih
Ilh ^{}
A
^{_}
1k II2
1k+2
+Ih
Ih
^{_} AIIvk+2
^{+}
Ilh ^{}^{v}
A11k+2
IIh  
A 
 
VlIk+2}, 
(23) 

_{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} 
_{l}_{l}_{z}_{i}_{l} _{m}_{e}_{a}_{n}_{s} 
_{z} 
if 
_{z} 
_{>} 
0 
and 0 
if z < 0. Each term in (23) represents a 
different vertex of the cube. Thus h is the depth of (0, 0, 0), h 
A is the depth of
_{(}_{1}_{,} _{0}_{,} _{0}_{)}_{,}
h

A 
_{,}_{t}
is
the
depth
of
contribute nonzero terms to (23).
(1, 1,0),
etc.
Only
the
submerged
vertices
_{1}_{9}_{9}_{1}_{]}
HOW THINGS
FLOAT
_{2}_{1}_{5}
Formulas (21), (22), (23) were used in a numerical _{s}_{t}_{u}_{d}_{y} _{o}_{f} a _{c}_{u}_{b}_{e} _{o}_{f} _{d}_{e}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{y} p = .217. This density lies in the interesting _{r}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{e}_{,} discussed _{e}_{a}_{r}_{l}_{i}_{e}_{r}_{,} in _{w}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{h} _{t}_{h}_{e} global minimum of U(n) occurs away from the cube's _{s}_{y}_{m}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{y} axes and so remains to be found. FIGURE 7 shows level contours of _{n} _{(}_{G}  _{B}_{)}_{,} _{d}_{r}_{a}_{w}_{n} in gnomonic projection from G onto a _{t}_{y}_{p}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l} _{f}_{a}_{c}_{e} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{u}_{b}_{e} _{a}_{s} in _{F}_{I}_{G}_{U}_{R}_{E} _{4}_{b}_{.} Beside the equilibria at the face _{c}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{,} _{e}_{d}_{g}_{e} _{c}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{,} and _{v}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{e}_{s}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} _{a}_{r}_{e} _{f}_{o}_{u}_{r} more saddle points, one near each corner of the face. Note that _{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{p}_{o}_{t}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{a}_{l}_{s} _{i}_{n} Figure 7 do not meet the face _{e}_{d}_{g}_{e}_{s} at _{r}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}_{s} _{b}_{e}_{c}_{a}_{u}_{s}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{g}_{n}_{o}_{m}_{o}_{n}_{i}_{c} projection is not conformal.
_{0}_{.}_{3}_{9}_{6}_{5}_{5}_{,}
_{0}_{.}_{9}_{5}
_{0}_{.}_{3}_{9}_{4}
0.393
0.393'17'
0.3933
0.3937
FIG.7. Equipotential lines on a face of a cube of density p =
.217.
The missing global minima turns out not to be isolated points. They form a circle, with n *(G  B) = .39143, surrounding the face center. To _{s}_{h}_{o}_{w} _{t}_{h}_{i}_{s} analytically, consider directions n near (0, 0, 1), a facecenter axis. _{S}_{u}_{p}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{e} A and ,Lt small enough (and v = 1  A2  ,2 large enough) so that the _{s}_{u}_{b}_{m}_{e}_{r}_{g}_{e}_{d} vertices are (0, 0, 0), (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0), and (1, _{1}_{,} _{0}_{)}_{.} Then _{f}_{k}_{(}_{h}_{)} in _{(}_{2}_{3}_{)} _{i}_{s} a _{s}_{u}_{m} _{o}_{f} four terms. When the terms of (23) are expanded in powers of h, considerable cancellation _{o}_{c}_{c}_{u}_{r}_{s}_{,} _{l}_{e}_{a}_{v}_{i}_{n}_{g}
and
_{f}_{2}_{(}_{h}_{)}
=
1
12
fl(h)=
{6h2 
h
6h(A
^{}
+
A
_{,}_{u}_{)}
+
y
2A2 +
_{3}_{A}_{,}_{u} + 2 _{/}_{L}_{2}_{}}_{.}
_{(}_{2}_{4}_{)}
The condition _{f}_{l}_{(}_{h}_{)} = _{V} = _{p} _{o}_{f} _{T}_{h}_{e}_{o}_{r}_{e}_{m} _{5} _{p}_{r}_{o}_{v}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{s}
h
=
A +,.
2 + pv.
(25)
Now substitute (24) into (22) and use (25) to eliminate h. The _{r}_{e}_{s}_{u}_{l}_{t}_{,} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{h}_{e}_{l}_{p} of A2+ p2 + V2 = 1, simplifies to
n *(G B)
1 ( 1
=
OA
<+

v[12p(l1p)
1]
(26)
_{2}_{1}_{6}
E.
N.
GILBERT
Only the v component of n enters into (26) and so the level contours of
n (G  B) near the face center are circles. If p(l  p) > 1/6 (recall that this was also the condition that the face center be an unstable equilibrium point), then
n 
(G 
 
B) in (26) is a minimum at 

l12p(l 

With 
p 
= 
.217 
the 
minimum 
occurs 
at 
1
1
v = .981085

p)

= cos 11.160. For
all such
n,
only the vertices of one face are submerged and (24) does apply.
tilted 11.160 away from
vertical. However, the coordinates A and ,Ltof n are restricted only by A2+ ,U2= 1
 ,2 = .037473 and the slightest disturbance will move the cube to a new equally
stable orientation with the same v. This cube resembles the cylinder in having a
oneparameter family of indifferently stable orientations. In fact, as n ranges over
all directions, _{n} *(G 
A cube of density p = .217 will float with a facecenter
B) remains within 0.65% of .3940 and so the cube comes
close
body.
to
satisfying
the
condition
n
* (G

B)
= const
of
an
indifferently
stable
REFERENCES
1. Paul Appell, Traite de Mecanique Rationelle _{t}_{3}_{,} _{G}_{a}_{u}_{t}_{h}_{i}_{e}_{r}_{}_{V}_{i}_{l}_{l}_{a}_{r}_{s}_{,} _{P}_{a}_{r}_{i}_{s} _{(}_{1}_{9}_{2}_{1}_{)}_{,} _{C}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{t}_{e}_{r} _{X}_{X}_{X}_{I}_{,} Sec. IV, pp. 194233.
2. H. Auerbach, Sur un probleme de M. Ulam concernant 1'equilibredes _{c}_{o}_{r}_{p}_{s} _{f}_{l}_{o}_{t}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{t}_{s}_{,} _{S}_{t}_{u}_{i}_{d}_{i}_{a}_{M}_{a}_{t}_{h}_{,} 7 (1938) 121142.
3. E. T. Copson, An Introduction to the _{T}_{h}_{e}_{o}_{r}_{y} _{o}_{f} _{F}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{a} _{C}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e}_{x} _{V}_{a}_{r}_{i}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{,} _{O}_{x}_{f}_{o}_{r}_{d} _{U}_{.} _{P}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{,} London, 1935.
4. L. Montejano, On a problem of Ulam concerning a characterization of the _{s}_{p}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{,} _{S}_{t}_{u}_{i}_{d}_{i}_{e}_{s}_{i}_{n} _{A}_{p}_{p}_{l}_{.} Math., 53 (1974) 243248.
5. Marston Morse, The Calculus of Variations in the Large, Am. Math. Soc. Colloquium Publ. _{X}_{V}_{I}_{I}_{I}_{,} AMS, Providence (1943), Theorem 1.1, p. 143.
6. Henry E. Rossell and Lawrence B. Chapman, Editors, Principles of Naval Architecture, Vol. I, Soc. Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, New _{Y}_{o}_{r}_{k}_{,} _{1}_{9}_{4}_{1}_{,} _{C}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{s} _{I}_{I}_{I} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{I}_{V}_{.}
7. H. Seifert and W. Threlfall, Variationsrechnung im _{G}_{r}_{o}_{s}_{s}_{e}_{n}_{,} _{r}_{e}_{p}_{r}_{i}_{n}_{t} _{C}_{h}_{e}_{l}_{s}_{e}_{a}_{,} _{N}_{e}_{w} _{Y}_{o}_{r}_{k}_{,} _{1}_{9}_{4}_{8}_{,} _{p}_{.} _{6}_{.}
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