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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

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PREPARED FOR
DEPARTMENT OF URBAN
DEVELOPMENT, GOVT. OF BIHAR

CONSULTANTS
HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT
CORPORATION LTD.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

City Development plan of Bodhgaya under the JNNURM - Brief Summary

The Government of India has recently launched a major initiative for select 63 cities in India, the
Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM). The aim of the programme is to
encourage reforms and fast track development in identified cities. Bodhgaya is one of the cities
eligible for assistance under the scheme and figures in category C (UAs less than 1 million - state
capitals, other cities/ urban areas of religious, historic and tourist importance). The City
development plan is being prepared by the Govt. of Bihar under this scheme The City
development plan is specifically tailored to achieve the sectoral and comprehensive objectives of
the JNNURM within the framework of the perspective development plan of Bodhgaya. Since
Bodhgaya is a heritage town of importance to millions of pilgrims and also houses the world
heritage site of the Mahabodhi temple Complex, the proposals have been formulated keeping in
mind the needs for heritage protection.

About the Plan

The City Development Plan of Bodhgaya has been prepared in accordance with the JNNURM
toolkit, urban development plan formulation and implementation (UDPFI, 1996) guidelines and in
line with the relevant central and state govt. acts. It has also been prepared in line with the
Perspective plan of Bodhgaya Vision 2031. The time period of plan is 26 years, from 2004-2005 to
2030- 2031. The City investment plan is given for the first seven years, for the JNNURM period (Phase
I and II of the plan). Housing and Urban development Corporation Ltd has prepared the plan, on
behalf on the department of Urban development, Govt. of Bihar and the Bodhgaya Town
Panchayat. The Bodhgaya Nagar Panchayat has duly approved the plan.

Approach for present plan formulation

The Plan formulation was an extensive process involving:

The background studies,


Data collection,
Surveys
Interactions with the stakeholders
Data interpretation, draft and final plan formulation.

Since this town is a heritage town, the heritage protection aspect was given a lot of importance.

The objective of the CDP:

The following objectives have been identified for the CDP:

To ensure heritage protection and revitalization of Bodhgaya as a heritage town.


To ensure planned development of the city of Bodhgaya within the framework of goals
outlined in the city masterplan.
To ensure integrated development of infrastructure services in Bodhgaya
To ensure identification and implementation of phased development projects.

The facts presented in the plan are summarized below

Present Bodhgaya

The most important of all Buddhist pilgrimage sites.


Presently, the town of Bodhgaya is spread around the Mahabodhi temple on an East West and
North-South Axis.
The municipal (notified) area of the town is spread over an area of 17 sq. km
Bodhgaya has a population of 31,000 people
High growth rates with the population doubling in the last two decades. The average growth
rate of the last two decades is about 40%. (2001)

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Present developed area density (58 ppHa)


Low-rise open character
Bodhgaya - Functions
Pilgrimage centre
International Buddhist cultural centre
Regional commerce and agricultural centre
Research and educational centre

Deficiencies assessment Town level

Inadequate provision of environmental services within the town. Poor urban infrastructure.
Congestion and haphazard development of the inner town (Area in and around the
Mahabodhi Temple)
Lack of Protection and preservation of identified heritage resources including the
archaeological sites spread around the temple connected with the life of Buddha.
Lack of diversification of job opportunities with great dependence on primary sector.
Inadequate provision of Health, recreation facilities, open spaces and other amenities
Encroachments along the major movement corridors.
Poor quality road access among neighbourhoods of the inner town. Multi modal traffic
and absence of special provision for cyclists and pedestrians
Proliferation of activities unchecked around the Mahabodhi temple, including activities
incompatible with the serene environment of the temple
Poor traffic management and inadequate provision for parking lots, particularly around
heritage and tourist areas.
Riverside erosion and problems related to water logging and flooding of Nairanjana River.
Inadequate resources (funds and manpower) of the urban local bodies.
Poor implementation of policies of earlier Master Plans.

Proposed Bodhgaya 2031 as per draft masterplan

Proposed Area = 2995 Hect. (Includes protection area for Bakraur village)
Expected Population - 1,20,000 by 2031(92000 residents and the rest floating population.
Proposed Developed Area Density = 60 ppHa. (As per UDPFI norms, maintaining present
levels)
The masterplan has delineated special area to protect the heritage character of the town
The plan visualizes the development of Bodhgaya as

A World Buddhist Centre,


A centre of learning,
A green, healthy, humane town with equitable social opportunity for all
And a pilgrim destination

Proposed Special Area in the draft masterplan

The special area designated as a separate zone in the plan.


The Special area A (S1) includes area roughly half a kilometre from the Mahabodhi temple
on the Western bank and area including Sujata Temple, Dharmaranya and Sujata Kuti on the
Eastern bank.
The area up to 1 km from the Temple has been demarcated as special area B(S2).
The entire special area measures about 342 hectares with 141 hectares on the western bank,
137 hectares on the eastern bank and 74.0 hectares of the river area.
Overall, 10.3% of land area is under special area

Vision of the CDP

Bodhgaya is the birthplace of Buddhism. Bodhgaya should have a Spiritual ambience and at the
same time have the infrastructure of a vibrant, thriving town where the local community can live,
work and enjoy a high quality of life. Bodhgaya should have adequate provision of pilgrim facilities
to cater to the religious/ pilgrim nature of the town. It should emerge as a cultural and educational
hub for the region by 2030 AD.

The basic underlying conviction for the plan is that the city of Bodhgaya should have a serene,

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

verdant ambience, the conceptualisation of which was done by the Lord himself when he said
Lovely, indeed, O Venerable one, is this spot of ground charming is the forest grove, pleasant is
flowing river with sandy fords, and hard by is the village where I could obtain food. Suitable indeed
is this place for spiritual exertion for those noble scions who desire to strive. The status of the
Mahabodhi temple as a world heritage site and the town as a sacred landscape should not get
compromised in the process of development.

The city of Bodhgaya should become a healthy, green and a safe town full of social, economic
and cultural vitality. The town should have adequate infrastructure and facilities to meet its future
needs. It should provide a high quality of life to its residents. The town should also emerge as a
centre of learning for the entire region, with high quality educational and health infrastructure.

The town should therefore have a balanced growth. It should be self- sufficient, able to meet the
needs of the local community and the pilgrims. Bodhgaya in terms of growth should not take over
the position or stature of Gaya in the region

The town needs to be empowered with better and self-sufficient institutions to make this vision
possible

Focus areas for the CDP

Protection of all heritage resources of the town


Controlled growth to religious tourism/ pilgrimage
Economic development in regional context
Creation of jobs in services, education, cottage industries sectors
Urban Renewal -Ensure renewal and revitalisation of all old, dilapidated or deficient
infrastructure systems in older/ poor areas of the town Access to sewerage for entire population
Provision of clean water for all
Ensuring water balance through introduction of rainwater harvesting
Provision of low cost sanitation units for all low-income areas/ slum areas/ areas without
sanitation systems
Provision of a sustainable and efficient solid waste management system for Bodhgaya through
public private partnership
Rejuvenation of existing major drains of the town and development as landscape elements.
Provision of efficient and sustainable drainage systems for the town
Provision of electricity for 100% of existing population of Bodhgaya
Development of Street lighting on all roads and public areas of the town
Improvement and augmentation of existing transport network of Bodhgaya to provide
improved movement of traffic within the town

City investment Plan (2006-12)

Sectorwise Summary for projects in phase I and II proposed under the JNNURM is given in the
following table
FUNDS REQUIREMENTS
(PHASE I AND II)
SECTORS (Rs. In crores)

A. HERITAGE PROJECTS 22.00

B. PILGRIM/ HERITAGE TOURISM PROJECTS 25.00

C. PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROVISION 41.60

D. URBAN TRANSPORT 57.50

E. HOUSING, SLUMS IMPROVEMENT AND URBAN RENEWAL PROJECTS 70.00

F. OTHER FACILITIES 6.00

TOTAL 222.10

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Funds requirement for physical infrastructure

The provision of physical infrastructure has to be seen holistically, as it needs to continue in all
phases and be upgraded in a phased manner. The table below shows the funds required for
provision of physical infrastructure in all phases and in the Ist and the IInd phase.

Table : Provision of services for Bodhgaya town


SL. SERVICES FUNDS REQUIRED FOR PHASE TOTAL FUND
NO. I AND II REQUIREMENT FOR ALL
(RS. IN CRORES) PHASES (RS. IN CRORES)
1 Improvement of Water Supply systems 15.00 27.30
2 Improvement of sewage systems 11.00 27.00
3 Solid Waste Management 5.00 9.10
4 Storm water drains 10.60 19.50
5 Electricity 3.03 10.00
6 Rainwater Harvesting - 1.00
TOTAL 44.63 93.90

Implementation strategy

Bodhgaya is a heritage city and a state priority city as per national commission of urbanization. An
elaborate masterplan of the town has also been recently prepared, apart from the CDP. This
makes it the responsibility of the government to ensure effective plan implementation. As seen
earlier, the existing local body, namely the town panchayat is very weak, both financially, as well
as technically. Multiplicity of line departments and fragmentation of development functions further
adds to the confusion. In this case, a single point coordination at the local level become
necessary, till the town Panchayat, which is the elected local body, become strong enough to
ensure effective implementation of the projects conceived under the CDP.

It is therefore recommended the that the Divisional commissioner s office be the nodal office for
fund disbursement and coordination of plan implementation for phase I and II projects. Main
implementing agency will be the Town Panchayat, (After strengthening and reforms). Other line
departments can be involved by the nodal office as required. At the time of formulation of
individual DPRs, the opportunities for public private partnership should be fully explored.

Financing Plan

The projects are proposed to be implemented through assistance from GOI, and state Govt. of
Bihar and a share of the Town Panchayat on 80:10:10 basis under the Jawaharlal Nehru Urban
Renewal Mission scheme.
A financial operating plan has been proposed for the Nagar Panchayat for investment
sustenance purposes.
Improvement in revenue sources and tax reforms have been suggested for the local body

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

CONTENTS

SECTION
CONTENTS PAGE NO.
NO.

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE CDP


16-22

1.1 Significance

1.2 Location

1.3 The City Development Plan - Background


1.3.1 The objective of the CDP:
1.3.2 The Scope of work for the CDP:

1.4 Process of preparation of the CDP:


1.4.1 Data Sources

1.5 Consultative Process


1.5.1 Synchronization with the consultative process for the revised masterplan of
Bodhgaya
1.5.2 Phasing of the plan

CHAPTER 2 CITY ASSESSMENT ANALYSIS OF EXISTING CONDITION 23-99

2.1 Physical Boundaries and administrative divisions

2.2 Demography
2.2.1 Regional population context
2.2.2 Town Population growth trends
2.2.3 Social Composition of population
2.2.4 Literacy in Bodhgaya
2.2.5 Estimated Population -2031

2.3 Historical Background and growth of Bodhgaya


2.3.1 The Buddha
2.3.2 Bodhgaya in history
2.4 Heritage Component of the City and Heritage values
2.4.1 Inventory of heritage resources
2.4.2 Heritage Values
2.4.3 Significance of the Sacred Geography
2.4.4 Prioritisation of Values
2.4.5 Statutory and Legal framework for Heritage protection

2.4.6 Agencies involved for heritage protection


2.4.7 Importance of heritage in Bodhgaya
2.4.8 Infrastructure provision for heritage Sites
2.4.9 Financial arrangements for heritage protection

2.5 Cultural Fabric of Bodhgaya

2.6 Economic base of the town


2.6.1 Employment and Occupation Pattern
2.6.2 Income Levels
2.6.3 Key Economic Drivers

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

2.7 Infrastructure
2.7.1 status of existing infrastructure services
27.2 Water Supply
2.7.3 Sewerage and Sewage Treatment
2.7.4 Storm Water Drainage
2.7.5 Solid Waste Management
2.7.6 Electric Supply
2.7.7 Availability of Services

2.8. Housing
2.8.1 Existing Housing Stock:
2.8.2 Housing Profile:
2.8.3 Housing characteristics
2.8.4 Housing Shortage:
2.9 Slums, urban poverty and Urban Renewal needs
2.9.1 Number of Slum Dwellers
2.9.2 Classification
2.9.3 Type of Slums
2.9.4 Land Ownership and tenure status
2.9.5 Access of the slum dwellers to basic services
2.9.6 Urban poverty and review of urban poverty programmes.
2.9.7 Estimating Renewal Of Housing And Infrastructure Stock:

2.10 Transportation
2.10.1 Entry to Bodhgaya
2.10.2 Roads
2.10.3 Road Condition
2.10.4 Vehicle Ownership
2.10.5 Traffic characteristics
2.10.6 Traffic Problems

2.11 Social and Cultural facilities


2.11.1 Education
2.11.2 Health
2.11.3 Community Facilities:
2.11.4 Recreation Facilities:

2.12 Physical And Environmental Aspects


2.12.1 Climate and Topography
2.12.2 Natural drainage
2.12.3 Flora and Fauna
2.12.4 Soils
2.12.5 Environment
2.12.6 Disaster vulnerability

2.13 Spatial Growth and Land Development

2.13.1 Densities
2.13.2 Existing Land use Pattern
2.13.3 Land Supply

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

2.13.4 Incompatible uses:


2.13.5 Insufficient land uses

2.14 Present Urban Governance and Institutional framework


2.14.1 Institutional Responsibility
2.14.2 Profile of major players in the development of Bodhgaya
2.14.3 Present planning mechanism

2.15 Financial Profile Of The Local Body (The Town Panchayat)


2.15.1 Revenue Account
2.15.2 Property Tax/Water Charges/ Land Tax
2.15.3 Central Govt. Schemes
2.16 Summary of Overall findings

CHAPTER 3 BODHGAYA: SWOT ANALYSIS 100-101

3.1 Key Issues hindering Development


3.2 Major Town functions
3.2.1 Pilgrimage centre
3.2.2 International Buddhist cultural centre
3.2.3 Regional commerce and agricultural centre
3.2.4 Research and educational centre
3.3 Swot Analysis
3.3.1 Strengths
3.3.2 Weaknesses
3.3.3 Opportunities
3.3.4 Threats

CHAPTER 4 VISION FOR THE CITY 102-105

4.1 The Vision Statement


4.2 Goals

CHAPTER 5 SECTORAL STRATEGIES 106-133

5.1 Heritage Protection and Built Environment.

5.1.1 Special Area zonation


5.1.2 Other policies for heritage protection and conservation
5.1.3 Implementation mechanism for heritage protection proposals

5.1.4 Resource Mobilisation for heritage protection


5.2 Heritage Potential and Religious/ Heritage Tourism Development

5.2.1 Religious Tourism as an economic tool for the locals


5.2.2 Projected Visitor Arrivals
5.2.3 Requirement of Pilgrim Accommodation
5.2.4 Pilgrimage/ Heritage tourism promotion strategies:
5.3 Development of Physical Infrastructure

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

5.3.1 Water Supply


5.3.2 Sewerage and Sewage Treatment
5.3.3 Solid Waste Management
5.3.4 Storm Water Drainage
5.3.5 Water Logging at the Temple area
5.3.6 Rain Water Harvesting
5.3.7 Electric Supply
5.3.8 Power Distribution
5.4 Housing
5.4.1 Housing Shortage
5.4.2 New Housing
5.4.3 Private sector involvement
5.5 Slums
5.5.1 Slums within the Special Area
5.5.2 Slums outside special area
5.5.3 Urban Renewal program ( Phase I)
5.6 Traffic And Transportation
5.6.1 Roads
5.6.2 Bridges
5.6.3 Terminals and Depots
5.6.4 Petrol Pumps
5.6.5 Traffic Circulation plan
5.7 Requirement of Social, Cultural and Recreational facilities
5.7.1 Educational Facilities
5.7.2 Health care
5.7.3 Other Community facilities and Amenities
5.7.4 Recreation and landscape
5.8 Enterprise and Employment Promotion Strategies
5.8.1 Trade and Commerce
5.8.2 Informal Sector
5.8.3 Govt./ Semi Govt. offices
5.8.4 Industrial units

5.8.5 Agriculture and allied sector

5.9 Spatial Development

CHAPTER 6 URBAN GOVERNANCE AND REFORMS 134-138

6.1 Implementation strategy


6.2 Restructuring Of Nagar Panchayat/ Other Agencies
6.3 Proposals for implementation of heritage protection and management proposals
6.4 E- Governance

6.5 Action Programme for structural and governance related reforms

6.6 Financial reforms required at the urban local body level (Nagar Panchayat)

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

6.7 Time line for structural and financial reforms required at the local body level

CHAPTER 7 PROJECT IDENTIFICATION 139-147

7.1 The projects identified:

7.2 Identification of Projects for remaining Phases

CHAPTER 8 CAPITAL INVESTMENT PLAN 148-157

Bodhgaya Comprehensive Capital Investment Requirement


8.1
(For Phase I and II)

8.2 Investment Requirement for urban governance projects.

8.3 Total funds requirement for physical infrastructure

8.4 Capital investment requirement under the JNNURM

8.5 Phasing of investment requirements

8.6 Consolidated Funds requirement for JNNURM and Local body contributi

CHAPTER 9 INVESTMENT SUSTENANCE PLAN 158-163

9.1 Introduction
Investment sustenance of the Town Panchayat.
9.2 9.2.1 Constraints
9.2.2 Financial Operating Plan (FOP)

9.3 Recommendations from the Consultant to the state Govt.

ANNEXURES 164-231

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

LIST OF TABLES

Table no. Contents

Table 1.a Phases Of The Plan


Table 2.a Population Of Bodhgaya In Relation To Gaya Town And District (2001)
Table 2.b Decadal Growth Of Population Of Bodhgaya Town
Table 2.c Social Composition Of Population
Table 2.d Sex Ratio In Bodhgaya
Table 2.e Sex Ratio In 0-6 Population
Table 2.f Decadal Growth In Literacy
Table 2.g Male And Female Literacy Rates
Table 2.h Projected population
Table 2.i Infrastructure status for heritage sites in Bodhgaya
Table 2.j Workers Distribution
Table 2.k Distribution Of Workers Into Main And Marginal Workers
Table 2.l Workforce Participation Rate
Table 2.m Occupation Distribution Of Workers
Table 2.n Decadal Trends In Percentage Of Workers In Various Sectors
Table 2.o Registered manufacturing and services
Table 2.p Informal Sector Establishments And The Type Of Goods Sold
Table 2q Available Bed Capacity At Bodhgaya
Table 2r Bed Capacity And Tariff Rates At Bodhgaya
Table 2.s Status Of Infrastructure At Bodhgaya
Table 2.t Average monthly rainfall over last 69 years
Table 2.u Major Drains in Bodhgaya
Table 2.v Access to basic facilities
Table 2.w Distribution Of Census Houses (2001)
Table 2x Households under slums
Table 2.y Access Of The Slum Dwellers To Basic Services
Table 2z Year wise expenditure on central govt. schemes
Table 2.aa Estimated renewal of housing and infrastructure stock (2005)
Table 2.bb Facilities Provision and Requirement At Bodhgaya
Table 2.cc Environmental parameters
Table 2.dd Noise levels in Bodhgaya
Table 2.ee Ward Wise Densities
Table 2.ff: Existing Landuse Of Bodhgaya Town (2003-04)
Table 2.gg Comparison of existing landuse and UDPFI norms.
Table 2.hh Developed and undeveloped land in Bodhgaya
Table 2.ii Institutional Responsibility for infrastructure provision and management
Table 2.jj Role of the private sector in urban infrastructure provision
Table 2.kk Year wise revenue receipts of Bodhgaya Town Panchayat
Table 2.ll Year wise revenue account expenditure of Bodhgaya Town Panchayat
Table 2.mm Water Tax System of Bodhgaya
Table 2nn Year wise expenditure on central govt. schemes
Table 4.a Vision and goals
Table 4.b Actions required for implementing strategies on heritage protection
Table 4.c Projected Visitor Arrivals (In Lakhs)
Table 4d : Pilgrim / Heritage tourism projects identified

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Table 4.e : Phase wise Water Requirements


Table 4.f Required tube wells and OHT demand in MLD
Table 4 g Wastewater generation from Bodhgaya town in the Year 2031 and the area
requirement for waste management park.
Table 4.h Infrastructure required by town panchayat for solid waste management by 2031
Table 4.i Phase wise Power demand
Table 4.j Phase wise Power demand
Table 4.k Phase wise Power demand
Table 4.l Upgradation Of Housing Stock
Table 4.m Areas requiring urban renewal in first phase
Table 4.n Projected Requirements Of New Housing
Table 4.o Existing And Proposed Landuse (Total Area Of Bodhgaya)
Table 5.a Actions for strengthening of implementation mechanism
Table 5.b Projected Visitor Arrivals (In Lakhs)
Table 5.c Pilgrim / Heritage tourism projects identified
Table 5.d Phase wise Water Requirements
Table 5.e Required tube wells and OHT demand in MLD
Table 5.f Wastewater generation from Bodhgaya town in the Year 2031 and the area
requirement for waste management park.
Table 5.g: Infrastructure required by town panchayat for solid waste management by 2031
Table 5.h: Phase wise Power demand
Table 5.i: Phase wise Power demand
Table 5.j Phase wise Power demand
Table 5.k Upgradation Of Housing Stock
Table 5.l Projected Requirements Of New Housing
Table 5.m Areas requiring urban renewal in first phase
Table 5.n Existing And Proposed Landuse (Total Area Of Bodhgaya)
Table 6.a Proposed Institutional Responsibility for infrastructure provision and
management
Table 6.b Proposed Institutional Responsibility for infrastructure provision and
management
Table 6.c Actions for strengthening of implementation mechanism
Table 6.d Timeline for Reforms at the level of the urban local body level.
Table 7.a Phase wise list of projects
Table 7.b Identification of projects of phase I and II projects and agencies for
implementation (base rate of year 2006)
Table7.c Other projects (remaining phases)
Table 8.a Cost of phase I and II projects (base rate of year 2006)
Table 8.b Funds required for urban governance initiatives
Table 8.c Provision of services for Bodhgaya town
Table 8.d Capital investment required on Proposed projects under the JNNURM
Table 8.e Sectorwise Capital Investment Requirement under JNNURM (constant prices)
2006 rate
Table: 8.f Phasing of projects yearwise
Table: 8.g Yearwise investment requirements
Table 8.h Sectorwise Yearly Capital Investment Requirement under JNNURM. (Constant
prices - 2006 levels) (Rs. In crores)
Table 9.a Projected revenue income from various heads for the Nagar panchayat (2005-
06 to 2011-12) (Rs.)* (constant prices)
Table 9.b Projected revenue expenditure from various heads for the Nagar panchayat
(2005-06 to 2011-12) (Rs.)* (constant prices)

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Table 9.c Yearly requirement of funds by the local body (constant prices)
(Constant prices)
Table 9.d Projected revenue income from various heads for the Nagar panchayat
(Constant prices)
Table 9.e Projected revenue expenditure from various heads for the Nagar panchayat
(2005-06 to 2011-12) (Rs.)* (Constant prices)
Table 9.f Projected revenue income from various heads for the Nagar panchayat (2005-06
to 2011-12) (Rs.)* (Constant prices)
Table 9.g Projected revenue expenditure from various heads for the Nagar panchayat
(2005-06 to 2011-12) (Rs.)* (Constant prices)

Table 9.h Yearly income and expenditure in all three scenarios

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

LIST OF ANNEXURES

No. Content Page No.

ANNEXURE I Summary of the site management plan of the 165-173


Mahabodhi temple world heritage site

ANNEXURE II Value based inventory of existing heritage resources 174-182


of Bodhgaya

ANNEXURE III Cost estimates for services 183-187

ANNEXURE IV Data tables 188-196

ANNEXURE V Primary survey of Bodhgaya 197-211

ANNEXURE VI Geo-hydrological investigations study 212-217

ANNEXURE VII Property Tax Rates 218-222

ANNEXURE Annual Income Of BTMC 223


VIII
ANNEXURE IX Approval of CDP from local body 224-226

ANNEXURE X Copy of agreed reform agenda at the level of local 227-230


body

ANNEXURE XI Revenue and expenditure statement of the Nagar 231


panchayat

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Chapter
Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION TO CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN

1.1 Significance

Bodhgaya is a small but internationally renowned town of


immense religious and cultural significance, located in the
Gaya District of Bihar, India. Its claim to fame lies in the fact that
Lord Buddha attained enlightenment here more than 2500
years ago under the Bodhi tree. It is thus considered as the
geographical centre of the Buddhist world by followers of this
faith worldwide. It has a tremendous cultural connotation, and
is therefore an extremely important centre for national, as well
as international tourism.

It is one of the most revered and sanctified places in the world.


The town of Bodhgaya has had a cultural tradition dating back
to the times of Emperor Ashoka. Ashoka, a loyal patron of
Buddhism built the first tree shrine here in the year 260 BCE. The
town has been a well-known pilgrim destination since then.
Bodhgaya forms a focal point of the Buddhist tourist circuit.
Mahabodhi temple complex in the heart of Bodhgaya is one of
the four holy sites related to the life of Lord Buddha. The other
three sites being - Lumbini - the birthplace of Lord Buddha, Sarnath - where he preached his first
sermon after enlightenment and Kushinagar - where he passed away. Bodhgaya, as the place
where Buddha attained enlightenment is the most important of all.

The prestige and profile of the town has grown in the recent years with the convening of the
momentous Kalchakra festival and construction of monasteries by various Southeast Asian
countries. Bodhgaya now occupies the undisputed position of the Regional Cultural and Tourism
Centre. The establishment of monasteries here not only reaffirms its position in the Buddhist world
but are also symbolic of the 2500 year long journey of the Buddhist faith, a journey which began at
Bodhgaya and spread all over the world, to again come back full circle to the place of its origin
from where it all began. The siting of Magadh University within the town has given it a regional role
as an educational centre too.

1.2 Location

Bodhgaya is located in Gaya


district of Bihar, which shares
common boundaries with
Jehanabad district towards the
North, Aurangabad district Location of Gaya
towards the west, Hazaribagh district in Bihar
and Chatra districts towards the
south and Nawada and
Location Koderma (Jharkhand)
of Bihar
districts towards the east. It is
in India
located approximately 13
kms south of the town of
Gaya, the large district
headquarter and pilgrim town, and about 125 kms from
Patna, the state capital.

Its geographical location is 24 41 45 N. latitude and 85


2 22 E longitudes. It is located in the transit region
Location of Bodhgaya in
Gaya District

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

between the
Chotanagpur plateau BODHGAYA - LINKAGES
and the alluvial
gangetic plains of
south Bihar.

Bodhgaya is directly
linked by road and air
to the surrounding
region. The National
Highway 1 (G.T. Road),
locally referred to as
the Gaya Dobhi Road,
passes through the
town, connecting Delhi
and Kolkata, as well as
other significant
centers like Patna, and
Varanasi. The
connection with NH1 is
also significant as this
highway is one of the
four main arms of the
proposed Golden
Quadrilateral- a
national network of
important highways,
forming a quadrilateral,
proposed to connect
all major centers in
India. Bodhgaya is also
close to an
international airport,
which is 8 kms from the
town. This airport has
recently been
upgraded as an
international airport
and is presently
handling a handful of
international flights.

The nearest railhead to


Bodhgaya is at Gaya,
13 kilometers from the
town. This station is an
important station of the
Indian Railways falling
on the Grand Chord section of the Howrah-Delhi route. Several important trains pass through this
station and it is connected to a number of important cities in India.

1.3 The City Development Plan - Background

The Government of India has recently launched a major initiative for select 63 cities in India, the
Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM). The aim of the programme is to
encourage reforms and fast track development in identified cities. Bodhgaya is one of the cities
eligible for assistance under the scheme and figures in category C (UAs less than 1 million - state
capitals, other cities/ urban areas of religious, historic and tourist importance).

The City development plan is being prepared by the Govt. of Bihar under this scheme

17
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

The town development plan is specifically tailored to achieve the sectoral and comprehensive
objectives of the JNNURM within the framework of the perspective development plan of
Bodhgaya. Since Bodhgaya is a heritage town of importance to millions of pilgrims and also houses
the world heritage site of the Mahabodhi temple Complex, the proposals have been formulated
keeping in mind the needs for heritage protection.

Housing and Urban development Corporation Ltd has prepared the plan, on behalf on the
department of Urban development, Govt. of Bihar and the Bodhgaya Town Panchayat. The plan
has been duly approved by the Bodhgaya Nagar Panchayat. (Refer annexures for approvals)

1.3.1 The objective of the CDP:

1. To ensure heritage protection and revitalization of Bodhgaya as a heritage town.


2. To ensure planned development of the city of Bodhgaya within the framework of goals
outlined in the city masterplan.
3. To ensure integrated development of infrastructure services in Bodhgaya
4. To ensure identification and implementation of phased development projects.

1.3.2 The Scope of work for the CDP:

1. Assess the existing situation in the town with regards to demography, economic base, financial
profile of the ULB, Physical and environmental conditions prevailing in the town, the present
state of physical and social infrastructure and planning institutions
2. Identify the issues related to the growth and development of the town, identify the
opportunities, strengths, risks and weaknesses of the town
3. Assess the future requirements and gaps in present delivery systems
4. Prepare a vision for development in consonance with the perspective development plan of
the town.
5. Develop sectoral objectives and strategic framework
6. Prepare a city investment plan with identification of projects, phasing, costing and financing
alternatives.

The CDP for Bodhgaya has been prepared on the basis of the recently prepared masterplan for
Bodhgaya. In 2005, the perspective development plan of Bodhgaya has been prepared with
active involvement of the Ministry of Tourism, Govt. of India. The plan has been notified and
objections have been invited. A brief description of the process of preparation of masterplan and
its goals is given below.

1.4 Process of preparation of the CDP:

The masterplan of the town has been prepared very recently and is a comprehensive document
covering the focus areas of the JNNURM as well, the process for formulation of the masterplan
forms the base work for preparation of the current CDP. For the town masterplan, a participatory
and consultative process was followed with series of stakeholders meets held in 2003 and 2004, and
discussions with government officials at every stage.

For the formulation of the CDP, the same process has been extended further with discussions held
with state and local govt. officials in 2006. The CDP has also taken into consideration the works and
plans of other departments and agencies at the local and state level contributing towards the
growth and development of the town.

Govt. of India has recently brought out a supplement to the toolkit that suggests that the main
focus of city development plan for heritage cities should be on heritage component. Accordingly,

18
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

the CDP of Bodhgaya is being oriented towards protection of heritage of Bodhgaya.

1.4.1 Data Sources

I) Secondary Data

The main source of data is secondary sources including census, the proposed masterplan of
Bodhgaya, district administration and other govt. sources. The primary data has been used to fill
certain gaps and understand the local populace better. Since the time for preparation of CDP was
short, CDP has not conducted own primary surveys and has relied on primary surveys conducted
for the preparation of the proposed masterplan of Bodhgaya, which were done I august 2003.
Since the data is quite recent, it is still relevant. The objectives, approach, methodology, and
sample selection.

II) Primary Surveys

Objective of surveys

In order to establish a clear picture of the town and its people, a sample survey of the town was
carried out by HUDCO with the support of the local administration. These included:

Socio economic surveys within Bodhgaya town


Transport surveys (Volume of traffic and origin/destination)

Type of Surveys

The following primary socio economic surveys were held to develop a complete understanding of
the socio economic structure of the town. The surveys were preluded with extensive discussions
with the councilors/peoples representatives, various interest groups/stakeholders, religious heads
and representatives of various monasteries.

Household survey
Survey of commercial establishments
Survey of Monasteries
Survey of hotels
Survey of informal sector establishments

Approach and methodology

In order to ensure that the process of the survey was participatory, the socioeconomic surveys were
carried out under the supervision of the councilors after a two-day orientation programme. In this
programme the surveyors in presence of the Ward councilors were informed about the need for
carrying out the survey and how it would help the planners to formulate strategies for management
of the Mahabodhi Temple Complex.

A series of meetings were also held with Merchant Associations/ Pavement Shop owners, Taxi
Associations/Transporters. These meetings provided a common platform for various interest groups
to express their concerns and apprehensions in presence of the district authorities. Through these
meetings the people were informed of the need of the survey and the approach being adopted.
There were also two rounds of discussions with the thirty-five monasteries existing within the town.
The meetings provided an overview of their concerns and their expectations from the Plan

A series of meetings with district administration helped in organising the survey teams. A separate
meeting was then held with the teams to orient them for the survey.

In additions, direct unstructured interviews were conducted with

Sample size

Due to paucity of time and resources, it was not possible to conduct a 100% survey of the

19
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

households. It was therefore decided to conduct a random sample survey ensuring a


representative sample. The ward councilors took upon themselves to ensure that all income,
caste and religious groups were covered in the sample. The sample size of the household
survey varied between 5-10 % of the household, depending on the diversity and density of
population in each ward.
The sample size for the commercial survey was more tentative as authentic figures were not
available regarding the number of commercial establishments in the town. With the help of
local representatives, it was decided to have a 50% sample survey of the commercial
establishments in each ward. In the wards with very few commercial establishments, the
sample size was 100%.
100% survey was also conducted for the hotels, the monasteries, and the informal sector
establishments in the town.

The results of the survey are placed in annexure

The process of formulation of CDP is indicated in the chart at end of this chapter

1.5 Consultative Process

The Process of preparation of City Development Plan has followed the preparation of revised
masterplan of Bodhgaya. The CDP is based upon the revised masterplan, and is consultative
process, and extensive consultations held at various stages with state and local stakeholders and
officials.

1.5.1 Synchronization with the consultative process for the revised masterplan of
Bodhgaya (Heritage Led Perspective development Plan of Bodhgaya)

The masterplan for Bodhgaya currently under revision, called the Heritage led Perspective
Development Plan for Bodhgaya Vision 2031 sets out the broad policy framework for
development of the town from the present day to the year 2031. The plan has been prepared in
line with the broad objectives of earlier plans and the broad policies of the Site Management Plan
for the Mahabodhi Temple Complex. It also takes into account the National, State and District level
plans. It has been developed after intensive consultation with state govt. officials, ward councilors
(peoples representatives), other stakeholders and Buddhist scholars. The consultations were held in
the form of stakeholders conferences, workshops, meetings, written submissions and interactions.
This consultative process, which was underway in 20004 and 2005, also forms the bulwark for the
CDP preparation process. This also ensures that there is no contradiction between the process and
proposals of the two plans.

Socio economic surveys were conducted by professionals along with local people to understand
the morphology of the town and the pressures it is likely to face. They were carried out under the
supervision of the ward councilors (local representatives in the municipal corporation) after a two-
day orientation programme. The geo-environmental and transportation studies were carried out by
professionals in consultation with the district authorities. The elected representatives at the local
level were involved in conduction of all primary surveys at the local level. Written submissions were
also collected from ward and community representatives regarding their aspirations and vision for
the town. The primary and secondary data collected was then studied, analyzed and interpreted.
The data interpretation was followed by another round of consultations where the findings were
presented before the district officials including the planning authorities and inferences were drawn.

1.6 Phasing of the plan

The masterplan is a perspective plan as per the UDPFI guidelines. It has a time period of 26 years,
from 2004-2005 to 2030- 2031. This has further been phased to coincide with the various 5 year
plan periods for which development plans can be prepared. The same phasing has been followed
by the CDP in order to harmonise the two plans. The plan has been phased into five years period,
the first period coinciding with the remaining time frame of the tenth five year plan (2002-2007). This

20
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

has been done in order to ensure ease of amalgamation of the development plan proposals into
the state / centres five year plans.

The phasing of plan is therefore proposed as under:

Table 1.a: Phases Of The Plan


PHASES TIME FRAME YEARS
Phase I 2006-2007 2
Phase II 2008-2012 5
Phase III 2013-2017 5
Phase IV 2018-2022 5
Phase V 2022-2027 5
Phase VI 2028-2031 3

The demand projections and proposals are also phased accordingly

21
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

MULTIPLE GROUND SURVEYS


STAKEHOLDERS AND COLLECTION ANALYSIS OF
CONSULTATIONS OF DATA COLLECTED
(2003-06) INFORMATION
Heritage
Conservation
IDENTIFICATION OF OPPORTUNITIES, Demography
STRENGTHS AND WEAKENESSES, Landuse
UNMET DEMAND AND GAPS Housing
Economic base
Physical and
environmental
DEVELOPMENT OF FUTURE PERSPECTIVE AND aspects
VISION Social
infrastructure
Physical
Infrastructure
DEVELOPMENT OF SECTORAL DEVELOPMENT Institutions
OBJECTIVES Planning and
implementation
mechanism

PLAN PROJECTIONS CALCULATION OF


REQUIREMENT OF FACILITIES FOR 25 YEARS

STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPMENT


IMPLEMENTATION,
MONITORING AND
PHASING
PROPOSED URBAN FORM AND LANDUSE

PERSPECTIVE DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA

DEVELOPMENT OF VISION
TOWN
ASSESSMENT
DEVELOPMENT OF SECTORAL Proposals on
STRATEGIES AND ALTERNATIVES Heritage
INTERACTION WITH protection
STAKEHOLDERS Environmental
services
IDENTIFICN. OF PROJECTS AND PHASING
Social
infrastructure
URBAN REFORM Urban renewal
AGENDA Other aspects
PREPARATION OF CITY INVESTMENT
FINALISATION
PLAN
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN (nurm)

22
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Chapter 2

CITY ASSESSMENT ANALYSIS OF EXISTING CONDITION

Bodhgaya being a historic town has been subjected to successive growth and decay as outlined
in the earleir section. Its population and the factors that affect its growth have also changed over
time.

The demographic profile and growth trends of the town now and in the near future need to be
seen in context of the growth of the Gaya town, which is a major administrative centre in the
district. The population trends of Bodhgaya by itself and in relation to its region are being studied
here in order to better understand the impreatives that will govern the growth of population in
future and the direction required for promoting socio economic development of the town in the
future.

2.1 Physical BODHGAYA PLANNING AREA WITHIN ITS REGION


( Village boundaries indicated as per GRDA map)
Boundaries and
administrative divisions

Presently, the town of


Bodhgaya is spread around
the Mahabodhi temple on
an East West and North-
South Axis. The municipal
(notified) area of the town is
spread over an area of 17
sq.km and has a population
of nearly 36000 persons
(2005). The town consists of
GAYA TOWN
Bodhgaya and Mastipur
villages, with the
development centered
along the two main axes,
one along the river and the
other along the central
spine that connects the
Temple to the Gaya Dhobi
road.

The notified area of the


town of Bodhgaya has an
irregular shape with area
stretching along the two
linear corridors. The river
Nairanjana forms the
physical boundaries of the BODHGAYA TOWN
town on the eastern side. BODHGAYA
On the Southern side, the
town limits stretch up to the
university and the Rampur
village but do not include
Mocharim village. On the
Northern side, it stretches up
to Surajpura and Amwan INDEX
Existing planning area of Bodhgaya
villages. On the Western Present Gaya Town
Existing planning area boundary
side, the town includes an Village numbers

area a little beyond the


Village names
Regional Roads
Railway line 0100 250 500 750 1000 M

Gaya Dhobi road. The

23
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

eastern bank of the river Nairanjana defines the eastern edge of the town. The notified area comes
under the administrative control of the Town Panchayat, which is the local body in charge of
development within the municipal limits of the town.

The area under the Town Panchayat is divided into 14 wards, with elected ward Councilors
entrusted with the task of representing their ward within the town Panchayat.

2.2 Demography

2.2.1 Regional population context

Gaya district is relatively the


second most urbanized district in
the state of Bihar. Its urban
content is 13.7 % after Patna
district that houses the state
capital and has a growth rate of
22.7% (2001 census). Bodhgaya,
which is at present designated as
a class-III town and has a
population of 31,000 people
according to the 2001 Census, is
the second largest town in Gaya district after Gaya town. It houses only 8% of the urban population
of the district pointing to the overwhelming dominance and influence of Gaya town in the region.

Table 2.a: Population Of Bodhgaya In Relation To Gaya Town And District (2001)
PERCENT OF TOTAL URBAN
TOTAL RURAL URBAN POPULATION OF GAYA
DISTRICT
Gaya district 3464983 2989942 475041
Gaya urban area 394185 82.98%
Bodhgaya town 30883 7.83%
Source: Census of India 2001

2.2.2 Town Population growth trends

Bodhgaya had a steady


low growth rate till 1971, DECADAL P OP ULATION TRENDS OF BODHGAYA
when a spurt in investment
brought a corresponding
35000
increase in population. 30883
30000
The town has seen high
growth rates especially in 25000 21692

the last three decades 20000


15724
with the population 15000

doubling in the last two 10000


5628 6299 6968

decades. This can 5000

primarily be attributed to 0
1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001
in-migration that is a result
of overall development as C EN S U S Y EA R
well as rise in employment
opportunities during the
last couple of decades. Tourism and pilgrimage led development have resulted in this growth.
Another important development has been an increase in the area under the town from about 11
sq. km in 1961 to about 19.6 sq. km of census area in 1991. As more outlying settlements have been
brought into the town, the population has shown a corresponding increase. Its population has

24
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

increased from 5628 persons in 1961 to 31000 persons in 2001.

The growth rate of the last


decade was about 42% and the DECADAL VARIATION IN GROWTH RATES OF
average growth rate of the last POPULATION, BODHGAYA
two decades in about 40%.
140.0% 125.7%
(Refer Table and graphs below).
Presently, the population of 120.0%
Bodhgaya is about 38000
100.0%
persons. This figure is expected
to reach 48000 by 2012. 80.0%
However, there is a very high
component of floating 60.0%
38.0% 42.4%
population in Bodhgaya. 40.0%
Floating component has been
estimated at around 30% of the 20.0% 11.9% 10.6%
population. Population of
0.0%
Bodhgaya is estimated at
around 50000 persons presently
including the floating population.

Table 2.b: Decadal Growth Of Population Of Bodhgaya Town


YEAR POPULATION GROWTH RATE (decadal)
1951 5628
1961 6299 11.9%
1971 6968 10.6%

1981 15724 125.7%


1991 21692 38.0%
2001 30883 42.4%
Source: Census of India

Considering its size, the growth of the town is normal, when compared to other cities and towns in
the region. The highest urban growth rate in the state was that of Patna (43.02% -2001 census).
Gaya, the district headquarter in the vicinity of Bodhgaya had a growth rate of 33% in the 1991-
2001 decade which is lower than that of Bodhgaya for the same period (42.4%). This is indicative of
the high urban pressure on Bodhgaya town.

Bodhgaya represents a confluence of several religions and their influences. The study of religion
wise composition indicates that a predominant section of the population follows Hindu religion in
Gaya District. The census data for Bodhgaya town is not available at the time of preparation of this
report. However, a primary survey by hudco revealed that over 80% of the population is Hindus, 8%
are Buddhists and about 6% are Muslims. The various communities have always lived in close
harmony.

2.2.3 Social Composition of population

The percentage of persons below poverty line is not very high and has been steadily declining,
according to the data available with the local administration. This could be a testament to rising
income levels in Bodhgaya. Presently, about 8% of the population is below poverty line.

25
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Table 2.c: Social Composition Of Population


TOTAL NUMBER OF PERSONS BELOW PERCENTAGE OF PERSONS BELOW
YEAR POPULATION POVERTY LINE POVERTY LINE
1991 29686 4041 14%
2001 30883 3075 10%
2005 36000 2700 8%
Source: Nagar Panchayat, Bodhgaya, 2006

PERSONS BELOW POVERTY LINE IN BODHGAYA

120%
100%
80% percentage above poverty line

60% 86% 90% 92% Percentage of persons below


40% poverty line
20%
14% 10% 8%
0%
1991 2001 2005
YEARS

A study of the sex ratio shows a worrying trend of low sex ratios. Bodhgaya has a sex ratio of 844
which is quite low but is in keeping
with the sex ratios found all over TRENDS IN SEX RATIO IN BODHGAYA
Bihar. The trend of declining sex
ratios seen all over India is visible 910 902 899
here too. This misbalance could 900
890
cause social problems in the near 880
future. However, one of the reasons 870
for this could be the institutional 860
844
850
population of monks who are 840
predominantly male, resulting in a 830
skewed picture for Bodhgaya. The 820
trend in 0-6 population of Bodhgaya 810

supports this theory, as it is more YEAR 1981 YEAR 1991 YEAR 2001
heartening with a sex ratio of 955 in
this age group.

Table 2.d: Sex Ratio In Bodhgaya


Table 2.e: Sex Ratio In 0-6 Population
2001 SEX RATIO
BREAKUP OF 0-6 POPULATION PERSONS
All towns in Bihar 869
Bodhgaya 844 Female 2644
Gaya 885 Males 2769
Patna 836 Sex ratio 955
Rajgir 889 Source: Census of India 2001
Source: Census of India 2001

This augurs well for the long-term future. However, steps are required to ensure that the female
child is well looked after and has a bright future in Bodhgaya.

26
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

2.2.4 Literacy in Bodhgaya

In Bodhgaya, 52% of the total population is literate. The percentage of literates has grown steadily
over the past five decades but there is still a long way to go. (Refer table and graph below) If one
excludes the 0-6 population, the literacy rate is nearly 62%, which is below the national average by
about 3%. This is also below the state average of 72%.

Table 2.f: Decadal Growth In Literacy LITERACY RATE (1961- 2001)


70.00%
62.23%
YEAR LITERATES % ILLITERATES % 60.00%

50.00% 47.74%
1961 29.80 70.20

PERCENT
40.00%
1971 29.00 71.00 29.80% 29% 30.48%
30.00%
1981 30.48 69.52 20.00%

1991 47.74 52.26 10.00%

0.00%
2001 62.3% 37.7% 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001
Source: Census of India YEARS

Males have higher literacy levels (75.31%) compared to females in Bodhgaya, with only 46.3% of
the females as literates. It should not be forgotten that the overwhelming bulk of institutional
population belongs to the male literate category. There is a need for greater provision of
educational facilities and special schools for the girl child to boost female literacy in Bodhgaya.

Table 2.g: Male And Female Literacy Rates

LITERACY RATE (EXCLUDING THE 0-6 POPULATION) (%)


FEMALE LITERATES 46.31
MALES LITERATES 75.31
TOTAL LITERATES 62.23
Source: Census of India 2001

2.2.5 Estimated Population -2031

The population projections have been recently done for the masterplan. The same projections
have been followed in order to harmonise the proposals of the two plans. The decadal population
growth for Bodhgaya has been worked out using the following three methods, the decennial
growth method, the curve fitting method and the geometric progression method. Average of all
three methods was taken as the projected populations. The population was phased as per the
timeframes given earlier. The projected population is given below.

Table 2.h: Projected population


RESIDENT POPN. FLOATING POPULATION @ 30% TOTAL POPULATION
OF RESIDENT POPN.
Say
2005 36000 10800 46800 46500
2007 39000 11700 50700 51000
2012 45000 13500 58500 59000
2017 56000 16800 72800 72500
2022 67000 20100 87100 87000
2027 80000 24000 104000 104000
2031 92000 27600 119600 120000

27
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Source: Draft masterplan of Bodhgaya, Vision 2001

A total population of 120000 persons has been estimated for Bodhgaya in the year 2031, assuming
the floating population to be 30% of the projected population. The proportion of floating
population has been assumed based on the functions of the town as a sub divisional headquarter,
pilgrim and university town. The demand of amenities and services has been done for the total
population including the floating population. This is as per the UDPFI guidelines that state that to
efficiently cater to the city and regional demands, amenities for additional population should be
provided for as a cushion.

2.3 Historical Background and growth of Bodhgaya

Bodhgaya is one of the most revered and sanctified places in the world. It forms a focal point of
the Buddhist tourist circuit. The other three sites being - Lumbini - the birthplace of Lord Buddha,
Sarnath - where he preached his first sermon after enlightenment and Kushinagar - where he
passed away. Bodhgaya, as the place where Buddha attained enlightenment is the most
important of all.

Bodhgaya has a rich and varied history going back to 2500 years. Historical evidences suggest
existence of settlements at Bodhgaya before the times of Lord Buddha.

Bodhgaya was probably a small village surrounded by forests before Buddha. Pottery remains from
this period point to rice cultivation and the existence of a distinctive artwork reflective of a cultured
settlement.

2.3.1 The Buddha

In the year 563 B.C. on the full moon day of Vaisakha, a young prince was born to King Sudhodana
and Queen Mahamaya in the royal Lumbini grove under a Sal tree in the kingdom of Kapilvastu.
During the formative years, Prince Siddhartha received his early education and was trained in
warfare, but despite of all efforts of his parents to entangle him in the worldly ways of life he was
often found immersed in deep thoughts regarding the suffering and miseries of humanity. At the
age of sixteen he was married to Princess Yashodhara, daughter of the Koliya King Dandapani of
Devadaha. When Siddhartha was 29 years, he renounced the world in search of a way that would
free mankind from the cycle of suffering.

In course of his wanderings, the prince came to Rajgriha. He along with five disciples of Rudraka
then left Rajgriha in search of a suitable place. Their search brought them to Gayasirsa hill
(Brahmayoni hill). The group then proceeded further south into Uruvila Vana, then an extensive
beautiful forest stretching all around the confluence of the Nairanjana and Mohana rivers, to
practice rigid penance and austerities, for six years.

On the eve of the full moon day of Vaisakha, he took his seat under the holy Ajaypala Banyan tree,
Bakraur. Incidentally, Sujata, the daughter of the local chieftain, also rose early that day to make
an offering of rice milk to the holy tree for the fulfilment of her desire to have a son. Sujata on her
arrival at the spot found Bodhisattva meditating under the tree and believing him to be the tree
divinity she offered the golden vessel containing the rice-milk to him. Thereupon Bodhisattva went
to the river Nairanjana, had a bath and ate the rice-milk, which was to sustain him for the following
seven weeks. The Bodhisattva after consuming the rice-milk went for a final round of meditation to
a cave in the Pragbodhi hill. According to the legend, a god of the Pragbodhi Mountain warned
Sakyamuni that this was not the right place for him to meditate. He was guided to another spot.

Sakyamuni found that spot about three kilometres south of Pragbodhi hill under the Pipal tree
(Bodhi tree). Sakyamuni began his meditation. The same night, under the full moon of the
Vaishakha (May) the noble one attained Bodhi to become Buddha, the enlightened. And for
centuries since, Buddhist devotees have journeyed to pay homage to this sacred site of
enlightenment.

28
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

The Buddha now spent the first week under the Bodhi tree, the second week gazing at the Bodhi
tree from the north-east (Animeshlochana act), the third in walking to and from between this point
and the Bodhi tree (Dirgha chankam Act, the fourth week was spent at the Ratnaghara where he
contemplated on the law of cause and effect. The fifth week was spent under the Ajapala
Nyagrodha tree where he is said to have conversed with Brahma. The sixth week was spent under
the Rajayatana tree. Buddha is said to have spent the seventh week at the Muchalinda tree. After
this, he proceeded to Sarnath where he delivered his first sermon.

Emperor Ashoka (273-232 BC) embraced Buddhism and constructed the first temple on the sacred
spot where Buddha gained Sambodhi, supreme enlightenment. After him, The Kushana kings
restored the tree shrine and constructed a towered temple Chinese pilgrim Fa- Hians (399-409 AD)
also visited during this time. Fa-Hian must have seen the present Temple about a century and a half
after its erection. In 388 AD King Megha Varma constructed a monastery at Bodhgaya. Fa Hein in
his travelogues has described the presence of three monasteries in Bodhgaya during the period. As
per his account, Bodhgaya was a place surrounded by forests and bustling with pilgrims and a
large number of shrines.

Hsuan Tsang, the Chinese pilgrim who visited during 630 645 AD, during the reign of King Harsha
provides a detailed account of Bodhgaya during this period. He records the presence of a
Ceylonese monastery with over a thousand monks, six hills and watchtowers located outside the
northern gate of the Temple. He also recorded the presence of twenty-one stupas, three tanks, five
small temples, as well as a number of monoliths in the vicinities of the Temple.

2.3.2 Bodhgaya in history

The picture one gets of the city at this time is of a pilgrim place, where the monks from all over the
world converged and lived peacefully, revered by the local population. Hsuan Tsang described
Bodhgaya as a prosperous, flourishing town, especially when compared to Gaya, which he
described as desolate. The prosperity of Bodhgaya continued in the Pala period during which kings
of the dynasty and devotees from different parts of India and Ceylon put up a number of shrines
and statues and a steady stream of pilgrims including many from China and Tibet flowed in.

The decline of Bodhgaya began with the medieval period. The revival of the temple in the earlier
period was a short lived one, due to the ransacking of eastern India by Bukhtiar Khilji in 1197 A.D.
After the fall of Buddhism in Magadh, the temple was practically deserted by the Buddhists and the
flow of pilgrims to Bodhgaya came to a standstill. In the late 1100s, Bodhgaya came under the
regime of the Islamic Sultanate of Delhi with Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khilji invading the region. During
this period, state patronage to the temple and monasteries stopped.

In 1590 a Hindu Saiva Mahant, Gosain Ghamandi Giri came upon the temple and finding the
place secluded and peaceful, decided to make it his permanent abode. He built a small
monastery near the Great Temple. Ghamandi Giris successor, Mahant Lala Giri acquired the vast
land around the villages of Mastipur and Taradih that were given to him as grants by the Moghul
Emperor of Delhi.

Throughout the nineteenth century, those desiring to discover more about this legendary place of
enlightenment visited Bodhgaya. Hamilton Buchanan was the first British officer to visit Bodhgaya in
1811. Fifty years after Buchanans visit in 1861, Cunningham visited Bodhgaya. He was responsible
for rediscovering the glory of the Mahabodhi temple and replanting the Bodhi Tree. In 1880s.Sir
Ashley Eden, the Lt. Governor of Bengal appointed J.D. Beglar, one of Cunninghams assistants to
make a thorough repair of the temple. Beglar and Cunningham accomplished the great task in
1884 with laudable care and painstaking interest.

Bodhgaya at this point of time was a small cluster of villages. However, some development started
occurring near the Temple. In 1876, the town of Gaya was linked by rail, which started changing
the picture in the region as travel became easier and Bodhgaya became accessible. In the
beginning of the twentieth century, the basic settlement pattern of Bodhgaya had become to

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

define itself with the Mahabodhi Temple and the Math forming the focus. Early twentieth century
saw the addition of buildings in the current archaeological area to the north. These include the
Mahabodhi Vihara, a hospital and a police station. These developments and advent of large
volumes of pilgrims caused the commercialisation of area around the temple. Three monasteries,
namely the Tibetan monastery and rest house, the Birla rest house, and the Burmese Monastery also
came up in the area. The town continued to grow around the Temple area.

In 1956, the Buddhist era completed 2500 years. To celebrate this historic event, a Buddha Jayanti
celebrations committee was constituted and during the course of the year thousands of religious
and cultural functions were held. The Bodhgaya temple too got a face-lift in 1956. This also brought
in additional developments in the archaeological area by the development of water tank, the
government rest house, PWD office and staff quarters. A tourist dormitory was constructed and
utility services were introduced.

In 1961-81, the first masterplan was prepared for Bodhgaya where painstaking efforts were made to
evolve policies, which would preserve the aesthetic beauty and serenity of the place. However
unfortunately for the town the policies were not implemented and grossly violated.

1974 saw the inauguration of the first Kalchakra initiation ceremony at Bodhgaya by Dalai Lama in
the presence of about one-lakh Buddhist pilgrims. Kalchakra ceremonies were subsequently
performed in 1981 and 1985 and have become a regular feature since then.

In the last few decades there has been considerable development in Bodhgaya with the
construction of temples and monasteries by various Asian Buddhist countries. Buddhist pilgrims and
devotees can regularly be seen here. The other major development has been the provision of
Magadh University on the Gaya-Dobhi road and construction of the Buddha Jayanti Bridge over
the Nairanjana River.

2.4 Heritage Component of the City and Heritage values

Bodhgaya is an old settlement with a history spanning more than 2500 years, yet on first impression
one sees a modern bustling town, no different from any other Indian town. The Mahabodhi temple
complex (5th-6th century AD) (World Heritage Site), the Math and Sujata Kuti are the only tangible
physical evidence of its glorious past. In the absence of standing buildings from the earlier period
of Bodhgayas existence, an understanding of the heritage resources, which includes buried
archaeological remains take on increased significance.

The town of Bodhgaya has a rich historical and cultural landscape that comprises of numerous
natural, built resources and archaeological sites associated with Lord Buddha, added over the
years which together with the Mahabodhi temple complex constitute the sacred geography of the
town. The town derives its distinctness and significance from the various heritage resources
associated with the life of Buddha. The built heritage resources include Buddhist and Hindu
temples, archaeological mounds and excavation sites. This cultural treasure linking present with
the past needs to be identified, protected and conserved for future generations.

Recently, the site management plan of the world heritage site has been prepared which has
detailed out known architectural resources of the area. It has also suggested that a detailed
inventory of the architectural resources be prepared for the entire town, along with other strategies
for heritage protection. Most of the important strategies have been incorporated into the draft
master plan of the town, Vision 2031, and are also reflected in this CDP. A summary of the
recommendations of the Site Management Plan (SMP) is placed in Annexure I.

2.4.1 Inventory of heritage resources

The first known inventory of architectural heritage resources was done by Heiun Tsang, a Chinese
traveller. Next, Mr. Cunningham mapped out the heritage resources of the area in the 19th century.
The state archaeology department has done work in mapping out the heritage resources of the
area.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

A brief description of the heritage resources that constitute the sacred geography of the town is
being given here. A detailed inventory of presently known and listed resources as per the Site
Management plan of the WHS is placed at annexure II.

i) Within the Mahabodhi temple complex world heritage site

Bodhi tree: As per legend, Buddha attained


enlightenment in Bodhgaya under the Bodhi tree.
A Bo (pipal, ficus religiosa, the tree of awakening-
bodhi) tree at the western side of the Bodhgaya
temple is believed to be a direct descendant of
the original tree under which Sakyamuni Gautama
meditated and attained enlightenment. Emperor
Ashokas son Mahindra carried a sapling from the
tree to Sri Lanka to spread Buddhism there.

Mahabodhi Temple: The Mahabodhi temple was


designated Mahabodhi Vihara by the Chinese
pilgrim Hsuan Tsang who came to India in the seventh century AD. The Mahabodhi temple is an
architectural amalgamation of cultures of many centuries and heritages that came to pay their
homage here. The temple dating to the fifth to sixth century is of immense importance, being one
of the earliest constructions existing in the Indian subcontinent. It is one of the few representations
of the architectural genius of the Indian people of that era in constructing fully developed brick
temples.

The Mahabodhi Temple Complex in Bodhgaya has direct


association with the life of Buddha, being the place where he
attained enlightenment. The present temple is one of the
earliest and most imposing structures built entirely in brick from
the late Gupta period. The 170 feet high temple consists of a
slender nine storied pyramidal tower and houses a gilded
image of the Buddha in the bhoomisparsha mudra with his
hands touching the earth, calling the earth as witness to his
austerities

The Ashokan Railing: A railing surrounds the Mahabodhi temple


presently, a stone replacement of an original wooden structure
that encircled the bodhi-ghara initially. The railing was erected
in the period between the first century BC and first century AD.
The earliest inscriptions from Bodhgaya itself also from the
Sunga period are found on this railing. The railing was enlarged
with the addition of new granite pillars in the Gupta period. On
each granite pillar a round centre medallion framed a typically
Gupta face with a three-quarter floral medallion carved at the
base.

Vajrasana (adamantine or diamond seat): Vajrasana, a


polished sandstone throne is the earliest construction at the foot
of the Bodhi tree to mark the place of sambodhi
(enlightenment). The stone throne decorated with a Mauryan
style palmette and goose frieze is the earliest physical evidence
of a shrine at this spot. Because of its style, it has been
connected with the legend of Ashokas revival of the tree and
construction of a shrine around it. The slab, originally in the
temple, was moved outside when it was enlarged in the Gupta
period (hence the much later style figures on the slabs base).

Jewel Walk: As per legend after obtaining enlightenment Buddha did not get up immediately but
remained there for seven days. Then rising he walked up and down to the north of the tree, he
walked there east and west for a distance of ten paces or so. Miraculous flowers sprang up under
his foot-traces to the number of eighteen. Afterwards this space was covered in by a brick wall
about three feet high. And twenty stone pillars well-fashioned and ornamented with leaves and
other figures were erected marking the spot where the holy one walked.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Votive Stupas: The temple has a cluster of votive Stupas built by kings, princes, noblemen and
ordinary pilgrims. These are commemorative Stupas put up by visitors as an offering to the Lord.

ii) Within the present Bodhgaya Town and outside the Temple Complex

Shankaracharya Math and temples: The


Bodhgaya Math is an ancient monastery of the
Hindu Sanyasis styled Girs who belong to one of
the ten orders of Sankaracharyas Saivite
School. It traces its origin back to the middle of
the sixteenth century of the Christian era. In
1590 AD, Gosain Ghamandi Giri, a holy
devotee of this order while on a pilgrimage
tour became so fond of the sylvan solitude of
the neighbourhood of the place where now
the Math stands that he selected it as a place
of his religious devotion and subsequently built
a small monastery there. He was the first
Mahant and founder of the monastery and
after his death his remains were interred in the enclosures of the Mahabodhi temple and a small
temple was built thereon.

Archaeological sites: The protection of archaeologically sensitive area was a core principle of the
1961 Master plan of Bodhgaya that advocated reservation of area in the temple sector for further
archaeological excavations. In the past archaeological excavations have been carried out at
Taridih west of the Mahabodhi temple complex and area in the Bakraur sector. This site is adjacent
to the Mahabodhi temple on the western side adjoining the Mosque. The site is one of the most
ancient and dates back before the time of Buddha starting from the Neolithic period down to the
Pala period. Excavations reveal seven cultural phases from the Neolithic period, (25th century-17th
century BC), Chalcolithic (17th century 11th century BC), Iron age (10th century-7th century BC),
Ashokan period (6th century-1st century BC), Kushana period (1st century-3rd century AD), Gupta
period (4th century-8th century AD), late Gupta and Pala period (9th century-12th century AD).

Nairanjana River: Bodhgaya, the most hallowed spot on the earth is situated on the banks of the
river Nairanjana. Nairanjana is presently a wide shallow, sandy bed for greater part of the year and
a river brimming with water during the monsoon. The river interestingly had a perennial waterfront
during the Buddha period.

The river has


religious
connotations, as it is
associated with the
important events in
Buddhas life.
Bodhisattva crossed
the river when he
reached Uruvela
Vana to climb the
Pragbodhi hill. As
per the legend, he
bathed in the river before consuming the rice-milk offered by Sujata and crossed Nairanjana to
reach the Bodhi tree where he attained Sambodhi.

iii) Outside the present boundaries of the town but in vicinities of Bodhgaya

Sujata temple: As per the legend, Buddha broke his fast under the Ajaypala Nyagrodha tree by
accepting a bowl of rice-milk from Sujata. He is also said to have spent the fifth week of
enlightenment under the tree.

After many decades later Matang Vapi Rishi came and set up his ashram near the tree. Two
temples were constructed then one of Sujata enclosing the tree and the other of Shiva. The
Buddhists and Hindus revere the former while the latter is revered by the Hindus.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Mahayani temple: According to Mahayani sect, Siddhartha sat under a Pipal tree located in the
campus. Later on in the late 19th century a temple complex was constructed with idols of
Hanuman, Durga, Vishnu and Shiva. The temple complex is located at the bank of river Mohana
and is revered by both Buddhists and Hindus.

Sujata Kuti: A stupa


commemorating Sujata, the
daughter of the local
chieftain who offered rice-
milk to Bodhisattva has been
constructed at Bakraur. The
Stupa is 11m from the
ground level Encased in lime
plaster the maximum
diameter of the Stupa is
about 65.50 m. Mud mortar
of varying thickness was
used as a binding medium in View of Sujata Kuti
the construction of the
Stupa. The railings and pillars were made of stone. It has not been possible to date the different
stages of the Stupa with certainty. The last phase of the Stupa can be attributed to the eighth and
tenth century AD on the basis of terracotta seals and plaques.

Taridih and Mastipur: The two villages Taridih and Mastipur are located in the vicinity of the
Mahabodhi temple. These villages have historical and mythical associations with ancient times,
but it is not reflected in their present character. They have small houses in brick, very much faceless
and modern in appearance, and are undergoing transformations rapidly. Not much remains to link
them with the Mahabodhi temple and the event of enlightenment. But recent excavations at the
Taridih village have revealed finds from the ancient times. More research needs to be carried out.

Bakraur Village: Bakraur was a village situated in the neighbourhood of Uruvela on the bank of the
Nairanjana. It formed a part of the Uruvela forest tract that covered a large area. As per the
legend, this was the place where Buddha accepted the bowl of rice-milk offered by Sujata, the
daughter of the local chieftain

Gayasirsa hill (Brahmayoni hill): On way from Rajgriha, Bodhisattva walked down the Gayasirsa hill
and spent some time here before proceeding on to the Uruvela Vana. After attaining
enlightenment, Buddha delivered the famous fire-sermon (Aditta-pariyaya-sutta) on this hill
addressing the Jatilas of the Gaya region newly converted to Buddhism.

The hill is presently known as Brahmayoni hill. It skirts the town of Gaya on the south and has
Budhbigha hamlet at its foot. There is a spring in the hill about a mile away from the hamlet.

Pragbodhi Hill: According to


legend, Bodhisattva made
futile efforts to achieve
enlightenment at Pragbodhi
hill. The god of mountain
warned him that if he
attempted such meditations
here the earth would open up
and the mountain would fall
on top of him.

The hill is situated about 3 miles


to the northeast of Bodhgaya
on the eastern banks of river
Nairanjana. Buddha is said to
have lived here before he
proceeded to Uruvela. At
present there is a small temple
just above the cave that sheltered the Bodhisattva during his stay here. The Tibetan monks maintain

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

the temple. Below that can be seen the foundations of a large monastic complex and on the top
of the mountain the ruins of several ancient stupas. Although Pragbodhi is only a few kilometres
from Bodhgaya, in the absence of a bridge over the river Mohana, the route via Gaya entails a
journey of 1- hours

iv) Underground/ yet to be excavated built heritage resources

Bodhgaya has numerous heritage resources that have been lost due to modern infill development,
but are still archaeologically important and need protection and resurrection. Historical records
and Buddhist scriptures provides vivid account of these resources. Cunningham prepared a map of
these resources. The protection of these resources is significant to the protection of the values of
the WHS and the designation of the Mahabodhi Temple Complex as a World Heritage Site. Hsuan
Tsang mentioned the following shrines that were outside the walls enclosing the temple precincts.

Monastery of Mahabodhi- Sangharama: Fa Hian, who visited Bodhgaya in 409 AD, mentions three
monasteries which existed there, the largest and most important one being the sanctuary built by
the King Meghavarma. Hsuan Tsang speaks of one large monastic abode called Mahabodhi
Sangharama that was built by a former king of Ceylon. He found this in existence outside the
northern gate of the outer wall of the Bodhi tree. The Mahabodhi Sangharama entertained many
Buddhist priests of Ceylon and at the time of Hsuan Tsangs visit, the Buddhist fraternity of Ceylon
Simhala, resided in it. According to the Chinese pilgrim, the Sangharama was built by a former king
of Ceylon with the express purpose of providing the Buddhist monks of his country desiring either to
travel or reside in India with a suitable retreat.

Based on Hsuan Tsangs account, Cunningham located the monastery north of the great temple
corresponding exactly with the mound known as Amar Singhs fort. The land of the mound still
retains the general name of Mahabodhi. Here in November 1885, Mr. Beglar and Cunningham
discovered the remains of a great monastery with outer walls 9 feet thick and massive round towers
at the four corners.

Other Shrines mentioned by Hsuan Tsang: To the south of the Bodhi tree, outside the walls, the
sacred monuments were numerous and Hsuan Tsang found it difficult to describe them. At present
there are few traces of buildings half a mile distant on either side of the Bodhi tree but several fine
tanks can still be seen within this range. All these tanks are surrounded by earthen mounds in which
are probably concealed the remains of many of the monuments described by the pilgrim. The
identification of some of the principal places is certain, while that of several others is doubtful.

Cunningham developed a map on which he has suggested these locations as identified by the
Chinese pilgrim.

B. Ghoshal Chak: After Buddha attained enlightenment; he took bath in a tank made by Indra
further south of the Buddha pokhar. This was identified with the Ghoshal chak that lies 300 feet to
the south west of the Buddha pokhar.

C. D and E: To the west of the Ghoshal chak was a large stone which Indra brought from the snowy
mountains, when Buddha wished to dry his clothes after bathing. No stone is there now, nor is there
any trace beside it of the Stupa D where Buddha put on the clothes given to him neither by an
old woman nor of the Stupa E where he received the clothes from the old woman.

F. Muchalinda Tank and G: To the east of the tank created by Indra for Buddha to bathe in and in
the midst of a wood was the tank of Muchilinda, King of the Nagas. On its west bank there was a
small Vihara G containing the figure of Buddha. Cunningham identified this tank on the southeast
of the Urel village on the west bank. Hsuan Tsang places the house of the blind Naga outside the
eastern gate wall of the Bodhi tree. It must therefore have been on the bank of the river behind the
Mahants courtyard. The Naga recovered his sight as Buddha passed by on his way to the Bodhi
tree.

H: To the east of the Muchilindas tank there was a Vihara in wood, which contained a figure of
Buddha representing him as thin and withered away. This site may be fixed on a small mound to
the south of the Ural village and to the east of the Muchalinda tank.

J: Besides it there was a long promenade of 70 paces, where Buddha walked up and down for
exercise. On each side of it there was a Pipal tree.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

K: Beside the Pipal tree, where Buddha had fasted, there was a Stupa where his four companions
had lived.

L: To the southwest of this spot there was a Stupa marking the spot where Buddha entered the
Nairanjana River to bathe. Cunningham identified the spot near the river at Tikabigha

M: Close by on the bank of the river was the place where Buddha received the rice-milk. At this
spot there are some masonry remains buried deep on the very edge of the river; the stream has
carried part of it away.

N: Near the spot where Buddha received the rice milk was the place where the merchants offered
Buddha - wheat, flour and honey. As the merchants were travelling along the road, Cunningham
identified the most probable spot for this historic event by the site of Tikabigha.

P: Besides the place where the merchants offered Buddha wheat, flour and honey was the spot
where the four Kings (of the four quarters of the world) offered a golden bowl to Buddha to place
the flour and honey given by the merchants. Buddha did not accept the golden bowl. The four
Kings then offered silver bowls and afterwards bowls of crystal, lapis lazuli, cornelian, amber, and
ruby. But Buddha would not accept any of them. They then brought stone patras that Buddha
having joined into one vessel accepted, so as to avoid receiving one and refusing the others.
Putting them one within the other, he made one vessel of the four.

R: At a short distance from the last spot was a Stupa where Tathagat preached the law to his
mother Maya who had come down from the heavens to hear him.

S: Close by there was a dry pool and a Stupa where Buddha had displayed various spiritual
changes.

U: Beside the last spot was the place where Buddha converted Uruvila Kashyup and his two
brothers and their thousand disciples.

These last three sites R, S, U, Mr. Beglar thinks should be placed about one-third of a mile to the
south of M where some masonry remains still exist.

V: To the northwest of the last place there was a Stupa to mark the spot where Buddha subdued
the fiery Naga to which Uruvila Kashyup sacrificed. This anecdote is often represented in Buddhist
sculptures.

W: By the side of the last spot was another Stupa where 500 Pratyeka Buddhas entered Nirvana at
the same time.

X: To the south of the Muchalinda tank, there was a Stupa marking the spot where Kashyapa went
to save Buddha during an inundation. (Source: Cunningham, Chapter-XI: Monuments Outside the
Walls, Pgs 39-41)

Many of these locations are now lost or threatened. In view of their close associations with the WHS,
studies are required to establish their exact locations.

Bodhgaya still contains a handful of those settlements that existed before the times of Lord Buddha.
These settlements are now urbanised completely and show no traces of their glorious past. A brief
description of the ancient settlements as they were 2500 years ago is being given below.

Uruvela: The village of Uruvela is located close to the Mahabodhi temple World Heritage Site.
According to Buddhaghosha and the writings of Dharmapala, Uruvela was a great expanse of
sandy bank formed by deposits of sediments due to the over flooding of the stream. As per Sanskrit
Buddhist works the place derived its name from a large bel or vilva tree that marked it out.

In the times of Buddha, Uruvela was a great centre of Jatila activity and was most important
because of the seniority and personality of Uruvela Kassapa. A high road (addhanamagga)
connected Uruvela with Gaya and extended westwards as far as Benares and its vicinity. Uruvela
derived its high sanctity in the eye of the Buddhist from its connection with the most ardent and
arduous endeavours of Siddhartha, the ascetic and his glorious accomplishment in his Buddha

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

hood. (Source: Gaya and Bodhgaya, Benimadhab Barua, Pg 103-126)

Dharamaranya: Dharamaranya (dharma or holy forest) is a holy forest associated with the life of
Buddha. It was the site of the ashram of the sage Uruvela Kashyup. Buddha is supposed to have
meditated here. It is presently a sandy stretch in the Bakraur sector.

Ajaypala Nyagrodha tree: The Ajaypala-Nyagrodha is the famous Neat-herds banyan under
which Buddha is said to have spent the fifth week after his enlightenment, and its shade is the
secret spot where Brahma, the benign Brahmanaical deity waited upon the newly enlightened
master and persuaded him to promulgate his doctrine for the good of all. The place is mentioned
by Fa Hian as one of the historic spots on which men in later times raised towers and placed figures
of Buddha

Rajayatana-tree: As per the legend,


Bodhisattva broke his fast under the
Rajayatana tree after six years of rigid
penance and austerities by accepting
a bowl of rice-milk offered by Sujata,
the daughter of the local chieftain.
Buddha is also said to have spent the
sixth week after his enlightenment here
under the tree of royal dimensions. As
per legend, Trapusha and Bhalluka,
the two caravan merchants waited
upon the newly enlightened master
under this tree and presented him with
perched corn and honey.

2.4.2 Heritage Values

This section identifies the values that make the Mahabodhi Temple Complex World Heritage Site
important and relevant to our society in the present day. The process helps in developing an
understanding of the site for maintaining its special identity and for taking informed management
decisions. The values reflect on societys perception of the site. With the passage of time, these
would have to be reviewed and modified to be of relevance in the changed times. The values are
identified based on identified values in the site management plan of the Mahabodhi Temple.

The values of the Mahabodhi Temple Complex can be defined as, associational, spiritual, historical,
archaeological, architectural, artistic, visual, economic, research and educational. It is recognised
that these values do overlap quite considerably, but together they cover the full range of the sites
cultural significance. The value attributes have been identified by individuals and groups
associated with the site.

Associational Value
(Commemorative monument that glorifies the single most important event of Buddhas life,
enlightenment)

The Mahabodhi Temple Complex is the hallowed spot where the ascetic prince Siddhartha
attained enlightenment 2500 years ago to become Buddha. The temple has preserved, as if frozen
in time and space, the moment of his enlightenment. The temple was constructed to be the place
where the event of enlightenment could most easily be apprehended and replicated by the
faithful. Numerous images of Buddha and bodhisattvas placed on ascending levels of the temple
base and tower guide the worshipper in an ascent to personal enlightenment.

The WHS may be said to be the birthplace of Buddhism on account of its association with the most
important event in the life of Lord Buddha that of his attaining enlightenment and supreme wisdom.

Religious/ Spiritual/ Pilgrimage Value


(Unique live Temple A symbol of continuity of the tradition of pilgrimage)

The Mahabodhi temple Complex is a live temple where the tradition of offering prayers has
continued since the time of Buddha. The site has a symbolic importance to different groups and
individuals. It is an icon of continuity in the present fast moving modern world. For Buddhists and

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Non Buddhists it is a place of reverence. The WHS is also a site for various religious festivals and
ceremonies like Buddha Mahotsav and Kalchakra. For the Buddhists, this important site is even
more revered, as it is believed that the Buddha himself spoke of its importance to his closest
disciple, Ananda (Refer Box below)

BOX: Extract of Buddhas discourse to Ananda

There are four places, Ananda which the believing man should visit with feelings of reverence.
The place, Ananda at which the believing man can say,
Here the Tathaghat was born (Lumbini included in the World Heritage List)
Here the Tathaghat attained the supreme and perfect insight (Bodhgaya)
Here was the kingdom of righteousness set on foot by the Tathaghat (Sarnath)
Here the Tathaghat passed finally away in that utter passing away which leaves nothing
whatsoever to remain behind (Kushinagar)

Source: Maha-parinibbana suttanta, translated in T.W. Rhys Davis, Buddhist Suttas, sacred books of the East,
IX (Oxford 1881)

The Mahabodhi temple continues to be a place of active worship and represents a continuous
tradition of philosophical thought, human values and beliefs since the times of the Buddha more
than 2500 years ago. The continuity of traditional religious use of the structure has facilitated
conservation and has prevented degradation, undesirable changes and demolition. The
observance of religious rituals provide colour, vibrancy to this sacred place and has prevented the
temple from turning into a dead edifice visited by a few art historians and enthusiasts. Both as a
pilgrimage spot and as a significant place representing the development of the religious
philosophies of mankind, the Mahabodhi temple at Bodhgaya is comparable to the sacred sites of
Jerusalem and Mecca.

Historical Value

When Emperor Ashoka built the first tree shrine that now make up the World Heritage Site, he
immortalised the site and this was to have an impact on the lives of not only the people of this
region but that of the millions of people world wide. Buddhism as a universal religion has
transcended regions and has millions of followers all over the world.

History has bequeathed two sets of cultural values to the Temple complex. On the one hand the
temple is admired for its historicity, simplicity of construction and for its quality as a work of brick
architecture. On the other hand it is seen as a symbol of emergence of Buddhism as a universal
religion.

Archaeological Value

The sacred landscape which comprises of the Mahabodhi Temple Complex and area around it
contains exceptional archaeological record of the events associated with the time Buddha spent
there as well as documenting the evolving worship since 3rd century BC when Emperor Ashoka built
the first tree shrine. The records demonstrate continuous human activity in the area for more than
2500 years. The archaeological evidence from some periods in the past is more significant than
others. The rich assemblage together provides a vivid picture of past activities

Architectural Value

The Mahabodhi temple is one of the few representations of the architectural genius of the Indian
people in constructing fully developed brick temples in that era. Although early Buddhist caves do
exist in India, the grand Mahabodhi Temple is the only Buddhist structural temple of the early period
that stands today. In India, we do find a few structural temples of this period, but the Mahabodhi
temple dating to the Gupta period is the largest, well preserved and the most imposing amongst
the extant temples. The site has had significant influence in the development of brick architecture
over the centuries. Amongst the four Buddhist pilgrimage spots Bodhgaya surpasses Lumbini,
Sarnath and Kushinagara on all counts of architectural and artistic excellence.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Artistic Value

The sandstone balustrade (Prachina Sila Prakara) (partly seen on the site and partly preserved in
the Archaeological Museum) is an outstanding examples of sculptural relief found in the country
from the period of Ashoka (3rd century BC). The Bodhgaya railing was a simple structure when
compared with other railings of the Buddhist period. The art work on the coping panels and the
quadrangular panels of the cornerpillars at Bodhgaya deals predominantly with the birth stories
(Sussondi, Alambusa, Atthana, Asitabhu and Sambul) and compared to other rails of the Buddhist
period was more dramatic and less narrative. The tendency of artists at Bodhgaya was to make
Indian art free from its earlier biases. The representation of panels on the Bodhgaya railing was
ostensibly more scenic and the action was more dramatic. The artists working within the bounds of
restraint imposed by religion delineated scenes with greater sense of freedom and sensuousness.

The sculpted stone balustrade and the remains of the Ratna Chankrama Chaitya are what is left
of the first tree shrine raised by Emperor Ashoka.

The temple dating to the fifth/sixth century AD has wonderful ornamental work on its exterior
comprising of decorated moldings and niches with stucco images. The Buddha sculpture in the
bhoomisparsa mudra in stone dating from the late tenth century housed in the main shrine of the
Mahabodhi temple is the largest surviving seated image from Bodhgaya. The sculptural reliefs
adorning the temple precincts and the ornamentation work on the exterior surface of the temple
have enhanced the artistic value of the Mahabodhi Temple Complex and have influenced the
development of Buddhist art in India and other South East Asian countries.

Visual Value

The Mahabodhi Temple Shikhara in the present set up continues to be the most dominating
element in the skyline of the town of Bodhgaya. Glimpses of the shrine can be seen from
connecting links to the temple. However the visual value of the Mahabodhi Temple Complex in the
towns skyline is threatened by uncontrolled development in the vicinities and the wider setting.

Economic Value

The Mahabodhi temple attracts about 2,00,000 visitors annually, out of which 30,000 are foreign
tourists. The revenue generated from tourism at the WHS is an important contributor to the local,
district and regional economy. The WHS is the main tourist drawing force to this small obscure
hamlet of Bihar. In addition to the income earned directly from visitors and the investment in
accommodation and services for them, the Site also makes a contribution to the quality of life of
the town that helps in attracting other business investment and in increasing consumption.

The site on its own on account of its use also generates revenue in the form of donations and
contributions made to the temple by devotees and in the form of entry and other charges levied
by BTMC to the visitors coming to the temple.

Literary and Research Value

The Mahabodhi temple is the oldest brick temple of the Indian sub-continent and is also valued as
a literary resource. The artifacts recovered from in and around the temple and now housed in the
Archaeological Museum at Bodhgaya are an invaluable educational resource for a wide spectrum
of students interested in undertaking research in history and Buddhist studies.

2.4.3 Significance of the Sacred Geography

Buddhas travel path in search of enlightenment encompassed a wider region of eastern India that
included Rajgir, Gaya and Bodh Gaya. In the course of seven years after renunciation, Siddhartha
wandered, fasted, meditated and attained enlightenment, which led to the evolution of the
universal religion, Buddhism. The wider setting of the WHS has a sacred geography of which
Mahabodhi Temple Complex world heritage site is a part.

The wider setting of the WHS contains a number of heritage resources. These are spots where
Buddha performed miracles, rural hamlets where he stayed, the ruins of ancient monastery now
concealed, and archaeological excavation areas not fully excavated. It also needs to be noted

38
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

here that the Chinese travelers Fa Hein and Hsuan Tsang took considerable pains to develop an
understanding of the sacred geography around Mahabodhi Temple Complex. Subsequently Sir
Alexander Cunningham conducted further in-depth research and brought out a visual map,
corroborating the historical accounts. This clearly indicates the value/significance placed on these
heritage resources by these great scholars.

The first master plan of Bodhgaya (1961) also mentioned the need for conservation of all heritage
resources/spots along with Mahabodhi Temple Complex and suggests development of a green
belt around Mahabodhi Temple wherein no other activity should be permitted except excavations.
This establishes the significance and value of these heritage resources in the eyes of the local
community. UNESCO also vide 27 COM (7B.46) have recognized the significance of heritage
resources located outside the WHS (Refer Box).

BOX: Recommendations of 27 Com (7B. 46)

Recognizing the associated heritage significance of neither the surrounding areas of the
Mahabodhi Temple which are intrinsically linked to the enlightenment of Buddha, but which are not
within the core nor the buffer zone of the existing World Heritage property.
Invites the State Party to enlarge the World Heritage protected area to ensure that the protective
core and buffer zones are meaningful and effective of the conservation of the values of the
property.
Requests the State Party to complete the elaboration of a comprehensive management plan
which adequately integrates:

Local community and stakeholders dialogue and cooperation.


Protection, conservation and preservation of the heritage value and assets of this sacred
property.
Control of development activities within and surrounding the property related to tourism and
.
The Mahabodhi Temple Complex World Heritage Site is part of a wider cultural landscape that has
high historical, archaeological and associational value. The preservation of these heritage
resources would therefore lead to the enhancement of values of the World Heritage Site, the
protection of which is of utmost importance.

2.4.4 Prioritisation of Values

The significance of the Mahabodhi Temple Complex World Heritage Site is derived from the ten
intrinsic value attributes (including setting) described in the preceding section.

These values have been grouped by the Site management plan of the WHS, based on suggestions
of experts as below.

Emotional values: (a) associational, (b) religious/spiritual/pilgrimage.


Cultural values (a) historical, (b) archaeological, (c) architectural, (d) artistic, (e) visual,
(f) Setting.
Use values: (a) tourism/economic, (b) literary and research.

The grouping has been done as per Bernard M Feildens (Former Director, ICCROM) classification of
values as given in his book Conservation of Historic Buildings (Refer Box).

BOX: Bernard M Feilden on Values in Conservation

The values assigned to cultural property come under three major headings

Emotional Values: (a) wonder; (b) identity; (c) continuity; (d) spiritual and symbolic
Cultural values: (a) documentary; (b) historic; (c) archaeological, age and scarcity; (d)
aesthetic and symbolic; (e) architectural; (f) townscape, landscape and ecological; (g)
technological and scientific.
Use values: 9a) functional; (b) economic; (c) social; (d) political and ethnic.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

The values collectively provide a distinctive character to the site and each value in its own right is
representative of the site and imparts that special aura which distinguishes it from other religious
sites of the world. The emotional, cultural and use values of the site are all intricately linked to each
other. The preservation and enhancement of the emotional and cultural values may be achieved
through primarily the same set of objectives. However the objectives for preservation of emotional,
cultural values conflicts with that for enhancement of the use values. The use value entails making
the most of the site at the expense of other values. The preservation and enhancement of cultural
and emotional values that restrict visitor access, movement may seem stifling, constricting at this
point of time while the enhancement of the use value that brings in revenue may seem more
alluring and a prudent move. Extreme caution is required to ensure that the use value does not
overwhelm and dominate other values in the plan.

For deriving the vision and objectives of the site management plan, the cultural values have been
accorded the utmost priority followed by the emotional and the use values. The emotional and use
values would be given their due importance in the plan and would not be neglected at the cost of
protecting the cultural value.

2.4.5 Statutory and Legal framework for Heritage protection

There is no comprehensive legislation defining and protecting the entire heritage of Bodhgaya.
Bodhgaya is replete with heritage resources, but only few are protected.

1. The Mahabodhi Temple is protected under a special act, the Bodhgaya Temple act, 1949.
The ownership of this world heritage site is with the state govt.
2. The Sujata Kuti is protected by the Archaeological Survey of India under the ASI act and
ownership vests with the ASI. Besides these two sites, there are other archaeological sites
where the state archaeology is currently working.

There are several other sites where further research is required to identify heritage resources and to
list them. These are mostly in the private domain. The details of these will only be available after
detailed listing is done.

Recently the site management plan of Mahabodhi Temple has been prepared which has specified
zones for protection of heritage.

Key legislations for heritage protection

The key acts for heritage protection in Bodhgaya are as follows:

A. The Bodhgaya temple act, 1949.

The act was brought in to govern the affairs of the Mahabodhi temple. It has no jurisdiction outside
the temple complex. It sets a committee for management of the temple. The duties of the
committee as defined by the act include:

1. To arrange for:
The upkeep of the Temple
The improvement of the Temple Land
The welfare and safety of the pilgrims;
The proper performance of the worship at the Temple and pindadan
2. To prevent the desecration of the temple or any part of it.
3. To make arrangements for receipt and disposal of offerings made at the Temple. And for safe
custody of statements of account and other documents related to the Temple.
4. To make arrangements for custody, deposit and investments of funds at its hand.

The act empowers the state government to constitute an advisory board consisting of such
numbers of members as the government may determine. The majority of the members of the
committee need to be Buddhists, who may not all be Indians. The function of the board is to work
purely as an advisory body to the committee.

B. Central protection (The Ancient Monuments & Archaeological sites and Remains Act, 1958

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Since Mahabodhi Temple has been declared as a World Heritage Site, ASI as a Government of
India organization is answerable to UNESCO through periodic reporting. It is also responsible for
protection of Sujata Kuti. The protection is under the Central protection (The Ancient Monuments &
Archaeological sites and Remains Act, 1958).

C. State (The Protection of Monuments and Archaeological Sites, remains and Art Treasures Act,
1976)

The protection of some other resources is under the state protection act.

The other acts applicable within the area of the WHS are the Bihar Public Land Encroachment Act
and the Treasure Trove Act of 1878.

D. Site Management Plan of Mahabodhi Temple Complex World heritage site

The World Heritage Sites are not statutory designations and their Management Plans have no
statutory status. The Management Plan of the Mahabodhi Temple Complex is an advisory policy
document to guide effective management of the temple and give suggestive controls for the
regulation of its setting. The Plan provides a suggestive policy framework for guiding and
influencing present and planned management initiatives. The Management plan is a continuous
exercise of dialogue and discussions to sensitise and build consensus among local stakeholders.

The Site Management Plan is a draft plan for consultation with the State party, and other
stakeholders. The plan preparation has helped in bringing out the issues in open for further
deliberation, consultation and to take informed management decisions.

The policy directions of the management plan and controls for the setting are to be given legal
sanctity by making it part of the Development Plan of Bodhgaya. These policies are to be detailed
out further in the Development Plan.

The site Management Plan for the Mahabodhi Temple world heritage site has been recently
prepared by Govt. of India and submitted to UNESCO.

Vision for the future of the Mahabodhi Temple Complex World Heritage Site in the site management
plan
The Site Management Plan seeks to establish a sustainable future for the Mahabodhi Temple
Complex World Heritage Site by protection and enhancement of its value attributes that are
representative of its universal significance.
The Management Plan ensures preservation, restoration, maintenance of built fabric and artwork
as per the international conventions of UNESCO
The Management Plan also seeks to protect the setting of World Heritage Site as a cultural
landscape by recognizing the significance of heritage resources and general aesthetics of the
environment within the vicinity of the WHS. The Plan envisages creation of a serene, verdant,
ambience for the Mahabodhi Temple Complex, the vivid description of which was recounted by
the Lord himself when he said
Lovely indeed, O venerable one, is this spot of ground charming is the forest grove, pleasant is
flowing river with sandy fords, and hard by is the village where I would obtain food. Suitable
indeed is this place for spiritual exertion for those noble scions who desire to strive.
The Management Plan provides for pilgrims comfort and enhanced spiritual experience by
offering comfortable and accessible non polluting public transport systems, safe and accessible
public utilities and serene open spaces for meditation and other spiritual activities for all sections
including people with reduced mobility or any disability.
In the long term, the Mahabodhi Temple Complex should emerge as a World Heritage Site where
the serenity and the authenticity of the site is protected, the built structures are conserved, the
tradition of religious practices and pilgrimage are allowed to go on uninterrupted and the
heritage resources in the setting are protected through an enabling and sustainable
implementation mechanism.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

It is noted that at present, there is no mechanism to protect heritage resources in the wider setting.
However, application of the Site management plan through the masterplan will fulfill this gap to
some extent.

2.4.6 Agencies involved for heritage protection

I) Agency involved in the site management within the WHS Buddha Gaya Temple Management
Committee

The Bodhgaya Temple Management Committee is the executive body for the management of the
site; it works under the supervision, direction and control of the State government of Bihar. The
committee has 8 members, with equal representation of Buddhist and Hindus. The District
Magistrate, Gaya is the Ex-officio Chairman of the Committee (He should necessarily be a Hindu).
The issue of inclusion of Hindu members in equal proportions has been subject of considerable
controversy, with the Buddhists asking for greater representation in the committee.

The Bodhgaya Temple Management Committee is involved in the observance of daily temple
rituals including organization of various festivals within the temple precincts. The Committee carries
out the maintenance of the temple including all the developmental works within the temple
precincts. It also keeps a systematic and updated inventory of all the properties of the temple.

The Committee acts in liaison with other government institutions like the Police, Electricity,
Telecommunication, and Nagar Panchayat for effective management of the WHS.

The Secretary, BTMC looks after the day-to-day management of the Mahabodhi temple while the
Chairman; Bodhgaya Temple Management Committee implements the collective decisions of the
BTMC. The Buddhist religious functions and daily rituals are looked after by the Bhikku in charge
(monk in-charge) who is aided by a few monks working under him. The Committee appoints the
monks on ad-hoc basis and there is no permanent staffing structure in place. A permanent Hindu
priest is however appointed.

The funds for management of the WHS at the disposal of the BTMC are primarily donations and
contributions by devotees from all over India and from Buddhists all over the world. BTMC also
generates some fund from its properties and from the entrance fees to the WHS.

The Committee is responsible for collection of grants and to decide upon the priority for investment
for the general upkeep of the temple. The Bodhgaya Temple Management Committee carries out
the maintenance including development work inside the WHS. The Committee also takes decisions
regarding priority of investment for the general upkeep of the WHS. These are important technical
decisions that require awareness about the cultural heritage, UNESCO guidelines and a general
sensibility towards management of a World Heritage Site. The BTMC is more of a religious body than
a professional one, and many of the individuals involved lack the sensitivity and competence
required for management of a WHS. The Govt of India has recently made a move to bring the WHS
under central protection realising the significance of the WHS and need for long-term preservation
of the site. ASI in this regard has issued the letter of intent to the State Govt.

II) Agencies involved for Management of the heritage in the town

The bodies and organizations with significant roles and responsibilities in the management of the
vicinities and the wider setting include:

The Gaya Regional Development Authority


The Bodhgaya Nagar Panchayat (The Municipal Corporation)
The Gaya district administration

The development of the town should be governed by a development plan. The Gaya Regional
Development Authority has the powers to prepare the master plan of the area and Bodhgaya
forms a part of its regional development area. Bodhgaya is also the headquarters of the Anchor
(the community development block).

In addition to these agencies, there are also various other sectoral agencies such as the ASI, the
PWD and other state and central govt. bodies who play a key role in the development of

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Bodhgaya. The profile of some of these players along with their profiles and relevant acts are given
in coming sections:

III) Archaeological Survey of India

The Archaeological Survey of India is responsible for the conservation and protection of
monuments under central protection. It is a prime institution in the country responsible for the
protection of the countrys cultural wealth.

The Archaeological Survey of India as a Govt of India organization also coordinates with UNESCO
through periodic reporting in respect of World Heritage Sites. It has considerable experience of
conservation of all types of monuments within the country. The Headquarters of the Archaeological
Survey of India is in New Delhi and local office is at Patna headed by a Superintending
Archaeologist.

At present, Sujata Kuti in Bakraur village is the only centrally protected monument within the town
of Bodhgaya.

IV) Non-governmental players in the development of Bodhgaya

Apart from the governmental agencies that are profiled above, there are other non-governmental
players who play an important role in the development of vicinities and the wider setting of the
WHS. These include the 38 local monasteries, trusts and other religious organizations; they are very
important players in the economy of the town and are important opinion makers. Their
involvement in the affairs of the city is considered as significant.

At present, there are multiple agencies responsible for heritage protection in Bodhgaya and at
times, there are interagency conflicts. Coordination is also sometimes lacking. The site
management plan of the town has proposed a management mechanism that has been given in
the proposals sections of this report.

2.4.7 Importance of heritage in Bodhgaya

The significance of the site to Buddhists worldwide is immeasurable and self-evident. The town also
has considerable significance for Hindus as a pilgrimage site. Its heritage has not only a religious
importance, but also an economic importance as this brings in a number of visitors every year to
the town.

Every year, Bodhgaya plays host to 4-5 lakh visitors, of which majority are pilgrims. Although it is
difficult to estimate the quantum of contribution of heritage to local economy, it has generated a
number of jobs in commercial and informal sector. The detail of visitors and their impact on the
local economy is given in the next section. Directly or indirectly, heritage and related tourism is the
biggest contributor to Bodhgaya economy after agriculture, and in the coming years, it is likely to
become the mainstay of the economy.

2.4.8 Infrastructure provision for heritage Sites

The site management plan for the Mahabodhi Temple has already assessed the infrastructure
facilities in the temple and suggested improvement measures within the Temple Complex. Status of
infrastructure at and around the WHS is given below

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Table 2.i: Infrastructure status for heritage sites in Bodhgaya


INFRASTRUCTURE ISSUE STATUS
Water Does the heritage BTMC has made arrangements for water required for
require any special visitors as well as for landscaping purposes within the
quality water WHS.
Water availability is presently not a problem in Bodhgaya.
Local administration makes arrangements during meal
times etc.
Drainage Does the heritage The Mahabodhi Temple is in a low-lying area and faces
site require special water logging during rains. As part of Site management
drainage plan preparation, the Hydro geological study of the WHS
arrangements area has been carried out to assess the threat to
foundations of the WHS because of water logging and
flash floods The findings of the study indicate that the
present situation is a result of change in the character of
the vicinities. The vicinities in the times when the temple
was conceived were a wooded area with series of water
bodies in it. In the modern times, these natural water
bodies were filled up and intense development came up
over it. This has disturbed the natural drainage
mechanism of the area, the water which earlier filled up
the water bodies in the surroundings now infiltrates in to
the temple premises partially submerging it in times of
heavy rains.
The study suggests deployment of the following methods
at the temple complex to avoid flash flooding.
Hydro botanical System,
Recharge and Discharge Mechanism
Seepage recovery method.
Adequate arrangements for this will have to be made by
the local administration and the BTMC.
Garbage Are special The BTMC is handling garbage removal within the WHS
garbage handling adequately. In the area around the Temple, especially
facilities required during meal times, special garbage removal facilities are
required, arrangements for which have to be made by
the local body. The proposals for garbage removal are
given in the solid waste management section
Parking Is parking at A parking assessment study was also carried out at the
Heritage Sites Mahabodhi temple (HUDCO Survey- 2003) to understand
adequate the parking accumulation at the Mahabodhi temple,
which is also the de facto town centre. This is incidentally
the most congested area of the town too. The hourly
count of parked vehicles showed that the peak demand
for parking is at evening hours. It also shows that at
present the demand is most for non-motorised transport
such as cycles, rickshaws, tongas etc.
The study also showed on an average, parking space for
over a hundred vehicles is required at the temple
immediately. The peak demand is about double of this
figure. On an average, there is a demand for 10-15 cars,
20 -30 scooters, 7-15 autos and other vehicles near the
temple. This shows the need for development of
organised parking spaces for the town and near the
temple. (Refer Annexure for detailed tables)
New parking sites are being developed for the visitor load
at the Temple under this plan and the master plan.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Traffic Are special traffic At present, the heritage zone is cluttered with traffic that
Management management adds to pollution load around the heritage sites.
measures being put The site management plan and the town masterplan
in place have both advocated conversion of the heritage zone
(the special area) into a pollution free zone through use
of green buses (battery operated buses) and non
motorised modes for which Two modal interchange
points cum parking points are already being set up under
the masterplan.
Pollution Are there efforts to A study in 2000 had found high noise levels around the
reduce pollution WHS. (detailed in coming sections). Measures are
load on heritage suggested to reduce noise pollution around the Temple
sites and make it a silent zone.
Movement of diesel and petrol based modes through
heritage zone is another cause for concern. Battery
operated buses are being introduced in the town to
reduce this pollution load. In the special area plan,
measures to reduce traffic into the heritage zone can be
seen.
Approach and Is the approach to The approach road to the WHS has been pedestrians, but
access roads the heritage sites the entire stretch of road is proposed to be widened and
clutter free and improved under the masterplan. The approach from the
pleasant riverside road is still very cluttered. Landscaping and road
improvement ids required for both the Domuha road and
the riverside road.
The approach road to Sujata Kuti also needs to be
widened and improved.
Lighting Are lighting Lighting at the Temple is adequate at present. Lighting is
arrangements required for better presentation of the Sujata Kuti.
adequate
Emergency Are emergency Emergency relief measures are not adequate at the WHS.
Relief relief measures A first aid room needs to be set up near the WHS for any
adequate emergencies during pilgrim festivals.
A major concern is lack of a fire station in Bodhgaya. In
case of fire at the Temple, there are few fire fighting
arrangements. A fire station is required for Bodhgaya.
Development of riverfront with bunding along sites to
prevent floods is also required.
An emergency manual needs to be prepared to instruct
staff on how to protect heritage during emergencies like
earthquakes, floods, fire etc.

The entire special area needs to be sensitively landscaped, cleaned and provided with sewerage
and drainage facilities. This can be done under the special area plan which is to be prepared
under the masterplan by the local authority. The assessment of city level infrastructure is given in the
coming sections.

2.4.9 Financial arrangements for heritage protection

At present, there is no budgetary arrangement with the local body to fund heritage projects. The
BTMC or the Buddhist groups are funding projects within the World Heritage site. Projects related to
landscaping and tourism development are being funded by the Ministry of tourism and culture,
govt of India.

The WHS has a ticketing system, besides which the Temple also receives considerable fund in
donations. These proceeds go to BTMC. Most of the monasteries also receive donations from
visitors. The ASI provides the funds for maintenance of the Sujata Kuti. However, there is no

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

organised effort for making funds available for archaeological excavations and research that is
required in Bodhgaya.

2.5 Cultural Fabric of Bodhgaya

Bodhgaya has a vibrant cultural environment. The town


derives its vibrancy from the religious festivals and rituals
that are part of the life and cultural heritage of the town.
Buddha Purnima (Buddha Jayanti) commemorating the
birth, enlightenment and mahaparinirvana of Lord Buddha
is the most important event in the cultural calendar of the
town. Apart from this, several other major festivals such as
the Kalchakra festival are also held within the town. Every
year lakhs of pilgrims visit the Mahabodhi Temple. The town
also has several cultural amenities. It has a museum (ASI
museum) and library (BTMC library) in the temple sector.
There is a small library in Rajapura tola and a meditation
centre in the University sector.

2.6 Economic base of the town

2.6.1 Employment and Occupation Pattern

The present work force at Bodhgaya is about 9410 persons, comprising of 6977 males and 2434
females. The working population of the town is about 30%. A larger proportion of male population
(42% of the overall male) constitutes the work force as compared to the female population (17% of
the overall female).

Table 2.j: Workers Distribution


MALES FEMALES TOTAL
Total workers 6977 2434 9411
Total population 16751 14132 30883
Percent workers 41.6% 17.3% 30.5%
Source: Census of India 2001

22% of the total population is in the category of main workers and 27% are marginal workers,
signifying availability of full time work opportunities. In 1961, the workforce participation rate stood
at 30% of the total population. It rose till 1981 but is again at nearly 30% at present. The participation
rate of Bodhgaya is on the lower side compared to the state average of 34% and the national
average of 39% (2001).) The low levels of participation could be due to increase in student or
institutional population.

Table 2.k: Distribution Of Workers Into Main And Marginal Workers


WORKERS PERSONS PERCENT
Main workers 6889 22%
Marginal workers 2522 8%
Non workers 21473 70%
Source: Census of India 2001

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Table 2.l: Workforce Participation Rate

YEAR POPULATION YEAR WFPR (%)


1961 6299 1897 30.1
1971 6968 2195 31.5
1981 15724 5109 32.5

2001 30883 9410 30.5


Source: Census of India 2001

Agriculture is the main source of employment for the local people. (Refer tables below) Between
1961 and 1981, there has been a slight shift in occupations from primary sector to secondary and
tertiary sectors. Bodhgaya continues to be a primarily agrarian economy. This is, in part, due to
expansion of the town boundaries to include the outlying settlements that are still primarily
agricultural. The remote hamlets that have come into the town are almost all dependant on
agriculture for sustenance. There is also lack of diversification of job opportunities. Industrial activity
is rather insignificant in Bodhgaya. This is due to a planned policy that has not encouraged growth
of heavy or polluting industries here to protect the heritage of Bodhgaya. The detailed study of
occupation pattern show that nearly 35% of the workers are agricultural labourers, probably with
low and seasonal incomes. This shows a lack of job opportunities in the town. The high percentage
of the other workers shows that the tertiary sector, including people employed in service,
commerce and hotel industry, also has a strong presence in the town.

Table 2.m: Occupation Distribution Of Workers


CATEGORY WORKERS PERCENT OF TOTAL
Cultivators 1343 14%
Agricultural labourers 3296 35%
Workers in household industries 754 8%
Other workers 4018 43%
Total 9411 100%
Source: Census of India 2001

Table 2.n: Decadal Trends In Percentage Of Workers In Various Sectors


PRIMARY SECONDARY TERTIARY
YEAR NUMBERS PERCENT NUMBERS PERCENT NUMBERS PERCENT
1961 1172 61.80% 228 12.02% 97 5.11%
1971 1427 65.00% 198 9.02% 570 25.97%
1981 2427 48.45% 1127 22.50% 1455 29.05%
2001 4639 49.29% 754 8.01% 4018 42.69%
Source: Census of India

DECADAL TRENDS IN SECTORWISE OCCUPATION PATTERN

100% 5.1%
90% 26.0%
12.0% 29.0%
80% 42.7%
70% 9.0%
60% 22.5%
50% 8.0%
40% 61.8%
30% 65.0%
48.5% 49.3%
20%
10%
0%
1961 1971 1981 2001

PRIMARY SECONDARY TERTIARY

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

2.6.2 Income Levels

A survey by HUDCO revealed


that nearly 70% of surveyed
population had income levels
below Rs. 2500 per month (2003).
However, Official figures reveal
that only 10% were below
poverty line in 2001. The disparity
in the two figures indicates that
a vast percentage of population
lies in the EWS and the LIG
category.

Considering the lack of diversification in job opportunities and the low income levels, the goal of
economic planning policies here must be to provide opportunities in all sectors to the local people
in a manner which does not harm the ambience of the area but also meets the future employment
needs of the local populace.

2.6.3 Key Economic Drivers

i) Agriculture

A random sample survey


OCCUPATION PATTERN OF THE SAMPLE
of households in
Bodhgaya by HUDCO in
2003 confirmed that 60.00%
53.85%
employment is mostly in
50.00%
primary sector
occupations with over 50% 40.00%
of the sample being
percent

30.00%
employed in agriculture
related occupations. This 20.00%
18.42%
12.75%
underlines two things, firstly 10.53%
10.00%
the essentially rural nature 4.45%

of the town, secondly, the 0.00%


lack of job opportunities in service business agriculturist labourer others
occupation categories
other sectors as it is well
known that agriculture
labour is probably the lowest paid job, and is also seasonal in nature. Yet the benefits of
development are yet to be passed down to the general population.

Over 67% of total town area is under agricultural uses and water bodies. Most of the agricultural
lands concentrated in the rural Northern and Southern sides of the town. A survey by HUDCO in
2003 revealed that the size of the holding is quite small and varies between half acre to 2 acres on
average.

Agriculture is mostly subsistence. Crops grown include wheat rice, flowers and vegetables. The
produce is sold either at Bodhgaya, or at Bakraur. Method of transport includes rickshaws and
carts.

ii) Industries

Bodhgaya has a few industries, which is in keeping with the heritage character of the town. There
are few agro-based industries such as flourmills on the Gaya Dhobi road and a go down on the
riverside road. While there is no established household industrial sector, activities such as blanket

48
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

making and weaving are local crafts that are practiced. There is no presence of IT or other service
industries. There are a few agribased industries.

Table 2.o: Registered manufacturing and services


ECONOMIC BASE YEARS
2001 2005
Manufacturing
Employment n.a n.a
Production (Rs in crores) n.a n.a
Value added (Rs in crores) n.a n.a
Services (IT etc.) nil nil
Employment nil nil
Production or quantum of business (Rs. crore) nil nil
Value added (Rs. crore) nil nil

iii) Commerce

The economic prosperity of this small town is linked with the commerce it supports. Commercial
establishments form an inherent part of a pilgrim town. In case of Bodhgaya, its status as a tourist
and pilgrimage centre has governed the nature of the commerce activities operating in the town.
The town has a flourishing commercial activity; however, the industrial activities are virtually non-
existent. It is necessary to study functions of commercial areas in order to formulate a strategy for
future commercial uses.

In Bodhgaya commercial establishments are concentrated along the central town road (Domuha
road) and near the Mahabodhi Temple Complex. Considerable commercial activities, including
informal and formal shops have come up all along the Mahabodhi temple and the intersection of
the central spine and the riverside road. The local Bodhgaya Bazaar located close to the
Mahabodhi temple is the makeshift CBD (Central Business District) serving the commercial needs of
the town and the outlying areas. There is no separate specialised wholesale market, as the entire
commercial activity, retail and wholesale, sale of perishable and non-perishable goods, appears to
be concentrated in this market. A vegetable market is also located in the same area, which causes
considerable nuisance in the area. Most of the development is highly organic and haphazard in
nature. A number of hawkers also add to the confusion and disorder in the area.

BTMC shopping outside the Temple

There are two planned markets in the town. The first was made under the IDSMT scheme near the

49
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Maya Sarovar. The other market is the BTMC complex that contains shops related to the tourists and
is located right opposite the Mahabodhi Temple.

Nature of establishments: There are three types of commercial activities presently within Bodhgaya.

Shopping (retail and wholesale)


Hotels and dharamshalas
Informal sector shopping

In absence of any data available about these activities at the local level, a sample survey was
conducted in which 50-100% of shops in various wards of the town, 100% of hotels and 100% of the
informal sector establishments were surveyed. These surveys have been used to build up a profile of
the commercial activities. A brief profile of these activities based on the surveys is given below.

The shopping (retail and wholesale):


Most of the shopping activity is small
scale and unplanned in nature and
operating out of house cum shops.
Most of the shops are retail shops or
services such as restaurant or STD
booths etc. There is an absence of
substantial wholesale trade at
Bodhgaya.

Most of the commercial


establishments surveyed were
general merchants, or sold goods for
local needs such as toys, vegetables
etc. Only a very small percentage (7.8%) sold goods related to religious practices or tourist needs.
This is typical of the retail commercial character of a small town, where local needs are met
through commerce and great deal of specialization has not occurred.

The higher order market for sale, purchase of goods for the commercial establishment seems to be
primarily Gaya. This highlights the close economic linkages between the two towns.

Informal Sector Establishments: Bodhgaya has a substantial informal commercial sector that mainly
survives on the tourist trade. There was no data available regarding the number, and type of
informal sector establishments. Therefore, A survey was conducted of the informal sector
establishments with the help of the footpath workers union.

Informal sector establishments are of three types, namely the chowki or a shop on the footpath
without any covering, a gumti or a kiosk and a thela or a mobile shop on handcart. It was found
that majority of the informal sector workers have chowkis, with over 8% having thelas.

50
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

The impact of tourism on the growth of informal sector was clearly discerned by the type of goods
sold, with over a quarter of establishments selling temple related and tourist related goods. These
establishments are all located around the Temple.

Table 2.p: Informal Sector Establishments And The Type Of Goods Sold
TYPE OF GOODS SOLD NO. OF ESTABLISHMENTS PERCENT
Temple related 134 25.2%
Tourist related 10 1.9%
Food related 53 10.0%
General provisions 75 14.1%
Cosmetics 56 10.5%
Paan/ cigarette 21 3.9%
Clothes 70 13.2%
Electronic goods 40 7.5%
Vegetable 7 1.3%
Others 66 12.4%
Total 532 100.0%
(Source: HUDCO Bodhgaya Town Panchayat Survey)

On an average, each informal sector worker operates in about 32 sq. ft. of space, works alone or
with his family for about 13 hours per day. They have little access to services or facilities and the
working conditions are generally poor. An average informal sector worker earns about Rs. 3000 per
month. There is a wide variation in income depending on the season. During tourist season an
average informal sector establishment makes Rs 4300 per month, whereas during off-season he
makes only about Rs. 2030 per month. This highlights the close economic link of the informal sector
with tourism.

iv) Religious Tourism/ Pilgrimage


TOURIST ARRIVALS AT BODHGAYA
Bodhgaya is an important tourist - 1998 TO 2001
and pilgrimage destination of 250000
the Buddhist circuit (Bodhgaya-
Rajgir Nalanda Patna 200000
NO. OF TOURISTS

Vaishali - Lauriya Nandangarh-


Lauriya Areraj Kesariya 150000 DOMESTIC
Vikramsila). People of all religious FOREIGN
milieu including Buddhists are 100000 TOTALS
drawn to the land of
enlightenment. Tourism is a 50000
significant contributor to
Bodhgayas economy. It is the 0
mainstay of the town, as the 1998 1999 2000 2001
population directly or indirectly
thrives on the extensive tourist influx within the town. PERCENTAGE OF FORIEGN TOURISTS
AMONG TOTAL TOURISTS

Tourist Trends 15%-


foreign
tourists
In the last decade, tourist arrivals in Bodhgaya
have shown an upward trend. Estimates are that in
2001 about 2.1 lakhs tourists visited Bodhgaya out
of which nearly 31,000 were foreign tourists.
85%-
indian
An analysis of tourist flow indicates that the peak tourists
season for tourist arrivals is during November to

51
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

January, and from July to September. However, most tourists are short-term visitors who do not stay
overnight. The daily tourist inflow is high, which demands for improved transportation facilities.

Pilgrims Profile

A random sample of the visitors revealed that 90%of the tourists visiting Bodhgaya is composed of
pilgrims, who come here to pay homage to Lord Buddha. Of these, about 80% are Indian. (Source:
District Administration and BTMC)

Majority of Indian, Tibetan or south Asian pilgrims are often on a shoestring budget. (Rs 500-1000 per
day) They mostly stay in Dharamshalas or monasteries, which have come up all over the town.
During normal times, the town is able to absorb this influx, but during peak times, the
accommodation is scarce, and many pilgrims stay as paid guests in private houses, in less than
hygienic or safe conditions. Random discussions with monks and pilgrims revealed the need for low
cost and hygienic accommodation. Av stay of Indian pilgrims varies from 2-3 days

The other pilgrims from south East Asian


countries or European countries are relatively
high-end tourist with affordability varying from
50 $ -300 dollars per day, with 200 $ on
average. They stay in luxury hotels or AC
guesthouses within their monasteries. A survey
of hotels revealed that luxury rooms are
available in plenty in Bodhgaya, but there is a
dearth of cheap accommodation (see
below)

The influx of pilgrims is the greatest during the


Kalchakra Mela time when about one to two
lakh visitors descend on Bodhgaya. From July
to October there is a heavy inflow of Burmese,
Thai and Sri Lankan pilgrims who come here
to meditate and offer pujas. These groups
stay here for a brief period of 2-3 days.
Buddhists from other countries also visit
Bodhgaya during the period. During Mela
time, the pilgrims stay in makeshift camping
facilities put up by the district authorities. Most
of the times even the administrative
machinery fails to make adequate provisions
and then the pilgrims stay on rent within
Bodhgaya town in transit, paying guest
accommodations. Pilgrims face many problems due to lack of facilities during festival times.

Pilgrim Accommodation

Hotels and dharamshalas constitute an important component of economic activity within the
town. A number of hotel, guesthouses and unauthorized retail activity have come up on the
central spine and around the Temple. While the space along the central spine was reserved in the
last master plan for the hotels, its scale and the architectural character is a cause of concern.
Bodhgaya has a bed capacity of 500 beds with the hotels catering mostly to middle or high-
income groups.

A survey was carried out to study the condition of available tourist accommodation in Bodhgaya.
The findings of the survey are being enumerated here:

52
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Box: Survey of Hotels (Details in Annexure)

30 hotels were surveyed within Bodhgaya. The results of the survey are given below

The year of establishment ranges from 1982 to 2002 with 20 % in 1998 and 10 % each for
1995,1996,1999,2000 & 2001. This shows the fast development trends in recent decades.
The tourist season is from October to March with the peak number of tourists in December and
January.
Over 40,000 tourists stayed in these hotels in 2002-03, with an average of 1400 tourist per hotel.
The hotels at Bodhgaya have a total bed capacity of 1188 beds in 615 rooms, which are distributed
among 573 double bed rooms and 42 single rooms. On average, the number of rooms per hotel is 23,
with 3 single rooms and 20 double rooms.
A study of the tariff structure indicated that the average rate for double room is 350 rupees and for
single room is 300 rupees. The rates go up by 15 to 20 percent during the peak period. In off-season,
more cheap accommodation is available as compared to the tourist season, when lower end
accommodation becomes scarce.
Only 6.65 percent of the total bed capacity is in the less than 150 rupees per day category while 38%
of the beds are available in the under Rs. 500 category during the peak time. Over 28% of the beds
are in the higher end category.
During the peak season almost all the rooms in the hotels are filled up. The hotels have 39 days
(average) of full occupancy in a year. During the rest of the year, occupancy varies from 40% to 70%.
Most Hotels are filled up during Kalchakra and make special arrangements for pilgrims during
Kalchakra festival that includes providing electricity by hiring of generators, Giving blankets on rent,
providing water by hiring of water tanks in outdoor spaces. (Source: HUDCO Survey 2003)

Hotels: At the time of the survey, there were around 30 hotels (2003) in Bodhgaya, which were
surveyed for the purposes of establishing their characteristics and their problems. The survey
revealed that most of the hotels have been established within the past twenty years. There has
been a rapid growth in the commerce in the last decade.

The hotels at Bodhgaya have a total bed capacity of 1188 beds in 615 rooms, which are distributed
among 573 double bed rooms and 42 single rooms. On an average, the number of rooms per hotel
is 23, with 3 single rooms and 20 double rooms. While there is substantial bed capacity at the higher
end, there are only 79 beds during the peak time for the lower end visitors. The tourist season is from
October to March with the peak number of tourist in December and January. During the peak
season, almost all the rooms in the hotels are occupied. The hotels have 39 days (average) of full
occupancy in a year. The occupancy varies from 40% to 70% during the rest of the year.

Table 2q : Available Bed Capacity At Bodhgaya


CAPACITY
Double Single Total
HOTELS IN No. of No. of beds No. of No. of beds Total number of Total number of
BODHGAYA rooms rooms rooms beds
573 1146 42 42 615 1188
(Source: HUDCO Bodhgaya Town Panchayat Survey, 2003)

An analysis of the tariff rates showed that rates vary considerably between the off-season and the
tourist season. In off-season, more cheap accommodation is available as compared to the tourist
season, when lower end accommodation becomes scarce. The rates go up by 15 to 20 percent
during the peak period. Capacity of the lower end accommodation is inadequate, whereas
sufficient beds are available at the higher end for the time being.

53
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Table 2r : Bed Capacity And Tariff Rates At Bodhgaya


TARIFF RATES (RUPEES CAPACITY
PER DAY) Double Single Total
No. Of No. Of No. Of No. Of Total Total Percent of
rooms beds rooms beds number of number of total beds
rooms beds
Less than 150 36 72 7 7 43 79 6.65%
150- 499 217 434 18 18 235 452 38.05%
500 -999 56 112 3 3 59 115 9.68%
1000- 1499 50 100 0 0 50 100 8.42%
1500 and above 162 324 14 14 176 338 28.45%
Rates not avail. 52 104 0 0 52 104 8.75%
Total 573 1146 42 42 615 1188 100.00%
(Source: HUDCO Bodhgaya Town Panchayat Survey)

The above has proved that there is urgent need to provide low cost accommodation, and facilities
like cheaper restaurants and public toilets for the pilgrims. Setting up of a tourist police will also help
in providing additional security to visitors.

Tourism in Bodhgaya and Multiplier effects

Religious tourism plays an important part in Bodhgayas economy and has impacts on other sectors
also. As given earlier, an average Indian or south Asian pilgrim spends Rs 500 in Bodhgaya and an
average foreign tourist will spend Rs 10,000 ( 200 $) in Bodhgaya. Taking an average of 2 lakh
tourists, with 30,000 being foreign tourists, it is estimated that pilgrims are directly contributing nearly
40 crores annually to Bodhgaya. This estimate does not include the donations made to the Temple
and the monasteries by the tourists. This will only increase in future as Bodhgaya receives more
investment and its environment improves.

According to our survey, hotels have generated 200 jobs, monasteries have generated 50 jobs
and the informal sector has generated 200 jobs for the local people. The assessment of indirect
benefits is difficult but the study of trade and commerce, and informal sector done earlier shows
that a large part of the informal sector is dependant on tourism and temple/ pilgrimage related
activities. It has a significant effect on the trade and commerce too. Tourism sector is highly labour
intensive. A survey by the Govt of India notes that the rate of employment generation (direct and
indirect) in tourism is 52 persons employed per Rs. 10 lakh investment (based on 1992-93 price
index). Bodhgaya has received at least 10 crores of investment in tourism related projects in the
past five years. As per this multiplier, at least 5000 jobs should have been created in Bodhgaya due
to tourism.

The study of the economic scenario has revealed that Bodhgaya needs to create jobs in diverse
sectors in order to boost its economic scenario. It has also highlighted the overwhelming
importance of Mahabodhi Temple and tourism and pilgrimage activities as economic lifelines of
the town. The dependence of agriculture should gradually decrease as jobs become available in
secondary sectors. Planning for jobs in service sectors, pilgrimage etc. is also very important, as this
will dominate its economic scenario in the years to come.

2.7 Infrastructure

2.7.1 status of existing infrastructure services

The status of existing infrastructure services at Bodhgaya is summarised below.

The main source of water supply of the town is ground water, which is drawn from six high yield
powered tube wells The water supplied is untreated, and is not even chlorinated. The system
does not cover the entire town.

54
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Bodhgaya presently has no sewerage system. The untreated sewage is disposed off directly
into the storm water drains and ends up either in the open channels or into the river and the
low lying area around it.
Bodhgaya traditionally had a drainage and irrigation system, Ahars (Surface reservoirs) and
pynes (Channels), which is now defunct and is one of the reasons for water logging.
The system of solid waste collection is unorganised and the procedure of house-to-house
collection is not activated. Solid waste is disposed either along roadsides or in vacant, low-
lying lands or drains. The present system is grossly inadequate.
The existing source of Electric Supply to Bodhgaya is BSEB Power Grid. The present requirement
of Bodhgaya is 3 MW. The requirement of Power however increases during peak periods to
about 6 MW.
The availability of urban services to the households of the town is still quite unsatisfactory. 2001
census reveals 43% households have electric connections. Similarly, 38% of households have
toilet facilities, whereas 62% of household still do not have toilets (2001 census). In 2001 41% of
the households have access to water supply facilities within their premises. The majority of
households in Bodhgaya still do not have access to urban services. The ground water levels are
quite high at Bodhgaya. Bodhgaya primarily has a clay soil, which further inhibits the
absorption of water. The inner areas around the Temple are very flat and face a problem of
water logging. High water tables can also threaten the foundation of the Mahabodhi temple,
which is at a lower elevation compared to the rest of the town.

Table 2.s: Status Of Infrastructure At Bodhgaya


INDICATOR SUB-INDICATOR DETAILS
Water availability Installed capacity 2.7 mld
Released / day 2.7 mld
Source of Water Ground water from Six high yield powered tube wells (Four
Supply tubewells located at Bhojwar village, one each
10-50 sq. km located at Siria Ghat and Tikka Bigha) are
primarily supplying water to the Bodhgaya
town. All these tube wells are situated along
the western bank of Nairanjana River. These
tube wells have been installed, and
presently maintained and operated by the
Public Health Engineering Department
(PHED), Bihar
Water Coverage 52% have access to individual connections
Per capita Supply 150 lpcd
Supply duration 8-12 hours
Sewerage system Waste water generated Information not available
daily (mld)
Disposal capacity (mld) One STP and four sewage stations (system
not functional). No organized system for
collection, conveyance, treatment and
disposal of sewage that is generated within
the town.
Present operating Nil
capacity (mld)
Households connected to 10% approx.
underground sewerage
(%)
Solid Waste Waste generation daily 15.5 MT
(tonnes/day)
Collection daily (tonnes No organized system existing in Bodhgaya
per day) town to collect municipal solid waste
Storm water drainage Annual rainfall (mm) 986.7 mm

55
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Length of storm water 9.5 kms (major drains)


drains (km)
Roads and road Municipal roads (km) 50 kms
transport
State level roads ( km) 12 kms
Public transport Cycle rickshaws, tongas
Buses (number) n.a
Bus capacity / passenger n.a
Private registered vehicles 4000 (281 in last year)
Street lighting Number Not available
Area Coverage % 70%
Sectoral details are given in the coming sections.

2.7.2 Water Supply

Source:
The existing source of water supply to Bodhgaya town is ground water. The ground water table
varies from zero to 5 m. at the Nairanjana (Falgu) riverbed, and from 6m to 12m in the high land of
the town. Since the ground water table is high, plenty of ground water is available for the town. As
a result, ground water source is being utilized for supply of water to the town. Water is supplied to
the town by drawing water through a number of powered tube well (TW) s as a part of the
organised water supply system. In addition to these tube wells, numbers of hand pumps also
provide water to individual houses.

Water Quality:
No data was available with the local authorities regarding quality of ground water that is being
supplied to the Bodhgaya town. In order to have a minimum water quality standard, the following
physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters are required to be tested and analysed for the
raw water as obtained from the tube wells when any scheme for future water supply for town is
prepared:

Physical Parameters Turbidity, Colour, Taste and Odour.


Chemical Parameters pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Alkalinity, Hardness,
Iron, Fluorides, Arsenic, Lead, Mercury and Pesticides
Bacteriological Parameters Faecal Coliform Bacteria

However in the Hydro-geological report submitted by Jamia Milia Islamia it has been mentioned
that Central Ground Water Board has carried out explorations in hard rocks in Gaya, Nawada,
Nalanda districts and the quality of ground water in fracture has been found to be potable.

Existing Water Supply System of Bodhgaya:


Six high yield powered tube wells (Four located at Bhojwar village, one each located at Siria Ghat
and Tikka Bigha) are primarily supplying water to the Bodhgaya town. All these tube wells are
situated along the western bank of Nairanjana River. These tube wells have been installed, and
presently maintained and operated by the Public Health Engineering Department (PHED), Bihar.
Among the four tube-wells located at Bhojwar village, two operate at a time and the other two
remain idle, thus providing 100% standby in normal times. Water drawn from these tube wells is
pumped to OHSR having capacity of 0.45 Million Litre (ML), located near Japan Monastery and
behind 80 ft high Buddha statue. The pump capacity is 30 bhp, run by JMP Induction Motor with
1465 rpm and efficiency of 88.5%. The pumps are operated on an average 8-12 hours per day
depending on the water requirement of the town.

Water from the 0.45 ML capacity OHSR is mainly supplied to Raipur, Bhagwanpur, New Taridi,
Harijan Colony, Mastipur, Piparpati, Mia-Bigha, part of Pachetti, Rajapur, Sujata Bypass and
Mahabodhi Temple area. Another OHSR with a capacity of 0.225 ML and located near Bodhgaya

56
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

main market receives water from two tube


wells located at Siria Ghat and Tikka Bigha
by pumping and is presently supplying
water to the Bodhgaya main market, part
of Pachetti, part of Piparpali, part of
Mastipur and Taridi. At Siria Ghat pumping
station, the capacity of the pump is 17.5
bhp with NGEP Induction Motor having
1460rpm and operated in 13 kW. Both the
above-mentioned OHSRs are supplying
water to the Bodhgaya town through a
water supply distribution network.

The distribution of water is done through


100 mm to 250 mm dia. CI pipelines. Total
length of the distribution main is 11.63 km.
75 public stand posts are also provided
within the town, besides 150 hand pumps
to meet the water requirements.

Socio-economic sample survey conducted


for Gaya-Bodhgaya area suggests that the
families living in the pucca structures are
consumers for about two thirds of the total
water supply. Residents of semi-pucca and kacha structures, account for about 38% of the town
population and consume about one third of the total water supplied to the town. It is also reported
that about 76% of the total water requirement of the town is met by municipal water supply. 52% of
town population is benefited through house connection and the remaining through public stand
posts, hand pumps, and individuals abstracting ground water.

In addition to the tube wells supplying water to Bodhgaya town, there are two tube wells located in
the Mohabodhi Temple complex. These tube wells cater to the needs of the Mahabodhi Temple
complex. The Bodhgaya Temple Management Committee (BTMC) maintains these two tube wells.
During discussions with the BTMC officials it was learnt that a substantial quantity of water is used for
feeding the Lotus Pond situated within the Mahabodhi Temple complex to maintain the water level
of the pond.

Magadh University has an independent water supply system. Water supply to the Magadh
University campus is from a battery of three powered tube wells. Water from these tube wells is
pumped to the 0.45 ML capacity OHSR located within the university campus and subsequently
distributed through a water supply distribution network.

Water Demand:
No data is available on the water demand for the different water users. However, the total
domestic demand is given as 5.58 MLD considering a per capita demand of 150 lpcd for a
cumulative population of 0.37lakh (estimated in 2005)

Water Supply:
Total quantity of water supplied to the town (inclusive of losses) from the existing water supply
system is 2.7 MLD. In addition to planned water supply, individual households and business
establishments abstract substantial quantity of ground water.

Water Losses:
Total losses in the water supply system are reported to be 2 % and appears to be low. A realistic
figure should be in the vicinity of 15%, since water loss is observed through the water pipes (Refer
Photo).

Water Quality:
After discussions with the local officials it is understood that no test report is available to assess the
raw ground water quality except the pH. The pH value is reported to be 6.2. This appears to be

57
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

slightly acidic in nature and calls for


detailed and repeated analysis of
water samples from each of the tube
wells, to arrive at a correct value.
However in the Hydro-geological
Report submitted by Jamia Milia
Islamia the overall range of variation in
PH concentration is between 7-7.5.

Water Treatment Facilities:


The water supply is through high yield
powered tube wells. No other source
of water is available except ground
water. Although as per report of Jamia
Milia Islamia the PH value of ground ! "# $! #
water has been reported between 7 to % $#
7.5, which is in order, however, no
further analysis or test report was
available. Hence, it cannot be said at this stage that any specific treatment is required for the
ground water. Normally conventional treatment of ground water is not required except
Chlorination, unless the ground water contains elements like iron, arsenic, fluorides etc. If on testing
the ground water, any of these elements are found to exist beyond permissible limits, in that case
special treatment units shall be required for removal of these elements. In addition Chlorination
shall be done before supplying water to the consumers. Here in this report, the proposed water
supply is based on ground water source i.e. through tube wells along with Chlorination as the only
treatment. As stated, further treatment shall be based on detailed chemical/physical analysis of
the ground water from different locations.

Rain Water Harvesting:


At present water table is high and there is no need for immediate measures for rainwater
harvesting. However, since the underground water is the only source of drinking water and since
the demand of water shall go on increasing with passage of time, it is necessary in the long run, to
utilize the rainwater for maintaining the underground water table by recharging and not allow the
rainwater to go waste.

The Govt. of Bihar should make it compulsory, if not done so far, for installation of Rain Water
Harvesting Structures for all large private houses/ institutions/ commercial buildings in the long run.
Moreover, approvals for new building plans should be given only with provision of Rain Water
Harvesting scheme for the largest buildings.

It may be mentioned that at present all the rainwater from the town/ villages is flowing through the
existing drains along with sullage & sewage either into the existing water bodies or into the river The
sewage / sullage water should not be allowed to flow into storm water drains.

2.7.3 Sewerage and Sewage Treatment

Existing Sewerage and Sewage Treatment Facilities:


No sewerage system is presently functioning in Bodhgaya town. In the past, a sewerage system was
introduced in the town. The sewerage system consisted of a sewer network and four Sewage
Pumping Station (SPS)s. Raw sewage was being pumped to Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) from
these four SPS. At present, the entire sewerage system including the STP is not-functioning and lying
abandoned (Refer Photos below). Rehabilitation of the existing sewerage system is not feasible as
land is not available.

58
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

) & $# ' "( & $# ' ! " (

Existing Wastewater Collection and Disposal Facilities


There is no organized system for collection, conveyance, treatment and disposal of sewage that is
generated within the town. The sanitation facilities are also very poor. Most of the old buildings,
which were earlier connected to the sewers,
do not have even septic tanks for partial
treatment of the sewage. The buildings, which
are comparatively new, have septic tanks.
Many of these septic tanks are also not in good
condition and hence the treatment efficiency
is likely to be poor. At present the sewage
generated from the individual houses,
monasteries, temples and other establishments
is either directly discharged into the nearby
storm water drains without any treatment or
after partial treatment through septic tanks.
This raw or partially treated sewage either finds
' $ ! # !
its way into the main open drains of the town
or inundates the low lying areas including the riverbed (Refer Photo). The main open drains either
terminate in the low agriculture field or in the river.

Open-air defecation in and around the Bodhgaya town is still in practice. Surface flow of sewage in
the open drains, accumulation of waste in the low lying lands together with open air defecation
encourage breeding of flies, mosquitoes and other disease born vectors. Only one public toilet
exists in the town. It is located near the Mahabodhi Main Temple

During the festival period i.e. from October to March when about 70,000 to 2,00,000 of tourists and
pilgrims visit Bodhgaya, lack of proper sanitation facilities create serious problem for the visitors as
well as to the local administration. During the visit of the religious leader Dalai Lama, about 25,000
to 30,000 pilgrims arrive at Bodhgaya and they stay for a period of 10-15 days. The pilgrims mostly
reside in and around the Temple Parikrama area and defecate in the open air. Open land near the
China Monastery is one of such areas for open defecation. Low cost sanitation units for such
population thus are extremely needed in the town.

2.7.4 Storm Water Drainage

Rainfall Data
Monthly and daily normal rainfall data for the Gaya District for last 69 years has been obtained.
These data are furnished in the following table:

Table 2.t : Average monthly rainfall over last 69 years


Sl. No. Month Monthly Normal Rainfall (mm) Daily Normal Rainfall (mm)
1 January 10.9 1.5
2 February 18.5 1.6

59
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Sl. No. Month Monthly Normal Rainfall (mm) Daily Normal Rainfall (mm)
3 March 9.7 1.0
4 April 5.8 0.6
5 May 16.4 1.3
6 June 130.8 6.4
7 July 210.9 13.8
8 August 325.8 14.8
9 September 192.4 9.8
10 October 51.0 2.2
11 November 10.5 0.7
12 December 4.0 0.5
Total (Yearly average) 986.7 54.2

Existing Storm Water Drainage and Disposal Facilities


The condition of the existing storm water drainage
system in Bodhgaya town is also very poor. Five drains
namely, Amwan Payeen, drains from Gandhi Chowk to
Rajapur, from Gandhi Chowk to Mucharim, from
Harijan Colony to tourist bungalow and the drain from
Birla Dharamsala to Amwan Payeen are the major
recipient of the surface run-off of the town (Refer
Photos below).
These are unlined natural drains and most of the
roadside drains are connected to these drains. Present
condition of these drains is very poor, mainly due to the * ) $ ! #
following reasons: !

The storm water drains are carrying combined


flow, sewage and storm water during rains and
sewage during dry weather.
Most part of the stretches are unlined and
uncovered. These result in soil erosion from both
the sides and encourage people to dump solid
wastes into the drains.
Lack of proper maintenance of the storm water
drains result in soil and sludge deposition thus
reducing the carrying capacity of the drains.
Accumulation of solid wastes results in clogging
of the drains and reduces the flow through the * ) ! #' #
drains.

The details of the five main storm water drains are as follows:

Table 2.u: Major Drains in Bodhgaya


Sl. Name of the Passes Through Approx Approx Approx Outfall
No. Drain Length . Width . Depth
(KM) (M) (M)
1 Amwan Gandhi Chowk, Behind the Office 4.5 3.6 1.2 Amwan
Payeen of the Town Panchayat, beside Payeen
Bodhgaya P.S., Pachetti and village
beside Burmese Monastery
2 Gandhi Chowk Bodhgaya main market, Pachetti 1.0 1.2 1.0 Low land
to Rajapur and Rajapur at
Payeen Rajapur

60
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Sl. Name of the Passes Through Approx Approx Approx Outfall


No. Drain Length . Width . Depth
(KM) (M) (M)
3 South of Siriaghat, Low land in the south of 2.0 1.2 1.0 Nairanjan
Gandhi Chowk Bodhgaya Godan Road a River
to Mucharim
4 Harijan Colony Originates from Harijan Colony, 1.0 0.7 0.8 Amwan
to Tourist meets drain coming from Payeen
Bungalow Parkhandh Bodhgaya Office, in
front of Siddharth Hotel and
passes beside Thai Monastery
5 Birla Adjacent to the Kalchakra 1.0 0.7 0.8 Amwan
Dharamsala to Ground Payeen
Amwan
Payeen

It is observed from the above table that the Amwan Payeen is the largest drain and it receives flow
from the drains at Sl. Nos. 4 and 5. Amwan Payeen was primarily made as an irrigation canal. Earlier
this drain was exclusively used as an irrigation canal and used to receive water from the Nairanjana
River by means of a sluice gate. At present the sluice gate is inoperative and the drain receives
river water only when the surface water level of the river rises above the bed level of the Amwan
Payeen.

In addition to the above five main drains, a few roadside pucca storm water drains also exist in the
Bodhgaya town. Most of these drains are carrying sewage and sullage (Refer Photo).

According to Hydrological study report submitted by Jamia Milia Islamia, New Delhi the rainwater
does not percolate due to presence of clay underneath the alluvial plain. This causes water
logging during rains, especially in and around the Mahabodhi temple.

2.7.5 Solid Waste Management

Generation
The total quantity of solid waste generated from various sources in Bodhgaya town is 15.5 MT. The
figures of waste generation from individual sources such as domestic, hotels, vegetable markets,
shops and other commercial establishments and hospitals i.e. primary health centre etc. are not
available.

Norms for calculation of Generated MSW


Central Pollution Control Board specifies generation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in small,
medium and large cities/towns as 0.1 kg, or 0.3-0.4 kg and 0.5 kg per capita per day.

Bodhgaya being medium size


of town with tourist inflow, the
norm of 0.35 kg/capita per
day has been adopted. For
assessed total population of
2004-2005 as 37000, the
quantity of MSW generated
works out to 15.0 MT. A little
higher figure of 15.5 MT is
taken considering tourist and
pilgrim presence.

Waste Composition
The municipal solid waste in Solid waste accumulation on both sides of an existing storm water drain

61
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Bodhgaya town constitutes 60% organic components, 35% inorganic substances and 5% inert
materials as per the town panchayat. Composite sampling of the wastes generated from various
sources in Bodhgaya town is required and the same should be analysed to evaluate the realistic
composition of the municipal solid waste of the town.

Existing Solid Waste Collection, Transportation and Disposal Facilities


Bodhgaya Nagar Panchayat (BGNP) is primarily responsible for solid waste management of the
town.

Collection of Solid Waste


There is no organized system existing in Bodhgaya town to collect municipal solid waste. House to
house collection of solid waste is not in practice. Solid wastes generated by individuals are either
dumped on the roadside or thrown into the open and low lands, existing storm water drains and
streets.

There are about 15-20 earmarked collection points in the town (Refer Photo opp). Sweepers of the
BGNP sweep the streets and accumulate the swept waste into a number of small heaps and
subsequently transfer this waste to the collection points. The street sweeping is done on a regular
basis.

Besides polluting the air and water, the


haphazard disposal of solid wastes
results in blockage of storm water
drains, keeps the town unclean and
causes potential source for breeding
of flies and other harmful vectors.
During the visit, it was also observed
that the solid waste/sludge from the
drain cleaning were dumped by the
sides of the drains and are not
removed regularly
$% ' * *

At present, 21 sweepers (15 for street sweeping and 6 for cleaning of drains) supervised by a Head
Jamader are involved in sweeping of roads and cleaning of drains of the town.

Transportation of Solid Wastes


The existing mode of transporting municipal solid waste is by hand carts and tractor fitted with
trailer. Six BGNP hand carts (Refer Photo opposite) are used to collect and transport solid wastes to
the nearest dumping points.

The BGNP does not own vehicle for transportation of solid wastes. The Bodhgaya Nagar Panchayat
hires private tractor-trailers on as and when requirement basis to transport municipal solid wastes
from the designated collection points to the disposal points. The municipal solid waste is
transported in the uncovered vehicles. This causes foul smell, littering of waste during transportation,
unhygienic and anaesthetic condition and air pollution.

$% & ' ( )

62
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Disposal of Solid Waste


There is no well-defined disposal site existing in Bodhgaya town for scientific disposal of municipal
solid wastes of the town. Solid wastes generated in the town are presently disposed in different
dumping sites, located in low lands, riverbed and even in the existing storm water drain (Refer
Photos).

During monsoon, wastes from these dumping sites are washed out and flow either to the river,
drains or flood adjacent areas. One of such dumping sites is located in the place designated for
offerings to the ancestors (Pinddan Ghat) in the bank of Nairanjana River.

Another solid waste dumping site is situated in the low-lying area near Kani House. The BGNP has
identified a low-lying area near Dahriya Bigha, Nebtapur (East & West) as a proposed solid waste
disposal site.

& ' + * * *
' '

2.7.6 Electric Supply

Source
The existing source of Electric Supply to Bodh Gaya is BSEB Power Grid 220/132/33 KV. 33 KV
overhead lines connect the Power Grid to 33/11 KV Buddhist Power Station. On its way it is tapped
for Magadh University Area. The take over point for Bodh Gaya complex is 33/11 KV Buddhist Power
Station.

Present Requirement of Electricity.


The present requirement of Bodh Gaya is approximately 3 MW as detailed below :
a) Domestic - 0.4 MW approx.
b) Religious Establishments- 0.1 MW approx.
c) Industries - 0.2 MW approx.
d) Offices - 0.1 MW approx.
e) Commercial complex including restaurants- 1.5 MW approx.
f) Street Lights - 0.1 MW approx.
g) Monuments - 0.6 MW approx.
The requirement of Power however increases during Mela (Peak period) to about 6.0 MW.

Availability of Excess Power During Mela (Peak period).


The excess power requirement during Mela (Peak period) is met under instructions from central
load dispatch Patna.

Existing Electric Supply System.


33 KV supply through overhead line is brought to 33/11 KV Buddhist Power Station (Take over point)
from BSEB Power Grid 220/132/33 KV. On its way this 33 KV line is tapped by Maghad University for

63
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

supply in their complex. 33 KV supply so received is transformed to 11 KV by 33/11 KV - 2 Nos 5 MVA


transformers. One of the transformer supplies 11 KV output to Root Institute & Tikabigha side through
8 Nos 11 KV/ 433 Volts outdoor transformers and LT OH net work. The second transformer supplies to
the rest of the complex through 22 Nos outdoor type 11 KV/ 433 Volts transformers and LT net work.

Mahabodhi Temple complex


LT Supply to temple complex is made through outdoor type LT 11 KV/433 Volts transformer from the
2nd feeder specified above.

Magadh University Campus.


Magadh University receives 33 KV supply enroute by tapping the 33 KV OH line coming from BSEB
Power Grid to 33 KV Buddhist Power Station. The supply is then transformed to 11 KV/ 433 Volts for
supply within the University campus.

Electric Losses
Total losses in Electric Supply are reported to be 20% including transformation & distribution losses
that are little on the higher side.

2.7.7 Availability of Services

The water supply scenario has considerably improved over the past decade. In 1991, only 4% of
households had water supply available within their premises, whereas, in 2001 41% of the
households have access to water supply facilities within their premises. 36.4% of households have
access to water supply near their premises and 22.3% of the households are still required to fetch
water from places further off from their dwelling units.

Similarly, 38% of households have toilet facilities, whereas 62% of household still do not have toilets
(2001 census). In 1991, only 19% of households had toilets so there has been a small improvement in
the past decade but much more still needs to be done.

A comparison of the 1991 census and 2001 census reveals that in 1991, only 19% households had
electric connections, whereas in 2001, 43% households have electric connections. This is definitely
an improvement, but it cannot be considered an achievement as 57% households are still without
connections

The availability of basic services to the households of the town has improved significantly over the
past decade, but overall the situation is still quite unsatisfactory. The majority of households in
Bodhgaya still do not have access to urban services and this is a worrying situation as it has grave
implications on the character of the urban environment. If the quality of life of the residents is poor
and they do not have access to basic services, the degradation of the urban environment is
inevitable. Urgent measures are required through provision of sensitively designed urban services to
preserve the serenity and sanctity of the town environs.

Table 2.v: Access to basic facilities


HH WITH WATER HH WITH WATER COONECTIONS OUTSIDE
CONNECTIONS WITHIN PREMISE
TOTAL NO OF PREMISE NEAR AWAY
HOUSEHOLDS NOS. PERCENT NOS. PERCENT NOS. PERCENT
YEAR- 1991 3460 145 4.2% 2565 74.1% 750 21.7%
YEAR- 2001 4672 1929 41.3% 1699 36.4% 1044 22.3%
HH WITH TOILETS HH WITHOUT TOILETS
NO OF HOUSEHOLDS NOS. PERCENT NOS. PERCENT

YEAR- 1991 3460 550 16% 2910 84%

64
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

YEAR- 2001 4672 1798 38% 2874 62%


HH WITH ELECTRIC
CONNECTIONS HH WITHOUT ELECTRIC CONNECTIONS
NO OF HOUSEHOLDS NOS. PERCENT NOS. PERCENT

YEAR - 1991 3460 670 19% 2790 81%


YEAR - 2001 4672 2005 43% 2667 57%

2.8. Housing

2.8.1 Existing Housing Stock

DECADAL INCREASE IN POPULATION AND NO. OF


According to the 2001 census, 35000 HOUSEHOLDS IN BODHGAYA
there are 4672 households in 30883
30000
Bodhgaya that account for an
overall population of 30,448 25000 21692
persons. The town shows a 20000 15724
trend of increasing household
15000
size, which is in stark
contradiction to the country 10000
3460 4672
wide trend of lowering in 5000 2480
house hold sizes. This may be
0
due to the nominal increase in
the number of institutional YEAR 1981 YEAR 1991 YEAR 2001
households compared to the
increase in the overall number
of households in Bodhgaya.

According to the 1991 census, the total housing stock in Bodhgaya was 4423 census houses as
against 4672 households, implying a minor shortage. Many houses sustain more than one
household. As per the 2001 census, 54% of these census houses are permanent, 25% are semi
permanent and only 20.4% of the houses are temporary.

Table 2.w: Distribution Of Census Houses (2001)


CENSUS HOUSES NUMBERS PERCENTAGE
Permanent 2394 54.1%
Semi permanent 1129 25.5%
Temporary Serviceable 856 19.4%
Non serviceable 44 1.0%
TOTAL 4423 100.0%
(Source: Census of India, 2001)
NOTE:
Permanent: houses with wall and roof made of permanent material
Semi permanent: either wall or roof is made of permanent material and other is made of temporary
material
Temporary: houses with wall and roof made of temporary material
Serviceable: wall is made of mud, unburnt brick or wood
Non-serviceable: wall is made of grass, thatch, bamboo, plastic or polythene.

2.8.2 Housing Profile

The town comprises of 32 neighborhoods (tolas). Bodhgaya is in a state of transition and contains a
mix of tolas that still retain the open rural character and neighborhoods that are totally urbanized.
The dwellings in the urbanised tolas have no distinctive character. The units in the urbanised tolas

65
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

are box type structures with flat roofs


and with hardly any provision for
open space. Most of the dwellings
show a tendency to cover the open
space to increase the usable area
within the unit. ( For detailed housing
profile , refer primary surveys in
annexure)

2.8.3 Housing characteristics

A primary survey by HUDCO


revealed that :
AGE OF STRUCTURES
Most of the structures are relatively
20%
new with over 80% of the structures 18% 19%
18%
constructed during the past thirty
16%
years. Average age of structure is 25 14% 12%
years. This shows the fast paced 11%
pe rce nt
12%
growth that has overtaken 10% 9%
Bodhgaya. 7%
8% 6% 7%
6%
6%
The outlying wards have older 4% 3%
2%
structures whereas the central wards 2% 0%
have relatively newer structures. This 0%
shows that transformations are taking 0-5 6-10 11-15 16-20 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 > 40 40-45 45-50 > 50
place rapidly in the central areas of years
Bodhgaya.

Most of the respondents lived in OWNERSHIP PATTERN

own houses, with only 7% living in 7.43


rented houses.

Average plot sizes of the


respondents surveyed were about
150 sqm. The plots are generally owned
quite heavily built with 72% area rented
covered. The central wards have
higher plot sizes compared to the
outlying wards. Mostly, the plot
sizes are under 200 sqm , with less
10% of respondents surveyed living
in plots over 300 sqm. 92.57

WARD AV. PLOT SIZE AV. BUILT UP AREA AV. GROUND COVERAGE
1 173.00 142.00 82.1%
2 88.92 67.53 75.9%
3 85.00 66.10 77.8%
4 176.30 86.36 49.0%
5 167.00 154.00 92.2%
6 63.1 39.08 63.3%
7 89.00 45.00 50.6%
8 172.58 116.00 67.2%
9 100.36 83.86 83.6%
10 100.37 93.93 93.6%
11 175.00 144.00 82.3%
12 145.21 98.61 67.9%

66
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

13 411.00 380.00 92.5%


14 215.00 207.00 96.3%
AVERAGE 149.91 123.11 72.2%

Number of rooms

On average, the houses in Bodhgaya had 4.8 rooms per DU, including the living rooms and store
rooms. This shows the typically small town character of housing here, with many rooms even in the
houses of the poorer sections.

Use Of Structures

Nearly three fourths of the residents NUMBER OF FLOORS


surveyed used their dwellings only for
residential uses while 20% used it for 6.14

residential as well as commercial 11.93

purposes. Over 5% used the buildings for


other uses such as guesthouses etc.

No. of floors G
G+1
G+2&above
The housing in the town has a low-rise
character with over 80% of the structures
77.21
having only single storey.

2.8.4 Housing shortage

There is no substantial housing shortage in Bodhgaya. As per the 2001 census, there are about 4672
households as against 4423 houses. Only 249 households do not have their own houses. Considering
the prevalence of the joint family system, the shortage may actually be much smaller. The census
has enumerated only about 27 houseless households. In addition to shortage, one has to consider
the need for up gradation of housing stock. These include houses which may be unfit for habitation
or which may require substantial upgradation in the near future. A substantial number of existing
housing may need to be replaced in the next 25 years.

2.9 Slums, urban poverty and Urban Renewal needs

2.9.1 Number of Slum Dwellers

In Bodhgaya, a considerable number of households are classified considered as slums by the local
authority. The district administration has classified nearly 3500 households under slums at present.

Table 2x: households under slums


YEAR NUMBER OF HOUSEHOLDS UNDER SLUMS
1991 2000
2001 2000
2005 2500

2.9.2 Classification

However, the basis of such classification is not clear


and a rapid assessment of these settlements showed
that a generic area classification seems to have been
done with almost half the population, and most of the
inner town being classified as slums. We do not agree
with this classification. The character of areas classified
as slums in Bodhgaya differs vastly from that of a big
city, or a typical slum anywhere else. A detailed survey

67
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

needs to be initiated to relook at the classification of


slums.

2.9.3 Type of Slums

Overall, there are two types of slums within the town,


firstly those falling within the inner city, and secondly
those falling in outer areas. The first category includes
mohallas, which have residents of EWS/ LIG category.
These settlements are actually rural settlements,
which have now come within the inner city and are deficient in infrastructure.

The second category of slums includes areas that are former rural settlements, recently come within
the urban boundaries. Some of these are small village settlements with primarily SC/ ST population
that is working as agriculture labour. These settlements are very poor and most of these areas have
little or no access to basic services that is urgently needed. and has a vernacular character. The
nature of such housing is kutcha or semi pucca housing.

2.9.4 Land Ownership and tenure status

Most slums in Bodhgaya are located on private land and are old mohallas or urban villages in
nature. Within these areas, most of the people have their own housing which may be dilapidated
in nature, and small. Security of tenure of slums in Bodhgaya is not an issue till now, as
encroachment seen in bigger cities is an unknown phenomenon here. However, rise in land prices
are likely to affect access of urban poor to housing in future. Subsidized housing need to be
provided to ensure that this does not happen.

2.9.2 Access of the slum dwellers to basic services

The access of slum dwellers to basic services is very poor. (Refer table below) Very less attention has
been paid in Bodhgaya to the issue of provision of basic services. Community participation or
involvement in efforts on slum improvement is lacking. Unhygienic conditions prevail among the
slums and urban environmental improvement is very much the need of the hour. The need here is
to provide in-situ upgradation of housing with area improvement and provision of physical
infrastructure for all.

Table 2.y: Access Of The Slum Dwellers To Basic Services


YEAR NUMBER OF HOUSEHOLDS PERCENTAGE OF SLUM DWELLERS HAVING ACCESS TO
UNDER SLUMS
Water Supply Drainage System Waste Service
Collection
1991 2000 15% 10% 2%
2001 2000 20% 10% 2%
2005 3500 20% 15% 3%
Source: Nagar Panchayat, Bodhgaya, 2006

2.9.6 Urban poverty and review of urban poverty programmes.

Urban poverty is not confined to slums alone. Low-income levels and lack of opportunities have
ensured that urban poverty is a widespread phenomenon in Bodhgaya, despite BPL figures being
low. Poverty is also seasonal as many people are employed in the informal sector, which is
seasonal. People also work as agricultural labourers, again a seasonal activity. (Refer section on
economic base)

As seen earlier, Bodhgaya has only 8% of people below poverty line, but the number of people with
low-income levels is quite high. This brings attentions to the issue of urban poverty alleviation
programs. There are mainly two types of urban poverty alleviation programmes in the town, SJSRY
for employment generation and NSDP for slum improvement.

68
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY): SJSRY is a centrally sponsored scheme and mainly
emphasizes on poverty reduction through employment generation. Main target of the program are
urban poor, women, SC/ST etc. Bodhgaya has received a small amount under this scheme in 2004.
The investment is too small to make any impact.

National Slum Development program or NSDP is mainly for improvement in the environment of
slums. Bodhgaya received 8- 10 lakhs under this scheme in past two years. Again, the amount of
investment is very small and has not had much impact. (Refer table below)

Table 2z: year wise expenditure on central govt. schemes

S NAME OF THE
YEAR 2002 YEAR 2003 YEAR 2004 YEAR 2005
NO SCHEME

Sanctioned Expenditure Sanctioned Expenditure Sanctioned Expenditure Sanctioned Expenditure


Amount (Rs) Incurred (Rs) Amount (Rs) Incurred (Rs) Amount (Rs) Incurred (Rs) Amount (Rs) Incurred (Rs)

National Slum
Development
1 Nil Nil Nil Nil 805000 763000 1083000 855482
programme
(NSDP)
Swaran
Jayanti
4 Shahari Nil Nil Nil Nil 51000 51000 Nil Nil
Rozgar Yojna
(SJSRY)
Source: District Administration of Gaya

Recently initiated program Basic services for the urban poor (BSUP) under the JNNURM beginning
from 2005-2006 is a seven-year mission. The main objectives of the BSUP programme are:
Focussed attention on integrated development of basic services to the urban poor
Basic Services include security of tenure at affordable process, improving housing, water
supply and sanitation.
Secure effective linkages between asset creation and asset management so that basic
services for the urban poor are created in cities.

The following issues have emerged from the study of slums and urban poor:
Lack of adequate and reliable data on slums and exact extent of urban poverty,
Need for upgradation of housing in slum areas with dilapidated structures.
Need for provision of housing at affordable prices to urban poor.
Need to ensure delivery of improved water supply, sanitation and solid waste e
management.
Need to provide access to other services such as improved roads, roadside electrification,
construction of culverts, cleaning of ponds, roadside plantation, education and health
facilities.

2.9.8 Estimating Renewal Of Housing And Infrastructure Stock:

Based on the above sections, the renewal of housing and Infrastructure stock is estimated and
given in the table below. The estimates are based upon the projections for the Masterplan of
Bodhgaya and detailed services report prepared for the masterplan. The basis for calculations is
given in annexure.

Table 2.aa: Estimated renewal of housing and infrastructure stock (2005)

69
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

HOUSING 2500 DUS (Upgradation of dilapidated units)


INFRASTRUCTURE
Roads And Streets Approx. 20 km need improvement
(Including major roads and inner streets)
Water Distribution Network N.A
Sewerage And Drainage N.A
INDUSTRY
Obsolete, Technological And NIL
Physical
Incompatibility With Other Uses NIL
BUSINESS DISTRICTS
Obsolete NIL
Incompatibility with other uses 200 commercial establishments (near Mahabodhi temple)
(For details of housing calculations, refer tables at back)

2.10 Transportation

In Bodhgaya, the ancient movement patterns and axis to the Mahabodhi Temple have defined
the growth axis of the town. Bodhgaya being a pilgrimage centre attracts considerable tourist
traffic from both India and abroad. The inflow of tourists during the peak season crosses the one
hundred thousand mark. This added to the demand of the local community makes it imperative to
undertake a proper study to assess the existing transportation situation of the town.

2.10.1 Entry to Bodhgaya

There are two entry points to the holy


town that can also be taken as the two
gateways. These lie on the north and
western side of the town. One of the
gateways is on the riverside road and
the other is on the main road connecting
the Dobhi Gaya highway to Bodhgaya.
Entry to Bodhgaya
2.10.2 Roads

The town broadly has three major roads. These are the riverside road, the main road or the central
spine and the peripheral road (popularly called as bye-pass). The commuters mostly use the
riverside road. At present the road has an intermediate lane road with 5.5 m wide undivided
carriageway. The road needs to be widened and strengthened with proper surfacing and provision
of facilities. The street lighting is almost nonexistent and need to be provided. Since the road runs
along the Falgu River for a distance of more than four kms, it has lot of potential to be developed.

The central spine (Domuha road) is the other


major road of the town. The road is in good
condition. Its width varies though the
carriageway width remains the same in most
stretches. The road has three lane undivided
carriageways.

The by-pass is an arc shaped road that forms


a link between the road along the river and
the main road. This by-pass has intermediate
lane carriageway. The bye pass road meets
the main road near the tourist information
The Domuha road (central spine)
70
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

centre and forms a T-junction that needs to be properly designed.

The three major roads are linked to a network of narrow pucca or kutcha roads that serve the
residential areas. The kutcha road network constitutes 77 % of the road transport network of the
town. This is indicative of the rural, agrarian character of the town

2.10.3 Road Condition

The urban structure within the central area of Bodhgaya is not designed to cope with heavy
vehicular traffic or with a large number of cars. The roads are narrow with limited capacity, and
parking spaces are limited. The condition of roads and streets is poor, and they need to be
resurfaced. The maintenance of roads also needs to be taken care of, as waste is dumped along
all major roads. A number of intersections need to be redesigned to accommodate larger
volumes, which are becoming inevitable with the development of the town. Most roads are
encroached upon in the absence of clear guidelines prohibiting the same.

2.10.4 Vehicle Ownership

A study of socio-economic sample survey reveals that the vehicle ownership is currently very low.
There are only 0.27 vehicles per household. 66% of the surveyed residents own cycles and another
20% had two wheelers. Only 6% of the sample owned cars. 43% of the households preferred using
public transport daily and about 41% used it once a week. This shows that currently, the vehicle
load on roads in Bodhgaya is not high.

2.10.5 Traffic characteristics

In order to comprehend the existing traffic condition in the town, a baseline traffic and
transportation survey was carried out in the month of August 2003. This survey included mode wise
volume count, origin destination survey for passenger and goods vehicles and parking assessment
survey.

Traffic Volume Survey: The traffic volume survey was conducted on the main road, the riverside
road and the Gaya Dhobi road. The highest traffic load is on the main road (central spine). The
main road shows a traffic count of about 2000 PCUs per day. The traffic comprises mostly of two
wheelers and cycles. The Gaya Dhobi Highway had a high percentage of LTVs and MTVs. The
Gaya Dhobi Highway showed a volume of about 1400 PCUs. The traffic volume on riverside road is
almost as much as the Gaya Dobhi road, with nearly 1400 av. Pcus. Here again, more 2 wheelers
and cycles were seen.

There is a dominance of cycles and 2 wheelers on the roads. The survey also showed that at
present, the traffic volumes are not high but the mixed mode nature of traffic causes most of the
problems. Like any other Indian town, the traffic at Bodhgaya is heterogeneous in character with
slow and fast modes all vying for space on narrow roads. (Refer Annexure for detailed tables)

Origin Destination Survey: The origin destination study shows that Gaya is the most sought after
destination. On both the riverside and the main road, the destined traffic is mainly between
Bodhgaya and Gaya. The daily commuters visit Gaya for business or work purposes. A study of
movement of goods vehicles also shows the same pattern. 80% of goods movement from
Bodhgaya is destined for Gaya and vice versa. Another 18% movement is to rest of Bihar and only
2% interacts with the rest of the country. This indicates the close linkage between the two towns
and the overwhelming dependence of Bodhgaya on Gaya with daily exchange of passengers
and goods. (Refer Annexure for detailed tables)

Parking and terminal facilities: The town has limited planned parking spaces. This is because the
demand during the peak and the lean season varies considerably. The parking space for buses,
cars, taxis and non-motorized vehicles is provided in the proximity of the temple premises. There is a

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

bus stand and an


auto / taxi stand near
the Mahabodhi
Temple which are
used during Kalchakra
time but also serve as
major town traffic
terminals.

The link between the


main road and the
riverside road passes
through the temple
area and it carries the
vehicles bound The makeshift bus stand
towards Rajapura. A number of conflicts are generated between pedestrian and vehicles
affecting the peace and sanctity of the temple. Non-motorized vehicles mostly rickshaws and
tongas, in order to have more passengers, do not park in the designated space and spillover on to
the road. This applies also to other vehicles. Almost all the vehicles park near the temple pedestrian
walkway. Auto rickshaws ply between Gaya and Bodhgaya regularly on the riverside road. These
are approximately seventy to seventy-five in number. There is no proper terminal facility for autos
and buses.

The peak season for tourists is from July to September and from November to January. The
Kalchakra festival attracts a lot of pilgrims. During the peak seasons, vehicles are not allowed near
the temple area. These are stopped much ahead near the office of the tourist information and
media centre. Similarly the vehicles on the riverside road are stopped near the bridge on the Falgu
River. During the peak season the parking for buses is shifted near the Dobhi Gaya highway on the
west side and on the open space along the riverside road. At an average fifty buses come daily
during the peak season. The buses coming here can be divided in to two types. Some buses come
and drop the tourists and go and come back after three to four days to take back the tourists while
others remain in Bodhgaya. On an average twenty-five buses are always present in the parking lot
during the peak season. There is thus need for more parking, better roads and better traffic
regulations within the town.

Public transport System: Public transport in Bodhgaya consists of Cycle rickshaws and tongas. Three
wheelers and buses ply between Gaya and Bodhgaya. There is no intracity organised public
transport system in Bodhgaya.

2.10.6 Traffic Problems

The studies and survey of the town has revealed the following traffic problems:

1. Traffic bottlenecks: The major traffic bottlenecks within the town occur at the riverside road in
front of the math and the Mahabodhi temple. There are a number of encroachments here,
which has narrowed the road considerably. The commercial activities here are served by
thelas and gumtis that cause traffic congestion on the roads. The second point of congestion is
at the roundabout on the main road that defines the entry into the Mahabodhi complex plaza.
Multi modal traffic and inadequate parking spaces are the main causes of a lot of confusion
here.
2. Traffic Congestion: The major roads have the capacity to carry more vehicles than they are
presently carrying. This is due to more of two wheelers and cycles on the roads. The main road
and the river side road are likely to see considerable traffic congestion in the future due to
narrow widths and encroachments on the main road. The festivals like Kalchakra are likely to
increase the traffic load on the roads beyond their limits and result in terrible bottlenecks in the
near future.
3. Poor road condition: Most of the internal roads within the town are kutcha. Almost all roads are
badly maintained. There is no traffic management system for the area.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

4. Poor road geometrics and junction designs: Poorly designed roads and junctions can not only
slow down traffic but also cause accidents. The entry into Bodhgaya and the T-junction of the
by-pass road and the main road are poorly designed junctions that need improvement. Other
junctions also should be improved over time. Road lighting and signage are also required to
improve the road transport network within the town.
5. Lack of public transport system: There is no organized public transport system, which will be
required as the population starts to grow and more activities start to come into the town.
6. Lack of organised parking spaces during peak season: During the festival time, parking spaces
are totally choked. Proper parking spaces are required for Bodhgaya

2.11 Social and Cultural facilities

Bodhgaya has emerged as an educational centre in this region due to the location of the Magadh
University. Bodhgaya being the Block headquarters has many schools, both governmental and
non-governmental.

2.11.1 Education

University/ Colleges: Bodhgaya, being an important place of international recognition, a University


was established in the town in 1965. This University has all facilities recognised by the University
Grants Commission. The University contains a number of departments like the Department of
Ancient Indian and Asian Studies, the Department of Buddhist studies and also the Department of
Pali, where Buddhism and its allied subjects are taught. The University has many foreign students
and is an important seat of learning, especially for Buddhist Studies. Bodhgaya also has a private
college, affiliated to Magadh University that is not yet formally recognised by the Government.
Students seeking secular higher education usually travel to Gaya, 15 kms away from Bodhgaya.

Schools: In 2001, there were 16 primary schools and 6 high schools in Bodhgaya (town Panchayat
figures). In addition, there are certain schools run by various monasteries. There is no perceived
shortage in terms of numbers when one assesses the existing numbers with respect to the standards
given in the earlier master plan. However more needs to be done in terms of quality. The schools
need to be introduced in the rural pockets as well, which are lacking in educational facilities.

Specialised Institutions: There is a lack of vocational/ skill based and higher education facilities for
women. There is also a lack of specialised institutions like schools for handicapped children, skill
based schools.

2.11.2 Health

Bodhgaya lacks adequate medical facilities. The town has a primary health centre/ dispensary,
which functions more as a First-aid centre. Most patients are referred to the District hospital at
Gaya, 15 kilometres from the town. There are no government dispensaries or clinics functioning
presently within the town. There are however some private facilities available that are beyond the
reach of the lower income groups within the local community. There is a dire need for health
facilities, hospitals, and dispensaries within the town. Facilities for women and childcare also need
to be introduced.

2.11.3 Community Facilities:

The provision of community infrastructure other than education and health is rather limited.
Bodhgaya has about 10 community halls, which are more in the nature of Baraat ghars and have
limited space. While accurate data for religious facilities is not available, Bodhgaya does not
appear to have a shortage in this regard. Community infrastructure such as post and telecom
facilities, fire stations needs to be provided in adequate numbers. Police stations, outposts need to
be provided as per the standards. Possibility of providing highway police, police personnel for
tourists need to be explored, as security is a major concern for pilgrims/tourists visiting Bodhgaya.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

There is a lack of cultural facilities in the town. Higher order cultural facilities need to be provided in
keeping with the character of Bodhgaya as a pilgrimage and Buddhist centre.

For details of deficiency of social infrastructure, refer table below

Table 2.bb: Facilities Provision and Requirement At Bodhgaya


TOTAL NOS.
Required as
FACILITIES STANDARD (BODHGAYA MASTER PLAN) Existing per standards
Community Hall and Library 1 for 15000 (0.75 acres) 10 2
Religious 1 for 15000 (1.00 acre) No shortage 2
Cinema 1 for 25000 (0.50 acres) 1 1
Data not
Nursery School 1 for 3750 available 8
Primary School 1 for 3750 (1.15 Acres) 16 8
Senior Secondary School 1 for 15000 (4.0 Acres) 6 2
College 1 for 50000 (8.0 acres) University 0
Primary Health Centre 1 for 15000 (1.50 acres) 2 2
Source: Town Panchayat Information
2.11.4 Recreation Facilities:

Bodhgaya has an open character, with many open spaces distributed through out the town.
However, in Bodhgaya, investment on recreation amenities has been negligible compared to the
inflow of tourists and pilgrims. The recreational amenities are few and are mostly concentrated in
the temple sector.

There are very few formal landscaped parks and playgrounds in the town. The town has only one
organised park, Jai Prakash Narain Park. The JP Park located immediately to the west of the
Mahabodhi temple complex is the only planned park in the town. This park adds to the serenity of
the temple area. In the last few
years, new formal landscaped
areas for spiritual, religious
purposes have come up within the
town. These include the
meditation park, landscaped area
around Maya samovar and the
Buddha statue park constructed
by the Daijokyo Sect.

The Kalchakra Maidan is the only


maidan/community open space
within the town. The maidan is +(( %
used during festivals and is a
neglected, unused space during
the rest of the year.

The Meditation Park is a new


addition to the Mahabodhi temple
complex inaugurated by His
Holiness, the Dalai Lama. The park
is to the east of the temple where
the pilgrims meditate in a serene,
calm environment.

Another recreational park houses Kalchakra Maidan

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

the Great Buddha Statue. The pink chunar stone statute is 80ft in height and 60 ft in width and has
been erected on two acres of land adjacent of Daijokyo Buddhist temple. It is a famous landmark
of the town.

The Nairanjana River is also an integral element of the towns landscape character. The stretch of
riverfront, which could be a potential recreational space is neglected and is an ineffectively used
area.

2.12 Physical And Environmental Aspects

2.12.1 Climate and Topography

The town has a tropical climate with hot summers and cool winters. The area has four seasons
namely winters (November to mid February), summers (mid February to June), Monsoons (mid June
to mid September) and fall (mid September to November). The average temperatures range
about 27 C to 40 C in summer and about 8 C to 20 C in January. Due to its green and open
character, Bodhgaya is cooler than Gaya. During Lord Buddhas time, when the land was a
verdant forest and the river was perennial, the land must have been much cooler.

The humidity levels vary throughout the year. The summer is the driest time with humidity around
36% during the daytime. During monsoons, the humidity ranges between 62% and 84%. During
winters, the humidity ranges between 27 % and 71%. The average rainfall is 1860 mm, 90% of which
occurs during monsoons. (Source: IMD meteorological data.)

Topographically, Bodhgaya lies on the western bank of the river Nairanjana at an average altitude
of 113 meters above the sea level. The high lands are generally in the south and the low lands in
the north. The river rises from the high Hazaribagh plateau land and flows gently from south to
north. The area consists of mainly flat land to the west of the Nairanjana and the Mohana rivers.

2.12.2 Natural drainage

The drainage channels that criss-cross the town, and the rivers. The general direction of drainage is
from southwest to north and northeast, except at the Temple, which is at a lower elevation than the
surrounding area.

The major surface water resources are the Nairanjana and the Mohana rivers. Nairanjana
originates in the Chatra hills at an elevation of 543 m above mean sea level. After traversing
through hills and forests, it joins the river Mohana approximately 110 kms from its point of origin. The
river Mohana also flows from the Chatra hills at an altitude of 914 m above mean sea level. Both
rivers have a span of 300- 400 m. The confluence of the two rivers north of Bodhgaya creates a
stream, Falgu that has a span of 800 m at Gaya. The Hindus consider the Falgu sacred. The Hindu
pilgrims make offerings here for the peace of the souls of their ancestors. The rivers are seasonal
and tiny rivulets during the rest of year except in monsoons when it is flooded with water. Numerous
drainage channels that are part of the indigenous Ahars and Pynes irrigation system also
characterize the area.

2.12.3 Flora and Fauna

The plant species found commonly at Bodhgaya include trees like Shisham( Dalberghia sissoo),
Mango (Mangifera indica), Neem (Azadirachta indica), Bar ( Ficus bengalensis), safed sirus ( Abijjia
procera), Kikar ( acacia Arabica), Amla ( Emblica officinalis), and Amaltas( cassia fistula). Naturally
occurring trees include the venerated pipal (ficus religiosa). The naturally occurring wild animal
species include the Nilgai (deer) and the Siyaar (wolf). Bird species include exotic species like the
wren warbler, the black-headed oriole and the kingfisher.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

2.12.4 Soils

The town predominantly has alluvial soil. Geo-hydrological investigations carried out indicate that
the sub surface lithology consists primarily of topsoil, sandy clay, weathered and consolidated
formations. Geologically, the soil is underlain by granite/ granite gneiss of Precambrian age. It is
observed that the unconsolidated formations are increasing in thickness from the north-western
part to the south-eastern part and the western part of the Nairanjana River. A fence diagram is
developed for the entire area depicting the soil structure within the micro zones.

2.12.5 Environment

A rapid environmental impact assessment was done for Bodhgaya in 2000. A geo environmental
study was conducted for the town in 2003 for the masterplan preparation, by Jamia Millia Islamia,
New Delhi. Both the studies found good environmental conditions in Bodhgaya. Most parameters
were in normal range but significantly high levels of Noise pollution were found at certain points.
The first study did not find significant air pollution levels although NO2 levels were found to be high
near the Gaya Dhobi road. The study by Jamia Milia Islamia found that ground water quality was
very good in Bodhgaya and at present did not require any treatment.

Table 2.cc: Environmental parameters


ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION QUALITY
Air Good
Ground Water Potable
Noise levels High
(Source: Rapid environmental impact assessment, Bodhgaya, ERM Consultants, 2000 and geo
environmental study by Jamia Millia Islamia, 2003)

Noise level:
The latest data regarding noise levels is not available. However, a study in 2000 had found noise
levels to be high in the silent zones. The study measured noise levels within the city at seven
different locations, including in front of the Main temple complex, at the Magadh University, at
Sujata village and at the commercial area. The study found the following Daytime and night time
noise levels for the study area in decibels.

Table 2.dd: Noise levels in Bodhgaya


DAY TIME NOISE (dB) NIGHT TIME NOISE (dB) DAY AND
NIGHT TIME
Site Ambient Actual Ambient Actual Actual
standards by measurmts standards measuremnts measuremts
MOEn by MOEn
1.Temple complex 50 57.6 50 42.9 55.67
(Silence zone)
2.Sujata Village 50 50.23 40 42.71 48.63
(Silence zone)
3.Magadh University (Silence zone) 50 43.48 40 35.02 41.79
4.Bagdaha 55 52.57 45 38.41 50.62
(Residential zone)
5.Hara 55 55.29 45 50.3 53.94
(Residential zone)
6.Kendui village 65 59.16 55 42.11 57.17
(Mixed zone)
7.Across Gaya dhobi road 48.62 41.72 47.08
(Agriculture zone)

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

(Source: Rapid environmental impact assessment, Bodhgaya, ERM Consultants, 2000)

The Ambient standards prescribed by the Ministry of environment with respect to Noise levels allow
a max. Noise level of 50 db for daytime and 40 db for nighttime for silence zone, such as hospitals,
universities and meditation or spiritual centres. The noise levels around the Temple complex were
found to be on the higher side. This emphasizes the need to control activities around the temple.

2.12.6 Disaster vulnerability

Earthquakes:
The area does not lie in a high earthquake vulnerability zone and earthquakes are uncommon in
the region. The only earthquake on record till now which affected Bodhgaya was the Bihar
earthquake of 1934. This earthquake caused minor damage in Gaya and Bodhgaya, and
reportedly damaged some small antique images and Kailashi top of the Bodhgaya temple.
However, the possibility of earthquake does not appear to be high in the area.

Hailstorms:
Hailstorms, accompanied by heavy showers are relatively common in the area. The worst one was
reported in 1948 and lasted two days. These can cause temporary flooding problems, particularly
in low-lying areas.

Floods:
Local floods are occasionally caused by the river breaching its banks due to abnormally heavy
rains in hills. Serious floods are, however, rare in the area.

Overall, vulnerability to natural disasters is not very high for Bodhgaya. However, flood protection of
riverbanks is important as a preventive measure, especially since the World Heritage Site, the
Mahabodhi Temple is located quite close to the riverfront.

2.13 Spatial Growth and Land Development

Spatially, Bodhgaya has grown principally between the Gaya-Dhobi road and the river within a
rectangular area, one and three quarters of a mile long and half a mile across with Mahabodhi
temple as the focus. The river in the east and the Gaya Dhobi road in the west have restricted the
growth of the town. The Magadh University in the southwest has sealed up another corner of the
town restricting the growth. The pull of the larger and more important settlement Gaya has brought
in greater growth pressure towards the northern part of the town.

Historically, the Mahabodhi Temple Complex has been the focus of development since the times of
Lord Buddha. The Shikhara of the Mahabodhi temple is 50m high and it is 5m below the ground
level. It is the most dominant element in the skyline of the town at present and should continue to
be so in future as it has considerable symbolic value. The nomination of Mahabodhi Temple
Complex as a World Heritage Site recognised this fact and has proposed a control in heights in
order to preserve this view.

2.13.1 Densities

The town density of Bodhgaya is approximately 18 ppHa, which is quite low. This is due to inclusion
of large chunks of agricultural pocket under notified area. A better measure of the existing density
is the developed area density, which excludes the agricultural land, water bodies and
undeveloped (vacant) land from the calculations. The developed area density is approximately 58
ppHa for the entire town. The recommended UDPFI developed area densities norm for small towns
is 75 to 125 ppHa. The current average developed area density in Bodhgaya is well below that.
However, a study of ward wise densities show that there is wide variation in densities within the
wards. The wards in the central area near the Mahabodhi temple are quite congested. Densities

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

vary from 290 ppHa in ward 10 to 14 ppHa in ward 8).

Table 2.ee: Ward Wise Densities

DENSITY DEVELOPED AREA DENSITY


WARD NUMBER POPULATION (Persons per Hectare) (Persons per Hectare)
WARD 1 1977 11.8 129.0
WARD 2 1330 10.2 21.5
WARD 3 2677 22.0 135.3
WARD 4 2381 20.2 97.8
WARD 5 2509 19.9 95.7
WARD 6 1112 4.2 49.8
WARD 7 1790 17.6 67.6
WARD 8 2109 12.2 13.7
WARD 9 2385 10.7 35.2
WARD 10 2990 103.9 290.6
WARD 11 3621 38.2 141.9
WARD 12 3038 32.1 66.9
WARD 13 1583 42.3 46.6

WARD 14 1381 66.1 107.4

TOTAL 30883 18.2 58 (average)


Source: Bodhgaya Town Panchayat and HUDCO survey, 2003

The archaeological and sacred core of the town is primarily contained in wards 12 and 13 that
have a number of institutional uses. Generally wards in the central areas have much higher
densities compared to the peripheral wards. The highest densities are in the wards around the
archaeological area and the temple that have witnessed rapid development and population
growth in the town. These include wards 10, 11 and 14. The need for control of development in
these wards is also important. Wards 1 to 5 contain a number of transitional rural urban settlements
along with agricultural lands and hence existing densities are very low.

2.13.3 Existing Land use Pattern

The existing land use pattern reflects the open rural character of the town. The town density is
presently 18 ppHa, which is quite low, but the nature of development activities coming up is
alarming. The existing land use pattern (2003) is briefly given below to understand the current urban
structure in relation to the Temple.

Archaeological Uses: 14.63 Hectares (0.9%) of town area is currently under Archaeological and
related uses. This includes 12.0 acres of Land under the Mahabodhi Temple Premises, and areas
under archaeological excavations or related uses. This use, though small in area, is the most
important of uses in terms of its importance and need for its protection.

Residential Uses: A major chunk of the residential land use is concentrated within the central town
area (around the temple complex and along the riverside road) with a few scattered
developments in other parts including Pachhati, Taridih and Rajapur. Most of the houses are
kutcha or semi-pucca in nature. The residential use lacks character and is rapidly transforming to
commercial use within the town centre. The residential development to the North and south is rural
in character, with scattered development and small kutcha housing development in organic form.
But the isolation of these hamlets is diminishing as they are increasingly getting urbanized. Most of
the residential activity is still low rise in character.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

At present only 13 % of the town area is under residential use (Source: HUDCO Land use Survey
2003). This is primarily due to the agricultural character of the notified area of the town. In terms of
developed area (excluding archaeological, agricultural uses and water bodies), 38.6% of land is
under the residential use, which is within normal range considering the low densities proposed by
the earlier masterplan.

Commercial Uses: Commercial areas account for only 2.5% of the developed area of the town.
The character of the commercial is typically that of a small town, with small shops operating in
houses. The biggest bazaar at present is the Bodhgaya Bazaar, located around the Mahabodhi
Temple. This is the main market for most of the towns people as seen from the primary surveys.
However, the concentration of shopping near heritage areas is a cause of concern. A number of
hotels have come up within the town, many of them very close to the Temple. This is a cause for
concern.

Industrial uses: The industrial use is negligible within the town. There are a few units such as attar
khaki or other agro-based units located along the Gaya Dhobi road. High industrial activity is not
appropriate for this town given its heritage. The activity is small scale in nature and needs to be
controlled before it becomes unmanageable. At present, Industrial uses account for 1.4% of the
total area of the town.

Religious and Monastic uses: Spatially, the religious use is also concentrated along the central spine
or in the area to the west of the temple. This includes monasteries, temples, mosque and religious
and spiritual institutions. Given the importance of these within the urban fabric of the town, it is not
surprising that a substantial percentage of land is under this use and its demand is growing.
Religious uses and monasteries account for 5.7 % of the developed area of the town.

Public and Semi Public Uses- Educational facilities: This includes various schools within the town and
the Magadh University. Total land under education and related uses is 147.5 Hect. Which accounts
for 28% of the developed area of the town. This extraordinarily high percentage is due to the
university that is spread over 138 Hectares of land.

Health and community infrastructure: In contrast to educational infrastructure, the health and other
community services such as community halls, baraat ghars etc are rather scant. Only 1.4 Hect. of
land or 0.2% of developed area is devoted to this use.

Govt. Offices: The Govt. Offices are concentrated along the central spine and in the area around
the Mahabodhi temple. 8.26 Hect. of land are devoted presently to offices that account for 1.5% of
the developed area.

Services: Services include land for electric substations, super grid stations, and sewage pumping
station. 5.18 Hectares of land or roughly 1% of developed area is under this use.
Total Public and semi public lands account for 30.6% of the developed area.

Recreational/ Open Use: There are no parks and playgrounds in the town. The town has only one
organised park, Jai Prakash Narain Park. The Kalchakra Maidan is the only Mela - ground within the
town. The maidan is used during festivals and is neglected for rest of the year. The stretch of
riverfront, which could be a potential recreational space is also not maintained and is underused.
However, large chunks of land are open within the town. Recreational and open lands together
account for 61.47 hectares or 11.6% of developed area.

Transport related uses: The town has three major roads, the Gaya Dobhi road (Approach road from
Gaya to NH 2) the Domuha road (central spine), and the riverside road. These roads in turn serve
as access for a number of smaller kutcha and pucca roads. The town has a small bus stand next to
the Kalchakra maidan, serving the needs of the entire town. At present the total area under
transport related uses is 51.27 Hect. Which is about 9.6% of the developed area of the town.

Agriculture and water bodies: Over 67% of total town area is under agricultural uses and water

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

bodies. Most of the agricultural lands concentrated in the rural Northern and Southern sides of the
town. The town also has significant area under water bodies and drainage channels. The water
bodies and drainage channels are important assets of the urban environment and need
protection.

Other Uses: A small percentage of land (0.1% of total town area) is under other uses such as
graveyards.

The table given here depicts the existing land use percentages within the town.

Table 2.ff: Existing Landuse Of Bodhgaya Town (2003-04)


PERCENT OF
PERCENT OF DEVELOPED
SUBUSE AREAS TOTAL AREAS TOTAL AREA AREA
S.NO EXISTING LANDUSE (IN HECT.) (IN HECT.) % %
ARCHAEOLOGICAL/ SPECIAL
1 AREA 14.63 0.9% NA
2 RESIDENTIAL 205.44 12.1% 38.7%
3 COMMERCIAL 13.27 0.8% 2.5%
HOTELS/ DHARAMSHALAS 7.35
SHOPPING 5.92
4 INDUSTRIAL 7.20 0.4% 1.4%
5 PUBLIC AND SEMI PUBLIC 162.46 9.6% 30.6%
Education 147.49
Health and community facilities 1.52
Govt./ semi govt. offices 8.26
Services 5.18
6 RELIGIOUS USES/ MONASTERIES 30.20 1.8% 5.7%
7 RECREATIONAL/ OPEN 61.47 3.6% 11.6%
Open/Vacant 52.18
Parks/ Playgrounds 9.29
8 TRANSPORTATION 51.27 3.0% 9.6%
9 AGRICULTURE AND WATER 1153.03 67.8% NA
BODIES
Agriculture 1119.19
Water bodies 33.84
10 OTHERS 1.14 0.1% NA
TOTAL 1700.10 100.0% 100%
DEVELOPED AREA 531.30
(* Developed area excludes archaeological areas, agricultural uses, water bodies and other lands) (Source:
Town Panchayat Bodhgaya and HUDCO Survey, 2003)

Bodhgaya, due to its pilgrim and agrarian functions, is not the typical small town. A comparison of
the landuse use suggested by UDPFI guidelines for a small town (less than 50,000 population)
highlights the atypical and unique landuse character of this town.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Table 2.gg: Comparison of existing landuse and UDPFI norms.


S.NO LANDUSE EXISTING LANDUSE BODHGAYA UDPFI NORMS*
Percent of developed area Percent of developed area
1 RESIDENTIAL 38.67% 45-50%
2 COMMERCIAL 2.50% 2-3%
3 INDUSTRIAL 1.35% 8-10%
4 PUBLIC AND SEMI PUBLIC 30.58% 6-8%
5 RELIGIOUS USES/ MONASTERIES 5.68% NA
6 RECREATIONAL USES 11.57% 12-14%
7 TRANSPORTATION 9.65% 10-12%
TOTAL 100.00%

The character of the town as a religious, cultural and educational hub and its relatively low
densities combine to give it higher than normal areas under public and semi public uses. Religious
and monastic uses are a distinct and unique element here. Due to these uses, the land under other
uses is also low. Industrial growth is also low compared to other towns due to the heritage
character of Bodhgaya. This uniqueness in character highlights the need to propose a policy more
in keeping with the unique character of the existing town rather than other typical towns

2.13.3 Land Supply

The total developed area of the town is 531 Hectares, which is 31% of the total area. This is
indicative of the open character of the town. The remaining land is undeveloped and there is
scope for accommodating future development. (Except in conservation areas). The low town
density also suggests scope for further redensification.

Table 2.hh: Developed and undeveloped land in Bodhgaya


YEAR DEVELOPED LAND UNDEVELOPED LAND
2003-04 531.30 Ha. 1168.80 Ha.

2.13.4 Incompatible uses:

The area km around the temple is the serene, sacred zone due to the location of most of
Buddhist heritage resources here (based on Cunninghams maps). Some of the land uses within this
area do not conform to the zoning objectives of the area. The local market of the town, the BTMC
shops and the hotels are some such uses. The provision of these uses close to the temple has
brought in unwarranted traffic, noise in the area and has had an adverse impact on the serene,
sacred character of the area. These uses must be relocated after provision of suitable alternative
sites. The hotels operating in the monastic area must also be shifted out of the zone. The detailed
zonal plan of the central area needs to be prepared in order to determine the exact extent of
incompatible uses in the central area. This is required for working out a workable, minimum
displacement strategy.

2.13.6 Insufficient land uses

The town has insufficient social and economic infrastructure. This is needed to improve the overall
quality of life of the local community. Diversification of economic base is imperative to help
generate employment opportunities for the local residents. There is also need for cultural
infrastructure in keeping with Bodhgayas role as a cultural centre, and transportation infrastructure
including bus stand and parking to cater to the needs of the pilgrims and the local residents. A
detailed sectoral study of various aspects is being done in the coming sections, which will help
identify these problems.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

4500
EXISTING LANDUSE OF BODHGAYA

BELWA TANK
4000

3500
SEWAHAR
BIGHA

3000

AMWAN

2500

2000

MONIYA
NATNARA GANGA
NEOTAPUR

1500

RATI BIGHA
UPADHYAY BIGHA

BHUTAN TEMPLE
1000 RAJAPUR

SUPER GRID STATION PACHATTI


BHAGWANPUR
500
DHANWA
NEW TARADIH
RATNAGIRI

TINAKHA MATH
BIJU BIGHA BHAGALPUR BAKRAUR
0 SEEDS FARM SUJATA
TEMPLE

MAGADH UNIVERSITY B. D. O
HOTELS OFFICE MAHABODHI
TEMPLE
500' COMPLEX
ZANGSKAR LADHAKI
ROOT MASTIPUR BUDDHA TEMPLE
NIRANJANA
INSTITUTE
RIVER
SRILANKA COLONY
1000'
GREAT BUDDHA
STATUE
BAPU NAGAR
RAMPUR
C U L T I V A T I O N
1500'

MOCHARIM HATHIYAR
2000'
Katorwa

2500'

500' 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500

TEMPLE, MOSQUE, TOMB


GOVT. / PUBLIC OFFICES PARKS / GARDENS TANKS

EDUCATION/ RESEARCH CANALS EXISTING TOWN BOUNDARY


RESIDENTIAL MULTI PURPOSE OPEN SPACE

SCHOOLS OPEN/VACANT RIVER


WARD BOUNDARIES
UNIVERSITY SOCIAL FORESTRY AGRICULTURAL/
HOTELS HORTICULTURAL EXISTING BRIDGE TO BAKRAUR
SHOPS HEALTH
KHASRAS/PLATS
OTHER COMMUNITY MONASTERIES PUCCA ROADS
FACILITIES / RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS
LIGHT INDUSTRIES UTILITIES AND SERVICES KUTCHA ROADS 00 100 300 500 1000 MT

WHS/AREA UNDER ASI PARKING


GODOWNS CREMATION/BURIAL GD.
GRID SPACING = 500 M

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

2.14 Present Urban Governance and Institutional framework

2.14.1 Institutional Responsibility

The bodies and organisations with significant roles and responsibilities in the management of the
development in the town include;

The Gaya Regional Development Authority


The Bodhgaya Nagar Panchayat (The municipal corporation)
Buddha Gaya Temple Management Committee (BTMC)
Line departments

The Gaya Regional Development Authority has the powers to prepare the master plan of the area
and Bodhgaya forms a part of its regional development area. In addition to these agencies, there
are also various other sectoral agencies such as the ASI, the PWD and other state and central govt.
bodies who play a key role in the development of Bodhgaya.

Apart from these governmental agencies, there are other non-governmental players who play an
important role in the development of vicinities and the wider setting of the WHS. These include
BTMC or the Bodhgaya Temple Management Committee, which controls the Mahabodhi Temple,
the monasteries and the Buddhist groups, the local associations and NGOs.

The present pattern of the distribution of roles and responsibilities of the various city level institutions
are given here. The distribution of works is often haphazard, with multiple agencies responsible for
some functions such as roads on one hand, and no agency for some other functions such as
facilities for solid waste disposal. Agency responsibility needs to be clearly delineated.

Table 2.ii: Institutional Responsibility for infrastructure provision and management


URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN CONSTRUCTION OPERATION AND
INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE
Water supply PHED PHED PHED
Sewerage PHED PHED PHED
Drainage GRDA, NAGAR GRDA, NAGAR NAGAR PANCHAYAT,
PANCHAYAT, PANCHAYAT, BODHGAYA
BODHGAYA BODHGAYA
Storm water PHED PHED PHED
drainage
Solid waste NIL NIL NAGAR PANCHAYAT,
disposal BODHGAYA
Municipal roads GRDA PWD/GRDA/TOURISM AGENCY RESPOSIBLE
(including FOR CONSTRUCTION
flyovers)
Street lighting BSEB BSEB NAGAR PANCHAYAT,
BODHGAYA

At present, there is no role of private sector at all in the entire urban infrastructure management
process at Bodhgaya

Table 2.jj: Role of the private sector in urban infrastructure provision


URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE ROLE OF THE PRIVATE SECTOR (SPECIFY)
Water supply Nil
Sewerage Nil

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Drainage Nil
Storm water drainage Nil
Solid waste disposal Nil
Municipal roads (including flyovers) Nil
Street lighting Nil

2.14.2 Profile of major players in the development of Bodhgaya

TOWN PANCHAYAT, BODHGAYA

The Bodhgaya Town Panchayat is responsible for the development of the entire town of Bodhgaya
encompassing the Municipal area. The other important functions of the Town Panchayat include
education, health, drainage, garbage collection and taxation. The Town Panchayat is headed by
a chief executive who is also the BDO (Block development officer). It derives its powers from the
74th amendment and the Bihar Municipal Act, 1922.

The Town Panchayat, Bodhgaya is responsible for the development of the entire town of Bodhgaya
encompassing the Municipal area. The other important functions of the Town Panchayat include
education, health, drainage, garbage collection and taxation. Powers have not been devolved to
the local body under the 74th amendment.

Bihar Municipal Act, 1922. The 74th Amendment to the Indian Constitution,
1992
Under the Bihar Municipal act, the Town
Panchayat has the following powers and The 74th Amendment to the Indian constitution
functions: was aimed at giving power to the grassroots level
institutions, the urban local bodies. It introduced
a three level hierarchy of urban local bodies for
Preparation of plans for economic various urban centers, namely the Nagar
development and social justice. panchayat for smallest urban centers, municipal
Urban Planning including town planning councils for middle level urban centers, and
Regulation of landuse and construction of municipal councils for the large urban centers.
buildings
Plan for economic and social development For the metropolitan areas (1 million +
Construction of roads and bridges population), Metropolitan Planning committees (
MPCs)have been introduced for planning and
Water supply for domestic, industrial and
coordination of urban functions. The
commercial purposes metropolitan committees have one third of their
Maintenance of public health, sanitation, members composed of local government
conservancy and solid waste management representatives, and the remaining members
Fire services nominated by the government. At the
Urban forestry, protection of environment neighborhood level, called the wards, ward
and promotion of ecological aspects committees have been introduced for looking
Safeguarding the interest of the weaker after functions at the ward level.
section of the society including
Under the seventy fourth amendment, 18
handicapped and mentally retarded functions have been devolved to the Urban Local
Slum improvement and up gradation bodies (ULBs), under article 243 (f), Twelfth
Urban poverty alleviation schedule. The planning related functions include:
Provision of amenities and facilities such as 1. Urban planning
parks, gardens, playgrounds 2. Regulation of landuse
Promotion of cultural, educational and 3. Planning for economic and social
aesthetic aspects development
4. Roads and bridges
Burials, burial grounds, cremations, cremation
5. Water Supply
grounds and electric crematorium 6. Public health and sanitation
Cattle ponds, prevention of cruelty to 7. Fire Services
animals, 8. Urban Forestry
Vital statistic including registration of births 9. Slum Upgradation
and deaths 10. Urban Poverty Alleviation
Public amenities including street lighting, 11. Provision of urban facilities and amenities
parking lots, bus stops and public 12. Promotion of cultural, educational, and
aesthetic aspects.
conveniences

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Regulation of slaughter houses and tanneries.

The structure of the town panchayat is indicated in the following chart:

CHAIRMAN MAYOR

VICE CHAIRMAN WARD COUNCILLORS

CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER

CHIEF ASSTT (1 nos.)

ASSISTANT ENGINEER (1 nos.) CLERK (1 nos.)

JUNIOR ENGINEER (1 nos.) ACCOUNTANT (1 nos.)

TECHNICIAN (1 nos.) TAX COLLECTORS


SAFAI-JAMADAR (1 nos.) (2 nos.)

ANUSEWAK (4 nos.)
DRIVERS (2 NOS.)
SWEEPERS (51 nos)

It is clear from the above chart that the Town Panchayat is a small body with only nine people in
administrative positions. It lacks the strength to undertake planning and implementation of projects.
The Block Development Officer is the executive officer of the organisation.

The systems of record keeping and data management are also outdated. There is no concept of
MIS .

GAYA REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY

The Gaya Regional Development Authority can prepare the development plan as well as the Zonal
development for each of the zones into which the development areas may be divided. The
authority is empowered to prepare the development plan of towns within its region. The authority is
headed by a chairman and a vice chairman.

The authority is established under the Bihar regional development authority act, 1974. The Act
provides for establishment of Regional and Development area and alteration of their limits. Under
this, the state government is empowered for establishing areas known as (i) Region and (ii)
Development Area, for which the Authority shall prepare a Master plan and carry out development
works therein.

The Objects of the Authority are:


To promote and secure planned development of region in general and development area in
particular.
To acquire, hold, manage and dispose of land and other property.
To carry out building, engineering, industrial, agricultural and other operations.
To execute works in connection with transportation, supply of water and electricity, disposal of
sewage, drainage and other services and amenities.
The authority shall be the principal agency to provide all infrastructure.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Responsibilities, powers and functions of the authority include:


Land acquisition, development of land and building control;
General improvement works including laying and relaying or modifying the streets, roads and
drainage, disposal of sewage;
Plot reconstitution schemes;
Housing schemes including sub-urban and rural housing;
Slum Clearance and Slum Improvement Schemes;
Transportation schemes including riverine transport;
Schemes for supplying essential services like water, cooking gas, electricity, etc.
Schemes for provision of community facilities like retail and whole-sale trade, hospitals,
educational and cultural institutions, recreational facilities, playgrounds, parks etc;
Anti pollution schemes;
Afforestation, gardening or any other schemes for improvement of the environmental
conditions;
Schemes for industrial business and other commercial activities.
Preparation of regional plan, master plan and zonal development plan.

The structure of the authority is as follows:

CHAIRMAN

VICE CHAIRMAN

SECRETARY

EXECUTIVE ENGINEER

ASSISTANT ENGINEERS TOWN PLANNING ACCOUNTS SENIOR


(4 NOS.) ASSISTANT (1 NO.) OFFICER ASSISTANTS (2)

JUNIOR ENGINEERS (15 DRAFTSMAN (1) ACCOUNTANT ASSISTANTS


NOS.) (1 NO.) (23)

TRACERS/
DRAFTSMEN (7 NOS.) BLUEPRINTERS SECRETERIAL
(4 NOS.) STAFF
(7 NOS.)

DRIVER
(2 NOS.)

The GRDA is a much larger body compared to the Town Panchayat and is more professionally run.
It is also technically much stronger. However, both bodies need to be strengthened for undertaking
town planning related functions. Both authorities are also not equipped to handle heritage related
issues.

BUDDHA GAYA TEMPLE MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE

Bodhgaya Temple Management Committee is the executive body for the management of the
World Heritage Site and has well tested mechanism for handling all functions including conflict

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

resolution within the World Heritage Site. The Management of the World Heritage Site which
includes fund management, performance of rites/ rituals, religious functions and conservation may
primarily vest with the Bodhgaya Temple Management Committee. The BTMC will also be
responsible for visitor/pilgrim management, ticketing and promotional functions within the World
Heritage Site.

The parent agency of Bodhgaya Temple Management Committee is Department of Home, Govt
of Bihar. The Bodhgaya Temple Management Committee was conceived as a religious body for
management of religious rites / rituals within the temple precincts and for resolving conflicts at the
local level. In the changed scenario after the encryption of the temple in the list of World Heritage
Sites, BTMC would be required to undertake the additional task of a development agency to
supervise implementation of the Site Management Plan.

BTMC is a rich body within a poor town. Its annual income of Rs. 2.2 crores (refer annexure) , which
is based on donations received for the Temple, is approximately 5 times the annual revenue of the
town panchayat. It is important that some of these funds be channelised for the development of
the town.

LINE DEPARTMENTS

Line departments also contribute to the development of Bodhgaya through sectoral schemes of
central and state government. These include departments such as Public Health Engineering
Department, PWD (Roads), Rural Engineering Organisation, PWD(Building), Bihar State electricity
Board, PHED etc.

2.14.3 Present planning mechanism

Three development plans have been introduced to govern the growth of Bodhgaya. A brief profile
of these three plans is given below:

Bodhgaya Development Plan 1961-81


The first master plan of Bodhgaya was prepared by the (then) Bodhgaya Town Planning Authority,
under the provisions of the Bihar Town Planning and Improvement Trust Act in 1964, and published
in 1966. The plan period was from 1961 to 1981. At that time, Bodhgaya was a very small town, with
an area of app. 7 sq. kms, covering the villages of Mastipur and Bodhgaya and had a population
of 6,299 persons.

The Master plan was formulated for a projected population of 20,000 persons in 1981. The
projections were fairly accurate (15,724 persons in 1981). The plan laid emphasis on development
of central vista and greens around the Mahabodhi temple, and development of a serene
environment around it. The Town Planners then had suggested provision of a complete green belt
around Mahabodhi Temple for a distance of approximately a kilometre around.

The master plan very clearly indicated that 75 acres of land around Mahabodhi Temple could
become the hub, providing the spiritual ambience for which man comes to Bodhgaya or in other
world glimpses of land of enlightenment as it was during the times of Lord Buddha.

One of the most important proposals, which were highlighted in the master plan, was the
pedestrianisation of the road in front of the temple that has been implemented and has led to a
considerable improvement in the overall ambience of the WHS.

The proposed development included:


Acquisition and development of green belt of 330 acres including meditation park, deer park,
Temple Landscape Park, major recreational sub sector. Development of river front and
archaeological excavation schemes was also proposed as part of this development.
Pedestrianisation of street in front of temple and non-permission to new buildings at vistas to

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Temple.
Development of 250 acres of residential development for the population increase.
Development of rural industrial estate.
Development of city infrastructure such as shopping, transport terminals, parking lots etc.
Development of social facilities such as schools, neighbourhood centres and community
centres.
Development of health facilities such as hospital and health centres.
Development of International research centre, Language Institute, Buddhist art gallery etc.
Development of community centres, open air theatre etc,
Development of tourist homes, camping grounds, rest houses etc for the pilgrims and the
tourists.

The proposals of the plan were implemented only partially and in a piecemeal manner. The non-
implementation resulted in adding to the existing chaos in the town.

Revised Master plan (perspective 2001)


The plan was revised after the completion of its time period in 1981. The revised draft Master Plan
(1991-2001) for the city proposed an orderly system of planned development within the city, with
the primary objective of achievement of a balanced land utilization pattern. The proposed town
density was 90-100 ppHa. This revision of the master plan, very categorically also stressed the need
for having no construction at least up to km from the temple and the development of this area
into a large green belt having meditation park and other minimum basic facilities. The entire
movement inside this area would be only through walkways and pedestrian routes.

The Master plan proposed a number of planned green spaces, which included Meditation Park,
Deer park, and intensive Plantation. Along with this, it was proposed to preserve a strip of land
about 600 feet wide along the north of the main approach road from Dobhi road, to create a
landscaped axis leading to the temple. Two new roads were proposed. Also, on the proposed Bye-
pass road a Bus station was proposed to be built, to relocate this function from the Temple complex
precincts.

Heritage led Perspective Development Plan for Bodhgaya, Vision -2031


In 2002, UNESCO declared the Mahabodhi Temple Complex a World Heritage Site. Responding to
the inscription of the Mahabodhi Temple complex in the list of World Heritage Sites, and the
emergence of the town as an important pilgrim destination of the Buddhist circuit, the
development plan of the town has been revised, again on the initiative of the ministry of tourism,
Govt. of India who were responsible for preparing the first plan. Concurrently, the process of
preparation of the Site Management Plan of the Mahabodhi temple Complex is also on. The spirit
of the new plan is derived from the planning imperatives of the first Master Plan of the town and the
requirements of heritage protection of the site, as built into the site Management plan of the
Mahabodhi Temple Complex. Inbuilt mechanism have been incorporated in the plan to ensure
that the implementation of the plan is monitored periodically so that policies are suitably revised to
meet the emerging changes in the socio-economic profile of the local community.

The present revised plan is entitled as Heritage led Perspective Development Plan for Bodhgaya,
Vision -2031. (HLPDPB) The Perspective Development Plan-2031 strives to achieve a conservation
conscious, socially responsible, environmentally friendly and economic successful spatial
development and at the same time attempts to retain its unique character. The Heritage led
Development Plan for Bodhgaya Perspective-2031 sets out the broad policy framework for
development of the town from the present day to the year 2031. It has been developed after
intensive consultation with state govt officials, ward councilors (peoples representatives), other
stakeholders and Buddhist scholars. The consultations were held in the form of stakeholders
conferences, workshops, meetings, written submissions and interactions.

The plan outlines the policies for developing Bodhgaya as a World Buddhist Centre, a green,
healthy town with equitable social opportunity for all and a pilgrim destination that provides
glimpses of the land of enlightenment as it used to be in the times of Buddha .The policies are to be

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

implemented through direct action and in conjunction with state, private and community sectors.
The plan is based on four fundamental and interrelated principles that underlie all the policies
contained in the plan:

To provide balanced and equitable development which improves the quality of life for the
residents.
To protect and conserve the historical, cultural and archaeological fabric of the town.
To promote environmentally sensitive socio- economic development that look after the
concerns of all sections of the community
To provide a framework in which Bodhgaya can develop as a world Buddhist centre and a
centre of learning

The heritage led perspective development plan for Bodhgaya, Vision 2005-2031 sets out the
policies for the development of Bodhgaya from the date of acceptance and enforcement of the
plan to December 2031.It has been developed based on intensive site studies, the spirit of the
previous plans, meetings with stakeholders and elected representatives, and discussions with
various professionals of the planning team and in the planning profession.

The Development Plan has been prepared in accordance with the Urban Development Plan
Formulation and Implementation (UDPFI, 1996) guidelines and in line with the relevant Central and
State Govt Acts. The aim behind the plan is to orient it towards growth in social and cultural sectors,
while providing basic amenities and facilities required for a town of this town in other sector.

A total population of 1,20,000 persons has been estimated for Bodhgaya in the year 2031, with the
floating population to be 30% of the projected population.
The spatial plan seeks to provide and integrated city structure to the town where the future
projected needs of all the sectors can be met.

The basic underlying principles behind the plan are:

The sacred geography of the town has been protected by delineating a special area with
separate heritage regulations and bylaws that will guide its development
A number of cultural activities have been introduced within the town in keeping with the vision
of making it a world Buddhist centre.
In order to ensure protection to the heritage resources at Bakraur the area is proposed to be
brought within the town as part of special area and protected as an eco-park.
Linkages between Bakraur, Bodhgaya and Pragbodhi hills are strengthened as part of
development of Buddhist heritage at and around Bodhgaya.
The town will have a low-rise low-density character by 2031, as at present. The plan is based
upon low rise, low density development with harmonious and coherent interrelationships
between various uses and activities
The town is to be developed based on a hierarchical and decentralized landuse pattern with
provision of dispersed services and facilities based on the hierarchy of planning entities.
Adequate social and physical infrastructure to meet the needs of the growing population has
been provided.
In order to decongest the central road and decentralize activities, it is proposed to shift the
CBD outwards from the present centre.
The present economic character of the town is based on the agricultural activities and the
informal sector. As the town grows, it will need creation of jobs and diversification of work
opportunities, which is being addressed in this plan.
Weaker section housing and job opportunities also are addressed in this plan.
Bodhgaya is to be promoted as an educational centre, with special focus on female literacy
and skill development.
Adequate provision is to be made to ensure clean and safe drinking water, environmentally
friendly sewage disposal, adequate drainage and solid waste management for the town.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

An efficient transport system is to be provided for the town. The landuse is tied up intrinsically
with an efficient transport system based on wide roads, vistas and environmentally friendly
transport services.
A green peripheral zone is to be maintained around the town in order to prevent high-rise
construction in the immediate vicinity. A buffer zone of agricultural land has been maintained
all around the town.
Social forestry schemes are also proposed along main highways and vulnerable areas in order
to enhance the sense of a forest character and also provide environmental protection to the
town.
Bodhgaya is to be developed as a healthy city with provision of higher order medical
infrastructure and promotion of spiritual and physical health related infrastructure.

Comparative analysis of proposed master (2001) and actual ground achievement

On conducting a comparative analysis of what was proposed for the town in the Master Plan
(1991-2001), and what development was achieved, we find that most development that was
proposed has not taken place. The city has developed in gross ignorance of the Master Plan
proposals.

The major development has come up around temple area and along river side road whereas
major parks and playground were proposed as per 1991 M.P. around the temple without any
development in its vicinity
No new developments have come up around the university area.
The development is non-continuous and scattered all over the town with major chunks of
vacant land in between.
There has been significant increase in commercial activity with number of hotels, guesthouses
and unauthorized shops coming up in haphazard way along the major roads. Proposed roads
have not been constructed, only some scattered links have developed.
The proliferation of hotels and guesthouses, without any architectural control, has even
devalued the aesthetics generated by excellent monasteries and temples. The monasteries
and temples, constructed by other Buddhist countries, could have contributed significantly for
the development of positive urban imageability, with the focus on Mahabodhi Temple.
Major institutions and Monasteries have come up on the land proposed for residential and
recreational use.
Residential use is still mostly concentrated around the temple complex and around the riverside
road and has developed as mixed landuse.
Most of the residential development is single storied with inadequate provision of community
facilities. Many of the structures are temporary ( kutcha) structures.
The proposed Cottage Industry complex also has not been developed, very little industrial
activity takes place in the town and that is in the form of localised household industries
scattered all over the place

2.15 Financial Profile Of The Local Body (The Town Panchayat)

Municipal Finances of Town Panchayat, Bodhgaya have been reviewed for the last four years
commencing from Financial Year 2000-01.

The major Heads are as follows:

Revenue Account: Under this head all the recurring items of Income and Expenditure are included
i.e. Income from Tax, Non Tax and transfers including Grants, Establishments (Wages and Salaries),
Operations and Maintenance and interest payments etc.

Capital Account: Non-recurring items like income and expenditures in respect of loans, Grants and
contributions from State and Central Governments under various schemes are categorized under
this head.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

2.15.1 Revenue Account

This can be categorized in two major subheads i.e. Revenue Income and Revenue Expenditure.

Revenue Income
The revenue income sources for Town Panchayat can be broadly categorized into three different
categories i.e. Tax, Non-tax and Transfers including grants etc. These include income from property
tax, Education Tax, Taxes from shops, Public Health, revenue earned from making provision for
parking, Bus stands etc. during festivals and other events, NOC fees for building permission, Births
and death certificates, income from remunerative enterprises, stamp duty and registration fees
and grants from central and state govt under various schemes.

Table 2.kk: Year wise revenue receipts of Bodhgaya Town Panchayat


YEAR REVENUE ACCOUNT RECEIPTS (RS. LAKH)
Tax Non-Tax Transfers including Total
grants
2001/02 180925 977478 1002086 2160489
2002/03 95373 1053149 990758 2139280
2003/04 15740 1505179 1980805 3501724
2004/05 270728 3084494 1428170 4783392
Source : Bodhgaya Town Panchayat

BREAKUP OF REVENUE ACCOUNT RECIEPTS 2003-04


0%

43%

57%

Tax Non-Tax Transfers including grants

BREAKUP OF REVENUE ACCOUNT RECIEPTS 2004-05

6%
30%

64%

Tax Non-Tax Transfers including grants

An analysis of the revenue heads shows that the contribution of tax to overall revenue of the Town
Panchayat is very less. In 2003-04, the major chunk of revenue (57%) came from grants, and in 2004-

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

05, 64% of the revenue came from non-tax revenue sources. One reason for the sudden increase in
non-tax revenue is the introduction of stamp duty in 2004-05. The contribution of tax revenue to the
overall revenue scenario is miniscule in both the years.

Revenue heads Tax Revenue

Property Tax

A few details of property tax are given in the following table


Total number of properties in the city 5500
Total number of properties assessed 2901
Percentage of properties assessed 53%
No. of properties actually paying property tax 1405
Percentage of paying properties over assessed 48%
properties
Basis of taxation Unit area values to determine ARV
Amount of tax demanded 2003-04 3,56,871
Amount of tax demanded 2004-05 4,35,000
Amount of tax collected 2003-04 88000
Amount of tax collected 2004-05 110105
Collection efficiency for both years 25%

The rates for tax assessment are given in annexure. The tax rates vary as per the street prominence
and the use of property. The tax rates appear to be low at present and need to be revised. The
collection efficiency is extremely poor at 25% and needs to be increased drastically.

Holding Tax from Monasteries (part of property tax collections)

Monasteries also pay holding tax to Nagar Panchayat, but a very nominal amount. It is collected
on the basis of location of the monasteries i.e. Monasteries on main state level roads and inner
municipal roads. There are 34 monasteries. It is possible to further increase this revenue source.

Other taxes

Water charges are taken annually on the basis of type of property bought, which is included in the
property taxation amount.

Table 2.mm: Water Tax System of Bodhgaya


Monasteries/ Temples Rs. 101.50 p
Hotels Rs. 81.50 p
Domestic Rs. 31.50 p

There is also a land tax that is levied in rural areas outside the Nagar panchayat at the rate of Rs. 10
per acre ( + 145% cess)

Non-tax revenue

The town panchayat receives funds from

a) Rent from shops: The town panchayat owns 137 shops, which pay a rent of Rs. 160 per month.
The total revenue demand under the head was 2.66 lakhs in 2004-05 of which only 1.35 lakhs was

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

collected. The town panchayat need s to increase the rent and its collection efficiency.

b) The town panchayat also receives revenue form making provisions from parking, bus stands etc
during festivals. In 2004- 05 , it received about 14 lakh rupees under this head.

c) Other revenue heads include revenue from giving NOC for building permits, birth and death
certificates, road cutting charges etc. income from this head is about Rs. 2.30 lakhs and is less
considered to other sources.

d) Stamp Duty

Stamp duty has only been introduced in 2004-05. The stamp duty, registration etc. is calculated at 6
of the value, of which 2% goes to Town Panchayat and 4 % goes to State Govt. In 2004-05 the
revenue from this head was 12.45 lakh rupees. Once the local body is strengthened, it should retain
the entire amount.

Grants: These include funds received from the central or the state govt. under various schemes.
These vary from year to year and are not consistent. Funds from state finance commission have not
been devolved as yet to the town panchayat.

Revenue Expenditure

Revenue expenditure of Town Panchayat has been analysed based on the expenditure head
classified under the following sections i.e.

Establishment -Wages and Salaries, Interest payments and others etc. These include salaries for
permanent and daily wagers, TA/DA bills

Operation and Maintenance, This include O&M expenses, expenditure on repair work for office
premises, amount incurred on special cleanliness drives, Entertainment, and advertisements
expenditure incurred on ceremonies and provisions during Kalchakra, Buddha Mahotsav and
pitrapaksha and other developmental works etc.

Another major head is Expenditure incurred under various central and state govt schemes

Table 2.ll: Year wise revenue account expenditure of Bodhgaya Town Panchayat
2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05
Establishment cost 967480 651572 867530 1054410
O&M 492968 1038823 632363 478536
Stamp duty and salary head related misc.
outgoings* 1389724
Expenditure on different schemes 1279229 454058 1524426 1844812
Totals 2739677 2144453 3024319 4767482
Source: Bodhgaya Town Panchayat

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

BREAKUP OF REVENUE EXPENDITURE 2003-04

29%

50%

21%

Establishment cost O&M Expenditure on different schemes

BREAKUP OF REVENUE EXPENDITURE 2004-05

22%

39%

10%

29%
Establishment cost
O&M
Stamp duty and salary head related outgoings
Expenditure on different schemes

An analysis of the revenue expenditure of 2003 04 and 2004-05 reveals that the establishment cost
in 2003-04 was 29% of the overall expenditure. Major outgoings in 2003-04 were on various schemes
(central schemes). O & M expenditure was about 21%.

In 2004-05, the situation is different, mainly due to an outflow related to stamp duty and
miscellaneous outgoings. This was a one-time expenditure and is not a regular feature (*). This
relates to devolution of certain funds related to stamp duty and other miscellaneous outgoings
from the panchayat to GRDA. Leaving this aside, the trend is similar to 2003-04 with major
expenditure on central govt. schemes, followed by establishment cost and O& M expenses. As the
size of the town panchayat is very small, it has been able to keep other expenses low.

2.15.3 Central Govt. Schemes

The details of Central Govt Schemes in respect of Town Panchayat, Bodhgaya is given on ext
page.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Table 2.nn: year wise expenditure on central govt. schemes

S NAME OF THE
YEAR 2002 YEAR 2003 YEAR 2004 YEAR 2005
NO SCHEME

Sanctioned Expenditure Sanctioned Expenditure Sanctioned Expenditure Sanctioned Expenditure


Amount Incurred Amount Incurred Amount Incurred Amount Incurred
(Rs) (Rs) (Rs) (Rs) (Rs) (Rs) (Rs) (Rs)
National Slum
Development
1 Nil Nil Nil Nil 805000 763000 1083000 855482
programme
(NSDP)

11th Finance
2 Commission 349184 349184 1383940 1240124 866562 582686 1283700 1172805
Scheme

12th Finance
3 Commission Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil 1050258 732758
Scheme

Swaran
Jayanti
4 Nil Nil Nil Nil 51000 51000 Nil Nil
Shahari Rozgar
Yojna (SJSRY)

Total 349184 349184 1383940 1240124 1722562 1396686 3416958 2761045


Source: District Administration of Gaya

CONCLUSIONS REGARDING FINANCIAL HEALTH OF THE LOCAL BODY

The following conclusions can be reached from the above given data:

Revenue of revenue accounts vs expenditure reveals that the town panchayat has moved
from a deficit situation to a profit situation. Revenue Income of Town Panchayat, Bodhgaya,
has grown to a level of INR 47.83 lakhs in the financial year 2004-05 from INR 21.60 lakhs in
financial year 2001-02 and the expenditure has risen from 27.39 lakhs in 2001-02 to 47.67 lakhs in
financial year 2004-05.
It has been observed that the revenue expenditure has been inconsistent during the review
period. The average annual growth rate of income (33.11 %) is less than the average annual
growth rate of Expenditure (41.07 %), which reflects that the financial health of the organization
is not up to the desirable level.
Overall, the major source of income for the town panchayat is the non-tax revenue, rather
than the taxes it levies. There is no expenditure reported on debt servicing, as the town
panchayat does not appear to have capacity to sustain major loans.
There is a high dependence on grants that needs to be reduced.
Most of the revenue is being spent on Operations and maintenance and meeting
establishment costs, leaving little for other works. While the average being spent on salaries is
within acceptable limits (av. of 30% by other local bodies), the availability of revenue for new
projects is very low.
Tax base, especially property tax structure needs to be revised.
Funds from the BTMC, and from state finance commission also need to be channelised to fund
new project.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

2.16 Summary of Overall findings

The Analysis done earlier brings out the following points.

Heritage Protection and Conservation

Bodhgaya, as the place where Buddha attained enlightenment is the most important of all
Buddhist pilgrimage sites. The town has a rich 2000-year-old history.
Bodhgaya derives its unique character from the Mahabodhi Temple World Heritage Site, its
sacred geography that includes the newly added monastic fabric and its location along the
river Nairanjana. The built heritage resources here include Buddhist and Hindu temples,
archaeological mounds and excavation sites.
The most vulnerable areas of the town which need high degree of conservation/ special
treatment include the area km around the Temple, the river front areas and the main vistas
to the Temple (namely the riverside road and the central spine)

Demographics

Bodhgaya is at present designated as a class-III town and has a population of 31,000 people
according to the 2001 Census, and is the second largest town in Gaya district after Gaya town.
It houses only 8% of the urban population of the district pointing to the overwhelming
dominance and influence of Gaya town in the region.
The town has seen high growth rates especially in the last three decades with the population
doubling in the last two decades. Tourism and pilgrimage led development have resulted in
this growth. The average growth rate of the last two decades in about 40%. Gaya, the district
headquarter in the vicinity of Bodhgaya had a growth rate of 33% in the 1991- 2001 decade
which is lower than that of Bodhgaya for the same period (42.4%). This is indicative of the high
urban pressure on Bodhgaya town.
Socially, Bodhgaya represents a confluence of several religions and their influences. The
Literacy at Bodhgaya is quite low. Only 62% of population over 6 years is literate. Female
literacy is much lower. There is a need for greater provision of educational facilities for the girl
child.

Economic Development

Economically, the primary sector is the dominant employment provider. In 2001, 52.7% of the
workers were employed in the primary sector, 8.3% in the secondary sector and 39.1% in the
tertiary sector. A study of occupation pattern show that nearly 35% of the workers are
agricultural labourers, probably with low and seasonal incomes. This shows a lack of
diversification in job opportunities
The town has a flourishing commercial activity. Considerable commercial activities, including
informal and formal shops have come up all along the Mahabodhi temple and the intersection
of the central spine and the riverside road. The entire commercial activity, retail and wholesale,
sale of perishable and non-perishable goods, appears to be concentrated in this market.

Bodhgaya has few industries, which is in keeping with the heritage character of the town. While
there is no established household industrial sector, activities such as blanket making and
weaving are local crafts that are practiced.

Tourism and Pilgrimage

Bodhgaya is an important tourist and pilgrimage destination of the Buddhist circuit (Bodhgaya-
Rajgir Nalanda Patna Vaishali - Lauriya Nandangarh- Lauriya Areraj Kesariya
Vikramsila). People of all religious milieu including Buddhists are drawn to the land of
enlightenment.
Tourism is a significant contributor to Bodhgayas economy. In the last decade, tourist arrivals

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

in Bodhgaya have shown an upward trend. Estimates are that in 2001 about 2.1 lakhs tourists
visited Bodhgaya out of which nearly 31,000 were foreign tourists. However, most tourists are
short-term visitors who do not stay overnight.
A major portion of the tourists visiting Bodhgaya are pilgrims, who come here to pay homage
to Lord Buddha. These pilgrims are often on a shoestring budget. They mostly stay in
Dharamshalas or monasteries, which have come up all over the town. Pilgrims face many
problems due to lack of facilities during festival times.
The hotels at Bodhgaya have a total bed capacity of 1188 beds in 615 rooms. Capacity of the
lower end accommodation is inadequate, whereas sufficient beds are available at the higher
end for the time being.

Infrastructure

The main source of water supply of the town is ground water, which is drawn from six high yield
powered tube wells The water supplied is untreated, and is not even chlorinated. The system
does not cover the entire town.
Bodhgaya presently has no sewerage system. The untreated sewage is disposed off directly
into the storm water drains and end up either in the open channels or into the river and the low
lying area around it.
Bodhgaya traditionally had a drainage and irrigation system, Ahars (Surface reservoirs) and
pynes (Channels), which is now defunct and is one of the reasons for water logging. This system
needs to be revived.
The system of solid waste collection is unorganised and the procedure of house-to-house
collection is not activated. Solid waste is disposed either along roadsides or in vacant, low-
lying lands or drains. The present system is grossly inadequate.
The existing source of Electric Supply to Bodhgaya is BSEB Power Grid. The present requirement
of Bodhgaya is 3 MW. The requirement of Power however increases during peak periods to
about 6 MW.
The availability of urban services to the households of the town is still quite unsatisfactory. 2001
census reveals 43% households have electric connections. Similarly, 38% of households have
toilet facilities, whereas 62% of household still do not have toilets (2001 census). In 2001 41% of
the households have access to water supply facilities within their premises. The majority of
households in Bodhgaya still do not have access to urban services. The ground water levels are
quite high at Bodhgaya. Bodhgaya primarily has a clay soil, which further inhibits the
absorption of water. The inner areas around the Temple are very flat and face a problem of
water logging.
Need to ensure delivery of improved water supply, sanitation and solid waste management

Housing and Slums

According to the 2001 census, there are 4672 households in Bodhgaya. The town comprises of
32 neighbourhoods (tolas). Bodhgaya is in a state of transition and contains a mix of tolas that
still retain the open rural character and neighbourhoods that are totally urbanized. There is no
substantial housing shortage in Bodhgaya.
Lack of adequate and reliable data on slums and exact extent of urban poverty,
Need for upgradation of housing in slum areas with dilapidated structures
Need for provision of housing at affordable prices to urban poor

Social, cultural and recreational facilities

Bodhgaya has emerged as an educational centre in this region due to the location of the
Magadh University. There is no perceived shortage in terms of numbers. However more needs
to be done in terms of quality. The schools need to be introduced in the rural pockets as well,
which are lacking in educational facilities. There is a lack of vocational/ skill based and higher
education facilities for women.
Bodhgaya lacks adequate higher medical facilities. There is a dire need for health facilities,

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

hospitals, and dispensaries within the town. Facilities for women and childcare also need to be
introduced.
The provision of community infrastructure other than education and health is rather limited.
Community infrastructure such as post and telecom facilities, fire stations needs to be provided
in adequate numbers.
There is a lack of cultural facilities in the town. Higher order cultural facilities need to be
provided in keeping with the character of Bodhgaya as a pilgrimage and Buddhist centre.
Bodhgaya has an open character, with many open spaces distributed through out the town.
But, the recreational amenities are inadequate. The Kalchakra Maidan is the only
maidan/community open space within the town. The Nairanjana River, which could be a
potential recreational space is neglected and is an ineffectively used area.
Need to provide access to other services such as improved roads, road side electrification,
construction of culverts, cleaning of ponds, roadside plantation, education and health facilities

Spatial Development

Presently, the town of Bodhgaya is spread around the Mahabodhi temple on an East West and
North-South Axis. The municipal (notified) area of the town is spread over an area of 17 sq. km
The character of the town as a religious, cultural and educational hub and its relatively low
densities combine to give it higher than normal areas under public and semi public uses.
Religious and monastic uses are a distinct and unique element here. Due to these uses, the
land under other uses is also low. Industrial growth is also low compared to other towns due to
the heritage character of Bodhgaya. This uniqueness in character highlights the need to
propose a future landuse more in keeping with the unique character of the existing town.
The town density of Bodhgaya is approximately 18 ppHa, which is quite low. The developed
area density is approximately 58 ppHa for the entire town. The total developed area of the
town is 531 Hectares, which is 31% of the total area. This is indicative of the open character of
the town. The recommended UDPFI developed area densities norm for small towns is 75 to 125
ppHa. The current average developed area density in Bodhgaya is well below that. The
highest ward densities are in the wards around the archaeological area and the temple that
have witnessed rapid development and population growth in the town.
The urban structure within the central area of Bodhgaya is not designed to cope with heavy
vehicular traffic. The roads are narrow with limited capacity, and parking spaces are limited.
The condition of roads and streets is poor, and they need to be resurfaced. There is no proper
terminal facility for autos and buses.
The built form in the town is concentrated around the Mahabodhi Temple Complex and is less
dense in other parts. The area all around the temple has been subject to organic, unplanned
development. Efforts to decongest the area around it in the earlier master plans have not
yielded positive results. With all this development, the temple has become isolated, stranded
from its sacred geography by dominant new buildings and successive accumulation of urban
clutter.

Issues related to urban governance, institutional framework and financial health of local body

There is often duplicity of functions and grey areas such as maintenance of roads etc. where
functional distribution is not clear. There is also overlap of functions between GRDA and the
Nagar Panchayat.
The 74th amendment has not been implemented in its spirit.
Functions such as heritage protection for smaller heritage sites have not been assigned to any
one. ASI protects some archaeological sites, but there does not seem to be anyone clearly
responsible for looking after wider heritage concerns.
There is no city level water supply and sewerage board, or department. The function is being
looked after by the PHED, which is a very cursory approach. The water supply and sewerage
systems are anyways non- existent.
There is utter confusion on road maintenance and improvement with everyone from PHED to
department of tourism involved. A single agency will be required for coordination purposes for
all improvement projects.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Lack of plan enforcement and implementation is a major issue.


Modern accounting and auditing practices need to be adopted. Computer based double
entry accounting practices need to be adopted.
Record keeping and data management practices are poor and computerised record
management systems need to be introduced. The Town Panchayat needs to implement an e
governance program, within computerised data on social and physical indicators available on
computer for easy governance.
The nagar panchayat is a small body with limited budget and few projects. Its financial
condition is inconsistent and revenue base is very small.
So far, the nagar panchayat seems to be managing within its own means. It needs to gear up
for undertaking major projects. The system of depending on grants needs to be changed.

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Chapter 3

BODHGAYA: SWOT ANALYSIS

3.1 Key Issues hindering Development

The key problems that the town faces at present are summarized below:

Inadequate provision of environmental services within the town. Poor urban infrastructure.
Lack of Protection and preservation of identified heritage resources including the
archaeological sites spread around the temple connected with the life of Buddha.
Congestion and haphazard development of the inner town (Area in and around the
Mahabodhi Temple)
Lack of diversification of job opportunities with great dependence on primary sector.
Inadequate provision of Health, recreation facilities, open spaces and other amenities
Encroachments along the major movement corridors.
Poor quality road access among neighbourhoods of the inner town. Multi modal traffic and
absence of special provision for cyclists and pedestrians
Proliferation of activities unchecked around the Mahabodhi temple, including activities
incompatible with the serene environment of the temple
Poor traffic management and inadequate provision for parking lots, particularly around
heritage and tourist areas.
Riverside erosion and problems related to water logging and flooding of Nairanjana River.
Inadequate resources (funds and manpower) of the urban local bodies.
Poor implementation of policies of earlier Master Plans.

3.2 Major Town functions

The studies contained in the previous sections bring out in sharp focus the towns major functions
that collectively outline the role and uniqueness of the town. Bodhgaya in the course of its growth
has assumed four major functions. Bodhgaya functions as:

3.2.1 Pilgrimage centre

The Bodhi tree, event of enlightenment, Mahabodhi Temple and the sacred geography of
Bodhgaya have given the town an international presence, which attracts Buddhist and Hindu
pilgrims, and other visitors from all over the world. The pilgrim/ visitor inflow figures that show an
upward trend each year are representative of the recognition of Bodhgaya as a Visitor and pilgrim
destination.

3.2.2 International Buddhist cultural centre

Bodhgaya is the religious centre of the universe for the Buddhists. In keeping with this character, the
town has seen a rapid growth in monasteries and related uses.

3.2.3 Regional commerce and agricultural centre

Bodhgaya also serves the commerce need of the surrounding villages in its hinterland. The
agricultural lands within the town provide employment to many of its local residents.

3.2.4 Research and educational centre

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

The Magadh University, which has many Buddhism, related courses attract many Buddhist scholars.
International historians, archaeologists and Buddhist scholars are beginning to recognise the
potential of Bodhgaya as a research and education hub, not only for its Buddhist traditions and
associations but also for its 2000-year-old history. Bodhgaya still contains some hidden facets/ layers
related to its emergence as the centre of a universal religious faith that have not seen light of the
day. These aspects need to be studied, looked into and revealed to the wider public. This function,
though as yet nascent in nature, has a great potential to grow.

3.3 Swot Analysis

The town has a number of fundamental strengths and opportunities that are:

3.3.1 Strengths

Bodhgaya being the birthplace of Buddhism has a universal significance. It is the site of the
world famous Mahabodhi Temple World Heritage Site. Lord Buddha attained enlightenment in
the sylvan surroundings of Bodhgaya.
Various Southeastern countries have constructed their monasteries in Bodhgaya. These
monasteries are reflective of the rich architectural heritage of these countries. These are
valuable cultural resources of the town and add to the international profile of the town.
Bodhgaya has good accessibility by road and air.
The town has good educational infrastructure. The Magadh University is located here.

3.3.2 Weaknesses

Regional imbalances in development


Poor security perception
Lack of pilgrim and tourist infrastructure
Lack of adequate information and assessment of Buddhist archaeological heritage
Lack of technical and administrative manpower to implement the plan.

3.3.3 Opportunities

The town is spread out and is not densely populated. Its small size and low-density
development means that infrastructure development can be done quickly and better quality
of life ensured at a fast rate.
The town has tremendous potential for tourism and pilgrimage. The town has a rich cultural
tradition of pilgrimage that has continued since the times of Lord Buddha. It has the right mix of
heritage resources, natural environs, cultural events and spiritual ambience to develop as an
exclusive spiritual destination where high-end pilgrims come for physical and spiritual
rejuvenation.
Location of large educational facilities generates an opportunity to develop it as an
educational centre by further strengthening educational infrastructure. It has the serene
environs needed for pursuit of academics and research.
Its status as a world heritage site ensures international and national interest, and potential for
investment.

3.3.4 Threats

Rapid uncontrolled development, particularly near the temple threatening the WHS
ambience
Lack of urban reforms causing lacuna in implementation mechanism.

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Chapter 4

VISION FOR THE CITY

The City development plan has been based upon the studies conducted earlier, the heritage led
perspective plan for Bodhgaya, and its vision derives inspiration from the same plan, and the
expected outcomes of the CDP.

The following are the expected outcomes of the CDP:

Protection of heritage
Controlled development of Bodhgaya keeping in view the pilgrim character of the town.
Focus on development of pilgrim facilities.
Universal Access to a minimum level of services
Establishment of citywide framework for planning and governance
Modern and transparent budgeting, accounting, and financial management system at
municipal levels
Financial sustainability for municipalities and other services institutions
Introduction of E governance in the core functions of the municipal governments
Transparency and accountability in urban services delivery and management

4.1 The Vision Statement

Bodhgaya is the birthplace of Buddhism. Bodhgaya should have a Spiritual ambience and at the
same time have the infrastructure of a vibrant, thriving town where the local community can live,
work and enjoy a high quality of life. Bodhgaya should have adequate provision of pilgrim facilities
to cater to the religious/ pilgrim nature of the town. It should emerge as a cultural and educational
hub for the region by 2030 AD.

The basic underlying conviction for the plan is that the city of Bodhgaya should have a serene,
verdant ambience, the conceptualisation of which was done by the Lord himself when he said
Lovely, indeed, O Venerable one, is this spot of ground charming is the forest grove, pleasant is
flowing river with sandy fords, and hard by is the village where I could obtain food. Suitable indeed
is this place for spiritual exertion for those noble scions who desire to strive. The status of the
Mahabodhi temple as a world heritage site and the town as a sacred landscape should not get
compromised in the process of development.

The city of Bodhgaya should become a healthy, green and a safe town full of social, economic and
cultural vitality. The town should have adequate infrastructure and facilities to meet its future needs.
It should provide a high quality of life to its residents. The town should also emerge as a centre of
learning for the entire region, with high quality educational and health infrastructure.

The town should therefore have a balanced growth. It should be self- sufficient, able to meet the
needs of the local community and the pilgrims. Bodhgaya in terms of growth should not take over
the position or stature of Gaya in the region

The town needs to be empowered with better and self-sufficient institutions to make this vision
possible

4.2 Goals

Based upon the vision statement, the following goals are being set for the CDP:

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

To provide balanced and equitable infrastructure development which improves the quality
of life for the residents.
To promote environmentally sensitive socio- economic development that look after the
concerns of all sections of the community
To provide a framework for effective and sustainable implementation of the plan
To clearly identify projects, strategies and priorities to ensure sustainable city development
for Bodhgaya in a holistic manner.

The following milestones are to be achieved in a phased manner in this plan to achieve the goals
stated above

Table 4.a: Vision and goals


PHASE I & II PHASE III PHASE IV PHASE V PHASE VI
2006-2012 2012-2017 2017-2022 2022-2027 2027-2031
Water Ensuring safe and Augmentation of Augmentation Augmentation of Augmentatio
Supply clean piped water system for Piped of system for system for Piped n of system
supply for 100% water supply for Piped water water supply for for Piped
population additional supply for additional water supply
population additional population for additional
population population
Rainwater Ensuring water Ensuring water Ensuring water Ensuring water Ensuring
harvesting balance through balance through balance balance through water
introduction of introduction of through introduction of balance
rainwater rainwater introduction of rainwater through
harvesting harvesting rainwater harvesting introduction
harvesting of rainwater
harvesting
Sewerage Access to Access to Access to Access to Access to
sewerage for entire sewerage for entire sewerage for sewerage for sewerage for
existing population additional entire entire additional entire
population additional population additional
population population
Sanitation Provision of low cost Provision of low cost Provision of low Provision of low Provision of
sanitation units for sanitation units for cost sanitation cost sanitation low cost
all low income all low income units for all low units for all low sanitation
areas/ slum areas/ areas/ slum areas/ income areas/ income areas/ units for all
areas without areas without slum areas/ slum areas/ areas low income
sanitation systems sanitation systems areas without without sanitation areas/ slum
sanitation systems areas/ areas
systems without
sanitation
systems
Solid Waste Provision of a Provision of a Provision of a Provision of a Provision of a
Manageme sustainable and sustainable and sustainable and sustainable and sustainable
nt efficient solid waste efficient solid waste efficient solid efficient solid and efficient
management management waste waste solid waste
system for system for management management management
Bodhgaya through Bodhgaya through system for system for system for
public private public private Bodhgaya Bodhgaya Bodhgaya
partnership partnership through public through public through
private private public
partnership partnership private
partnership

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Drainage / Rejuvenation of Rejuvenation of Rejuvenatio Rejuvenation Rejuvenation


Storm water existing major existing major n of existing of existing of existing
drains drains of the drains of the major major drains major drains
town and town and drains of of the town of the town
development development the town and and
as landscape as landscape and development development
elements. elements. developme as landscape as landscape
Provision of Provision of nt as elements. elements.
efficient and efficient and landscape Provision of Provision of
sustainable sustainable elements. efficient and efficient and
drainage drainage Provision of sustainable sustainable
systems for the systems for the efficient drainage drainage
town town and systems for systems for
sustainable the town the town
drainage
systems for
the town
Electricity Provision of Provision of Provision of Provision of Provision of
electricity for electricity for electricity electricity for electricity for
100% of existing 100% of for 100% of 100% of 100% of
population of population of population population of population of
Bodhgaya Bodhgaya of Bodhgaya Bodhgaya
Development Development Bodhgaya Development Development
of Street of Street Developme of Street of Street
lighting on all lighting on all nt of Street lighting on all lighting on all
roads and roads and lighting on roads and roads and
public areas of public areas of all roads public areas public areas
the town the town and public of the town of the town
areas of
the town
Urban Improvement and Improvement and Improvement Improvement and Improvement
Transport augmentation of augmentation of and augmentation of and
existing transport existing transport augmentation existing transport augmentatio
network of network of of existing network of n of existing
Bodhgaya to Bodhgaya to transport Bodhgaya to transport
provide improved provide improved network of provide improved network of
movement of traffic movement of traffic Bodhgaya to movement of Bodhgaya to
within the town within the town provide traffic within the provide
improved town improved
movement of movement of
traffic within the traffic within
town the town
Heritage Protection of all Protection of all Protection Protection of Protection of
protection heritage heritage of all all heritage all heritage
resources of the resources of the heritage resources of resources of
town town resources the town the town
Increase Increase of the town Increase Increase
people people Increase people people
involvement in involvement in people involvement involvement
heritage heritage involvemen in heritage in heritage
concerns and concerns and t in concerns and concerns and
minimise minimise heritage minimise minimise
heritage- heritage- concerns heritage- heritage-
development development and development development
conflicts conflicts minimise conflicts conflicts
heritage-
developme
nt conflicts

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Economic Controlled Controlled Controlled Controlled Controlled


growth growth to growth to growth to growth to growth to
religious religious religious religious religious
tourism/ tourism/ tourism/ tourism/ tourism/
pilgrimage pilgrimage pilgrimage pilgrimage pilgrimage
Economic Economic Economic Economic Economic
development in development in developme development development
regional regional nt in in regional in regional
context context regional context context
Creation of jobs Creation of jobs in context Creation of Creation of
in services, services, education, Creation of jobs in jobs in
education, cottage industries jobs in services, services,
cottage sectors services, education, education,
industries education, cottage cottage
sectors cottage industries industries
industries sectors sectors
sectors
Urban Ensure renewal and Ensure renewal and Ensure renewal Ensure renewal Ensure
renewal revitalization of all revitalization of all and and revitalization renewal and
old, dilapidated or old, dilapidated or revitalization of of all old, revitalization
deficient deficient all old, dilapidated or of all old,
infrastructure infrastructure dilapidated or deficient dilapidated
systems in older/ systems in older/ deficient infrastructure or deficient
poor areas of the poor areas of the infrastructure systems in older/ infrastructure
town town systems in poor areas of the systems in
older/ poor town older/ poor
areas of the areas of the
town town

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Chapter 5

SECTORAL STRATEGIES

The CDP gives strategies for all these sectors for which goals have been set. These strategies are
based on the proposed masterplan of Bodhgaya town, Vision 2031. These form the basis for arriving
at project identification and costing for the CDP. Detailed survey, investigations have to be carried
out and detailed project report, along with estimates, has to be prepared before the schemes
proposed in the report are implemented.

5.1 Heritage Protection and Built Environment.

Bodh Gaya is a town replete in history and heritage resources. The development plan has
recognised the urgent need for not only the protection of the well known heritage resources like
Mahabodhi Temple Complex, but also the cultural landscape within the town, which is related to
Lord Buddha.

In order to protect Bodhgayas heritage resources, the masterplan has suggested control on
development. Two buffer zones have been delineated around the heritage site. These have been
zoned as Special area in the masterplan.

5.1.1 Special Area zonation

The masterplan has also suggested that a special area plan should be worked out detailing the
proposals for the special area. Special heritage bylaws need to be framed for this area, based on
the development code included in this Master plan. People in special area must be involved in
decision-making and formulation of the special area plan. Height and urban aesthetics also need
to be controlled in the rest of the town to prevent unsuitable or ugly looking development coming
up in the remaining town. The policies suggested under the masterplan for development in special
area are given below.

Special Area A: The Masterplan has banned further construction in this area as construction
within the vicinities of WHS can disturb the historical and visual setting of the heritage site
considerably. IT has also talked about need for preparing a special area plan, focusing on the
special area A.

The height of structures in this zone has been restricted to 3.3mtr (10 ft.) only and concept of TDR is
suggested for compensating the loss of floor space. The zone is to be developed as silent and
pollution free zone over a period of time with battery operated/pollution free transport nodes.

Special Area B: No new construction is allowed in this area, except for recreational or cultural
facilities and essential infrastructure. This zone is to be developed as a Cultural zone. In this zone,
religious and related uses should only be allowed. Height of structures within this zone is limited to 33
ft.

This is based on the proposals of the Site management Plan of the World Heritage Site

5.1.2 Other policies for heritage protection and conservation

Archaeological resources need to be identified, surveyed, mapped and the land reserved for
future excavations.
An inventory of known or potential archaeological and heritage resources must be developed.
A Heritage information system needs to be set up.
Demolition of protected or listed structures must not be permitted under any circumstances,
except when so certified by renowned archaeologists, state archaeology / ASI and only as per
international norms and practices.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

No new structure, religious or secular, should be greater in height than the Mahabodhi Temple.
The Temple is a symbol of Bodhgaya and should be visually prominent from all parts of the
cultural heritage zone.
Expansion of the existing museum: The sacred landscape of Bodhgaya has artifacts
everywhere, many in an unprotected and neglected state. The existing museum has limited
capacity. The museum needs to be expanded.
For any non-residential building, or residential building on plot more than 500 sqm, special
permission of the heritage conservation committee must be taken.
Any infrastructure development carried out within any zone, particularly the special area A is
an important aspect, as unaesthetic infrastructure can cause great visual pollution. Any street
furniture within the town should be aesthetically designed. All wiring should be underground as
far as possible. Brick or sandstone pathways should replace black top roads within the special
area A. It is important to evolve a single building materials vocabulary for the entire town that
should be strictly followed.
Another material that can cause considerable visual pollution is advertising material
graphically put in prominent positions. This can cause disturbance to the historic and visual
values of the place. Posters, hoardings and other publicity materials should be avoided within
the heritage zone and the main approach roads in the town.
Signage and information systems are essential within the site and the town, but they must be
aesthetically designed and controlled. Evolution of aesthetically designed signage design is
very important for the town
International groups should use forms and characteristics of Indian architecture. Non-Indian
forms of Buddhist architecture (Thai, Tibetan, Chinese, Burmese, and Japanese etc.) should be
restricted to one/ main monasteries.

5.1.3 Implementation mechanism for heritage protection proposals

The Site management Plan of the WHS has recommended that the existing institutions be
strengthened to ensure implementation of heritage related proposal. These are being incorporated
in the CDP. These include

a. Technical strengthening of Bodhgaya Temple Management Committee for better


protection of the WHS and Establishment of Technical Support Unit/Heritage Resource Centre as a
capacity building measure

The Management Plan envisages establishment of a professional unit for effective maintenance
and general up keep including day-to-day management of the Mahabodhi Temple Complex. This
unit or Technical Support Unit shall have a Civil Engineer, Public Health Engineer, Electrician,
Horticulturist and an Architect (preferably with conservation background), an accountant and
supporting secretarial staff. The objective of establishment of this professional unit is to ensure
availability of onsite expertise for matter concerning day-to-day operations and facility
management of the site. This unit can be placed under BTMC.

b. Advisory Board, as a high-powered set up for monitoring the implementation of Site


Management Plan.

The BTMC Act also has a provision for constitution of an Advisory Board. The Advisory Board would
take broad policy decisions, but for working out the modalities, the Department of Culture, Govt of
Bihar would be involved. The Department of Culture would also on behalf of the Advisory Board
monitor the progress of the Site Management Plan.

c. Establishment of Bodhgaya Heritage Committee.

The site management plan has proposed that the Bodhgaya Heritage Committee be set up to look
after heritage concerns at the local body level. This Committee will also provide requisite advice
connected with the preservation and maintenance of heritage resources. This committee shall be
the key body, which will advise the local authority on the implementation of SMP, control of skyline
as part of development plan and would also review it periodically.

It will have Municipal Commissioner/Vice chairman GRDA/ District Magistrate as Chairperson and

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

representatives such as noted Architects, Urban Planners, Superintendent Archaeologist,


Conservation Architects, local NGOs/Citizen groups etc. All non-residential projects and all
residential projects on plots above 500 sqm in the city of Bodhgaya would be approved by the
Bodhgaya Heritage Committee in accordance with the vision and policies of SMP and in keeping
with the proposed urban design guidelines, architectural design and material code proposed for
the vicinity and wider setting of World Heritage Site.

The Gaya Regional Development Authority under the Department of Urban Development, Govt of
Bihar is at present the established planning body at present responsible to promote and secure
planned development of designated region in general and development area in particular. The
site management plan has proposed that the Bodhgaya Heritage Committee may be initially
established as part of GRDA, so that the sensitisation and the orientation towards heritage issues is
initiated. These activities would continue till the powers with regard to the planning and
development as already listed in the constitution amendment shall be passed on to the local
authority along with some of the technical manpower.

5.1.4 Resource Mobilisation for heritage protection

The main source of funds for heritage protection would be grants from the government both state
and central, grants from the world monument fund and soft loans from funding agencies. For
effective utilisation of funds received from the various Buddhist Countries, a Mahabodhi
Mahavihara World Heritage Development Fund is proposed to be set up in which the grants
received from various Buddhist Countries could be pooled in to create a corpus that would be
managed by the BTMC. A proportion of the offerings at the Temple would also go towards this
fund. The funds will be used for the maintenance of the World Heritage Site and for implementation
of specific Heritage Projects within the setting of the WHS. The Advisory Board and BTMC would
mobilise resources from the Buddhist Countries and also explore the possibility of raising capital
through grants and soft loans from overseas funding sources. The Advisory Board can advice on
projects funded from the corpus fund related to the WHS and the setting.

Table 5.a: Actions required for implementing strategies on heritage protection


ACTIONS TIME FRAME FOR
IMPLEMENTATION
1. Preparation of detailed inventory of heritage resources within the town Phase I
2. Strengthening of Advisory committee Phase I

3. Strengthening of BTMC Phase I and II

4. Setting up of Technical Support Unit/ Heritage Resource Centre Phase I and II

5. Setting up of Bodhgaya heritage committee Phase I and II

6. Delineation of heritage zones Phase I and II

7. Conduct Geo radar survey of archaeological sensitive pockets within the Phase I and II
town
8. Preparation of special area plan and Area improvement schemes for the Phase I and II
vicinities
9. Preparation of detailed inventory within the WHS (Mahabodhi Temple) and Phase I (to start)
photographic records every month to monitor change
10. Preparation and implementation of comprehensive landscape and Phase I and II
presentation plan for the WHS
11. Preparation and implementation of restoration and protection of built fabric Phase I and II
plan of the WHS, including annual maintenance plans and work schedules
12. Preparation of Disaster prevention and mitigation plan for the WHS, including Phase I and II
security plan to prevents thefts, damage due to neglect.
13. Enlargement of existing ASI museum at Bodhgaya Phase I and II
14. Setting up of the Mahabodhi Mahavihara world heritage management fund. Phase I

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

PROPOSED SPECIAL AREA

!
"#

"#
$

0 100 250 500 750 1000 M

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

5.2 Heritage Potential and Religious/ Heritage Tourism Development

5.2.1 Religious Tourism as an economic tool for the locals

Bodhgaya is an agrarian based economy and a predominant section of the population belongs to
the economically weaker sections. The spurt in tourism activities has caused the soaring of land
prices and large-scale conversion of agricultural land. Interaction with the locals revealed an
underlying resentment on account of being deprived of anticipated economic benefits. Studies of
present pilgrimage and tourism scenario has shown that majority of visitors to Bodhgaya are
pilgrims. It is important in this context that cultural/ heritage tourism be promoted in Bodhgaya. In
this context, the revised masterplan of Bodhgaya has advocated promotion of heritage tourism,
with a cautious approach to provision of Hotels and tourist activities. It has proposed that
pilgrimage related activities should come up at Bodhgaya and high-end tourist related activities
should be developed at Gaya.

5.2.2 Projected Visitor Arrivals

Bodhgaya has a universal significance. Domestic as well as foreign pilgrims are drawn to the Land
of Enlightenment. With the development of Bodhgaya as a World Buddhist Centre, it is expected
that the inflow of visitors (mainly pilgrims) would increase and consequently the requirement of
hotels, dharamshalas, and camping sites would go up considerably by 2031.

The masterplan of Bodhgaya has proposed that pilgrim facilities be provided at Bodhgaya, and
the focus of development of other High-end tourist facilities be shifted to Gaya. This will help
protect the heritage character of Bodhgaya, as well as benefit Gaya economically. The CDP also
recommends the same approach.

The domestic pilgrims and other visitors visiting Bodhgaya have been growing at a steady rate of
6%. It is expected that this trend will continue till 2012 and is expected to grow to 7% after the
implementation of the Development Plan. With regard to foreign visitors and pilgrims, the scenario is
a little different. With the inscription of the Mahabodhi temple at Bodhgaya in the list of World
Heritage Sites, it is expected that the flow of foreign visitors would show a sharp increase from 1.5%
to 6% from 2002 to 2012 which would then stabilize to 7% till 2022 and after implementation of a
significant part of the Development Plan would again show a sharp increase to 9%. It is expected
that the total number of visitors to Bodhgaya would be approximately 12.5 lakhs in the year 2031,
most of these being pilgrims. The number of foreign visitors would be 2.5 lakhs and the number of
domestic visitors to Bodhgaya would be about 10 lakhs.

Table 5.b: Projected Visitor Arrivals (In Lakhs)


GROWTH
YEAR DOMESTIC GROWTH RATE FOREIGN RATE* TOTALS

2005 2.21 6 0.36 6 2.57


2007 2.48 6 0.43 6 2.91
2012 3.32 7 0.6 7 3.92
2017 4.44 7 0.8 9 5.24
2022 5.95 7 1.12 9 7.07
2027 7.96 7 1.72 9 9.68
2031 10.05 2.43 12.48
(The visitor inflow growth trends are based on the projections made in the Perspective Tourism Plan
for the State of Bihar.)

5.2.3 Requirement of Pilgrim Accommodation

The quantum and standard of visitor accommodation at Bodhgaya need much to be desired
when compared with the facilities available at the national level. Presently, there is about 1700-

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

bed visitor accommodation at Bodhgaya whereas, by 2031, approximately 5400 beds will be
required. Overall, there is demand for approximately 16 new one star hotels/ dharamshalas, 6 new
two or three star hotels and 1 five star hotels. The town already has an area with three/ five star
hotels. The visitor inflow trends in Bodhgaya show that pilgrimage/ tourism is a seasonal and not
year round activity in Bodhgaya. Against this backdrop, it makes economic sense to have
provision for more number of camping sites / transit accommodation. The lower end
accommodation will be provided in a number of camping sites and a zone for one star hotels near
the bus terminal and interchange points.

Much of the demand is also expected to be met at Gaya so that the entire region can be
developed. The masterplan has proposed that Only 25% of the demand is expected to be met
through new hotels at Bodhgaya, rest is to be absorbed in Gaya town and its region. (Source:
Heritage led perspective development plan of Bodhgaya, Vision 2031)

5.2.4 Pilgrimage/ Heritage tourism promotion strategies:

In order to increase the benefits to the local economy, it is important that the length of stay of
visitors at Bodhgaya be increased. This can be done through diversification in visitor interests. Some
strategies suggested by the masterplan that can help achieve this end are given below:

Development of Tourist attractions and circuits: Creating a local Buddhist circuit could extend
the duration of stay of the pilgrim.
o Regional circuit would include Bakraur, Pragbodhi hill and Barabar caves, where area
improvement and accessibility improvement is suggested.
o Local circuit within the special area should also be developed with a heritage path on
which heritage walk can be held.
o The riverfront of Nairanjana also has tremendous significance for the pilgrims and
needs to be development with ghats, pathways, landscaping and riverside protection
o Light and music shows, cultural festivals (Buddha Jayanti Mahotsav) where the spirit of
Buddhism is reflected with spiritual discourses need to become a part of the tourist
calendar of the town.

Improved accessibility: The town of Bodhgaya is connected with rail and road.
o The roads connecting various Buddhist sites in the country need to be widened and
resurfaced as per international standards with proper signages and provision of
wayside amenities.
o A special train for the Buddhist circuit on the lines of Palace on Wheels needs to be
introduced till Gaya. Non-polluting luxury coaches catering to the Buddhist circuit, with
adequate security arrangements, are also proposed.
o The airport near the town has become operational and flights from Sri Lanka have
commenced. The connectivity of Bodhgaya needs to be improved by introduction of
flights from other Buddhist and European Countries.

Cultural centre: A Cultural centre in the periphery along the central spine (Integrated complex
with an auditorium, open air theatre, Buddhist art gallery and museum) is being proposed to
cater to the congregational needs of the pilgrims.

Interpretation centre: All tourists appreciate a friendly welcome and a clean litter free, well-
maintained site. Within the town of Bodhgaya, an interpretation centre is proposed in the buffer
zone opposite to the Haat from where comprehensive information regarding transport,
entrance tickets, hiring of guides, publications, rules and regulations will be provided.

Tourist Police: Nothing spoils a visitors experience more than being robbed, especially of a
passport, camera or irreplaceable exposed film. It is proposed that a tourist police be
established in the town to help make the visitors/ pilgrims feel more secure.

Benefits to local economy: Tourism benefits also need to be linked with conservation activities.
For this, it is imperative that local people benefit economically and see a clear link between
the benefits and the need to protect the resource. If benefits do not stay in local areas or are
narrowly distributed, it would become difficult to establish such a link.
o To involve the locals, one strategy could be to allow the movement of non-polluting

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

indigenous means of transport (such as tongas, rickshaws) in some portions of the town
owned only by the locals.
o Similarly, guides operating within the town should only be locals. The locals can be
given the requisite training for this purpose and given identification cards.
o Development of local handicrafts can be another important tool to involve locals in
the tourism plan.

Promotion of the town: Unfortunately or Fortunately the WHS has not been promoted
adequately amongst the domestic as well as international tourist markets. This is evident from
the number of tourists visiting the place. There is a need to evolve a Promotion strategy for the
WHS.
o International tour operators should be briefed about the site and travel desks and
interactive kiosks for Bodhgaya should be set up at aerodromes, railway stations.
o Media campaign targeting the public as well as local and international tour operators
in the national and international media (print and visual) should be given to present
and build a positive image of the WHS. The advertisements should highlight the
complete spiritual experience that the Site offers and should be for the intended
visitors.

The following projects required for the implementation of these heritage related proposals and their
phasing is given below

Table 5.c: Pilgrim / Heritage tourism projects identified


PROJECTS TIME FRAME FOR
IMPLEMENTATION
1. River front improvement scheme Phase I - III
2. Introduction of non-polluting public transport. Phase I
4. Development of cultural centre, Interpretation centre, Phase I-III
crafts centre
5. Development of camping sites for pilgrims Phase I
6. Development of regional tourist circuit incorporating the Phase III
heritage resources near the town
7 Development of local heritage circuit including outer Phase I
pradakshina path linking heritage resources within special
area in Bodhgaya.
8. Skill training and upgradation of local women and youth Phase II and III
for employment generation in heritage programmes.
9. Setting up of Tourist Police cell Phase I

5.3 Development of Physical Infrastructure

5.3.1 Water Supply

Water Demand

As per the Manual of Water Supply and Treatment prepared by the Central Public Health &
Environmental Engineering Organisation (CPHEEO) of the Govt. of India, the town should have a
minimum available water supply at the rate of 135 litres per capita per day (LPCD) at the
consumers end. Since certain amount of leakage, wastage etc. is inevitable an extra allowance
of 15% is provided for. Thus rate of water supply is considered @ 150 LPCD for assessment of water
demand for which the water abstraction, transmission and distribution system has to be designed.

Source

Though Bodhgaya is situated along west bank of river Nairanjana, flowing south to north, the river
does not have perennial flow. Consequently the town is abstracting ground water to meet water

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

requirements and the same has to be followed for phase I and II, till the supply is ensured through a
new proposed canal by the state govt. It is proposed that from phase III onwards, water will be
brought from Ganga through Fatwa- Hilsa- Kangsarai- Islampur-Gaya to Bodhgaya via canal. This
canal is already approved by state govt.

Presently the source of water supply is six number of tubewells located along the west bank of the
river, and is pumped into two overhead service reservoirs (OHSR) one of 0.45 million litre (ML)
capacity and another of 0.225 ml. thereby providing a cumulative storage of 0.675 ML for a
population of 0.31 lakh. In addition to these six tubewells, ground water is also abstracted by
Magadh University, Mahabodhi Temple complex, a large number of hotels, individuals etc.

Bodhgaya is located in the alluvial Gangetic plains and is thus blessed with availability of ground
water and is the available source of water supply for domestic use.

Phased water requirements are computed @ 150 LPCD for meeting domestic, institutional,
commerce & trade as also industrial needs, and are tabulated as under:

Table 5.d: Phase wise Water Requirements


YEAR RESIDENTIAL FLOATING TOTAL REQUIREMENT OF
POPULATION POPULATION (30%) POPULATION WATER @ 150 LPCD
2001 30866 - 31000 4.65 mld
2005 36000 10800 46500 6.98 mld
2007 39000 11700 51000 7.65 mld
2012 45000 13500 59000 8.85 mld
2017 56000 16800 72500 10.88 mld
2022 67000 20100 87000 13.05 mld
2027 80000 24000 104000 15.6 mld
2031 92000 27600 120000 18 mld

Augmentation measures:

With the advent of time, the yield of tubewells (TW) diminishes, and there is need to monitor the
yield of TW once before monsoon (when the water table in ground water aquifer is lowest) and
once after monsoon (when the water table in the ground water aquifer is naturally high due to
recharge), so as to assess the availability of water from a TW and take adequate steps to augment
water supply to meet the growing water requirements. A few exploratory wells can be drilled in
new area to assess quantity and quality of water, before going for a regular water supply scheme
based on tubewells.

Depending upon the yield of TW and water demand, overhead storage in service reservoirs may
be provided for 12 hrs. of average water demand. This will provide for fluctuation in water demand,
any emergent needs including fire demand etc. The Supply could be intermittent 6 hrs in the
morning and 6 hrs in the evening, or alternatively, it could be continuous for 24 hrs. In case of
intermittent supply the total daily demand of water is to be supplied in 12 hrs period, hence the
pipes sizes needed shall be larger as compared if the supply is continuous for 24 hrs. Moreover,
intermittent supply leads to storage of water by the consumers, whereas in case of 24 hrs supply
consumers do not tend to store the water. Thus there is less wastage of water. Hence, 24 hrs
continuous water supply is preferred. .

The only source of water of Bodhgaya is underground water in the absence of any perennial
surface water source like liver/lake. Fortunately the quality of underground water is potable and
hence it needs only dis-infection by chlorination at the time of supply. For a small town like
Bodhgaya the proposed system based on tube wells, overhead tanks through water mains dividing
the town in different zones is most suited. In India in most of the towns and most of the new
developed colonies in bigger cities like Lucknow, Delhi, NOIDA etc. the water supply is based on

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

tube wells.

The infrastructure such as number of tubewells, overhead tanks sizing of pipe lines etc. is a matter of
detailed engineering depending on the yield of the tubewells and capacities of overhead tanks
etc. However a rough indication is given below:

Table 5.e: Required tube wells and OHT demand in MLD


YEAR TOTAL WATER NO. OF TUBEWELLS BASED ON 50 STORAGE (OHT) BASED ON
DEMAND (IN MLD) CUM/HR YIELD FOR 16 HRS. 12 HRS. DEMAND (IN MLD)
2001 4.65 6 2.4
2005 6.98 9 3.5
2007 7.65 10 3.9
2012 8.85 12 4.5
2017 10.88 14 5.5
2022 13.05 17 6.6
2027 15.6 20 7.8
2031 18 23 9

Location of a new OHSR may be so decided so as to provide water to the farthest end under
adequate pressure in a particular sector.

Commensurate with development and build up in water requirements, the distribution network will
also need augmentation in a phased manner. Civil/structural component of the work such as
tubewells, pump house, reservoirs and distribution pipes may be designed for ultimate population
of each sector of the town, whereas the pumping plants and electrical components of the work
may be developed in a phased manner.

Location of Tubewells

The tubewells may be located 80-100 m away from an existing tube well depending upon its cone
of depression, away from a source of pollution and possibly in a known area of rich water aquifer.
Each planned sector may have one or more number of tube wells, depending on yield of a well,
overhead reservoir and water distribution pipes to supply potable water to all the premises in the
sector.

Water Quality

Water quality is an integral part of any organised water supply system, and has great importance
considering Public Health aspect. Water drawn from any source thus needs to be analysed to
assess physical as well as chemical characteristics and to decide upon mode of treatment
required.

Disinfection of Water Supplies

If water samples drawn meet the quality requirements as per Manual of Water Supply issued by the
CPHEEO/ Bureau of Indian Standards/ World Health Organisation, then simple disinfection of water
supply may be resorted to, so as to ensure that contamination does not take place in the
distribution network and water supply is safe at consumers end. The most commonly used
disinfectant being chlorine and chlorination can be resorted to as water is pumped from the tube
well either into OHSR or directly into the distribution system. Bleaching powder may be used for the
purpose of chlorination.

Treatment of Water Supply

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

In case the ground water is found to contain elements like iron, arsenic, fluoride etc beyond
permissible limit a special water treatment plant shall have to be set up for their removal. A typical
water treatment plant for removal of iron shall consist of the following process/ units.
Raw Water Sump/Pump House
Aeration
Slow Sand Filtration
Chlorination
Clear Water sump
Pump House
To Service Reservoirs

Schematic diagram can be given as under:

Cost indication of such plant to treat 18 MLD raw water for 2031 has been given.

However, initially, the ground water does not contain the above elements beyond permissible limit
and only chlorination is required during distribution.

5.3.2 Sewerage and Sewage Treatment

There are two possible options for the sewage treatment system for Bodhgaya. The first involves
setting up of a conventional STP system and the second involves setting up of waste management
parks. Both the options are detailed below. A decentralized waste management park concept has
been recommended for Bodhgaya town. Bodhgaya town should be provided with underground
sewerage system so that the wastewater from individual premises are conveyed through
underground sewer pipes and taken to the sewage treatment plant for treatment and subsequent
disposal or reuse. Future houses in the newly developed area should have proper house
drainage/sewer system that could be connected to the street sewer. It should be ensured by
concerned authority that the existing houses be connected to the proposed sewer system so that
sewage and sullage do not flow through open surface drain and create unhealthy living conditions
in the town as it exists now.

Option 1: A conventional mechanized STP can be set up for the town. The advantage of this would
be that it is a single facility hence easier to maintain, and that the location of the STP should be
chosen in a manner to minimize the nuisance within the town. Such a treatment system has number
of mechanical and electrical components that need skilled operators for their operation and
maintenance. Operation and maintenance cost of such a system is also high.

Option 2: A decentralized waste management park concept has also been suggested for
Bodhgaya town. Under this system, a decentralised mini STP which does not need long gravity
sewer and intermediate sewage pumping stations for each sector be installed based on Low cost
treatment system such as oxidation pond/duck weed pond, which runs utilizing the solar energy
and does not have any mechanical/electrical component. Such treatment plants for each sector
could be located on the periphery of the sector in the area which has been proposed as the green
area in the future development plan. Treated effluent from the pond should be used for pisci-

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

culture in the fish pond followed by application of treated effluent from the fish pond on land for
agricultural irrigation, development of green belt & afforestation. Treated effluent contains
valuable nutrients such as Nitrogen and Phosphorous, which boost the growth of crops and plants.
A portion of the waste management park will also be earmarked for municipal solid waste handling
for treatment and disposal of the municipal solid waste generated within the sector. The details of
such municipal solid waste handling and disposal systems have been discussed in the subsequent
section of the report.

Waste water pond system for the treatment of community waste water and subsequent recycling
and reuse shall consist of multiple celled ponds namely primary, secondary and tertiary ponds with
1.5 m depth and liquid detention time of about 8-10 days. This will be followed by fishpond
treatment of minimum 3 days detention and 1.5 m depth. In the duckweed system, Duck weeds
developed in pond should be harvested and released in the fishpond as the same could be used
as fish food organism. In case oxidation pond (stabilization pond system) is used for treatment of
wastewater, the pond system converts the waste material to phyto- plankton by the bacteria
algae symbiosis using solar radiation and then to zoo plantation. The fish in the fishpond eats these
phyto-plankton and zooplankton. Fish could be reared in the fishpond using composite fish culture
technique for obtaining maximum yield of fish. The stocking density of fish in the fishpond may vary
between 10,000 to 12,000 fishes per hectare. Species combination could include L. Rohita, C.
Catla, H. Mrigala, C. Carpio, Grass Carp, and Silver Carp

Application rate of treated effluent on land for development of green belt or for agricultural
purpose could be about 100 mm per week (25 mm per application with 4 application per week).
Area requirement for the pond system would be approximately 1 hectare per mld (10,000
population). Area can also be reserved for solid waste handling facilities. The treated effluent can
then be applied on green belts. The entire waste management park should have proper fencing
and be made out of bounds zone for the common people. These norms are based on Manual of
Solid Waste Management of CPHEEO, publications of American Water Works Association and
Institution of Engineers, India.

While this technology is overall more suitable for a small town like Bodhgaya, the newness of the
technology may cause some initial teething problems. Detailed feasibility is required to decide on
the option to adopt. In the meantime, it is suggested that a pilot waste management park can be
set up to judge the success of the technology. If successful, it can be implemented in the larger
scale. Alternatively the conventional technology can be taken up for the whole of the town.

Table 5.f: Wastewater generation from Bodhgaya town in the Year 2031 and the area requirement
for waste management park.

PHASE TOTAL WASTE WATER GENERATED AREA OF WASTE MANAGEMENT PARK IN


POPULATION @108 LPD (IN MLD) HECTARE @11 HEC. /MLD.
2005 46500 5.022 55.242
2007 51000 5.508 60.588
2012 59000 6.372 70.092
2017 72500 7.83 86.13
2022 87000 9.396 103.356
2027 104000 11.232 123.552
2031 120000 12.96 142.56

It may please be noted that about 50% of the area worked out in last column is actually for solid
waste disposal purposes and rest is for disposal of effluent by irrigation over the available near by
fields i.e. for land application.

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LANDFILL SITE

AREA FOR
VERMICULTURE
AREA FOR MSW HANDLING SY STEM

Entry f or
MSW v ehicles

Primary Pond Secondary Pond


Tertiary Forest Land
Pond

Primary Pond Secondary Pond


Entry STP

Off ice Fish Pond


Fencing

Wastewater Pond Sy stem


Green Area

Treated Eff luent Irrigation Sy stem

Agriculture / Horticulture

Fig. : Waste Management Park Concept Diagram

The town should have low cost sanitation units such as sulabh sauchalay units for the economically
weaker section of the population so that open-air defection is stopped. These units may also be
used by the floating population of the town and the by pilgrims on pay and use basis.

5.3.3 Solid Waste Management

Two-bin collection system for the municipal solid waste has been proposed for the town. The
compostable portion of the waste to be collected in a separate bin is to be collected from each
household and transported to the waste water management park proposed in each sector for
composting through vermiculture and subsequently be used as manure in the agricultural field.
Non- putrescible portion of the municipal solid waste should be collected in a separate bin. A large
portion of this waste has reuse potential and could be recycled before this reaches the disposal
site. The portion of the waste, which reaches the disposal site, could be disposed by sanitary landfill
technique.

Generation of solid waste is complimentary to habitation. Solid waste is generated from the house
holds (comprising of kitchen waste, floor sweepings, animal waste arising out of cattle fodder, feed
material for birds-chicken etc. and animal excreta), from commerce & trade including hotels,
restaurants, hostels, from institution such as temple & religious complexes, teaching institutions,
offices, hospitals, dispensaries and the like. In addition solid waste is also generated from
construction activity, agriculture etc.

Bodhgaya town is dominantly a religious centre attracting devotees, tourists etc., and trade also
flourishes on account of such activities. Management of generated solid wastes has thus to be
undertaken in a methodical manner.

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Presently, there is no organised system of collection, transportation & disposal of solid waste in the
town. As observed, solid waste generated by individuals is disposed off more according to
convenience to the nearest available place, be it a nearby open space, low-lying area or along
the drains or even into the drain. This creates unhygienic conditions leading to environmental
degradation.

It has been observed that Bodhgaya Nagar Panchayat (BGNP), being primarily responsible, have
earmarked some 15-20 collection points (more akin to open sites) and engaged a few safai
karmacharis, for sweeping of streets and cleaning of open storm water drains (SWDs). House to
house collection of solid waste is not in vogue. Presently 21 safai karmacharies are on the job, &
their work supervised by a Head Jamadar.

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) includes commercial and residential waste generated in a municipal
or notified area in either solid or semi-solid form excluding industrial hazardous waste but including
treated bio-medical wastes [Municipal Solid Wastes (Management & Handling) Rules 2000].

Thus MSW can largely be categorized as


(a) Bio-degradable waste
(b) Non-bio-degradable waste or inert matter that cannot be decomposed/destroyed by
biological activity.

The Ministry of Environment & Forests of the Govt. of India has notified Municipal Solid Wastes
(Management & Handling) Rules, 2000 by notification dated 25 September, 2000 and these rules
are applicable to every municipal authority responsible for collection, segregation, storage,
transportation, processing and disposal of municipal solid wastes.

Management of Municipal Solid Wastes is to be carried out in accordance with MSW Management
& Handling Rules 2000 and the Salient points consist of:

Collection of MSW

1. Organizing house-to-house collection of MSW through any of the methods like community bin
collection (where MSW generated is deposited into a collection point/centre by the generator
like house holds) or by engaging agency to collect MSW from house to house.
2. Devising collection of waste from slums and squatter area or localities, hotels, restaurants, office
complexes and commercial area.
3. Waste from slaughterhouses, meat & fish markets, fruits & vegetable markets which are
biodegradable in nature.
4. Bio-medical wastes and industrial wastes shall not be mixed with MSW and such waste shall
follow the rules separately specified for the purpose.
5. Collected waste from residential and other areas shall be transferred to community bin by
hand driven containerised carts or other small vehicles.
6. Horticultural and construction or demolition waste or debris shall be separately collected and
disposed off.
7. Waste (garbage, dry leaves) shall not be burnt.
8. Stray animals shall not be allowed to move around waste storage facilities or any other place in
the city or town.

Segregation of MSW

The Municipal authority shall undertake phased programme to ensure community participation in
waste segregation, so that people segregate

Bio-degradable,

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Non-biodegradable and
Recyclable waste separately.

Storage of MSW

Storage facilities shall be created and established by taking into account quantities of waste
generated in an area and the facilities shall be so located that it is accessible to users.

It shall be so designed that the wastes stored are not exposed to open atmosphere.

Transportation of MSW

Transport vehicles shall be so designed that handling of wastes, prior to final disposal is avoided.
Vehicles used for transportation of wastes shall be covered. Waste should not be visible to public,
or exposed to open environment preventing their scattering.

Processing of MSW

Municipal authorities shall adopt suitable technology or combination of such technologies to make
use of wastes so as to minimize burden on landfill.
(i) The bio- degradable wastes shall be processed by composting, through vermiculture, an
aerobic digestion or any other appropriate biological processing for stabilization of wastes.
Compost or any other product shall comply with standards.
(ii) Mixed waste containing recoverable resources shall follow the route of recycling.

Disposal of MSW

Land filling shall be restricted to non-biodegradable, inert waste and other wastes that are not
suitable either for recycling or for biological processing.

Assessment of MSW

According to Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB-1995), the daily per capita generation of solid
waste in small, medium and large cities/towns is about 0.1 kg. 0.3 to 0.4 kg. and 0.5 kg. respectively.

Bodhgaya Nagar Panchayat (BGNP) is primarily responsible for the Bodhgaya town with an
assessed population of about 43800 persons as on date including floating population. Being smaller
than a medium town, MSW generated may be of the order of 0.35 kg. per capita per day, totalling
to about 15.33 MT per day. However, BGNP assessed it to around 15 MT/day. The composition of
MSW is reported to be 60% organic component (Bio-degradable), 35% inorganic substances and
5% inert material. A scientific assessment of quantity as also quality of MSW generated is called for,
so as to plan management of MSW in a methodical manner. However, the organic component
appears suitable for composting and to use the compost as a soil stabilizer/conditioner. It also has
manurial properties and is thus a reasonably good organic fertilizer.

Suggested Model

Segregation of MSW

The house holds, hotels, restaurants, temple complexes etc. may be prevailed upon to store SW
generated separately as

(a) Bio-degradable waste such as kitchen waste, fruit & vegetable waste, left over eatable

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etc., suitable for bio-degradation.


(b) Recyclable waste like papers, bottles, tin cans, newspapers, metal etc.
(c) Inert material like floor sweepings, ash, wooden waste etc.

Collection & Transportation of MSW

House to house or doorstep collection of MSW needs to be introduced to comply with MSW
(Management & Handling) rules 2000 and segregated waste is separately taken away in
receptacles for final disposal. For a town like Bodhgaya, containerized cycle rickshaws can be
thought of. Such cycle rickshaws are commonly used in a number of localities of Delhi. NGOs may
be encouraged to get involved in this exercise.

Proposed Mechanism for Solid Waste Collection / Transportation

The sector wise details of the infrastructure needed are roughly as under for the suggested system
for 2031.

Table 5.g: Infrastructure required by town panchayat for solid waste management by 2031
S.NO ITEM TOTAL

1. Wheel Barrows 273


2. Closed container 22
3. Garbage collection points 22

4. Dumper placers 9
5. Tractor with trailer 9
6. Pay loader 1
7. Dust suction machine 1
8. Fogging machine 1
9. T.Excavator 1
10. Dumper 1

Disposal of MSW

Sector-wise locations combining more than one sector together if required can be earmarked for
disposal of segregated MSW, so that bio-degradable MSW may be composted and the final
product conforming to standards can be used in agriculture/horticulture activities as far as possible
locally, to attain economy in management. The recyclable material may be given to the NGOs for
recycling and final disposal. This may act as an incentive to them. The inert material may be utilized
to reclaim the low-lying areas by controlled landfill method.

5.3.4 Storm Water Drainage

The town has a storm water drainage system that does not function properly because of the
following reasons:

It receives sullage from the residential units as well as effluent from the septic tank.
Because of poor municipal solid waste management system in the town, a large quantity
of municipal solid waste is also dumped into open storm water drains and leads to
clogging and chocking of the drains.
Some parts of the storm water drains are unlined. As a result proper section of the drain is
not maintained and large quantity of earth is dislodged from the sides of the drains leading

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to non-functioning of the drainage system.

It is therefore proposed that in the existing area, the drains should be cleaned, given proper size
and shape with lining on the bottom & sides of the drain. In the congested part of the town with
narrow lanes, the drain should have cover slabs with the provision of removable slabs at regular
interval for inspection and cleaning of the drain.

For the new area, which will be developed in the future, all the roads should have proper storm
water drains with cover slabs wherever necessary. Detailed physical survey of the area & contour
mapping has to be carried out for planning and design of the storm water drainage system for the
town for which a detailed project report with hydraulic design and drawings has to be made
before implementation of the drainage scheme.

5.3.5 Water Logging at the Temple area

During rains water logging is reported in the area particularly around the Mahabodhi Temple area.
The reason being the rainwater does not percolate due to presence of higher amount of clay
underneath the top alluvial strata and also due to topographic low land areas.

The solution to the problem lies in adopting means by which raw water percolate down below the
clayey strata. As contained in the Hydro-geological study report of Bodhgaya submitted by Jamia
Milia Islamia we have to puncture the strata more than 48 m below ground level by digging a
number of bore wells at suitable locations. These bore wells of suitable size and depth will facilitate
percolation of rainwater and eliminate water logging. These bore wells will keep the under ground
water strata charged which is the main source of water supply of Bodhgaya and will act as rain
water harvesting structures as well.

However, it has to be ensured that the rainwater percolation into underground strata is not
contaminated to avoid contamination of the sub soil water.

Alternatively suitable storm water drains may be provided to drain out the rain water from water
logged areas and discharge the same into the existing water bodies or else dispose it into the river
through sump/pump above HFL of the river. Exact modality is a matter of detailed engineering and
not possible to give at this stage.

5.3.7 Rain Water Harvesting

Since the source of water supply to the town is tube well which are drawing water from the
underground aquifer, provision for rainwater harvesting has been recommended. Local ponds and
natural depression should be preserved and water front area in the town should be fed by clear
water from the roof top of the adjacent buildings so that clear rain water runoff reach the pond &
lakes and ensure recharge of the underground aquifer through this percolation ponds and lakes.

Assessment of Quantity of Rain Water Available for Percolation

Bodhgaya town draws water from the ground source at present. Future water supply schemes will
also depend on the ground source, as there is no perennial surface water source. Hence rainwater
harvesting to recharge the underground aquifer is very essential so that the annual withdrawal of
water matches with annual recharge through rainwater harvesting programme.

Considering 1309.81 hectare of land is kept as the green area and water front area and 986.7 mm
of average annual rain fall, about 33% of the precipitation on the area as recharge to the ground
aquifer, the quantity of rain water that could be harvested under this programme is estimated as
4366 ML against about 6700 ML of the annual withdrawal of ground water for the purpose of water
supply to the town in the year 2031. It is likely that recharge to the ground aquifer from the area
beyond the municipal boundary would also take place.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Rainwater harvesting is suggested using the following methods

Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting

In this method the rainwater from the roof of the buildings is collected and stored in ground water
tank for beneficial use like fire fighting or watering the lawns/ garden area etc. For example total
rain water available from roof area of 20 esq. for annual rainfall of 986.70 mm shall work out to
20x0.98x0.8 =15.68 cum annually. This can be stored in a ground tank within the premises of the
building and utilized for fire fighting/ washing or for gardening etc.

It may be mentioned that planning and design of a suitable scheme for Rain Water Harvesting is a
matter of detailed survey/ engineering that shall have to be taken up separately.

5.3.7 Electric Supply

Electric Demand

As mentioned earlier in this Report, present regular power demand for Bodhgaya town is
approximately 3 MW that goes up to 6 MW during yearly Mela periods (peak period). This power
demand is met through BSEB Super Power Grid Substation from where power is supplied to local
Substation located in the town.

With the development & overall upliftment of general standard of living and increase in
occupational/ recreational and industrial activities, power demand is projected to increase
sharply. With the development of the area and increase in facilities, floating population including
tourists will also increase adding to power requirement. Considering the above factors, the power
demand is projected to rise as follows:

Table 5.h: Phasewise Power demand


YEAR OVERALL POPULATION PROJECTED POWER DEMAND TOTAL POWER
(INCLUDING FLOATING PER PERSON (WATTS) DEMAND (MW)
POPULATION)
2005 46500 120 5.58
2007 51000 160 8.16
2012 59000 200 11.8

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2017 72500 200 14.5


2022 87000 200 17.4
2027 104000 225 23.4
2031 120000 250 30

The above projected power requirement includes power demand for street lighting and outdoor
lighting for additional areas to be developed as per Master Plan.

However, additional power demand during yearly Mela is not included above. Power demand for
Mela duration is likely to increase @ 5% annually from present 3 MW level.

The development Master Plan does not envisage any substantial industrial activities and hence has
not been included in the power requirement projection above. Power requirement for industrial
activities can be assessed separately on finalisation of Industrial Development Plan.

5.3.8 Power Distribution

Sector wise load for the year 2031 for overall population has been worked out as under. No of
transformers considering average capacity 200 KW (250 KVA) have also been worked out in the
under mentioned table.

Table 5.i: Phase wise Power demand

OVERALL POPULATION PROJECTED POWER NO OF


TOTAL POWER
YEAR (INCLUDING FLOATING DEMAND PER PERSON TRANSFORMERS
DEMAND (MW)
POPULATION 30%) (WATTS) (200 KW EACH)

2005 46500 120 5.58 28

2007 51000 160 8.16 41

2012 59000 200 11.8 59

2017 72500 200 14.5 73

2022 87000 200 17.4 87

2027 104000 225 23.4 117

2031 120000 250 30 150

The total demand being 30 MW (37.50 MVA), it is felt that at least 3 sub-stations of 33/11 KV of
capacity 10 MVA as tabulated below will be required and are recommended for proper
distribution of Electric supply. Another Sub Station of 10 MVA may be required in the last phase of
the plan which may be considered when the plan is reviewed depending on the ground situation

Table 5.j: Phasewise Power demand


TRANSFORMER EXISTING TOTAL REQUIRED PROPOSED
Total 46 Nos 150 Nos 104 Nos

Considering the area covered by Master Plan, transformers for Industrial and Commercial area are
to be provided separately.

Sub-station No.1 already exists. Sub-station Nos 2 & 3 will have to be created. Substation 2 should
come up by 2012, and substation 3 should come up by 2031. 33 KV overhead line coming from
BSEB Power Grid 220/132/33 KV is recommended to be tapped for the new substations.

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Other Non-Conventional Energy Sources

The non-conventional energy sources are as under:

Solar Energy
Bio-gas

The production and application of these sources are very limited as discussed under.

Solar Energy: It can be used at following places:

For lighting the proposed sewage treatment plant/sewage pumping station areas
For street lighting inside Govt. Building Complex such as Guest Houses, Govt. College Campus,
School Campus
For heating water during winter season in Govt. Guest Houses, Govt. owned hotels

The initial cost of installation is very high since it is based on solar photo voltaic cells that are not
manufactured in India and have to be imported involving foreign exchange. Further, solar energy
system being dependant on sunlight, would also require conventional energy back up adding to
cost.

Bio Gas: The energy produced is based on decomposition of cow dung/human excreta under
anaerobic condition. It involves collection of the animal/cow dung waste and installation of gas
plant with gas holder and connected piping system.

The energy produced can be utilized in following item

Domestic lighting
Cooking
Street lighting

As stated before the above non-conventional energy sources are of limited use and cannot find
large-scale use. More over the energy based on biogas requires installation and maintenance of
gas plant and gas pipeline system with skilled labour.

Cost Estimates for services are placed in annexure

5.4 Housing

5.4.1 Housing Shortage

The housing shortage in Bodhgaya has been estimated to be around 249 dwelling units in 2001. The
estimates have been based on census data 2001 and supplemented by socio-economic surveys
conducted by Hudco. This shortage has resulted in congestion and higher occupancy rate in the
area near the Mahabodhi temple (inner town). The primary survey carried out by Hudco indicate
need for upgradation of 100% of temporary units, 75% of semi permanent units and 25% of
permanent units which works out to construction of additional 2372 units in addition to the above
units and housing shortfall.

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Table 5.k: Upgradation Of Housing Stock

Houseless house holds to be accommodated 27

Temporary structures to be upgraded 900


Semi permanent 847
Permanent 599
Total 2372
Source: HUDCO Estimates based on census 2001 figures
Assumptions
100% of all temporary houses to be upgraded
75% of existing semi permanent houses will need renewal
25% of permanent houses will need renewal

Shelter is an essential need of the family. Provision of shelter is also important form an economic
viewpoint as housing is a major employment generator. In a town like Bodhgaya, provision of low-
income shelter is very important. Provision of low-income housing should be considered a priority.

5.4.2 New Housing

Assuming that the household size would show a decadal decline from 6.61 in 2001 to 5 persons per
household in 2031, the new housing units required for the additional population in table. By 2031,
there will be additional 13700 households. It is assumed that 90 % of them will require new housing.
Area under plots has been calculated based on an average plot size of 150 sqm. By 2031, new
housing will be required for 12500 new households and 2400 existing households approximately.
Overall about 400 hectares of new housing area will be required by 2031, which is distributed in five-
year phases. 10% of land of every middle and high-income housing scheme should be reversed for
low-income groups and economically weaker section housing.

Table 5.l: Projected Requirements Of New Housing

RESIDENTS TOTAL NO. OF HOUSEHOLDS ADDED NEW HOUSING UNITS REQUIRED


PHASE POPULATION HOUSEHOLDS IN PAST PHASE (90%)
2005 36000 6000 1328 1195
2007 39000 6500 500 450
2012 45000 8182 1682 1514
2017 56000 10182 2000 1800
2022 67000 13400 3218 2896
2027 80000 16000 2600 2340
2031 92000 18400 2400 2160
TOTAL 13728 12355

5.4.3 Private sector involvement

This massive housing programme can be undertaken with private sector involvement or with
cooperative housing society involvement. Group housing societies or cooperative societies can be
allowed to develop housing provided the housing is low rise. No high rise housing building will be
allowed in the town

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5.5 Slums

The district administration has listed nearly 2500 households as slums. Our estimate of housing
upgradation needs indicates need for upgradation of 2500 households. The district administration
will need to undertake a detailed survey to finalise list of housing to be upgraded.

With the focussed attention on integrated development of Basic services to the urban poor in
Bodhgaya, provision of basic services to the urban poor is proposed including security of tenure
(wherever applicable), upgradation of dilapidated housing, provision of new units at affordable
prices, provision of water supply, sanitation, solid waste management

A two-pronged strategy is proposed for improvement of slums. One strategy is proposed for slums
within special area and the second one for those outside special area.

5.5.3 Slums within the Special Area

The slums that are in the special area need to be tacked keeping in mind heritage protection
concerns. The need here is to provide in situ area upgradation with access to basic services for all.
However, since this area is very sensitive and replete with vertical underground layers of
archaeological resources, it is recommended that first, a detailed listing of heritage resources and
mapping of the entire area be carried out. (In Phase I). Based on this the special area plan needs
to be prepared. (Phase II) This zonal plan can then take up the issue of slums within the context of
the local heritage resource protection. Based on this, an urban renewal program of in-situ
upgradation with area improvement and provision of basic infrastructure can be designed and
taken up in Phase II and III)

5.5.4 Slums outside special area

There are some formerly rural settlements outside the special area, considered as slums, which
require a program of urban renewal. A random assessment of such settlements within Bodhgaya
had revealed that the nature of such housing differs from that of slums, and is more like that of a
village, albeit a poor one. Housing within these areas is of a rural nature and requires some
upgradation in terms of materials. The villagers mostly have their own housing units which although
small are vernacular in nature and sufficient for their needs. However, the condition of roads and
infrastructure is extremely poor or non-existent. Based on this, the following renewal program is
proposed.

5.5.3 Urban Renewal program (Phase I)

An upgradation and provision of urban infrastructure project is required for outlying urban villages
and mohallas. It is proposed that an urban renewal program with housing upgradation,
improvement of roads, basic service provision, solid waste management and roadside plantation
be taken up for these areas. These settlements should get modern services and amenities that
cater also to their traditional lifestyles. This program can be taken up in the first, second and third
phases. Lessons learnt from it can be applied to programs for remaining areas including inner city
areas in the remaining phases.

Table 5.m: areas requiring urban renewal in first phase


MOHALLA WARD NUMBER POPULATION (2001 CENSUS)
Rampur 9 1340
Neotapur 4 504
Hariharpur 6 430
Moniya 4 1050
Churaman Nagar 4 339

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Amwan 2,3 3800


Sevghar bigha 2 469
Belwa 1 136
Surajpura 1 1841
Harijan Colony and Prakhand Colony 9 1044
Bapu Nagar 8 807
New Taradih 7,10 2990
Baiju Bigha 7 836
Bhagwanpur 7 954
Jaanpur 6 393
Bhatt bigha 4 213
Dahria Bigha 5 867
Upadhyay Bigha 5 515
Sonubigha 5 581
Rajapur 5 546

This program is to be undertaken in a phased manner.

5.6 Traffic And Transportation

Traffic and noise pollution are serious problems that are threats to the world heritage site as well as
the health of the residents. In order to exacerbate these threats, an organised transportation
system is required, not only for the special area, but for the entire town. Bodhgayas vehicle
ownership pattern has revealed extensive used of cycles and 2 wheelers, and a healthy use of
public transport. This is a healthy trend and needs to be encouraged. Motorized vehicles like cars
and diesel buses are the single largest contributor to the global environmental crisis, causing air
and noise pollution and threatening the ecological and cultural values of heritage sites. In order to
prevent Bodhgaya from becoming any typical small town in India, with a polluted environment
and deteriorating traditional culture and heritage, the masterplan seeks to discourage motorized
traffic within the special area.

5.6.1 Roads

As established in the earlier chapters, the present configuration of roads in Bodhgaya is such that it
brings the traffic directly onto the temple area. A by-pass road has been constructed but as the
population of town more than triples by 2031, this will prove inadequate.

Keeping the increase in population and pilgrim traffic in mind, the road network needs to be
augmented to cope with the future transportation needs of the town. The main parameters kept in
mind while redesigning the road network included:

a. Decongestion of the central spine, which at present is the main approach to the temple.
Unrelated traffic has to be provided other entries into the town.
b. Discouragement of through traffic in special area, in order to protect the serenity of the
temple.
c. Encouragement of alternative, environmentally friendly transport within the special area (to
begin with).
d. Provision of adequate access to all facilities and for smooth movement of traffic within the
town and between Gaya and Bodhgaya.

Keeping these factors in mind, the following proposals are given for the strengthening of road
infrastructure

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Development of regional linkages: Although the main highway does not pose traffic capacity
related problems, the regional linkages need to be developed from functional and aesthetic point
of view. This would include improved connectivity to Gaya, the railway station and the airport to
cater to peak demand during the visitor season.

Development of road along the river: As this road has significant visual aesthetic attributes
attached to it, it offers potential for riverfront development and there is a need to strengthen
pedestrian lateral movement from the temple complex to the riverfront.

Strengthening of existing roads: The existing roads are too narrow and need to be widened and
proper components like road markings, signage, street furniture, landscaping, pedestrian walkway,
cycle tracks etc need to be provided. The existing two main roads, namely the central spine and
the riverside road are to be widened to 24.0 m R/W (80 ft).

New roads: Three major new roads are proposed in the draft masterplan for Bodhgaya town.
Two major new entries from the national highway are proposed as wide arterial (30.0 m) roads
keeping in mind requirements even beyond thirty years. These two roads run roughly parallel to the
central spine and connect the Gaya Dhobi road to the riverside road. These roads, referred to as
the northern E-W axis road and the Southern E-W axis road in the masterplan, will play a crucial role
in channelising Gaya-Bodhgaya traffic within the town, without putting additional load onto the
central spine or the riverside road. These roads are located 1 km away from the temple and will
help in demarcating the special area.
A link road (30.0m R/W) is also proposed in the masterplan along the N-S axis 1 km away from
the temple. This link road is located roughly along the present by-pass road and will play the same
function in future. The loop formed this around the special area will help to considerably reduce
through traffic within special area.
Other new roads shown in the Master Plan are also to be implemented phase wise.

Paths: Pedestrian paths can be developed throughout green belts to provide pilgrims and residents
a safe and healthy way to cycle walk to their destination. An outer pradakshina path can be
developed along the periphery of special area A on the west bank of the river. This will link all the
Buddhist heritage resources and the pilgrims can carry out an outer layer of circumambulation
here.

5.6.2 Bridges

There is at present one bridge, which links the present town of Bodhgaya to the village of Bakraur
on the eastern bank. This bridge presently, defines the northern edge of the special area. In order
to discourage unrelated traffic movement within the special area, it is proposed that a suitable
location be found in the long term for a new bridge linking Bakraur and Bodhgaya. A bridge
Mohana linking Bakraur to Pragbodhi hills is also required to strengthen regional Buddhist circuit
linkages.

5.6.3 Terminals and Depots

There is no provision for a proper bus stand at Bodhgaya at present. A space near the temple is
used for parking, near the By-pass road. This bus stand is quite small and will be inadequate in
future. A new town bus stand is proposed for the town. This should be an intercity bus stand
catering to visitors as well as residents. It should also provide interchange facilities for changeover
to pollution free green buses. A truck terminus is proposed in sector 9 next to the wholesale mandi.

5.6.4 Petrol Pumps

Three new petrol pumps are proposed under the plan as per the standards, one each along the
Gaya Dhobi road, the northern E-W axis road and the southern E-W axis road. A special petrol

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

pump can be provided at Bakraur outside the special area. The local authority can decide
location.

5.6.5 Traffic Circulation plan

A. Within special area: The urban structure within Bodhgaya is not designed to cope with heavy
vehicular traffic or with a large number of cars. The roads are narrow with limited capacity, and
parking spaces are limited. While the needs of internal transportation of visitors to WHS and
vicinities, and the needs of uses for access has to be met, it is undesirable both from the serenity as
well as capacity considerations to allow motorized vehicles into the special area A.

In order to meet this demand while keeping the basic objective of ensuring calm, peace and
cleanliness around the WHS, a three-tier system is being proposed for traffic management within
the designated heritage zone. A three-tier approach, as related to movement system in the area,
his proposed in the masterplan for safe, conflict-free and demand oriented traffic system, as below.

i. The immediate vicinity of the temple complex is visualized as traffic free zone, with
pedestrianisation around the temple, both on the central spine and the riverside road up to the
extents of the special area A. The northern entry to the Temple is already pedestrianised. It is
proposed that the Western and the southern roads around the Temple also be pedestrianised.
The eastern approach through the riverside road will form the main vehicular access to the
Temple. In the long term, the entire special area A should be pedestrianised. However, an
approach must be provided on one side in order to provide access to emergency vehicles.
ii. Parking points can be developed some distance away from the temple in order to meet the
visitors needs. However, these parking points should not be visually disruptive to the view of the
temple. The non-motorised vehicles like rickshaws; tongas etc will also be stopped at these
parking points. The final approach to the temple from the parking point should be on foot to
enhance the sense of arrival. The capacity of the parking should be determined on the basis of
the further study of vehicle carrying capacity of the area.
iii. The entire special area will be designated as green modes zone, implying that only green/
pollution free buses and non-motorized modes will be generally permitted here.

B. Within rest of the town: Master Plan proposes the development of three parking cum interchange
nodes at the three major entries into the special area. These parking cum inter change nodes will
be multimodal exchange points, where parking facilities will be provided for public transport, taxis
and all other motorized vehicles. These will also contain rickshaw stands/tonga stands, and battery
operated mini buses, which will then take passengers into the special area. These modes can then
stop at the parking points, which were developed/sanctioned under the earlier IDSMT, scheme and
ferry passengers to and fro.

Interchange facilities are proposed to be developed in the edges of the special area in order to
arrest the heavy vehicular traffic such as diesel buses and provide visitors with interchange facilities.
These will provide the visitor interchange options to change from diesel buses to battery operated
smaller buses and non-motorized modes. Over a period of time, the entire town should switch to
pollution free modes of transport.

5.7 Requirement of Social, Cultural and Recreational facilities

Bodhgaya is a religious and cultural center of national importance. One of the aims of this plan is to
enhance the towns cultural profile while ensuring equitable social development for all its residents.
The education, health, social and cultural, recreational and other amenities contribute towards
improving the quality of life of the residents and the overall experience of visitors visiting a town. The
level of the amenities provision is guided by the size of the town and its socio-economic and
cultural background. The town must provide for the entire range of amenities and facilities to its
citizens. The proposals given below are from the masterplan 2031.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

5.7.1 Educational Facilities

Bodhgaya is to be developed as a Centre of Learning for the region. Bodhgaya is already the sub
divisional headquarters. Both these roles call for provision of higher order of educational facilities to
cater to the needs of the surrounding villages and towns. Low levels of literacy, particularly, female
literacy indicate the need for more emphasis on quality education and education for the girl child.
A womens polytechnic is proposed to give a boost to womens higher education. Private sector
and NGO participation should be involved in improving the quality of education. The monasteries
operating in Bodhgaya can also be involved in improving the quality of education.

By 2031, Bodhgaya will require 26 nursery schools, 26 primary schools, 7 high schools, 2 colleges, one
technical centre and one special high school (for disadvantaged sections). Besides the existing
high schools, four new high schools are proposed. The town already has a university that occupies
nearly 138 Hectares of area. Provision has been kept for expansion of the university in future. Two
new colleges are proposed, including one technical centre. These are located near the University
sector.

5.7.2 Health care

At present, Bodhgaya has one Govt. dispensary, one homeopathic dispensary and some other
facilities in the private/monastic domain. These are woefully inadequate for a town of Bodhgayas
size. A 100-bedded hospital is proposed to meet the needs of the growing population. A (women
and child) nursing home is proposed to provide quality health facilities for women and children,
who are often the most likely to be deprived of adequate health care facilities. Apart from these
higher order facilities, six new primary health centres are proposed in the town, apart from the
existing facilities. Private/NGO sector cooperation should be sought to ensure that the health
services are delivered to all sections of the public, in quality as well as quantity.

5.7.3 Other Community facilities and Amenities

Presently, Bodhgaya has four post offices, a telephone exchange, three banks, a police station
and six baraat ghar/community halls. Two police posts and a P&T cum telephone exchange have
been provided in the town. Apart from these town level facilities, five new community halls/baraat
ghars have been provided in the plan.

Vision 2031 recognizes the importance the cultural activities will play in the future Bodhgaya. At
present, there is not cultural centre, which can cater to the cultural activities, festivals and
congregations. There is also no art gallery that depicts the rich heritage and culture of Bodhgaya.
A cultural centre is proposed to remove this deficiency. This cultural centre should play an
important role in making Bodhgaya a world-class cultural hub. In addition, two sites are served as
meditation and spiritual retreats, where holistic healing ashrams on pattern of Kerala can be set up
for spiritual rejuvenation of visitors. These will add to the cultural attractions within Bodhgaya.

5.7.4 Recreation and landscape

The existing situation with regard to recreation facilities and landscape is studied in earlier chapters.
At present, apart from a few small parks, the town does not have any organized open spaces.

Parks: The Master Plan, in keeping with the vision of making Bodhgaya a green and healthy city,
has provided a system of parks and open spaces throughout the town. Some key parks proposed
in the town includes the Deer Park, a town park, and eight district parks. These parks will function as
city lung spaces as well as islands for passive recreation within the town.

Green Belts: Extensive green belts are proposed within the town in order to protect and improved
the visual character of the town. These green belts also have an ecological purpose as they not
only provide green lung spaces for the town but also protect the ancient drainage system of ahars

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

and pynes whose revival is essential for better drainage and water management within the town.

A green belt of 200 m is kept along the north side of the central spine. 30.0 m green belts are
proposed on the southern side of the central spine and along other 30m and 24 m R/W roads
shown in the proposed landuse map. The existing drainage channels are also being protected by
provision of 10.0 m green belts on both sides of the channels.

Sports related facilities: Bodhgaya lacks any sports infrastructure at present. A regional sports
complex is proposed in north Bodhgaya to provide high quality sports infrastructure to the residents.

River front development: The entire stretch of riverfront is proposed to be placed under an
afforestation belt with selective development at certain points in order to protect the riverfront and
reduce erosion. On the eastern bank too, the entire riverfront has been proposed under
afforestation. Detailed study needs to be conducted for protection of river embankments from
erosion during flash floods.

5.8 Enterprise and Employment Promotion Strategies

In the year 2001, the town had 305 workers out of every 1000 inhabitants. It is estimated that by the
year 2030, the town would have 330 workers out of every 1000 inhabitants. By the year 2031, over
30,000 workers are expected to be working in different occupations. Presently, nearly 9500 workers
have full time employment, half of them in the agriculture related occupations that are expected
to decline over the years. This means that approximately 25,000 jobs need to be created to offer
gainful employment for the residents. However, these jobs need not all come up within Bodhgaya.
These have to developed within the regional context of the Gaya- Bodhgaya Agglomeration.

Some key sectors, which can contribute to employment generation, are pilgrimage/ religious
tourism, trade and commerce, informal sector and traditional crafts based industries. . Tourism is
already covered in an earlier section. Details of other sectors are given below:

5.8.1 Trade and Commerce

Bodhgaya is a pilgrim town where the economy is dependant to a great extent on trade and
commerce. At present, the town has congested, unplanned commercial areas concentrated
around the Mahabodhi temple complex. To facilitate economic development, a range of
commercial facilities is proposed for the town by the masterplan. By 2031, the masterplan has
proposed development of 23 hectares of new area under commercial use under retail and
wholesale trade. Bodhgaya remains a primarily agricultural town. In order to encourage agro
based economic activities, a wholesale mandi is proposed along with warehousing and godowns.
This can serve as the place for rehabilitation of existing wholesale shops and vegetable mandi from
within the town, as well as provide for future growth requirements of agro-based activities of the
town.

5.8.2 Informal Sector

Vending contributes to the vitality of the street life and takes place in inexpensive, small-scale
structures made in inexpensive, available material. It also contributes to the local economy. A
survey of informal sector done earlier had revealed that informal sector is intrinsically tied up with
pilgrimage/ tourism. Hawking activities are an important part of Bodhgayas economy.
Informal sector units should be given designated sites within new commercial centres. Specific sites
for hawkers should also be given within parking sites / facilities or on certain roads with restrictions.
Areas for informal sector should have suitable waste disposal and parking arrangements.

5.8.3 Govt./ Semi Govt. offices

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

As Bodhgaya grows and its functions diversify, considerable demand is likely to be generated for
govt related offices. A number of offices are also proposed to be relocated from within special
area. Considering both these factors, provisions have been made to meet requirement of offices in
future. Two new office complexes are proposed to meet the demand of alternate sites for existing
offices as well as future requirements.

5.8.4 Industrial units

Bodhgaya is a pilgrim town where the industries are almost non-existent. Presently, there are hardly
any industrial establishments within the town, except for a few agro industries along the national
highway and a cold storage on the riverside road. Considering the heritage nature of the town, a
thrust on industrial use is not visualized by the masterplan.

The masterplan has proposed though, that agro industries and cottage industries be promoted in
Bodhgaya town. In order to provide jobs for these workers, an industrial estate of about 25 Hectares
is proposed.

However, the masterplan industries based on animal products such as tanneries, hatcheries etc
should not be allowed within the town. No heavy, large, obnoxious industries are allowed within the
town.

5.8.5 Agriculture and allied sectors

Presently, agriculture plays an important role in both the economy and the landuse. As the
agricultural land comes under developmental pressures, its role will decline in the overall economy
of the town. Social forestry can be another way of generating employment in Bodhgaya.
Horticulture/silviculture or apiculture can be encouraged in Bodhgaya to further increase the
income generation potential of these activities.

5.9 Spatial Development

The master plan of Bodhgaya, Vision 2031 has given the proposed landuse plan. The plan is based
on the meeting the requirements of 120,000 persons. The basic considerations for preparing the
proposed landuse plan under the masterplan were to protect the vulnerable areas, meet the
demand of the future needs, and provide a strong transportation network and a green character
to the town. Proposed landuse as given in the proposed masterplan are detailed below:

Table 5.n: Existing And Proposed Landuse (Total Area Of Bodhgaya)


S.NO LANDUSE EXISTING LANDUSE (Ha.) PROPOSED LANDUSE (Ha.)
PERCENT OF PERCENT OF
TOTAL AREA TOTAL TOTAL AREA TOTAL
1 ARCHAEOLOGICAL/ SPECIAL AREA 14.63 0.9% 342 10.3%
2 RESIDENTIAL 205.44 12.1% 623 18.8%
3 COMMERCIAL 13.27 0.8% 45.5 1.4%
4 INDUSTRIAL 7.2 0.4% 25 0.8%
5 PUBLIC AND SEMI PUBLIC 163.59 9.6% 272.3 8.2%
6 RELIGIOUS USES/ MONASTERIES 30.2 1.8% 61 1.8%
7 RECREATIONAL 61.47 3.6% 397.7 12.0%
8 TRANSPORTATION 51.27 3.0% 134.5 4.0%
9 AGRICULTURE AND WATER BODIES 1153.03 67.8% 1406.8 42.1%
TOTAL 1700.1 100.0% 3307.8 100.0%
Source: Draft Masterplan of Bodhgaya, Vision 2031

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

PROPOSED LANDUSE OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE


DRAFT MASTERPLAN (VISION 2031)
PROPOSED LANDUSE IN BODHGAYA
5 0 00

W MP

4 5 00

R oa
d R/
W 24.0
M
4 0 00

SC

M
SECTO R 20

24.0
33 KV

R oa

W
dR
/W

d R/
HS
15.0
M
3 5 00

R oa
PH C CS C
O CF
CH

M
24.0
/W
SC

SECTO R 19

dR
R oa
3 0 00

Ro
ad
R /W
15.0
M

SECTO R 21
2 5 00 SECTO R 18 SC
D isp ens ary
D ist rict P ro
c omm erc ial po
c entre se d
Ne R oad R /W 18.0 M P rop ose d New
Ro
N urs ing
H ome
w Brid Bridg e *
workers ho using ad
R/ wome n' s g e to
R oa W p olyte chnic
Bak
dR 18.0
ra
/W M ur *
SECTO R 14 24.0
M

R oad R/W 15.0 M


Road R /W 15.0 M

2 0 00 m ote ls, lo dges


g uest houses

b us s tand SECTO R 17 SECTO R 22


CS C SECTO R 15 SC
t own SC
a dmi n c entre
HS
wh ol es ale (exis ti ng)
m an di 2 s ta r/ SC
wareh ou s ing tru ck terminus
1 5 00 SECTO R 16
Cott age in dus tries Pol.
Pst.

18.0 M
a gro bas ed ind ustries
3 st ar hot els CS C

CH

Road R /W
P&T Off
cum O CF PKG
SECTO R 12

18.0 M
T elephone F ire PH C
E xch nge S tat ion
S upe r g rid S tn.

Road R/W
Road R /W 15.0 M

1 0 00 SC
SECTO R 13 Roa d R/W 30.0 M
s pir itu al ret reat
r eligi ous/
m ona ste ries R oad R /W 15.0 M
SC
HS

CS C
O CF
CH
PH C
SECTOR 3 A
33 KV SECTOR 2 A
500
SECTO R 10
SC E xisting
Bridg e *
SECTO R 9 H S (e xi st ing)
SC
Sujata Kuti
SECTO R 11
eco park
EXPRESS WAY R/W 60.0 M

h eri tage cu m n atu re park


0
Ro a d
R/ W 24
.0 M
SECTOR 1 B

SECTOR 1 A
CH
SECTO R 7 SC

Maha bod hi
PKG O CF

Temple
PH C
50 0'

SECTO R 6
R oad R /W 15. 0 M
Road R/W 18. 0 M

CS C
0M

/ OCF
PH C
CH
(exis ti ng) SECTOR 3 B
R/ W 10.

Road R/W 30.0 M

o ffice
Ro ad

1 0 00' D ist rict


c omm erc ial
c entre
SC
R oad R /W 18.0 M
Roa d R/ W 15.0 M

SECTOR 2 B
SECTO R 8
Gen.
H osp ital
SECTO R 5
HS
SC
1 5 00' Roa d R/W 30.0 M m edi tat ion
c entre

C ultu ra l
M

c entre
Roa d R/W 24.0

CS C

PP
SECTO R 4 SC
u nivers ity expan sion

2 0 00'
Golf Co ur se
t echnical
c entre
c ollege
M
24.0

2 5 0 0'
W
d R/

s por ts cen tre


Roa

3 0 0 0'

10 0 0' 50 0' 0 5 00 10 00 1 5 00 2 0 00 2 500 30 00 3 5 00 40 00 4 5 00 5 000 5 5 00

C -2 W HO LE SA LE C OM ME RC IA L/ WAREHSG. % % HS HIG H S CHOOL 33 KV SUB STA TION ( NEW)


E XISTIN G MO NA STER IES 33 KV SUB STA TION
C -3 HOTEL S/ G UE ST H OU SES A -1 A GR IC UL TU RE / HO RTIC ULTURE P HC P RIMA RY HEA LTH CE NTRE ( EX IS TING TO BE U PG RADED)
& / R E L IG IO U S INSTITUTIONS

N EW M ON AS TE RIES CH C O M M U N ITY HALL W AS TE M AN AG EM ENT PARK


% % A -2 FAR M HO USES
/ R E L IG IO U S INSTITUTIONS
(IN CLUD IN G ST P AN D SOLI D WA ST E
S PE CIAL A RE A "A" C OTTA GE / AG RO B AS ED / IN DUSTRIES O CF O THE R C O M M U N ITY FACILITIES DI SPOSA L/ R E CYCLING )
S -1
( HE RITA GE P RO TE CTIO N AREA)
% A -3 FO R E STRY
PI P AR KING C UM INTER CH AN GE NODES
S PE CIAL A RE A "B"
S -2 ( HE RITA GE P RO TE CTIO N AREA) % ' P-1 P AR KS / GA RDENS A -4 C ANALS
SC S EC TO R FA CILITIES C ENTRE
% P S -1 G OV T. / SE MI G OV T. / PU BL IC O FFICES P-2 G REE N B ELTS A -4 P ON DS CSC C OM MU NITY S HO PPIN G CE NTRE

R -1 P RIMA RY R ES ID EN TIAL USE P S -2 E DUC ATION/ RE SEA RCH P-3 S PO RTS RE LA TE D USES A -4 R IVER L PG L PG / CN G GO DOWN

M UL TI FUN CTIO N OP EN S PACES P ol. POL IC E PO ST


R -2 M IX ED R ES ID EN TIAL USE P S -3 M ED IC AL A ND HEALTH P-4 A -5 O THERS P st.
( M AIDA NS / ME LA GROUNDS)

133
R -3 E XISTIN G SE TTLE ME NTS PS -4 O THE R C O M M U N ITY FACILITIES %
P RO PO SE D TO WN B OU NDARY
R -3 U RBA N V ILL AGE PS -5 C UL TU RA L IN STITUTIO NS T- 1 PRO PO SE D MA STER PL AN ROADS
E XISTIN G TO WN B OU ND ARY

% PS -6 U TILITIES A ND S ER VICES T- 2 TER MINA LS A ND D EPOTS TEM PL E, M OS QU E, TOMB


G RID SP AC IN G = 50 0 M
C -1 R ETAIL SHOP PING / GE N. B USINESS T- 3 PE TR O L PUMPS W HS/ AR EA UND ER ASI
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Chapter 6

URBAN GOVERNANCE AND REFORMS

The analysis of the existing urban governance scenario and a profile of local bodies has been given in
chapter 2. The sections below give the broad proposals for the urban reform and City Development plan
implementation.

6.1 Implementation strategy

Bodhgaya is a heritage city and a state priority city as per national commission of urbanization. An
elaborate masterplan of the town has also been recently prepared, apart from the CDP. This
makes it the responsibility of the government to ensure effective plan implementation. As seen
earlier, the existing local bodies, namely the town Panchayat and the GRDA are weak, both
financially, as well as technically. Multiplicity of line departments and fragmentation of
development functions further adds to the confusion. In this case, a single point coordination at the
local level become necessary, till the town Panchayat, which is the elected local body, become
strong enough to ensure effective implementation of the projects conceived under the CDP.

It is therefore recommended that the District administration be the nodal office for fund
disbursement and coordination of plan implementation for phase I and II projects. The
implementation of the plan is to be carried out by the GRDA and the town Panchayat, under the
overall guidance of the DC office. When the Town Panchayat is strengthened technically and by
devolution of powers, then it can carry out the task of implementing the plan entirely. Care should
be taken to implement the plan in the phases recommended.

Other line departments can be involved by the nodal office as required. At the time of formulation
of individual DPRs, the opportunities for public private partnership should be fully explored.

Table 6.a Proposed Institutional Responsibility for infrastructure provision and management
URBAN PLANNING CONSTRUCTION OPERATION OVERALL COORDINATION AND
INFRASTRUCTURE AND DESIGN AND MONITORING
MAINTENANCE
Water supply PHED PHED PHED Coordination committee under
the district administration
Sewerage PHED PHED PHED Coordination committee under
the district administration
Drainage NAGAR NAGAR NAGAR Coordination committee under
PANCHAYAT PANCHAYAT PANCHAYAT the district administration
Storm water PHED PHED PHED Coordination committee under
drainage the district administration
Solid waste NAGAR NAGAR NAGAR Coordination committee under
disposal PANCHAYAT, PANCHAYAT, PANCHAYAT, the district administration
BODHGAYA BODHGAYA WITH PRIVATE/
NGO
PARTNERSHIP
Municipal roads GRDA PWD PWD Coordination committee under
(including the district administration
flyovers)
Street lighting BSEB BSEB BSEB Coordination committee under
the district administration

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

6.2 Restructuring Of Nagar Panchayat/ Other Agencies

The 74th amendment to the Indian Constitution is aimed at giving power to the grass root level
institutions, the urban local bodies. Under this amendment, the function of urban planning and
regulation of land use and provision of infrastructure is also to be handled by the urban local
bodies. Currently the entire town is under the jurisdiction of the Nagar Panchayat as it is considered
to be an area in transition from rural area to urban. The Panchayat is a small body and has
restricted powers.

It is suggested that under the 74th amendment, the town panchayat may be upgraded to the level
of Municipal Council/Corporation as a special case. Special Municipal Council can also be
established under the relevant State act. The Municipal Council/Corporation will have the powers
to accord approval to building plans and would be technically strengthened in order to be able to
sensitively and independently evaluate proposed projects. This local body will be responsible for
monitoring and controlling the developments within the entire town.

Along with devolution of functions proposed by the Constitution Amendment, the technical
strength of the authority also needs to be built up by employing experts in engineering,
architecture, planning and other related subjects, including administrators. In addition to this for
enabling the authority to exercise its responsibilities effectively, orientation of all technical personnel
towards heritage conservation is paramount. (The details of responsibilities for heritage
management are given in section on heritage).

It is suggested that a detailed Project Report (DPR) be prepared for restructuring of the Town
Panchayat, which should include proposals for technical strengthening, increasing efficiency, more
transparency, reducing corruption, better management of records, adoption of modern
accounting practices and improvement of overall work environment of the Nagar Panchayat.

Technical strengthening and capacity building measures are required for other agencies such as
GRDA and BTMC also.

6.3 Proposals for implementation of heritage protection and management


proposals.

Detailed proposals related to heritage are already given in section 5.1. The table below gives the
specific institutional strengthening measures for implementation of heritage proposals.

Table 6.b Proposed Institutional Strengthening for heritage protection and management
Actions Time frame for
implementation
1. Strengthening of Advisory committee of the BTMC Phase I
2. Technical Strengthening of BTMC Phase I and II
3. Setting up of Technical Support Unit/ Heritage Resource Centre in the town Phase I and II
4. Setting up of Bodhgaya heritage committee (detailed below) Phase I and II
5. Setting up of the Mahabodhi Mahavihara world heritage management fund. Phase I

These proposals are in line with the accepted implementation mechanism of the site management
plan of the Mahabodhi temple complex world heritage site, which includes delineation of heritage
zone and proposals for its protection (summary in annexure)

Heritage Committee

A proposal for setting up of Heritage Committee has already been suggested in the earlier
sections. The Bodhgaya Heritage Committee can have District magistrate/ Vice chairman GRDA as

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Chairperson and noted Architects, Urban Planners, Superintendent Archaeologist of ASI,


Conservation Architects, local NGOs/Citizen groups etc as representatives/advisors. For the time
being, Heritage committee shall be managed by the Gaya Regional Development Authority
(GRDA). Later it can be moved to the strengthened Town Panchayat.

6.4 E- Governance

In order to improve the efficiency of local govt. Systems and make coordination easier, it is
proposed that an e-governance project be initiated in Bodhgaya. Similar projects have been
undertaken successfully in other parts of the country. Initially, this should be done under the District
Administration, and can be taken up for Nagar Panchayat in the later phase. The funds for this
initiative can be taken from schemes for e-governance under the ministry of IT.

6.5 Action Programme for structural and governance related reforms

The CDP has indicated certain changes in the current implementation mechanism in order to
effectively implement the plan. This is given in the table below. The plan shall be monitored by the
state level committee as per the model laid down by the CDP guidelines.

Table 6.c: Actions for strengthening of implementation mechanism


Sl. Actions
no
1. Setting up of Bodhgaya JNNURM coordination committee under the divisional
commissioner
2. Initiating an e-governance project for efficient management of city services
3. Preparation of detailed maps of the city with land information, details of services, landuse
and other town planning data by GRDA
4. Project for restructuring of nagar panchayat based on proposals given in CDP (will include
process for additional powers, technical strengthening, requirement of additional
infrastructure, improvement of accounting practices, setting up of system of
management of land records and training of personnel)
5. Capacity building of local and state govt. personnel involved in city development process
4. Setting up of the Mahabodhi Mahavihara world heritage management fund
5. Setting up of Bodhgaya heritage committee in GRDA (later to be moved to town
panchayat after reforms and technical strengthening).
6. Setting up of Technical cell of the Town Panchayat addition of architect, engineer and
town planner
7. Devolution of powers to town Panchayat under the 74th amendment
8. Moving of heritage committee to strengthened town panchayat
9. Technical Strengthening of Advisory committee of BTMC
10. Setting up of Heritage Resource Centre

The reforms and urban governance initiatives mentioned above will require support from the state
government in form of grants. E- governance initiative can be funded from central govt. also.

6.6 Financial reforms suggested for the urban local body (Nagar Panchayat)

The Nagar Panchayat is in no position right now to bear the burden of the expenditure to be
incurred on JNNURM. Apart from the structural reforms, financial reforms are also required to be
carried out in order to increase the efficiency of the Nagar panchayat and widen its tax base.
These are in keeping with the mandatory and optional urban reforms suggested for the urban local
bodies in JNNURM. These reforms are suggested here:

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

1. The municipal accounting and auditing practices are reformed. Audits are held regularly.
Accounting systems change from single entry based to double entry accrual system
2. Reforms for Increase in Tax revenue:
a. The property tax base needs to be widened. Presently collection efficiency is 25%,
which needs to be increased to 85% by 2011-2012.
b. Property information base needs to be widened. A GIS based land information
system needs to be set up in the town so that more authentic information is
available related to property tax. This can be set up as part of the e- governance
initiative.
c. Property Taxation Rates should be revised. The annual rateable value is quite low
at present. It is increased within two years.
d. Water charges are reassessed as per present day situation. Water tax is increased
and is ranged as per use and not charged at flat rate. Water charges are
metered. With improved water supply, betterment charges are levied.
e. Octroi is presently not being charged in the town. Octroi is charged to improve the
revenue base of the panchayat within two years.
3. Reforms for Increase in Non Tax Revenue
a. The town receives lakhs of visitors every year, whose care has to be taken by the
town. There is some cost on local infrastructure incurred whenever any visitor
comes to town. It is only fair that the visitors pay some amount towards this cost.
The town panchayat can charge a nominal amount of entry fee from foreign
visitors, say Rs. 100 to begin with. Entry charges can also be taken from Indian
visitors at nominal rate of Rs. 10 per person. This will help raise revenue.
b. Revenue can also be raised through leasing of advertisement rights along main
roads of the town. This has been done in several other towns. This can be done on
PPP basis annually.
c. A cess should be charged from all monasteries and foreign institutions based in the
town, which should be used for JNNURM fund requirements. These are all
international institutions and do contribute to social schemes at local level. A
nominal cess over their property tax will help raise revenue for the betterment of
the town.
d. A nominal betterment cess can be charged from users on provision of sewerage
system as a one-time contribution.
e. Additional revenue can be raised from land development. This should be done in
keeping with Bodhgaya Masterplan proposals.
f. The Ministry of tourism is sponsoring construction of 100 shops in parking nodes at
Bodhgaya, which should be handed over to Nagar panchayat by the next year.
Rent starts coming from these shops.
g. Presently, stamp duty rates are 6%, of which only 2% are retained with the Nagar
panchayat. Bodhgaya Nagar Panchayat should be allowed to retain entire
amount.
4. Devolution of funds to Nagar Panchayat-
a. The state finance commission can devolve funds to the local level, of which 1.5
crores should go to the Bodhgaya Nagar Panchayat from next year.
b. At least 10% of the income from the BTMC (Buddha Gaya Temple Management
Committee), which is a cash rich body and receives a large amount of donations,
should be channelised to the Nagar Panchayat to fund the development of the
town. In other pilgrim towns, such as Puri, where the local municipality is weak, and
the temple trust is cash rich, similar proposals are either implemented or underway.
Since the nagar panchayat is looking after the vicinities of the Temple, it is only fair
that it receive some measure of revenue from the Temple.

6.7 Time line for urban reforms required at the local body level

Under the JJNURM, certain reforms initiatives are to be undertaken at the urban local body level.
The reform agenda as agreed by the local body is given in annexure. The timeline for reforms

137
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

required at the local body level is given here.

Table 6.d: Timeline for Reforms at the level of the urban local body level.
2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-2011 2011-12
MANDATORY REFORMS
A. Shifting to accrual based accounting system
1 Appointment of consultant
2 Training of staff on new accounting system
3 Shifting to accrual double entry system
B. Introduction of system of E- governance
1 Appointment of consultant

Development of options for e-governance and


2 finalizing source of funds- preparation of DPR
Posing DPR for funding and implementation of
3 project
4 Prepare/ upgrade city website under the initiative
C. Reform of property tax

Finalization and revision of rates for property tax


1 assessment
2 Survey and GIS for property tax assessment

Setting up of GIS system for property tax as part of


3 e-governance initiative
4 Achieving property tax collection targets
D. Levy of User charges

Appointment of consultant and preparation of DPR


1 for provision of physical infrastructure to Bodhgaya
2 Decision of rate of user charges to be levied
3 Levy of user charges
4 Achieving cost recovery targets
E. Provision of basic services to the urban poor

Reaching services to the urban poor- undertaking


1 the identified urban renewal programs
Setting up of public toilets under the sanitation
2 program
3 Internal earmarking of budget for the urban poor
F. Improvement of financial management practices of the Bodhgaya Town Panchayat
1 Improving expenditure management
2 Improving auditing practices
OPTIONAL REFORMS
1 Revision of building bye-law approval process

Simplification of conversion of agricultural to non-


2 agricultural use
3 Property title certification system
4 Earmarking 20-25% lands for EWS housing
Computerization of land and property registration
5 system
6 Byelaws - Rainwater harvesting
7 Bylaws - reuse of recycled water
8 Administrative reforms
9 Structural reforms
10 Encouraging public private partnerships

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Chapter 7

PROJECTS IDENTIFICATION

7.1 The projects identified

From the strategies formulated earlier, projects to be undertaken are identified and phased as
follows. The list given below includes projects and does not include all actions that are to be
identified and undertaken by local authorities.

Table 7.a: Phase wise list of projects


PHASE I & II PHASE III PHASE IV PHASE V PHASE VI
2006-2012 2012-2017 2017-2022 2022-2027 2027-2031
Heritage Preparation of Setting up of Formulation Formulation Formulation
protection detailed inventory heritage schemes for schemes for schemes
and of heritage information protection of protection of for
conservation resources system other identified other protection
Delineation of Program for resources identified of other
heritage zones increasing Implementation resources identified
Preparation of sensitivity to of proposals of Implementati resources
special area plan heritage at special area plan on of Implement
Introduction of non- local level proposals of ation of
polluting public through school/ special area proposals
transport. college plan of special
Conduction of Geo education area plan
radar survey of programs and
archaeolcal media
sensitive pockets promotion
Preparation of
detailed inventory
within the WHS
Preparation and
implementation of
comprehensive
landscape and
presentation plan
for the WHS
Preparation and
implementation of
restoration and
protection of built
fabric plan of the
WHS, including
annual
maintenance plans
and work schedules
Preparation of
Disaster prevention
and mitigation plan
for the WHS,
Enlargement of
existing ASI museum

139
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

PHASE I & II PHASE III PHASE IV PHASE V PHASE VI


Heritage Development of River front Development of Development Developm
tourism and cultural enter improvement local/regional of ent of
pilgrimage Development of scheme tourist circuits local/regiona local/regio
tourism Crafts enter, Design of incorporating the l tourist nal tourist
promotion Development of heritage walk heritage circuits circuits
camping sites for for pilgrims/ resources in the incorporating incorporati
pilgrims tourists with immediate the heritage ng the
Development of trained guides vicinity (core and resources in heritage
outer pradakshina and buffer) and the resources in
path linking interpretation undeveloped immediate the
heritage resources material area vicinity (core immediate
outside of Development Development of and buffer) vicinity
Mahabodhi Temple of spiritual retreat and (core and
in Bodhgaya. local/regional Development of undeveloped buffer) and
tourist circuits new hotels as area undevelop
incorporating indicated in ed area
the heritage masterplan Development
resources in the Development of of new hotels Developm
immediate golf course linked as indicated ent of new
vicinity (core hotel and resort in masterplan hotels as
and buffer) indicated
and in
undeveloped masterplan
area
Development
of deer park
Development
of spiritual
retreat
Development
of new hotels
as indicated in
masterplan
Water Supply Augmentation of Augmentation of Augmentation of Augmentatn Augmentat
existing water system for Piped system for Piped of system for ion of
supply system to water supply for water supply for Piped water system for
cover entire town additional additional population supply for Piped
of Bodhgaya population additional water
Reforming water population supply
charges
Sewerage Provision of Setting up of Augmentation of Augmentatio Augmentat
underground demonstration system for additional n of system ion of
sewerage system waste population for additional system for
and STP for all management park population additional
existing areas in for the town population
Bodhgaya
Sanitation Provision of low cost Provision of low cost Provision of low cost Provision of Provision of
sanitation units in all sanitation units in all sanitation units in low cost low cost
slum areas/ areas slum areas/ areas areas without sanitation sanitation
without sanitation without sanitation sanitation facilities. units in all units in all
facilities. facilities. areas without areas
Provision of low cost sanitation without
sanitation units near facilities. sanitation
pilgrim sites or facilities.
camping sites
Putting in place
system for
maintenance of all
such units through
public private
partnerships.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

PHASE I & II PHASE III PHASE IV PHASE V PHASE VI


Solid Waste Implementation of Setting up of Augmentation of Augmentatio Augmentat
Management new Solid waste demonstration system for additional n of system ion of
management waste population for additional system for
system through management park population additional
public private for the town for population
partnership waste disposal and
Increasing public recycling
awareness though
campaigns
regarding solid
waste disposal and
recycling.
Drainage / Revival of Development of Augmentation of Augmentatio Augmentat
Storm water traditional drainage drainage solutions system for additional n of system ion of
drains system- Cleaning for the world population for additional system for
and lining of five heritage site within population additional
major drains. the ambits of the population
Development of special area plan
drainage system for Cleaning and lining
areas earmarked of other drains
for urban renewal.
Development of
drainage solutions
for low lying areas
around/ within
world heritage site
Rainwater Setting up of Introduction of Introduction of Rainwater Rainwater
harvesting committee to rainwater rainwater harvesting harvesting to harvesting
frame and enact harvesting in public for all buildings balance to balance
byelaws for areas water drawel water
rainwater drawel
harvesting
Electricity Electricity for 100% Electricity for Electricity for Electricity for Electricity
of existing 100% of 100% of 100% of for 100% of
population additional additional additional additional
Underground population population population population
cabling of all Setting up new Street lighting on Setting up
overhead 33 KV all new roads new 33 KV
electricity wires in substation and substation
heritage zone required 11 kv and required
Setting up of new substations 11 KV
11 kV substations Street lighting substations
and required on all roads Street lighting
cables etc. Introduction of on all new
Provision of non roads
Streetlight on all conventional
main roads energy sources
Urban Preparation of Remaining Preparation of urban Preparation Preparation
renewal listing of slums and slums/ mohallas renewal proposals for of urban of urban
slum households outside special remaining areas. renewal renewal
Detailed survey of area to be proposals for proposals
10 slums/ mohallas taken up for remaining for
outside special urban renewal areas. remaining
area to be taken Preparation of areas.
up for urban urban renewal
renewal program proposals for
Preparation of special area
urban renewal plan within the
in identified areas ambits of the
special area
plan.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

PHASE I & II PHASE III PHASE IV PHASE V PHASE VI


Urban Improvement of Development Development of Development Developm
Transport National Highway of new bus new roads for of new roads ent of new
(Gaya Dobhi road stand for additional for additional roads for
from Gaya to intercity traffic population population additional
Bodhgaya Development Development of population
Widening of of new a new bridge
domuha road and southern east linking Bakraur
riverside roads with west 30.0 m and Bodhgaya
provision of street road Development of
furniture Development 1 new petrol
Development of of truck pump
southern bypass terminus for
road wholesale/
Development of agri-based
new 30.0 m road goods
from the national Development
highway to of 1 new petrol
decongest pump
domuha road
(northern east- west
road)
Development of
village roads in
areas earmarked
for urban renewal
Development of 1
new petrol pump
Community Development of fire One Development of One New Developm
facilities station community community High ent of
Development of center enter School community
two community One New High One New High and two center
center/ Baraat ghar School and two School and two new One
New police post new primary new primary primary primary
Two primary health schools schools schools health
center One New New technical New centre
women college science/
polytechnic New police post commer
One new arts One new 100 ce
college bedded hospital college
One new P& T On primary One
office/ health center primary
telephone Development of health
exchange town park centre
One women Development of
and child green belts with
nursing home revived major
One primary drains and with
health enter new masterplan
Development roads
of green belts
Development
of regional
sports complex
Development
of community
golf course

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

PHASE I & II PHASE III PHASE IV PHASE V PHASE VI


Economic Program for Skill Development Development of Programs for Programs
growth training and of wholesale industrial estate / promotion of for
related upgradation of mandi godowns investment in promotion
projects local women and Development Development of small of
youth for of cottage new office area businesses/ investment
employment industrial estate Programs for crafts/ in small
generation in Development promotion of service businesses/
heritage of new office investment in based crafts/
programme area small businesses/ industries by service
Programs for crafts/ service locals based
promotion of based industries industries
investment in by locals by locals
small
businesses/
crafts/ service
based
industries by
locals
Urban E- Governance Upgradation of
Governance Project facilities of
Detailed mapping local bodies
of entire Bodhgaya along with
Technical technical
strengthening of strengthening
Nagar Panchayat,
BTMC

The following projects are to be implemented in the JNNURM period (phase I and II). The
implementation mechanism has also been identified here. It is clarified that irrespective of the
implementing agencies, the funds devolution will be through state government only.

Table 7.b: Identification of projects of phase I and II projects and agencies for
implementation (base rate of year 2006)

SL. IMPLEMENTING IMPLEMENTATION


ITEM
NO AGENCY MECHANISM

A. HERITAGE PROJECTS

Project for preparation of detailed inventory of heritage Department of


1 resources, along with geo-radar survey, and setting up of Culture/ Govt. of Public
computerised heritage information system Bihar

Preparation of Special area plan after detailed survey of


2 GRDA Public
heritage zone.
Improvement of heritage village Bakraur (including area
improvement at heritage sites, construction of drains, GRDA/ Deptt. Of
3 Public
improvement of roads, provision of sanitation facilities and tree Tourism
plantation)
Preparation of detailed inventory within the WHS (Mahabodhi
4. BTMC Public
Temple)
Preparation and implementation of comprehensive landscape
5. and presentation plan for the WHS including lighting, signage, BTMC/ ASI Public
seating, facilities, paths and plantation, and security measures
Preparation and implementation of restoration and protection
6. of built fabric plan of the WHS, including annual maintenance BTMC/ ASI Public
plans and work schedules

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

SL. IMPLEMENTING IMPLEMENTATION


ITEM
NO AGENCY MECHANISM

7. Enlargement of existing ASI museum at Bodhgaya ASI Public


Preparation of Disaster prevention and mitigation plan for the
8. WHS, including security plan to prevents thefts, damage due to BTMC/ ASI Public
neglect.
Relocation of offices / installations from special area as per GRDA/ NAGAR
9. Public
heritage guidelines/ masterplan PANCHAYAT

B. PILGRIM/ HERITAGE TOURISM PROJECTS

Provision of camping sites for pilgrims in proposed parking cum Deptt. Of Tourism/ Public private -
10
interchange node along Nairanjana riverfront GRDA Partnership
Development of cultural centre with art gallery, museum and Department of Public private -
11
crafts bazaar Culture Partnership
Development of outer pradakshina path linking heritage
Deptt. Of Tourism/
12 resources in special area through a circumambulatory pathway Public
GRDA
with landscaping on both sides
Tourism promotional programmes (advertisement, media Department of
13 Public
campaign, Brochures etc.) Tourism, GOB

Department of
14 Setting up of Tourist Police Cell/ station / police posts Public
Tourism, GOB
Flood and irrigation
Landscaping and flood protection along Nairanjana river front department and
15 Public
west bank (stretch within Bodhgaya town boundaries) department of
Tourism
Setting up of Pilgrim facilities centres (2 numbers) with information BTMC and Nagar Public private
16
centre, public toilets, first aid room etc. Panchayat - Partnership
C. PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROVISION

Provision of piped water supply system for the town of


17 PHED Public
Bodhgaya (excluding water treatment plant)

Provision of sewerage system for the town of Bodhgaya with


18 PHED Public
setting up of STP based on duckweed system

Improvement of present solid waste disposal system for the Public private -
19 Nagar Panchayat
town of Bodhgaya (excluding setting up of new disposal plant) Partnership

Provision of improved drainage system for the town of


20 Bodhgaya including renovation of major drains and PHED Public
construction of new drains in areas without drainage

Provision of electricity for town of Bodhgaya with underground


21 PHED Public
cabling in special area (heritage zone)

D. REGIONAL TRANSPORT

Six laning of Gaya Dhobi Road (National Highway)(stretch Public private


22 NHAI
from Gaya to Bodhgaya) - Partnership

E. URBAN TRANSPORT
Four laning of Domuha Road (from entry at Gaya Dhobi road)
23 to new parking node along with provision of lighting, culverts, PWD Public
drains and street furniture
Four laning of Riverside road (stretch from north entry to town to
24 PWD Public
south entry to town

144
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

SL. IMPLEMENTING IMPLEMENTATION


ITEM
NO AGENCY MECHANISM
Construction of southern stretch of by-pass road within
Bodhgaya (linking riverside road and domuha road) (four lane)
25 GRDA Public
along with provision of lighting, culverts, drains and street
furniture
Land acquisition for new 30.0 m road (northern east -west road)
26 GRDA Public
to be developed
Construction of new road (proposed 30.0 R/W masterplan road
27 - northern east west road) (four lane) along with provision of GRDA Public
lighting, culverts, drains and street furniture
Construction of single lane road from Bakraur village to
28 GRDA Public
dharamaranya
F. HOUSING, SLUMS IMPROVEMENT AND URBAN RENEWAL PROJECTS

Provision of Housing to houseless population and upgradation


29 Nagar Panchayat Public
of dilapidated/ temporary units

Provision of pucca roads, proper drains, water supply,


sanitation, solid waste management and tree plantation in
30 Nagar Panchayat Public
outlying poor areas within the town (10 mohallas to be taken up
in phase I).
G. OTHER FACILITIES
31 Development of state of art fire station at Bodhgaya Nagar Panchayat Public

32 Development of two community centres at Bodhgaya Nagar Panchayat Public

33 Development of women polytechnic Nagar Panchayat Public


Department of Public private -
34 Development of 18 hole golf course (155 acres)
Tourism, Govt. of Bihar Partnership
H. URBAN GOVERNANCE AND INSTITUTIONAL STRENGTHENING
E-Governance initiative for efficient management of city services Public private -
35 District Administration
under the District Administration Partnership
36 City wide mapping project under GRDA GRDA Public
Capacity building project for state / local body officials involved Public private -
37 District Administration
in city development process Partnership
Department of Urban
Public private -
38 Project for restructuring of Nagar Panchayat Development, Govt.
Partnership
of Bihar
Department of
39 Setting up of heritage committee Culture, GOB and Public
GRDA
Technical strengthening of the BTMC setting up of technical
40 BTMC Public
support unit, purchase of equipment

7.2 Identification of Projects for remaining Phases

Apart from the projects mentioned above, many other projects are required to be implemented
within Bodhgaya. These are based upon the proposals of the masterplan of Bodhgaya, and will be
implemented in later phases as given on next page

145
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Table 7.c: Other projects (remaining phases)


SL.
ITEM IMPLEMENTATION MECHANISM PHASE
NO.

Setting up of computerised heritage information system with


1 Public- Private Partnership III
the heritage committee / Town panchayat

Project for Protection, conservation and area improvement


Archaeology department -
2 of heritage sites in Bodhgaya (other than Mahabodhi IV, V
NGO Partnership
Temple

3 Rejuvenation of ghats along Nairanjana river Public- Private Partnership IV

Program for increased awareness and sensitivity towards


4 heritage protection at local level by special programs in Public NGO partnership III
schools, colleges and by radio/ vernacular news papers

Landscaping and improvement scheme for the Nairanjana


5 Public III
riverfront (eastern ghat)

Development of local/regional tourist circuits incorporating


6 Public III, IV, V, VI
the identified heritage resources

7. Landscape development of Deer Park Public III

8. Land Acquisition for Deer Park Public III

9 Development of two spiritual cum meditation resorts Public- Private Partnership III, IV

10. Development of new one star hotel area as per masterplan Private III, IV

11. Development of new three star hotels as per masterplan Private IV, V

12. Development of one new five / seven star hotel Private V

Development of resort and hotel along with golf course (11


13 Public- Private Partnership III
acres)
Augmentation of piped water supply system for additional
14 Public III, IV, V, VI
population
Augmentation of sewerage system for additional
15 Public III, IV, V, VI
population
Setting up of demonstration waste management park for
16 Public- Private Partnership II
the town
Provision of environmentally friendly public toilets in govt.
17 Public- NGO Partnership III, IV, V
identified slum areas and public areas

Augmentation of existing solid waste management system


18 Public- NGO Partnership III, IV, V, VI
for additional population

Provision of new incineration/ solid waste disposal plant


19 Public- Private Partnership III, IV
based on latest technologies

20 Augmentation of drainage system for additional population Public III, IV, V, VI


Cleaning of minor drains and improvement of drainage
21 system for the special area within the ambit of the special Public III
area plan.
Introduction of rainwater harvesting structures in public
22 Public- NGO Partnership III, IV
areas
Augmentation of electricity provision for addition
23 Public- Private Partnership III, IV, V, VI
population
24 Setting up of Two new 33 KV substations Public- Private Partnership III, V
25 Provision of street lighting on all roads Public- Private Partnership III, IV, V, VI
Demonstration project on introduction of non-conventional
26 energy sources such as solar energy for lighting of public Public- NGO Partnership III
areas

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

SL.
ITEM IMPLEMENTATION MECHANISM PHASE
NO.

27 Development of new Intercity bus stand Public- Private Partnership III

28 Development of truck terminus Public III

Development of southern East West 30.0 M R/W proposed


29 Public III
Masterplan road

Development of southern East West 30.0 M R/W proposed


30 Public III
Masterplan road

Development of northern stretch of proposed 30.0 m R/W N-S


31 Public III
link road proposed in masterplan

32 Development of other masterplan roads Public IV

33 Land acquisition for new roads proposed in masterplan Public III

Development of new bridge across Nairanjana linking Bakraur


34 Public- Private Partnership IV
village with Bodhgaya

II, III, IV (one per


35 Development of three new petrol pumps Private
phase)
Repair and improvement of other existing roads and Culverts
36 (areas other than residential as residential areas are being Public III
taken up under urban renewal programs)
Provision of pucca roads, proper drains, solid waste
management and tree plantation in remaining existing
37 Public NGO partnership III, IV, V, VI
residential areas within the town (excluding new areas being
developed under the masterplan and non residential areas)

Urban renewal of settlements within special area within the Town Panchayat Heritage
38 III
ambits of the special area plan experts / Heritage NGO

39 Development of three new community centres/ Baraat ghars Public- Private Partnership II, IV, VI

40 Development of two new police stations Public III, V

41 Development of a P&T office cum Telephone exchange Public III

42 Development of six new primary health centres Public- NGO II, III, IV, V, VI

43 Development of one women and child nursing home Public- Private III

44 Development of one 100 bedded Hospital Public- Private Partnership IV


Development of three new high schools and seven primary
45 Public- Private Partnership III, IV, V, VI
schools
46 Development of 1 Womens polytechnic Public III

47 Development of new arts college Public- Private Partnership III

48 Development of new technical college Public- Private Partnership IV

49 Development of new science college Public- Private Partnership V

50 Development of town park Public- Private Partnership III


Development of green belts with masterplan roads and along Public- Private people
51 IV
revived major drains Partnership
Landscaping and flood protection along Nairanjana river
52 Public III
front east bank (stretch within Bodhgaya town boundaries)
Development of new housing area with required facilities and
53 Public Private partnership
infrastructure as per masterplan

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Chapter 8

CAPITAL INVESTMENT PLAN

8.1 Bodhgaya Comprehensive Capital Investment Requirement


(For Phase I and II)

The table below gives cost of phase I and II projects. Cost of later phases can be worked out in
subsequent plans as per prevalent rates. Cost of projects has been worked out at 2006 base rates.
Appropriate cost escalation can be applied in DPR formulations. The funds that cannot come from
the NURM can be provided by Ministry of Tourism and the BTMC/ Heritage fund for heritage, tourism
and area improvement projects. Remaining funds requirement will have to be met by GRDA/ Town
Panchayat with state support.

Table 8.a: Cost of phase I and II projects (base rate of year 2006)
TOTAL COST
SL. DISTANCE RATE (RS IN
ITEM (RS. IN
NO (KMS) CRORES)
CRORES)
A. HERITAGE PROJECTS

Project for preparation of detailed inventory of heritage


1 resources, along with geo-radar survey, and setting up of n.a L.S 1.00
computerised heritage information system

Preparation of Special area plan after detailed survey of heritage


2 n.a L.S 1.00
zone.
Development of heritage village Bakraur (including area
improvement at heritage sites, construction of drains,
3 n.a L.S 5.00
improvement of roads, provision of sanitation facilities and tree
plantation)
Preparation of detailed inventory within the WHS (Mahabodhi
4. n.a L.S 1.00
Temple)
Preparation and implementation of comprehensive landscape and
5. presentation plan for the WHS including lighting , signage, seating, n.a L.S 10.00
facilities, paths and plantation, and security measures
Preparation and implementation of restoration and protection of
6. built fabric plan of the WHS, including annual maintenance plans n.a L.S 10.00
and work schedules

7. Enlargement of existing ASI museum at Bodhgaya n.a L.S 5.00


Preparation of Disaster prevention and mitigation plan for the WHS,
8. n.a L.S 0.50
including security plan to prevents thefts, damage due to neglect.
Relocation of offices / installations from special area as per
9. L.S 20.0
heritage guidelines/ masterplan

B. PILGRIM/ HERITAGE TOURISM PROJECTS

Provision of camping sites for pilgrims in proposed parking cum


10 n.a L.S 3.00
interchange node along Nairanjana riverfront
Development of cultural centre with art gallery, museum and crafts
11 n.a L.S 25.00
bazaar
Development of outer pradakshina path linking heritage
12 resources in special area through a circumambulatory pathway n.a L.S 5.00
with landscaping on both sides

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

TOTAL COST
SL. DISTANCE RATE (RS IN
ITEM (RS. IN
NO (KMS) CRORES)
CRORES)
Tourism promotional programmes ( advertisement, media
13 L.S 1.00
campaign, Brochures etc.)

14 Setting up of Tourist Police Cell/ station / police posts 5.00

Landscaping and flood protection along Nairanjana river front


15 L.S 10.00
west bank (stretch within Bodhgaya town boundaries)
Rs. 1.0
Setting up of Pilgrim facilities centres (2 numbers) with information
16 crores 2.00
centre, public toilets, first aid room etc.
each L.S
C. PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROVISION

Provision of piped water supply system for the town of Bodhgaya


17 n.a L.S 15.00
(excluding water treatment plant)

Provision of sewerage system for the town of Bodhgaya with setting


18 n.a L.S 11.00
up of STP based on duckweed system

Improvement of present solid waste disposal system for the town of


19 n.a L.S 5.00
Bodhgaya (excluding setting up of new disposal plant)

Provision of improved drainage system for the town of Bodhgaya


20 including renovation of major drains and construction of new drains n.a L.S 10.60
in areas without drainage

Provision of electricity for town of Bodhgaya with underground


21 n.a L.S 3.03
cabling in special area (heritage zone)

D. REGIONAL TRANSPORT
Rs 1.0
Six laning of Gaya Dhobi Road (National Highway)(stretch from crore per
22 17.00 102.00
Gaya to Bodhgaya) lane per
km
E. URBAN TRANSPORT
Four laning of Domuha Road (from entry at Gaya Dhobi road) to Rs 1.0 crore
23 new parking node along with provision of lighting, culverts, drains 2.00 per lane 8.00
and street furniture per km
Rs 1.0
Four laning of Riverside road (stretch from north entry to town to crore per
24 6.50 26.00
south entry to town lane per
km
Rs 1.0
Construction of southern stretch of by-pass road within Bodhgaya
crore per
25 (linking riverside road and domuha road) (four lane) along with 2.50 10.00
lane per
provision of lighting, culverts, drains and street furniture
km

Land acquisition for new 30.0 m road (northern east -west road) As per rates indicted by district
26
to be developed administration
Rs 1.0
Construction of new road (proposed 30.0 R/W masterplan road -
crore per
27 northern east west road) (four lane) along with provision of 3 12.00
lane per
lighting, culverts, drains and street furniture
km
Rs 1.0
Construction of single lane road from Bakraur village to crore per
28 1.5 1.50
dharamaranya lane per
km

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

TOTAL COST
SL. DISTANCE RATE (RS IN
ITEM (RS. IN
NO (KMS) CRORES)
CRORES)
F. HOUSING, SLUMS IMPROVEMENT AND URBAN RENEWAL PROJECTS

Provision of Housing to houseless population and upgradation of @80,000 per


29 2500 DU 20.00
dilapidated/ temporary units DU

Provision of pucca roads, proper drains, water supply, sanitation, Rs. 5.0 crore
30 solid waste management and tree plantation in outlying poor per 50.00
areas within the town (10 mohallas to be taken up in phase I). settlement
G. OTHER FACILITIES
31 Development of state of art fire station at Bodhgaya L.S 5.00

32 Development of two community centres at Bodhgaya L.S 1.00

33 Development of women polytechnic L.S 5.00


34 Development of 18 hole golf course (155 acres) L.S 24.00
H. URBAN GOVERNANCE AND INSTITUTIONAL STRENGTHENING
E-Governance initiative for efficient management of city services
35 L.S 5.00
under the DC office
36 City wide mapping project under GRDA L.S 2.00
Capacity building project for state / local body officials involved in
37 L.S 2.00
city development process
Project for restructuring of Nagar Panchayat including preparation
of DPR and implementation (technical strengthening, capacity
38 building, increasing efficiency, introducing modern accounting and L.S 10.00
record keeping practices, more transparency, purchase of
necessary hardware etc.)
39 Setting up of heritage committee and capacity building of GRDA L.S 1.00
Technical strengthening of the BTMC setting up of technical
40 L.S 1.00
support unit, purchase of equipment
TOTAL 434.63

The list above is comprehensive and includes all projects identified in the earlier sections. However,
all the components are not fundable under the JNNURM. The projects being posed for funding
under the JNNURM are listed in section 8.4

8.2 Investment Requirement for urban governance projects.

While the JNNURM has laid down strict guidelines on reforms required at the local level, it is not
clear where the funds to meet these reform initiatives will come from. For the time being, since the
town panchayat is a small body, and does not have the capacity to undertake major reforms, this
head is being kept out of the JNNURM expenditure given in the next sections. However, without
these projects, the investment sustenance of the town panchayat is not possible. Funds for these
are required from the state govt. , or the central govt. separately.

Table 8.b: Funds required for urban governance initiatives

URBAN GOVERNANCE AND INSTITUTIONAL STRENGTHENING


E-Governance initiative for efficient management of city
a L.S 5.00
services under the DC office
b City wide mapping project under GRDA L.S 2.00

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Capacity building project for state / local body officials


c L.S 2.00
involved in city development process
Project for restructuring of Nagar Panchayat including
preparation of DPR and implementation (technical
d strengthening, capacity building, increasing efficiency, L.S 10.00
introducing modern accounting and record keeping practices,
more transparency, purchase of necessary hardware etc.)
Setting up of heritage committee and capacity building of
e L.S 1.00
GRDA
Technical strengthening of the BTMC setting up of technical
f L.S 1.00
support unit, purchase of equipment

8.3 Total funds requirement for physical infrastructure

The provision of physical infrastructure has to be seen holistically, as it needs to continue in all
phases and be upgraded in a phased manner. Under the Bodhgaya masterplan, the infrastructure
is required to be increased in an incremental manner till 2031. The table below shows the funds
required for provision of physical infrastructure in all phases and in the Ist and the IInd phase.
Supporting calculations are placed in annexure.

Table 8.c: Provision of services for Bodhgaya town


FUNDS REQUIRED FOR TOTAL FUND
SL.
SERVICES PHASE I AND II (RS. IN REQUIREMENT FOR ALL
NO.
CRORES) PHASES (RS. IN CRORES)
1 Improvement of Water Supply systems 15.00 27.30
2 Improvement of sewage systems 11.00 27.00
3 Solid Waste Management 5.00 9.10
4 Storm water drains 10.60 19.50
5 Electricity 3.03 10.00
6 Rainwater Harvesting - 1.00
TOTAL 44.63 93.90

Of the total funds requirement of 93.70 crores, only 44.63 cores is estimated to be required till 2012,
which is being posed for funding under the JNNURM scheme.

8.4 Capital investment requirement under the JNNURM

The Table below identified the projects that can be funded under the JNNURM. The projects, which
can be funded out of other central govt. funds such as development of national highway, and
tourism projects to be undertaken by ministry of tourism are excluded.
Urban governance projects are also excluded, fund for which may be taken from the state. The
funds for mapping and GIS projects can be taken from ministry of Information technology.

Table 8.d: Capital investment required on Proposed projects under the JNNURM
COST / TOTAL COST
SL. DISTANCE
ITEM RATE (RS IN (RS. IN
NO (KMS)
CRORES) CRORES)
A. HERITAGE PROJECTS

Project for preparation of detailed inventory of heritage


1 resources, along with geo-radar survey, and setting up of n.a L.S 1.00
computerised heritage information system

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

COST / TOTAL COST


SL. DISTANCE
ITEM RATE (RS IN (RS. IN
NO (KMS)
CRORES) CRORES)
Preparation of Special area plan after detailed survey of
2 n.a L.S 1.00
heritage zone.
Relocation of offices / installations from special area as per
3. L.S 20.0
heritage guidelines/ masterplan

B. PILGRIM/ HERITAGE TOURISM PROJECTS

Provision of camping sites for pilgrims in proposed parking cum


4 n.a L.S 3.00
interchange node along Nairanjana riverfront
Development of outer pradakshina path linking heritage
5 resources in special area through a circumambulatory n.a L.S 5.00
pathway with landscaping on both sides
6 Setting up of Tourist Police Cell/ station / police posts 5.00
Landscaping and flood protection along Nairanjana river front
7 L.S 10.00
west bank (stretch within Bodhgaya town boundaries)
Rs. 1.0
Setting up of Pilgrim facilities centres (2 numbers) with
8 crores 2.00
information centre, public toilets, first aid room etc.
each L.S
C. PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROVISION

Provision of piped water supply system for the town of


9 n.a L.S 15.00
Bodhgaya (excluding water treatment plant)

Provision of sewerage system for the town of Bodhgaya with


10 n.a L.S 11.00
setting up of STP based on duckweed system

Improvement of present solid waste disposal system for the


11 n.a L.S 5.00
town of Bodhgaya (excluding setting up of new disposal plant)

Provision of improved drainage system for the town of


12 Bodhgaya including renovation of major drains and n.a L.S 10.60
construction of new drains in areas without drainage

E. URBAN TRANSPORT
Four laning of Domuha Road (from entry at Gaya Dhobi road) Rs 1.0 crore
13 to new parking node along with provision of lighting, culverts, 2.00 per lane 8.00
drains and street furniture per km
Rs 1.0
Four laning of Riverside road (stretch from north entry to town crore per
14 6.50 26.00
to south entry to town lane per
km
Construction of southern stretch of by-pass road within Rs 1.0
Bodhgaya (linking riverside road and domuha road) (four crore per
15 2.50 10.00
lane) along with provision of lighting, culverts, drains and lane per
street furniture km

Land acquisition for new 30.0 m road (northern east -west As per rates indicted by district
16
road) to be developed administration
Rs 1.0
Construction of new road (proposed 30.0 R/W masterplan
crore per
17 road - northern east west road) (four lane) along with 3 12.00
lane per
provision of lighting, culverts, drains and street furniture
km
Rs 1.0
Construction of single lane road from Bakraur village to crore per
18 1.5 1.50
dharamaranya lane per
km

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

COST / TOTAL COST


SL. DISTANCE
ITEM RATE (RS IN (RS. IN
NO (KMS)
CRORES) CRORES)
F. HOUSING, SLUMS IMPROVEMENT AND URBAN RENEWAL PROJECTS

Provision of Housing to houseless population and upgradation @80,000 per


19 2500 DU 20.00
of dilapidated/ temporary units DU

Area improvement of low-income areas with provision of


Rs. 5.0 crore
pucca roads, proper drains, water supply, sanitation, solid
20 per 50.00
waste management and tree plantation in outlying poor
settlement
areas within the town (10 mohallas to be taken up in phase I).
G. OTHER FACILITIES
21 Development of state of art fire station at Bodhgaya L.S 5.00

22 Development of two community centres at Bodhgaya L.S 1.00

TOTAL (Rs. In crores) 222.1

Sector wise Summary for projects in phase I and II is given in the following table

Table 8.e: Sector wise Capital Investment Requirement under JNNURM (constant prices)
2006 rates
FUNDS REQUIREMENTS
SECTORS (PHASE I AND II) (Rs. In crores)
A. HERITAGE PROJECTS 22.00
B. PILGRIM/ HERITAGE TOURISM PROJECTS 25.00
C. PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROVISION 41.60
D. URBAN TRANSPORT 57.50
E. HOUSING, SLUMS IMPROVEMENT AND URBAN RENEWAL PROJECTS 70.00
F. OTHER FACILITIES 6.00
TOTAL 222.10

8.5 Phasing of investment requirements

A yearwise time line has been drawn for these projects and the investment requirements have
been phased accordingly. The detailed tables are given below.

Table: 8.f: Phasing of projects yearwise


TOTAL
COST (RS.
SL. IN
NO ITEM CRORES) YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4 YEAR 5 YEAR 6 YEAR 7
2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
A. HERITAGE PROJECTS
Project for preparation of detailed
inventory of heritage resources in
the town, along with geo in the
town-radar survey, and setting up
of computerized heritage
1 information system 1.00
Preparation of Special area plan
after detailed survey of heritage
2 zone. 1.00

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Relocation of offices / installations


from special area as per heritage
3 guidelines/ masterplan 20.00
B. PILGRIM/ HERITAGE TOURISM PROJECTS
Provision of camping sites for
pilgrims in proposed parking cum
interchange node along
4 Nairanjana riverfront 3.00
Development of outer
pradakshina path linking heritage
resources in special area through
a circumambulatory pathway with
5 landscaping on both sides 5.00
Setting up of Tourist Police Cell/
6 station / police posts 5.00
Landscaping and flood protection
along Nairanjana river front west
bank (stretch within Bodhgaya
7 town boundaries) 10.00
Setting up of Pilgrim facilities
centres (2 numbers) with
information centre, public toilets,
8 first aid room etc. 2.00
C. PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROVISION
Provision of piped water supply
system for the town of Bodhgaya
9 (excluding water treatment plant) 15.00
Provision of sewerage system for
the town of Bodhgaya with setting
up of STP based on duckweed
10 system 11.00
Improvement of present solid
waste disposal system for the town
of Bodhgaya (excluding setting up
11 of new disposal plant) 5.00
Provision of improved drainage
system for the town of Bodhgaya
including renovation of major
drains and construction of new
12 drains in areas without drainage 10.60
D. URBAN TRANSPORT
Four laning of Domuha Road (from
entry at Gaya Dhobi road) to
new parking node along with
provision of lighting, culverts,
13 drains and street furniture 8.00
Four laning of Riverside road
(stretch from north entry to town to
14 south entry to town 26.00
Construction of southern stretch of
by-pass road within Bodhgaya
(linking riverside road and domuha
road) (four lane) along with
provision of lighting, culverts,
15 drains and street furniture 10.00
Land acquisition for new 30.0 m
road (northern east -west road) to
16 be developed

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Construction of new road


(proposed 30.0 R/W masterplan
road - northern east west road)
(four lane) along with provision of
lighting, culverts, drains and street
17 furniture 12.00
Construction of single lane road
from Bakraur village to
18 dharamaranya 1.50
E. HOUSING, SLUMS IMPROVEMENT AND URBAN RENEWAL PROJECTS
Provision of Housing to houseless
population and upgradation of
19 dilapidated/ temporary units 20.00
Provision of pucca roads, proper
drains, water supply, sanitation,
solid waste management and tree
plantation in outlying poor areas
within the town (10 mohallas to be
20 taken up in phase I). 50.00
F. OTHER FACILITIES
Development of state of art fire
21 station at Bodhgaya 5.00
Development of two community
22 centres at Bodhgaya 1.00

Table: 8.g: Yearwise investment requirements


Total Cost
Sl. (Rs. in
No Item crores) Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7
2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12

A. HERITAGE PROJECTS
Project for preparation of detailed
inventory of heritage resources, along
with geo-radar survey, and setting up of
computerized heritage information
1 system 1.00 0.5 0.5

Preparation of Special area plan after


2 detailed survey of heritage zone. 1.00 0.5 0.5
Relocation of offices / installations from
special area as per heritage guidelines/
3 masterplan 20.00 10 10

B. PILGRIM/ HERITAGE TOURISM PROJECTS

Provision of camping sites for pilgrims in


proposed parking cum interchange
4 node along Nairanjana riverfront 3.00 1 2
Development of outer pradakshina path
linking heritage resources in special area
through a circumambulatory pathway
5 with landscaping on both sides 5.00 2 2 1
Setting up of Tourist Police Cell/ station /
6 police posts 5.00 2 2 1
Landscaping and flood protection along
Nairanjana river front west bank
(stretch within Bodhgaya town
7 boundaries) 10.00 2 2 2 2 2
Setting up of Pilgrim facilities centres (2
numbers) with information centre, public
8 toilets, first aid room etc. 2.00 1 1
C. PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROVISION

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Provision of piped water supply system


for the town of Bodhgaya (excluding
9 water treatment plant) 15.00 3 3 3 3 3
Provision of sewerage system for the
town of Bodhgaya with setting up of STP
10 based on duckweed system 11.00 2 2 2 2 2 1
Improvement of present solid waste
disposal system for the town of
Bodhgaya (excluding setting up of new
11 disposal plant) 5.00 2 1 1 1
Provision of improved drainage system
for the town of Bodhgaya including
renovation of major drains and
construction of new drains in areas
12 without drainage 10.60 2 2 2 2 2 0.6

D. URBAN TRANSPORT
Four laning of Domuha Road (from entry
at Gaya Dhobi road) to new parking
node along with provision of lighting,
13 culverts, drains and street furniture 8.00 4 4
Four laning of Riverside road (stretch
from north entry to town to south entry to
14 town 26.00 10 10 6
Construction of southern stretch of by-
pass road within Bodhgaya (linking
riverside road and domuha road) (four
lane) along with provision of lighting,
15 culverts, drains and street furniture 10.00 5 5
Land acquisition for new 30.0 m road
(northern east -west road) to be
16 developed
Construction of new road (proposed 30.0
R/W masterplan road - northern east
west road) (four lane) along with
provision of lighting, culverts, drains and
17 street furniture 12.00 6 6
Construction of single lane road from
18 Bakraur village to dharamaranya 1.50 1 0.5
E. HOUSING, SLUMS IMPROVEMENT AND URBAN RENEWAL PROJECTS
Provision of Housing to houseless
population and upgradation of
19 dilapidated/ temporary units 20.00 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 2.5
Provision of pucca roads, proper drains,
water supply, sanitation, solid waste
management and tree plantation in
outlying poor areas within the town (10
20 mohallas to be taken up in phase I). 50.00 5 9 9 9 9 9
F. SOCIAL AND COMMUNITY INFRASTRUCTURE
Development of state of art fire station at
21 Bodhgaya 5.00 2.5 2.5
Development of two community centres
22 at Bodhgaya 1.00 0.5 0.5

TOTAL (Rs. In crores) 222.10 32.50 47.50 56.50 50.50 22.00 13.10

Based on the phasing given above, consolidated sectorwise yearly capital investment
requirements at constant prices (2006 rates) have been worked out on next page

156
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Table 8.f: Sectorwise Yearly Capital Investment Requirement under JNNURM. (Constant
prices - 2006 levels) (Rs. In crores)
year 2 year 3 year 4 year 5 year 6 year 7 TOTAL
2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
A. HERITAGE PROJECTS 0.50 1.00 10.50 10.00 - - 22.00
B. PILGRIM/ HERITAGE TOURISM
PROJECTS 8 9 4 2 2 - 25.00
C. PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE
PROVISION 9.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 7.00 1.60 41.60
D. URBAN TRANSPORT 4 14 21 18 0.5 - 57.50
E. HOUSING, SLUMS IMPROVEMENT
AND URBAN RENEWAL PROJECTS 8.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 11.5 70.00
F. OTHER FACILITIES 2.5 3 0.5 - - - 6.00
TOTAL 32.50 47.50 56.50 50.50 22.00 13.10 222.10

8.6 Consolidated Funds requirement for JNNURM and Local body contribution

It needs mention again here that, out of the total funds requirement of Rs. 434 crores for phase I
and II (2006-2012), schemes worth only Rs. 222.10 crore are being proposed for funding under the
JNNURM framework. As per the guidelines of the JNNURM process, Bodhgaya town comes under
the category "C" city.

Accordingly, The projects are proposed to be funded through assistance from GOI, state Govt of
Bihar (GOB) and a share of the Town Panchayat (ULB) on 80:10:10 basis under the Jawaharlal
Nehru Urban Renewal Mission. The table given below shows the distribution of funds.

Table 8.g: Distribution of JNNURM contribution (Rs. In crores)


TOTAL GOI GOB ULB
A. HERITAGE PROJECTS 22 17.6 2.2 2.2

B. PILGRIM/ HERITAGE TOURISM PROJECTS 25 20 2.5 2.5


C. PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROVISION 41.6 33.28 4.16 4.16
D. URBAN TRANSPORT 57.5 46 5.75 5.75
E. HOUSING, SLUMS IMPROVEMENT AND URBAN RENEWAL PROJECTS 70 56 7 7
F. OTHER FACILITIES 6 4.8 0.6 0.6
TOTAL 222.1 177.68 22.21 22.21

Yearwise total requirement of funds is given in the following table. It is estimated that operations
and maintenance cost will be approximately 5% of the overall cost. The table below gives the
yearwise breakup of funds required for the JNNURM schemes, both for capital investment and for
operations and maintenance.

Table 8.h: Yearwise requirement of funds for capital investment and for O&M (Rs. In
crores) (constant prices)
year 2 year 3 year 4 year 5 year 6 year 7 TOTAL
2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
CAPITAL INVESTMENT REQUIREMENT 32.50 47.50 56.50 50.50 22.00 13.10 222.10
O&M FUNDS REQUIRED (approx.) 1.60 2.40 2.90 2.50 1.10 0.60 11.10

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Chapter 9

INVESTMENT SUSTENANCE PLAN

9.1 Introduction

The objective of this section is to assess the investment sustenance of the Bodhgaya town
panchayat vis a vis the proposed investment required for the JNNURM schemes, and propose a
road map for implementation.

9.2 Investment sustenance of the Town Panchayat.

A financial operating plan (FOP) has been worked out for the town panchayat, which is essentially
a seven-year forecast of municipal income and expenditure. In view of constraints listed in box,
projections have been worked out on broad heads.

9.2.1 Constraints

The Town panchayat is a very small body at present with a staff of 15 persons, only 9 of which
are in administrative positions, and hardly any technical staff. Its current revenue is about Rs. 40
lakhs only. It is just about able to meet its current expenditure. Large-scale improvement is
sources of revenue cannot be seen immediately in this case.
Its accounts are also in a mess with hardly any data available regarding detailed collection of
taxes. Water tax and property tax, along with other taxes are all put in one head in the
available budget estimates. Since figures regarding actual collection on individual heads of
revenue are not available, trends are difficult to work out. (Refer annexure for details of present
revenue receipts and expenditure) Therefore projections have been done for broad heads of
revenue income and expenditure.
The town has a world heritage site, and growth in the central area, i.e.. The heritage zone of
one sq. km. is restricted. Govt. of India has already given an undertaking to UNESCO, that the
character of the town will not be radically changed. In such a scenario, large-scale increase in
revenue through massive real estate development is neither desirable nor feasible.

9.2.2 Financial Operating Plan (FOP)

The FOP has been worked out considering three scenarios:

Scenario I - Base case scenario:

Here, the finances are forecast without considering the estimated CIP investments, based on
present growth rates. This scenario is indicative of the current investment sustenance levels of the
local authority, without urban reforms and without the additional CIP cost and O& M charges being
loaded on the municipality. (See tables 9.a and 9.b for detailed calculations). At present growth
rates, the revenue income of the Nagar panchayat is likely to grow to 65 lakhs by 2011-12 and the
expenditure is likely to rise to 59 lakhs, leaving a minor surplus.

Assumptions:

The key assumption in this scenario is that revenue and expenditure will continue to grow at
nominal rates, which are being exhibited at present. This scenario essentially indicates the
present investment sustenance levels of the town panchayat without the additional investment
of the CIP.
For the projection of tax revenue, a growth rate of 10% has been adopted, which is the present

158
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

average growth rate for the past four years.


For non-tax revenue, the present growth rate for four years (2001-05) is 54% due to introduction
of stamp duty in 2004- 05. This is an unsustainable growth rate. Growth of non-tax revenue has
been assumed at 5% for the next seven years, due to minor anticipated increase in rental
income from 100 shops already in construction, and parking fees likely to be revised soon.
For grants, the present nominal growth rate of 2% is taken considering the present pattern of
irregular receipt of grants.
On the expenditure side, the Establishment cost has been projected at a growth rate of 5%,
comparable to the present av. Annual growth rate.
The annual O& M expenditure has been very inconsistent and trends are hard to establish. The
present av. Annual growth rate showed a decline by 1%, which is difficult to sustain. Therefore,
an average annual growth rate of 5% has be n considered in this scenario.
The expenditure on central govt. schemes has been projected at the present rated of 11%.

TABLE 9.a: PROJECTED REVENUE INCOME FROM VARIOUS HEADS FOR THE NAGAR PANCHAYAT (2005-
06 TO 2011-12) (Rs.)* (constant prices)
Av. Annual
Description growth rate 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
(2001-2005)
1 Tax Revenue 10% 297800 327580 360338 396372.1 436009 479610 527571
2 Non-Tax Revenue 5% 3238719 3400655 3570687 3749222 3936683 4133517 4340193
3 Grants 2% 1456733 1485868 1515585 1545897 1576815 1608351 1640518
Total 4993252 5214103 5446611 5691491 5949507 6221479 6508283
* Forecast taking present Annual Average Growth Rate (growth rates for non tax revenue and grants have been slightly
adjusted to account for inconsistencies, such as stamp duty being added in the last year only in non tax revenue and
irregular receipt of grants)

TABLE 9.b: PROJECTED REVENUE EXPENDITURE FROM VARIOUS HEADS FOR THE NAGAR PANCHAYAT
(2005-06 TO 2011-12) (Rs.)* (constant prices)
Av. annual
Description Growth Rate 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
(2001-2005)
Establishment
1 5% 1107131 1162487 1220611 1281641.95 1345724 1413010 1483661
Cost
Operation &
2 5% 502463 527586 553965 581663.499 610747 641284 673348
Maintenance
Expenditure
4 under different 11% 2047741 2272993 2523022 2800554.51 3108616 3450563 3830125
schemes
Total 3657335 3963066 4297599 4663860 5065086 5504857 5987134
* Forecast taking present Annual Average Growth Rate (growth rate for O& M expenditure, which was very inconsistent
has been adjusted slightly. It showed an overall decline of 1 %, which is not possible to sustain)

Scenario II - Full Expenditure scenario:

In this scenario, the full investment required at the local body level for the implementation of the
JNNURM, including the capital investment and the O& M expenses. This scenario shows the
capacity of the town panchayat to bear the JNNURM expenses, without considerable increase in
revenue. (Refer table 9.d and 9.e for the FOP detailed calculations). In this scenario, the income
remains at Rs. 65 lakhs, but the expenditure rises to 2.56 crores considering the capital investment
requirement and the related O & M expenses on the expenditure side. Unless the revenue income is
improved with structural and financial reforms, there would be a huge deficit.

Assumptions;
Based on the capital investment indicated in the earlier section, the year wise funds

159
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

requirement of the local body have been taken as indicated in the table 9.c. It is assumed
that entire O& M cost is going to be met from the local authority.
The revenue income projections are kept same as in base case scenario.

Table 9.c: Yearly requirement of funds by the local body (constant prices)

Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 TOTAL


2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
CAPITAL INVESTMENT REQUIREMENT 3.25 4.75 5.65 5.05 2.20 1.31 22.21
O&M FUNDS REQUIRED 1.625 2.38 2.82 2.52 1.10 0.65 11.10
Assuming that the Nagar Panchayat bears entire O & M expenses of 5% of total capital investment.

TABLE 9.d: PROJECTED REVENUE INCOME FROM VARIOUS HEADS FOR THE NAGAR PANCHAYAT
(2005-06 TO 2011-12) (Rs.)* (constant prices)
Av. Annual
Description growth rate 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
(2001-2005)
1 Tax Revenue 10% 297800 327580 360338 396372.1 436009 479610 527571
2 Non-Tax Revenue 5% 3238719 3400655 3570687 3749222 3936683 4133517 4340193
3 Grants 2% 1456733 1485868 1515585 1545897 1576815 1608351 1640518
Total 4993252 5214103 5446611 5691491 5949507 6221479 6508283
* Forecast taking present Annual Average Growth Rate (growth rates for non tax revenue and grants have been slightly
adjusted to account for inconsistencies, such as stamp duty being added in the last year only in non tax revenue and
irregular receipt of grants) (same as in scenario I).

TABLE 9.e: PROJECTED REVENUE EXPENDITURE FROM VARIOUS HEADS FOR THE NAGAR
PANCHAYAT (2005-06 TO 2011-12) (Rs.)* (constant prices)
Av. Annual
Growth
Description 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
Rate (2001-
2005)
1 Establishment Cost 5% 1107131 1162487 1220611 1281642 1345724 1413010 1483661
Operation &
2 Maintenance 5% 502463 527586 553965 581663 610747 641284 673348
(general)
Operation &
3 Maintenance 16250000 23750000 28250000 25250000 11000000 6550000
(JNNURM)
Expenditure under
4 11% 2047741 2272993 2523022 2800555 3108616 3450563 3830125
different schemes
Capital Investment
5 32500000 47500000 56500000 50500000 22000000 13100000
Requirement
Total 3657335 52713066 75547599 89413860 80815086 38504857 25637134
* Forecast taking present Annual Average Growth Rate and full load of the capital investment requirement in JNNURM
by the Nagar Panchayat.

Scenario III - Post reform Sustainable Scenario:

In this scenario, the impact of the suggested reforms is seen the income of the municipality. The
income projections here are realistic and sustainable within the limits of the constraints given earlier.
The cost of CIP and O&M expenditure is loaded on the expenditure side and the additional
revenue to be generated through augmentation measures is considered on the income side. It is
seen that in this scenario, the Nagar Panchayat will have the capacity to meet the investment
needs under the JNNURM, only by 2011-12. (Refer tables 9.f and 9.g).
In this scenario, the income grows to 2.7 crores, assuming max. realistic growth rates for income

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

heads, and the expenditure is 2.6 crores for 2011-12, making the Nagar Panchayat sustainable from
investment point of view. However, there is still a deficit till 2010-2011.

Assumptions;
1. The town panchayat is strengthened and reformed as per the plan given in chapter 6.
2. Projection rates in this scenario have been taken at the maximum we judge to be realistic, in
order to ensure that the Nagar panchayat can meet the JNNURM funds requirement at least
by the end of the JNNURM period.
3. The following projection rates have been taken in keeping with the reforms proposed in
chapter 6, and the revenue increasing measures suggested

HEAD ASSUMPTIONS
Increase in Tax Revenue The property tax base is widened. Property information base is
widened, rates are revised and collection efficiency is improved
to 85% levels by 2010.
Water charges are reassessed.
Octroi is presently not being charged in the town. Octroi is
charged to improve the revenue base of the panchayat within
two years
Based on the above assumptions, it is assumed that tax base will
increase at a growth rate of 20% from the year 2006-07, and stabilize
at 15% from the year 2010.11 when tax base is larger and reforms
have occurred.
Increase in Non Tax The town panchayat will charge a nominal amount of entry
Revenue fee from foreign visitors, say Rs. 100 to begin with. Entry
charges can also be taken from Indian visitors at nominal
rate of Rs. 10 per person
Money is also raised through leasing of advertisement rights
along main roads of the town.
An improvement cess is charged from all monasteries and
foreign institutions based in the town. A nominal betterment
cess is charged from users on provision of improved
infrastructure.
Additional revenue is raised from land development.
Presently, stamp duty rates are 6%, of which only 2% are
retained with the Nagar panchayat. Bodhgaya Nagar
Panchayat is allowed to retain entire amount in future
Based on the above considerations, it is assumed that non- tax
revenue will increase at the rate of 20% annually, till 2007-08. As the
revenue from this head rises, slightly lesser growth rates will be
observed and returns start to stabiles. The full effect of the reforms
should be felt the last two years when the income should increase by
15-10%.
Grants The state finance commission will devolve funds to the local
level, of which 1.5 crores may go to the Bodhgaya Nagar
Panchayat next year.
At least 10% of the income from the BTMC (Buddha Gaya
Temple Management Committee), which is a cash rich body
and receives a large amount of donations, is channelised to
the Nagar Panchayat to fund the development of the town.
Since the dependency on grants should be reduced, grants
have been considered stable at present level and the funds
from SFC and BTMC have been added to it.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

TABLE 9.f: PROJECTED REVENUE INCOME FROM VARIOUS HEADS FOR THE NAGAR PANCHAYAT
(2005-06 TO 2011-12) (Rs.)*
Description 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
1 Tax Revenue 297800 327580 393096 471716 566059 679270 781161
Assumed annual growth rate 10% 10% 20% 20% 20% 20% 15%
2 Non-Tax Revenue 3392943 3901885 4682262 5618714 6742457 7753826 8529208
Assumed annual growth rate 10% 20% 20% 20% 20% 15% 10%
3 Grants 17650000 17650000 17650000 17650000 17650000 17650000 17650000
Keeping grant levels as constant and adding fund from state finance commission (1.5 crores) and BTMC (assumed Rs.
25 lakhs) over present grant levels
Total 21340764 21879495 22725398 23740470 24958556 26083131 26960394
*Revenue is projected based on the indicated growth rates assuming all reforms have been carried out.

TABLE 9.g: PROJECTED REVENUE EXPENDITURE FROM VARIOUS HEADS FOR THE NAGAR
PANCHAYAT (2005-06 TO 2011-12) (Rs.)*
Av. Annual
Growth
Description 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
Rate (2001-
2005)
Establishment
1 5% 1107131 1162487 1220611 1281642 1345724 1413010 1483661
Cost
Operation &
2 Maintenance 5% 502463 527586 553965 581663 610747 641284 673348
(general)
Operation &
3 Maintenance 16250000 23750000 28250000 25250000 11000000 6550000
(JNNURM)
Expenditure under
4 11% 2047741 2272993 2523022 2800555 3108616 3450563 3830125
different schemes
Capital
5 Investment 32500000 47500000 56500000 50500000 22000000 13100000
Requirement
Total 3657335 52713066 75547599 89413860 80815086 38504857 25637134
* Forecast taking present Annual Average Growth Rate and full load of the capital investment requirement and O &
M expense in JNNURM by the Nagar Panchayat.

Comparison of all three Scenarios

A comparison of the three scenarios shows that the Nagar Panchayat is likely to become
sustainable by the year 2011-12 in the third scenario. However, the years from 2006-07 will be the
most crucial from the JNNURM point of view and the Nagar Panchayat is likely to be in a deficit in
these years, even considering the most optimistic revenue projections.

Therefore state support is necessary during these years, as the reforms being carried out for the
Nagar Panchayat will need some time to be effective.
(Refer table on next page)

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

TABLE 9.h: YEARLY INCOME AND EXPENDITURE IN ALL THREE SCENARIOS


Scenario Description 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
I Total income 4993252 5214103 5446611 5691491 5949507 6221479 6508283
Total
I expenditure 3657335 3963066 4297599 4663860 5065086 5504857 5987134

I Profit/ Deficit 1335917 1251037 1149012 1027631 884421 716622 521149

II Total income 4993252 5214103 5446611 5691491 5949507 6221479 6508283


Total
II expenditure 3657335 52713066 75547599 89413860 80815086 38504857 25637134

- - - -
II Profit/ Deficit 1335917 47498963 70100988 83722369 74865579 -32283378 -19128851

III Total income 21340764 21879495 22725398 23740470 24958556 26083131 26960394
Total
III expenditure 3657335 52713066 75547599 89413860 80815086 38504857 25637134
- - - -
III Profit/ Deficit 17683429 30833571 52822201 65673390 55856530 -12421726 1323260

9.3 Conclusions and Recommendations from the Consultant to the state Govt
for bridging the investment deficit.

It is seen from the above scenarios, that even when we increase the revenues to the maximum that
is realistically possible in the next seven years, it is difficult for the small town panchayat to bear the
entire burden of the JNNURM expenses. Right now, the Nagar Panchayat does not even have the
capacity to put the reforms in place. Yet, the social and economic benefits of the projects
proposed under the JNNURM package will be immense and they should be seen in a wider the
context beyond the Nagar Panchayat' s sustenance capacity.

Bodhgaya is a unique town, being of small size but immense importance and potential. The
JNNURM projects to improve the town are likely to have a multiplier effect on the tourism sector,
and therefore on the economy of the entire region. The infrastructure and the presentation of
Bodhgaya to the world is a matter of prestige for India, as the word of mouth regarding the town
will spread throughout the Buddhist world, and will be keenly watched internationally.

At the same time, it is unfair to put the burden of provision of entire infrastructure for projected
population, and lakhs of visitors, on to a population of just 30,000 residents. Therefore state support is
necessary, until the deficit can be met by a strengthened town panchayat by itself. In fact, given
the importance of Bodhgaya, international fund can also be channelised in the improvement of
Bodhgaya. Several cash rich Buddhist nations have already shown an interest in Bodhgaya' s
development. These funds can be channelised to support the Nagar Panchayat until the results of
the reforms process can be achieved

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

ANNEXURES

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Annexure I:

SUMMARY OF THE SITE MANAGEMENT PLAN OF THE MAHABODHI TEMPLE


WORLD HERITAGE SITE:
The Mahabodhi Temple Complex World Heritage Site is recognized nationally and internationally as
one of the four sites directly associated with the life of Lord Buddha and linked with the evolution of
Buddhism. The Mahabodhi temple is one of the earliest temple constructions in India built entirely in
brick dating to the late Gupta period. It is part of the sacred geography where Buddha lived,
walked, meditated and finally attained enlightenment. The Mahabodhi temple is a living temple
where people throng even today to offer their reverential prayers to Lord Buddha.

In June 2002, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)
recognizing the universal significance of the Mahabodhi Temple Complex inscribed it in the list of
World Heritage Sites. Following this, the Govt of India prepared a Site management plan through
HUDCO as part of its commitment to UNESCO.

The Management Plan follows the guidelines prepared by the International Committee on
Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) for setting out the objectives for sustainable management of the
Mahabodhi Temple.

Aims of the Site Management Plan

Establish a framework for the process of management, coordination and decision-making with
regard to the preservation of the intrinsic values of the site, and its definable setting.

Ensure comfort and convenience of the pilgrims and other visitors to the World Heritage Site.

Work out strategies for promotion including interpretation of the outstanding universal value of the
World Heritage Site, so as to increase awareness, interest and research in the WHS.

Prioritise the programme of action, both short term and long term for conservation and
improvement of the values of the World Heritage Site and ensure implementation of the site
management plan.

The World Heritage Sites are not statutory designations in India and their Management Plans have
no statutory status. The Management Plan of the Mahabodhi Temple Complex is an advisory policy
document to guide effective management of the temple and give suggestive controls for the
regulation of its setting. These have been made part of the Masterplan wherever possible.

The team prepared a draft site management plan based on the first round of fieldwork and
feedback from the authorities. The management plan was then discussed with the representatives
of the local govt., the state govt, and the agencies involved in the site management process
(BTMC, local office ASI) and the district administration. Based on their feedback and the comments
from UNESCO, a revised draft plan for consultation has been prepared.

Significance of the Mahabodhi Temple Complex World Heritage Site

The universal significance of the Mahabodhi Temple Complex is derived from its direct association
with the life of Lord Buddha, the founder of the universal religion, Buddhism and it being a live
temple.

World Heritage Value of the Site

A site must satisfy one or more criteria set out in the Convention for inclusion in the World Heritage
List. The Mahabodhi Temple Complex is considered to:

Represents a masterpiece of human creative genius (Criterion 1)


Exhibit an important interchange of human values, over a span of time or within a cultural
area of the world, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town
planning or landscape design (Criterion 2)

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization


which is living or has disappeared (Criterion 3)
Be an outstanding example of a type of building or architectural or technological
ensemble or landscape which illustrates (a) significant stage(s) in human history (Criterion
4)
Be directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions with ideas, or with beliefs,
with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal significance (Criterion 6)

In addition to meeting the above criteria, the Mahabodhi Temple Complex also satisfies the other
two criteria related to authenticity and management.

The site meets the test of authenticity in design, material, workmanship or setting.

The site has adequate legal and /or contractual and/or traditional protection and management
mechanisms to ensure its conservation.

Values of the site

The site management plan based on the cultural significance of the Mahabodhi Temple Complex
identifies its value attributes .The vision and objectives of the plan are steered towards protection
of the sites cultural and universal significance through preservation and enhancement of its value
attributes. The values of the Mahabodhi Temple Complex can be defined as, associational,
spiritual, historical, archaeological, architectural, artistic, visual, economic, research and
educational.

Key Issues of Concern for the Management Plan

The Mahabodhi Temple has a unique position in the worlds heritage being of religious significance
for millions of Buddhists around the world. The temple is visited by around 2- 2.5 lakhs pilgrims a year
and the sustainability of the built fabric and the setting continue to be threatened in various ways.
The key issues for the Plan includes:

Protection and enhancement of the value attributes from which the site derives its
significance.
Conservation and maintenance of the built and the cultural fabric of the WHS,
Protection and preservation of the setting (sacred geography),
Achieving a balance between conservation concerns and pilgrim/visitor requirements,
Pilgrim management,
Integrating the local community in the site management process,
Documentation of the heritage resources within and outside the WHS,
Constitution of an effective institutional mechanism for management of the WHS and for
amicable resolution of all conflicts.

Vision for the future of the Mahabodhi Temple complex World Heritage Site.

The Site Management Plan provides a vision for the future of the Mahabodhi Temple Complex
based on the obligation under the World Heritage Convention to protect, conserve, present and
pass on this unique and irreplaceable property in the full richness of its authenticity to future
generations.

In order to achieve the vision, the site management plan identifies 29 objectives to guide future
decision-making and actions. The objectives are based on the understanding of the issues facing
the Mahabodhi Temple Complex World Heritage Site and strategic actions required in various
sectors.

29 objectives for management are laid down for the management of the WHS under the following
categories:

Objectives for the Conservation of Cultural Fabric of the Mahabodhi Temple Complex
World Heritage Site
Objectives for the Setting of the Mahabodhi Temple Complex World Heritage Site
Objectives for Pilgrim/ Visitor Management

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Objectives for managing information base of the resources within and outside the World
Heritage Site.
Objectives for Education, Research and Capacity Building of the authorities and for
sensitization of the local community for increased understanding of the site

Management policy directions

The Management Plan while providing the overall vision and objectives for management of various
sectors related to the World Heritage Site also outlines the broad policy directions for formulation of
strategies for achieving the 29 objectives. Some of the important policy directives sector wise is as
follows:

The Conservation of Cultural Fabric of the Mahabodhi Temple Complex World Heritage Site

The management plan provides general policy guidelines for preparation of the comprehensive
management plan and includes policies on conservation of physical fabric and artifacts, new
development within the Site, opening of new areas, provision of services, excavation and exposure
of earlier layers, protection of the Bodhi tree, sensitive landscaping and presentation within the site.
The plan also provides policy directives for preparation of the Maintenance schedule and
preparation of a disaster preparedness strategy for the WHS against perceived threats to the WHS.

Protection of Setting of the Mahabodhi Temple Complex World Heritage Site

The setting of the Mahabodhi Temple Complex World Heritage Site is of great significance as it is
replete with archaeological wealth and its management and protection is linked to the protection
of the intrinsic values of the Mahabodhi Temple. The visual quality of the setting has a direct impact
on the ambience of the WHS and on the pilgrims experience of the site.

The Site Management Plan recognizes the need for protection of all heritage resources for
preservation of the cultural fabric of the WHS.

The site management plan proposes four layers of protection (the WHS boundary, the core zone of
km, the buffer zone of up to 1 km and the periphery of up to 2 km from the WHS) while the
nomination dossier advocates provision of three layers of protection (the WHS boundary, the buffer
of one km and the buffer of two km). In principle there is no substantial change in the provisions of
the nomination dossier and the management plan.

In addition, policy guidelines are also given for:

Pilgrim/ Visitor Management


Information
Education, Research and Capacity Building
Institutional Mechanism for Plan Implementation
Current set up of management of the Mahabodhi Temple Complex World Heritage Site
and its setting.

The Mahabodhi Temple Complex World Heritage Site is the property of the State Government of
Bihar. The State Government enacted the Bodhgaya Temple Act in 1949 for better management of
the Mahabodhi Temple. As per the Act, the State Govt. is responsible for the protection,
management and monitoring of the temple and its properties. The Act makes provision for the
constitution of a Bodhgaya Temple Management Committee with eight members to manage the
property

Proposed mechanism for plan implementation

The following proposals are suggested in this regard

Strengthening of Existing Agencies

A comprehensive implementation programme is given in the site management plan including


proposals for strengthening of existing agencies, and setting up of heritage committee to look after
conservation concerns at the local level.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Resource Mobilisation

A comprehensive funding arrangement would be worked out for implementation of the various
identified projects. The main source of funds would be grants from the government both state and
central, grants from the world monument fund and soft loans from funding agencies. A specialized
fund is proposed to be set up for site management purposes.

Programme for action

The Plan outlines the list of tasks to be carried out for achieving the objectives for implementation of
the Site Management Plan. It also identifies the agencies with the lead responsibility for their
implementation. The phase wise target date for initiations are also identified against each task
(Phase- I (upto 2007), Phase- II (2007-12), and Phase- III 2012-201)).

Objectives Actions Agency Time frame


responsible for for
implementation implementati
on
Objective 1 - Ensure that the a. Formalization of the Ministry of Phase I
universal significance of the SMP Tourism, Govt of
Mahabodhi Temple Complex India
and its symbolism as the b. Recognition of State Govt Phase I
birthplace of Buddhism is importance of protection through
recognized and appreciated of WHS in all related local/ Department of
nationally and internationally. state plans. Culture, Govt of
Bihar
Objective 2 - Preserve and a. Preparation of detailed Deptt. of Culture, Phase I
maintain the integrity and inventory of heritage Govt of Bihar and
authenticity of the built fabric resources within WHS BTMC with the
of the Mahabodhi Temple help of experts
Complex World Heritage Site b. Preparation of
and to minimise the effects of Comprehensive
essential new and existing Conservation Plan of the Deptt. of Culture, Phase I
services. WHS Govt of Bihar and
BTMC with the
c. Preparation of Annual help of experts
Work plans
Deptt. of Culture, Phase I
Govt of Bihar and
BTMC with the
d. Preparation of help of experts
maintenance schedule
BTMC with the Phase I
help of experts
Objective 3- Ensure a. Preparation of a plan BTMC with the Phase I
continuance and longevity of to save the Bodhi tree. help of experts
the Bodhi tree through
preservation and
regeneration.
Objective 4 - Develop a a. Preparation of a BTMC with the Phase I
sensitive landscaping plan for landscape plan help of experts
the Mahabodhi Temple
Complex World Heritage Site
while minimizing impacts on
built fabric of the site.
Objective 5 - Ensure a. Strategies for heritage BTMC Phase I
continuance of the religious sensitive religious
and cultural practices within practices and festivals to
the Mahabodhi be worked out and
implemented.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Objective 6 - To mitigate the a. To carry out surveys BTMC through Phase I


risks to the WHS from natural and studies to assess risk experts
and manmade hazards. vulnerability in detail,
particularly risk from water
logging, flood and fire.

b. To prepare disaster
prevention and mitigation
plan
BTMC through Phase I
experts

Objective 7 - Ensure that the a. Strengthening of BTMC State Govt. and Phase I
mechanism for management Deptt. of Culture,
of the Mahabodhi Temple Govt of Bihar
Complex World Heritage Site is
oriented towards effective b. Strengthening of Phase I
implementation of site Advisory committee State Govt.
management plan, enables through Deptt. of
conflict resolution and Culture, Govt of
coordination between Bihar Phase I
government and non- c. Setting up of Technical
government partners. Support Unit/ Heritage State Govt.
Resource Centre through Deptt. of
Culture, Govt of
Bihar
Objective 8 - Ensure a. Delineation of heritage
restoration of the historic zones
linkages and protection of Department of Phase I
heritage resources located Urban
outside the Mahabodhi Development
Temple Complex World b. Setting up of Bodhgaya through G.R.D.A
Heritage Site, which are heritage committee
associated with the life of Lord
Buddha, and are part of the
sacred geography of the land
of enlightenment
Objective 9 - To enable a. Enlargement of ASI ASI Phase II
collection, preservation and museum
restoration of all unprotected
relief, relics and sculptures b. Efforts to procure all ASI Phase II
related to the historicity of the unprotected relics
WHS and the setting.
Objective 10 - Enhance the a. Area improvement Department of Phase I
urban design qualities and schemes for the vicinities Urban Dev, Govt
protect key views and visual of Bihar through
corridors linking the WHS with b. River front GRDA with the Phase II
its setting. improvement scheme support of Nagar
Panchayat
/Bodhgaya
Municipal
Council.
Objective 11 - Ensure that the a. Formulation and Deptt. of Urban Phase I
development and long term implementation of Dev, Govt of
change in the vicinities and development controls for Bihar through
the wider setting of the the designated zones GRDA.
Mahabodhi Temple Complex /protective layers
World Heritage Site is
compatible to, and
enhances, the intrinsic values
of the site.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Objective 12 - Support a. Infrastructure State level Phase III


initiatives which reduce the improvement project for infrastructure
negative impact of pollution the town agencies, GRDA
and environmental and Nagar
degradation in the wider Panchayat
setting of the WHS.
Objective 13 - Develop a. Development of Deptt. of Urban Phase I
contingency plan for special plan for festivals Dev, Govt of
reducing the noise and including management of Bihar through
parking congestion in the WHS pilgrims and facilities. Gaya Regional
vicinities, especially during Development Phase I
peak days, dispersing the b. Identification and Authority/ Nagar
pressure without exceeding relocation of Panchayat in
the overall capacity of the incompatible uses from association with
setting to absorb change. the immediate vicinities of BTMC
the WHS.
Objective 14 -To encourage a. Introduction of non- Department of Phase I
initiatives for promotion of polluting public transport. Tourism and
public and non - motorized Department of
transport and reduce reliance transport, state
on polluting vehicles / private b. Promotion of non govt. with the
cars by visitors / local mechanised transport support of Ministry
community in the vicinities of of Tourism, Govt
the WHS. of India
Objective 15 - To engage the a. Setting up of the Advisory Phase I
national and international Mahabodhi Mahavihara Committee,
community in generating world heritage BTMC and Deptt.
finances and technical management fund. of Culture, Govt
support for the initiatives for of Bihar
the wider setting that ensure b. Prepare a list of well-
the benefits from the World wishers, NGOs (national
Heritage Status of the and inter-national)
Mahabodhi Temple Complex donors, interest groups
also reach the wider including local
community. community and create a
mechanism for dialogue
and working together for
the preservation of values
and significance of the
WHS.
Objective 16 - To set up a Create opportunities for Deptt. of Culture, Phase II
framework for amicable setting up a dialogue Govt of Bihar,
resolution of all conflicts process for conflict Advisory
related to the cultural and resolution with active Committee,
historical fabric of the setting involvement of all interest BTMC for WHS
of the Mahabodhi Temple groups through the and Department
Complex World Heritage Site. Advisory Board. of Urban Dev,
Govt of Bihar
through GRDA for
the setting
Objective 17 - To ensure Formulation of Heritage Deptt. of Urban Phase I
integration of policies of site led Development plan for Development
management plan in the Bodhgaya integrating the through State
overall planning framework of policy directions of the Town planning
the town and ensure that all Site management plan of Deptt. and
schemes initiated in the wider the WHS. GRDA.
setting are not detrimental to
the physical fabric and the
intrinsic values of the WHS.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Objective 18 - To create an a. Prepare a landscape Department of Phase I


environment that enhances plan/greening of the core Urban Dev, Govt
the spiritual values of the WHS zone of Bihar through
and the setting for the pilgrims b. Enlarge the green open GRDA and the
and other visitors. spaces around the Bodhgaya
Mahabodhi Temple Heritage
Complex by suitable Committee.
grouping of available
govt land/park so as to
expand area for
meditation and religious
practices.
Objective 19 - To manage the a. To work out the BTMC in close Phase I
flow of pilgrims and visitors to carrying capacity for coordination with
WHS for reducing the each physical/spatial unit Deptt. of Culture,
negative impacts of visitor and limit the number of Deptt. of Tourism
pressure, particularly on peak visitors admitted at any and Home Deptt.
days. one time. (Govt. of Bihar)
b. Open up alternative
routes for visitors.
c. Computerised entry
ticketing system.
d. Install close circuit TV
for monitoring movement
of people for security
purposes

Objective 20 -To enable Provide opportunities for BTMC with the Phase I
greater access to the WHS for physically challenged help of experts
all sections of the community pilgrims/old devotees for
particularly those with any easy movement within
disability, or with reduced the WHS precincts.
mobility.

Objective 21 - Provide clear a. Place trained Department of Phase I


orientation, interpretation and authorised guides. Culture, Govt of
presentation of the site in Bihar
keeping with international b. Introduce hark system BTMC with the
standards and status of the and public address help of experts.
site. system.

Objective 22 - To ensure a. Review the existing Department of Phase II


provision of visitor facilities to location and provision of Tourism in
pilgrims and tourists to the facilities and develop a consultation with
WHS without diminishing the package of facilities in a Department of
sites intrinsic values. way so as to be least Culture, Govt of
disruptive to the WHS. Bihar.
Objective 23 - To evolve and Journalistic coverage of Ministry of Phase -I
implement a promotional the WHS in the national Tourism, Govt of
strategy for the WHS aimed at and international print India in
building a positive image of and visual media association with
the WHS in the national and Deptt. of Tourism,
international media, and Govt of Bihar.
enhancing the visitor interest
in the site.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Objective 24 - To develop a. Development of Department of Phase III


sustainable cultural tourism local/regional tourist Tourism, State
development in the wider circuits incorporating the Govt. in
setting, ensuring that the heritage resources in the association with
economic benefits of this immediate vicinity (core District
development are passed and buffer) and administration
down to the local community. undeveloped area. and relevant
b. Convening of Buddha ministries at Govt
Mahotsav, Kal Chakra of India level.
ceremony and similar BTMC
such functions.
c. Involve local
community
representatives in the BTMC with the
finalisation of extended support of local
interest zones. NGOs

Objective 25 - To set up a Conduct Impact BTMC and When


mechanism for constant assessment studies for all Advisory required
review and monitoring of the tourism development Committee
impacts of tourism on the projects before it is through relevant
WHS, particularly recommended for ministries at Govt
environmental and socio- implementation in the of India level
cultural aspects. setting of the WHS
Objective 26 To ensure that Set up of information and BTMC /Resource Phase II
all information about the WHS, database management center with the
and heritage resources in the system. All decisions to be help of experts
setting, is documented, stored recorded systematically
and analyzed properly in with regard to
order to assist the effective management plan
implementation of the directives
management plan using state
of art methods.
Objective 27- To encourage a. Guided tour of the WHS Deptt. of Culture Phase II and
local community to engage for school children of the and Deptt. of III
with the WHS in a positive region. Tourism with other
manner by raising awareness b. Evolve solutions for relevant depts. of
at the local level about the improvement of setting the State and
sites values and the with the focus on Central Govts,
opportunity related to the generation of local authorities
WHS. employment opportunities and NGOs
for the local community.
c. Employing locals as
guides and Tonga drivers.
d. Skill training and
upgradation of local
women and youth in
candle/incense stick
making, local handicrafts
and souvenirs.
e. Promote village tourism
by linking it with heritage
resources.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Objective 28- To encourage Conduct Geo radar Deptt. of Culture, Phase I and II
and promote research related survey of archaeological Govt of Bihar in
to the site in order to improve sensitive pockets within association with
the understanding of its the WHS and the setting. Bihar State
intrinsic values, its character, Remote Sensing
use and setting, for improved Agency and
and more informed Ministry of
management. Science and
Technology, Govt
of India.
Objective 29- To continually Conduct training and BTMC with the Phase II and
facilitate programmes for interactive sessions for assistance of III
sensitisation of site managers, sensitisation towards Deptt. of Culture,
line departments, peoples heritage protection and Govt of Bihar and
representatives, NGO identify resource persons ASI.
representatives, guides etc, and professionals.
towards heritage
conservation and
international standards

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Annexure II:

VALUE BASED INVENTORY OF EXISTING HERITAGE RESOURCES OF


BODHGAYA

PROPERTY VALUE DESCRIPTION PRESENT STATE COMMENTS


A. NATURAL RESOURCES
1. Bodhi tree Historical As per the legend, Buddha Presently, the tree has a high BodhGaya owes its
Associational attained enlightenment in platform around it, which is importance to the
Bodhgaya under the Bodhi enclosed by a stone railing Bodhi tree. For
tree (Bo, pipal, ficus about 7m high. Another brass preventing any further
religiosa, the tree of railing has been installed damage to the tree,
awakening). The Bodhi tree inside the stone railing. specialists need to be
at the western side of the Flocking pilgrims offer sweets, engaged An
Bodhgaya temple is yoghurt, ghee and milk to the alternate site need to
believed to be a direct tree. They light oil- lamps and be identified where
descendant of the original candles at the base of the the offerings could be
tree under which Sakyamuni tree and tie innumerable cloth made by the pilgrims
meditated and attained around the tree. The edible in stead of the
enlightenment to become items draw ants and insects, present practice at
Buddha, the enlightened candle soot causes the base of the tree
one, the founder of a great asphyxiation of the leaves, and the sale of the
religion of the world. and the cloth flags do not leaves of the Bodhi
allow the bark to breathe. tree need to be
Vendors selling leaves of the completely banned.
holy tree can be seen around All this could be done
the temple. Security is poor after creating
awareness amongst
the pilgrims.
2. Pragbodhi Historical The hill is situated about 3 Although the hill is only a few Bridge over the
Hill Associational miles to the northeast of kms from Bodhgaya, in the Mohana river need to
Cultural BodhGaya on the eastern absence of a bridge over the be constructed for
banks of Nairanjana. river Mohana, one is forced to providing easy
Buddha is said to have take a longer route via accessibility to tourists
spent some time here after Gaya town which entails a from BodhGaya.
six long years of penance journey of 1 hours
and austerities at Uruvila.
The identification is based
on the fact that half way up
the western slope of the hill
facing the river Phalgu
(Nairanjana) is a natural
fissure or cavern, shaped
like a crescent, 37 x 5 1/2,
with a small entrance 32
wide and 410 high where
the Buddha is said to have
lived. The height of the
cave at the southern end is
27 while the width is 17.
At the back or east side of
the cavern there is a ledge
of rock, which probably
served as a pedestal, for the
shadow of Buddha also
figures on the rock.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

3. Ajaypala Historical The Ajaypalanyagrodha is Presently the exact The tree needs to be
Nyograha Associational the famous Neat-herds location of the tree is not identified.
Tree banyan under which the known.
Buddha is said to have
spent the fifth week after his
enlightenment, and its
shade is the sacred spot
where Brahma, the benign
Brahmanical deity waited
upon the newly enlightened
master and persuaded him
to promulgate his doctrines
for the good of all.

4.Rajayatana Historical As per the legend, Presently the exact The tree needs to be
Tree Associational Bodhisattva broke his fast location of the tree is not identified.
under the Rajayatana tree known.
after six years of rigid
penance by accepting a
bowl of rice-milk offered by
Sujata, the daughter of the
local chieftain. Buddha is
also said to have spent
the sixth week after his
enlightenment here under
the tree of royal
dimensions
5.Nairanjana Historical The Mahabodhi Temple Nairanjana is presently a wide, Flood protection
river Associational Complex, the most shallow, sandy bed for greater and river training on
Cultural hallowed spot on the earth part of the year and a torrent both banks of
is situated on the banks of running with water only during Nairanjana river.
the river Nairanjana in the monsoon Interestingly the
Bodhgaya. river had a perennial
waterfront during the Buddha
period.

6.Dharam- Historical Dharamaranya (dharma or It is presently a sandy stretch By sensitive use of


Aranya Associational holy forest) is a holy forest in the Bakraur sector landscaping, the holy
associated with the life of forest could be
Buddha. It was the site of recreated.
the ashram of the sage
Uruvela Kashyup. Buddha is
supposed to have
meditated here

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

7.Ahara and Historical Ahara and Pyne system is a The vestige of the ancient The ancient Ahara
Pyne system Cultural traditional water harvesting Ahara-Pyne system can no and Pyne system can
system in which the water of longer be seen due to be revived.
the river is utilised for complete collapse of the
cultivation in the dry system because of disuse and
months. An Ahar is a poor maintenance. The
rectangular artificial historical pyne has now been
catchment basin with relegated to nallah and
embankments on three Ahara are no longer visible
sides formed by blocking having been used as fields by
the drainage of the surface affluent farmers.
water or even by blocking a
small drainage rivulet and
thus locking up the water
and pynes are channels
constructed to utilize water
flowing through hilly rivers
intersecting the country.
8. Old trees of Historical On the left side of the A number of the old trees are Old trees of the area
the Area Associational Nairanjana river inside the being uprooted for the sake need to be protected
Bakraur village and in areas of development and crass and well integrated
in and around the commercialization with any new
Mahabodhi temple, there development in the
are a number of old Banyan area.
and Pipal trees. Some of
these trees are very old
dating to the old times.
B. BUILT RESOURCES
1.The Ashokan Historical The railing was erected in A railing surrounds the The railing was
Railing: Scientific the period between the first Mahabodhi temple presently, constructed and
Artistic century BC and first century perhaps, a stone replacement expanded during the
Associational AD. The pillars and of an original wood-en Ashokan, Sunga and
architraves are decorated structure that en-circled the the Gupta periods
with a variety of floral, bodhighara initially. and signages giving
animal and mythological details of the period
symbols attributed to the in which it was
Ashokan period. Medallions constructed need to
on the pillars portray themes be put up which
typical of early Buddhist art: would give a fair
the Bodhi tree, a stupa and indication of the
many more. evolution of the
temple through the
respective periods.
2.Votive stupas Historical The spots hallowed by Some of these stupas have The area in and
Associational Buddha has been marked not been unearthed and may around the temple
Scientific by the const-ruction of be still under the ground complex is an
Cultural votive stupas over it within archaeologically
Artistic the temple precincts as well significant area.
as in and around Specialists need to be
BodhGaya by the pilgrims employed to reveal
visiting the site. the buried ancient
city a-round the
Mahabodhi temple.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

3.Mahabodhi Historical The Mahabodhi Temple The temple precincts are As the temple is of
Temple Associational Complex in BodhGaya has under tremendous great importance to
Scientific direct association with the development pressure, which the Buddhists proper
Cultural life of Buddha, being the also include religious activities security mechanism
Artistic place where he attained within and around the World need to be put in
enlightenment The present Heritage site. place. The temple is
temple is one of the earliest BodhGaya experiences of great
and most imposing extreme climatic conditions archaeological
structures built entirely in (very dry and hot weather), significance dating
brick from the late Gupta complicating the back to the 6th/7th
period. The 170 feet high conservation process and the century and it would
temple consists of a slender development of tourist friendly be in the interest of
nine-storied pyramidal installations, as well as the temple for
tower and houses a gilded pilgrimage friendly facilities. bringing it under the
image of the Buddha in the Presently the temple is under control of ASI for
bhoomisparsha mudra with the overall control of effective protection
his hands touching the BodhGaya Temple of the monument and
earth, calling the earth as Management Committee. its adjoining area and
witness to his austerities. At for restoration of the
the corners of the basement temple.
of the main tower are four Aesthetic signage
smaller towers, which are and lighting
miniature replicas of the arrangement need to
main tower. Stone lotuses be introduced.
mark the temple; its walls The entrance to the
depict the life and aspects temple and the
of the Buddha including boundary wall of the
one facet of his previous temple also need to
birth. be aesthetically
designed along with
sensitive landscaping
of the lotus pond and
the temple premises.
4.Vajrasana Historical Vajrasana, a polished The Vajrasana is the most The vajrasana was
(adamantine or Associational sandstone throne is the revered spot for the Buddhists constructed and
diamond seat): Scientific earliest construction at the and pilgrims in thousands flock expanded during the
Cultural foot of the Bodhi tree to around it to offer obeisance Ashokan and the
Artistic mark the place of to the holy one. The throne is Gupta periods and
sambodhi (enlightenment). under tremendous pressure some signages giving
The stone throne decorated because of thronging pilgrims details of the period
with a Mauryan style and tourists. in which it was
palmette and goose frieze is constructed need to
the earliest physical be put up which
evidence of a shrine at this would give a fair
spot. indication of the
As per legend when evolution of the
Tathagata received the temple through the
grass of good omen he respective periods.
walked on the four sides of
the Bodhi tree from point to
point. At each of these four
points the earth trembled
but when he came to the
diamond throne then all
was quiet and peaceful
and then he began his
meditations there with an
unshakable vow not to
leave the asana till he
attained enlightenment.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

5. Animesh Historical The historic spot on which The Animesh chaitya is a The subsidiary shrines
Lochana Associational Buddha is said to have white brick tower in a fairly located within the
Chaitya Scientific spent the second week preserved state, which stands WHS associated with
Cultural after his enlightenment (the on a mound. the event of
Artistic third week according to enlightenment are
some authorities) standing important shrines that
with his gaze fixed upon the enhance the value of
scene of victory at the foot the WHS. The shrines
of the Bo tree. The shrine at help in reconstruction
this spot became noted as of the single most
the site of the Animesh important event in the
chaitya or fixed gaze lifetime of Buddha
shrine. The image enshrined and therefore need
in it is a standing figure of to be accorded the
Buddha, the form of whose status and
eyes is suggestive of the importance that
attitude of a steadfast gaze. these sites deserve.
6. Jewel walk Historical As per legend Buddha The pillars of the jewel walk The seven spots
Associational spent the third week to the north of the temple associated with the
(second week as per some have been totally destroyed event of
authorities) after except for the pillar bases enlightenment need
enlightenment to the north to be physically
of the tree, he walked their identified and their
east and west for a distance authenticity and
of ten paces or so. integrity need to be
Miraculous flowers sprang established. The spots
up under his foot-traces to need to be well
the number of eighteen. presented to visitors.
Afterwards a brick wall
about three feet high
covered this space. And
twenty stone pillars well
fashioned and ornamented
with leaves and other
figures were erected
marking the spot
7. Ratnagriha Historical The historic spot on which The location of the shrine as It is a disputed site
Chaitya Associational the Buddha remained suggested by Hsuan Tsang and its authenticity
Scientific seated cross legged and and identified by needs to be verified
Cultural spent the fourth week after Cunningham does not tally by experts.
Artistic his enlightenment with that which is indicated in
formulating the higher the jataka Nidana Katha.
method of exposition of his The Buddhist pilgrims identify
doctrines became noted as the shrine with a small nubical
the site of a sanctuary chamber of sandstone, which
called Ratna griha chaitya is architecturally a crude
or the Jewel house shrine. structure.
8. Sujata Historical As per the legend, Buddha Buddhists and Hindus revere A study need to be
temple Associational broke his fast under the the temple. carried out to verify
Scientific Ajaypala Nyograha tree by the date of
Cultural accepting a bowl of rice- construction of the
milk from Sujata. He is also temple, as the historic
said to have spent the fifth and associational
week of enlightenment value of the temple is
under the tree. After many doubted by historians.
decades later Matang Vapi
Rishi came and set up his
ashram near the tree. Two
temples were constructed
then one of Sujata
enclosing the tree and the
other of Shiva

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

9. Mahayani Historical According to Mahayanis The temple complex is A study need to be


temple Associational Siddhartha sat under a Pipal located at the bank of river carried out to verify
Scientific tree located in the campus. Mohana and is revered by the date of
Cultural Later on in the late 19th both Buddhists and Hindus. construction of the
century a temple complex temple, as the historic
was constructed with idols and associational
of Hanuman, Durga, Vishnu value of the temple is
and Shiva. doubted by historians.
10. Hindu Historical The Bodhgaya Math is an The Hindus revere the Math. Any plan for the
temples Associational ancient monastery of the The math is in possession of a temple area should
(Shankracharya Scientific Hindu Sanyasis styled Girs, big chunk of riverside land on be an integrated plan
Math and Cultural who belong to one of the which shops of a temporary giving due
Temples) ten orders of Sankara nature have come up. The importance to all the
Acharyas Saivite school. It Math is historically significant religious structures in
traces its origin back to the and has played a major part the area.
middle of the sixteenth in determining the history of With dialogue
century of the Christian Era. the town between the math
It is said as early as 1590 AD and the district
one Gossain Ghamandi Gir, authority possibility of
a holy devotee of this order opening the river vista
while on a pilgrimage tour and also need of
became so very fond of the removing the
sylvan solitude of the commercial
neighborhood of the place establishments along
where now the Math stands the riverside road
that he selected it as a could be explored.
place of his religious
devotion and subsequently
built a small monastery
there
C.ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATION SITES
1. Taradih Historic This site is adjacent to the The site is in a run down The site is under the
excavation site Associational Mahabodhi temple on the derelict condition. protection of ASI.
Scientific western side besides the Further conservation
Mosque. The site is one of work needs to be
the most ancient and dates undertaken
back before the time of
Buddha starting from the
Neolithic period down to
the Pala period.
Excavations reveal seven
cultural phases from the
neolithic period, (25th
century-17 th century BC),
Chalcolithic (17th century
11th century BC), iron age
(10th century-7th century
BC), Ashokan period (6th
century-1st centuryBC),
Kushana period (1st century-
3rd century AD), Gupta
period (4th century-8th
century AD), late Gupta
and Pala period (9th
century-12th century AD).

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

2. Sujata Kuti Historical The Stupa is 11m from the The ASI is carrying out the The approach road
Associational ground level and was built excavation work at the Sujata needs to be widened
Scientific in three stages. The Kuti. The ASI is also trying to and resurfaced
Cultural pradakshina path made up acquire more area around sensitively as it is quite
Artistic of baked bricks was built in the site and to divert the close to the heritage
the first stage. Subsequently, approach road so that it does structure.
the diameter as well as the not run close to the
height of the Stupa was excavation site.
increased thus covering the
original pradikshina path. At
that stage a 5m wide
pradakshina path of thick
lime plaster was added.
Moulded bricks were used
on the surface of the stupa.
. In the third stage of
construction a wall
enclosure of baked brick
covered by lime-plaster,
railing and gateways
probably in all the cardinal
directions were provided. All
around the wall enclosure
and in front of the gateway,
a pradakshina path of lime
plaster was also added. On
the side of the gateway a
baked brick platform
possibly intended for
congregation was also
constructed.
Encased in lime plaster the
maximum diameter of the
Stupa in the last stage was
about 65.50 m. Mud mortar
of varying thickness was
used as a binding medium
in the construction of the
stupa. The railings and pillars
were made of stone.
D. HISTORICAL TANKS:
1. Buddha Historical After attaining The Buddha pokhar is now The Buddha pokhar
pokhar (lotus Associational enlightenment under the called Muchilinda tank and is needs to be cleansed
tank) Bodhi tree, Buddha took approached through arched and desilted and the
bath in the Buddha Pokhar, unlighted doorways. The area around it needs
the tank to the south of water of the pond is stagnant to be sensitively
Mahabodhi temple and is used for breeding landscaped.
In Hsuan Tsangs words fishes. The historic credibility
Outside of the south gate of and use need to be
the Bodhi Tree or the Bodhi established.
Tree enclosure was a large
tank about 700 paces in
circuit of pure clear water,
the home of dragons and
fishes. This was the tank
made by the younger
brother of the Brahmana
who built the beautiful
temple.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

2. Sakra tank Historical As per Hsuan Tsang records, The tank exists, however is not The historians debate
Associational Sakra Devaraja, a Brahmin revered. its location and
Raja built a seven gemmed associational value.
throne and hall with The historicity of the
precious substances for tank needs to be
Buddha after his established
enlightenment. As a token
of his homage, the tank
where Buddha washed his
clothes has been named
after him.
As per legend, Buddha
attained samyak sambodhi
here. Indra created this
tank so that Buddha could
wash his clothes.
3.Jokhr Tal Historical These are some of the other The Jokhar tal exists, however The historians debate
Urel tank, Associational holy tanks associated with is not revered. Jokhar tal is its location and
Ghoshal- the life of Buddha. Location now known as Maya-Sarovar associational value.
tank,Tebka of Urel tank and tebka tank The historicity of the
tank; is not established tanks needs to be
established
4.Muchilinda Historical As per legend, lord Buddha The tank exists, however is not The historians debate
Tank: Associational spent the seventh week revered. its location and
after his enlightenment near associational value.
the Muchilinda tank. The The historicity of the
Buddha during the course tank needs to be
of his stay met with a established
cyclonic storm, there after
which the Naga King
Muchilinda sheltered the
Buddha from rain under his
royal canopy, mounted with
an imposing serpent crest.
Muchilinda was a
contemporary of the
Buddha and the
Shishunaga King Bimbisara
of Rajgriha. As a token of his
homage,
Mocharim, a village about
a mile south of the
Mahabodhi temple
traditionally and obviously
derives its name from
Muchilinda.
Mocharim was a village
tract about 1.5 miles
from the Mahabodhi
temple in the ancient times.
In the midst of the woods
was the Muchilinda tank
and it was marked by a
small vihara containing the
figure of Buddha but at
present no traces of it
remains.
E.ANCIENT SETTLEMENTS:

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

1. Mastipur Historical Mastipur and Tikabigha were The ancient settlement exists. The historians debate
village & Associational some other historic its location and
Tikabigha settlements, which existed associational value.
Village then. Mastipur village was The historicity of the
gifted by the then Emperor of settlement needs to
Delhi to Mahanta Lal Gir. be established.
2.Bakraur Historical Bakraur was a village situated The ancient settlement exists. The historians debate
Village Associational in the neighbourhood of its location and
Uruvila on the bank of the associational value.
Nairanjana. It formed a part The historicity of the
of the Uruvila forest tract, settlement needs to
which covered a large area. be established.
As per the legend this was the
place where Buddha
accepted the bowl of rice-
milk offered by Sujata, the
daughter of the local
chieftain.
A mound apparently
representing ruins of a large
stupa was noticed by Fa
Hiuen in 399 BC and later by
Hsuan Tsang in 629 BC and by
Cunningham in 1861 to the
north of the village on the
eastern side of the Nairanjana
river. The site is now referred to
as Sujata Kuti or Sujata garh. It
is locally known as Katani. As
per Hsuan Tsang, the place
was referred as Ajaypura
then.
3. Urel Village Historical Uruvilva was probably a forest The ancient settlement exists. The historians debate
(Uruvila): Associational tract at the time of Buddha its location and
and may have spread on associational value.
both the banks of the The historicity of the
Nairanjana river. The Buddha settlement needs to
came here to meditate in its be established.
sylvan solitude. The pleasant
environs of the forest
gladdened his heart and he
stayed there even after his
enlightenment.
As per the ancient texts,
Uruvilva has been identified as
the place where the eldest of
the three Kashyapa brothers,
the most famous of the sages
of Buddhas times lived.
Different Chinese pilgrims
have identified Uruvilva as the
place intimately associated
with the events of Buddhas
life just before his
enlightenment.

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

ANNEXURE III

COST ESTIMATES FOR SERVICES

A budgetary estimate for the services proposed for Bodhgaya town is given below.

The estimate furnished is for the capital cost of setting up the infrastructure facilities and does not
include the cost of O&M of the system and the cost for acquisition of the land for locating the
various facilities.

Note: The costs are worked out with 2004 base year and an escalation of 10% is to be taken for all
projects.

Water Supply

Through Tube Wells

The approximate cost for infrastructure required for cost is as under:

Sl. No. Item Qty. Rate Amount


(In lakh.) (In lakh)
1 Tube well, PH etc. 23 6 138
2 OHT 20 m staging 9 ml total 50 450
3 Dist mains 10-30 cms area 40 km. 15 600
Total 1188

Water Treatment Plant for removal of elements like Iron, Arsenic etc.
Cost of 18 MLD plant @Rs.50 lakhs per MLD - 900 lakhs

Cost of one clear water Pumping Station @Rs.200 lakhs each - 200 lakhs
Cost of Tube wells, OHTs & Mains - 1158 lakhs
2258 lakhs (2004 rates)
- 2732 lakhs (2006 rates)

Approx. Cost of phase I and II proposals (2007-2012)

Sl. No. Item Qty. Rate Amount


(In lakh.) (In lakh)
1 Tube well, PH etc. 6 6 36
2 OHT 20 m staging 5 mld 50 250
3 Dist mains 10-30 cms area 20 km. 15 300
4 Clear water pumping facility - LS 200
5 Water treatment facility ( 9 MLD) 9 MLD 50 lakhs 450
per mld
Total 1236

Say Rs. 12.4 crores (2004 rates)


Cost in 2006 (taking escalation at 10% for 04-05 and 05-06): Rs. 14.96 crores
Say Rs 15.00 crores

Sewerage and Sewage Treatment

The cost of providing complete sewerage and sewage treatment facilities to the town is given
below:

Sewerage:
A. Main Sewer
(i) Length of main sewer (appx.) 5 km.

183
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

(ii) Unit rate Rs. 50 lakh/km.


(iii) Cost of main sewer Rs.250 lakh

B. Branch Sewer & Laterals


(i) Length of branch & lateral sewer (appx.) 50 km.
(ii) Unit rate Rs. 12 lakh/km.
(iii) Cost of branch & lateral sewer Rs.600 lakh

C. Major Sewage Pumping Station (SPS)


(i) Number of SPS 6 Nos.
(ii) Unit rate Rs. 100 lakh/unit
(iii) Cost of SPS Rs.600 lakh

D. Sewage Treatment Plant (Based on oxidation pond/ duck weed pond system)
(i) Total volume of waste water to 12 mld
be treated
(ii) Unit rate Rs. 15 lakh/mld
(iii) Cost of STP Rs.180.0 lakhs

Total cost of sewerage and sewage treatment system


= (A+B+C+D)
= Rs. (250+600+600+180) lakh
= Rs. 1630 lakhs.

E. Alternate with Conventional S.T.P.

Cost of Conventional STP:

Capacity 12.91mld
Cost @Rs.60 lakhs per mld.
Cost of conventional STP = 775 lakh
Total cost of sewerage system with conventional STP
= A + B + C + E = 250 + 600 + 600 + 775 = Rs.2225 lakhs. (2004 rates)
Rs. 2692 lakhs (2006 rates)
Say 27.0 crores

Cost of phase I and II (provision of sewerage system for entire existing population)

A. Main Sewer
(i) Length of main sewer (appx.) 5 km.
(ii) Unit rate Rs. 50 lakh/km.
(iii) Cost of main sewer Rs.250 lakh

B. Branch Sewer & Laterals


(i) Length of branch & lateral sewer (appx.) 20 km.
(ii) Unit rate Rs. 12 lakh/km.
(iii) Cost of branch & lateral sewer Rs.240 lakh

C. Major Sewage Pumping Station (SPS)


(i) Number of SPS 3 Nos.
(ii) Unit rate Rs. 100 lakh/unit
(iii) Cost of SPS Rs.300 lakh

D. Sewage Treatment facility (Based on oxidation pond/ duck weed pond system)
(i) Total volume of waste water to 6.4 mld
be treated
(ii) Unit rate Rs. 15 lakh/mld
(iii) Cost of STP Rs. 96.0 lakhs

Total cost of phase I and II works = 250+240+300+96 = 886 lakhs (say 9.0 crores)
Cost in 2006 (taking escalation at 10%): 10.89 crores (say 11.0 crores with misc costs)

184
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Solid Waste Management

Capital investment to be made towards the purchase of equipment and machinery for municipal
solid waste management of the town are given below:
S.No. Item Unit cost Number of Cost
(Rs. lakhs) Units (Rs. lakh)
1 Wheel barrows 0.03 273 8.19
2 Closed container 0.50 22 11.00
3 Development of Garbage collection points 0.65 22 14.30
4 Dumper placer 9.0 9 81.00
5 Pay loader 16.5 1 16.50
6 Dust suction M/C 15.0 1 15.00
7 T. Excavator 45.0 1 45.00
8 Dumper 4.5 1 4.50
9 Tractor with trailer 5.0 9 45.00
10 Fogging M/C 12.0 1 12.00
Total (1-10) 252.49
11 Setting up of SWM component of waste L.S 500
management park for municipal solid waste
disposal
G. Total (2004 rates) 752.49
G. Total with escalation (10%) (2006 rates) 910.53

Say 9.1 crores

Of these, phase I and II requirements and their cost is indicated below

S.No. Item Unit cost Number of Units Cost


(Rs. lakhs) (Rs. lakh)

1 Wheel barrows 0.03 137 4.11


2 Closed container 0.5 11 5.5

3 Development of Garbage collection points 0.65 11 7.15


4 Dumper placer 9 5 45
5 Pay loader 16.5 1 16.5
6 Dust suction M/C 15 2 30

7 T. Excavator 45 1 45
8 Dumper 4.5 2 9
9 Tractor with trailer 5 6 30
10 Fogging M/C 12 1 12
Total 126.245

Say: Rs 1.26 crores


Cost in 2006 (taking escalation at 10%): Rs. 1.52crores

Setting up of SWM component of waste management park for municipal solid waste disposal
Rs. 350 lakhs L.S (2006 rates)

Total fund requirement for solid waste management for phase I and II: Rs. 5.02 crores
(Say 5 crores)

Storm Water Drainage

185
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

A. Cost of renovation of existing storm water drains:


(i) Length of existing major drainage 9.5 km.
(ii) Unit rate for cleaning and renovation of the existing drain Rs. 1200/m
(iii) Cost of renovation of existing drains Rs.114 lakh

B. Cost of Construction of New Drains


(i) Length of New Drain 100 km.
(ii) Unit rate for construction of drain Rs. 1500 /m.
(iii) Cost of construction of new drains Rs. 1500 lakh

Total Funds Requirement (A+B)(2004 rates) Rs. 1614 lakhs


Total Funds Requirement 2006(10% escalation over 2004 rates) Rs. 1953 lakhs
Say Rs. 19.50 crores

Of these, phase I and II works are as follows:


Renovation of existing drains: Rs. 114 lakhs (say 1.2 crores)
New Drains (50 km) Rs. 760 lakhs (say 7.5 crores)
Total of phase I drainage works Rs. 8.70 crores
Cost in 2006 (taking escalation at 10%): Rs. 10.53 crores
Say 10.60 crores

Rain Water Harvesting

In absence of any detailed information it is difficult to work out the cost of such works.
However, a budgetary provision of Rs.100 lakh is kept on a Lump sum basis for
construction of facilities for rainwater harvesting.
Rs. 100 lakhs

Electric Supply

Following estimate for the electrical system for the town has been made to cater for the population
2031 of the town:

1. Substations including 33 kV/ 11kV transformers and building 2 x 100 lakh = 200.00 lakh
2 Nos.

2 11 kV/433 V transformer & feeder pillars 104 x 3.5 lakh = 364.00 lakh
3 33 kV overhead distribution lines 9 kms. 9000 x 270 = 24.30 lakh
4. 11 kV overhead distribution lines, 20 km. 20,000x250 = 50.00 lakh
5. U/G cables 70.00 lakh
6. Street lighting 100.00 lakh
7. Addition/ alteration to HT 11 KV OH line. 10.00 lakh
Total (2004 rates) 818.3 lakh

Taking escalation at 10% - 2006 rates 990.20 lakhs


Say 10.0 crores

Of these, expenditure in phase I and II (2006 12) is estimated as below)

1. 11 kV/433 V transformer & feeder pillars- 13 nos.(reqd 59 13 x 3.5 lakh = 45.50 lakh
existing 46)
2. 11 kV overhead distribution lines, 5 km. 5000x250 = 12.50 lakh
3. U/G cables 70.00 lakh
4. Street lighting 100.00 lakh
5. Other misc.. 20.00 lakh
6. Total 248.00 lakh
Say 250 lakhs

Say Rs 2.50 crores

186
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Cost in 2006 (taking escalation at 10%): Rs. 3.03 crores

Requirement of physical infrastructure

The phase wise requirements of physical infrastructure is summarized in table below

Year 2007 2012 2017 2022 2027 2031


Total water demand (in mld) 7.65 8.85 10.88 13.05 15.6 18
No. of Tube wells based on 10 12 14 17 20 23
50 cum/hr yield for 16 hrs.
(Including existing 6 nos.)
Storage (OHT) based on 12 4 5 6 7 8 9
hrs. demand (in MLD) (total)
(including existing 3 nos.)
Area of waste management 60.588 70.092 86.13 103.356 123.552 142.56
park in hectare @11 hect.
/mld.
Total Power Demand (MW) 8.16 11.8 14.5 17.4 23.4 30
33 kv substations (2 new) 1 1
No Of Transformers 41 59 73 87 117 150
(200 KW each) (Including
existing 46 nos.)

Total requirement of funds for physical infrastructure

Sl. No. Services Funds required for Total fund requirement for
Phase I and II all phases (Rs. in crores)
(Rs. in crores)
1 Improvement of Water Supply systems 15.00 27.30
2 Improvement of sewage systems 11.00 27.00
3 Solid Waste Management 5.00 9.10
4 Storm water drains 10.60 19.50
5 Electricity 3.03 10.00
6 Rainwater Harvesting 1.00
TOTAL 44.63 93.90

187
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Annexure IV:

Data Tables
Traffic Surveys
(HUDCO Survey- 2003)

Table: Traffic Volume Analysis, Location - Jayprakash Udyan, Direction - University To Mahabodhi
Cycle
Time Car/jeep 2 wh 3 wh Cycle Tonga Rickshaw Tempo Bus Total PCU
8:00-9:00 42 30 21 39 18 18 0 1 200
09:00-10:00 53 33 28 50 29 34 1 0 293
10:00-11:00 70 41 40 48 18 17 1 1 258
11:00-12:00 55 66 28 38 25 19 1 0 267
12:00-13:00 52 90 20 50 23 31 0 3 290
13:00-14:00 40 112 29 57 39 27 2 0 356
14:00-15:00 44 116 34 69 19 35 1 3 311
15:00-16:00 25 100 22 101 48 52 2 0 424
16:00-17:00 46 139 14 83 34 62 1 1 406
Total 427 727 236 535 253 295 9 9 2802.5

Hourly Variation of Traffic on Main Road , *


Tempo
*
Bus/Mini bus
250 0%
0%
200
No in PCU

Cycle Rickshaw
150 12% Car/jeep
100 17%
50 Tonga
0 10%
:0 :00

:0 :00

:0 ;00

:0 ;00

:0 :00

:0 :00

:0 :00

:0 :00

0
:0
09 0-9

10 -10

11 -11

12 -12

01 -01

02 -02

03 -03

04 -04

05
0-
0

0
8:

Cycle 2 wh
Time 22% 30%

Fast Slow Total PCU 3 wh


9%

Table: Traffic Volume Analysis, Location - Jayprakash Udyan Direction - Mahabodhi To University
Cycle
Time Car/jeep 2 wh 3 wh Cycle Tonga Rickshaw Tempo Bus Total PCU
8:00-9:00 20 38 20 18 6 6 6 0 119
09:00-10:00 16 46 18 11 5 4 3 1 101
10:00-11:00 15 37 24 19 5 6 4 3 117
11:00-12:00 17 48 32 21 12 9 2 0 151
12:00-13:00 33 55 20 19 9 9 8 1 167
13:00-14:00 45 24 11 33 9 13 7 2 167
14:00-15:00 57 84 34 22 13 9 2 0 216
15:00-16:00 60 60 39 42 11 8 1 2 215
16:00-17:00 50 50 27 60 6 12 1 1 180
Total 313 442 225 245 76 76 34 10 1431.5

Vehicular Composition on Main Road T r a ffic C o m p o s itio n o n G a y a - D o b h i H ig h w a y

Tempo
2% Bus/Mini bus B us /M inib us c a r/je e p
Cycle Rickshaw
1% 16% 21%
5%
Tonga Car/jeep
5% 22% Tempo
18%

Cycle
17% 2W h

188
2 wh C y c le R ic k s ha w 28%
3 wh 32% 3%
16%
T o ng a
C y c le
2% 3W h
4% 8%
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Table: Traffic Volume Analysis, Location - Dobhi Gaya Highway, Direction - Dobhi To Gaya
Cycle
Time Car/jeep 2 wh 3 wh Cycle Tonga Rickshaw Tempo Bus Total PCU
8:00-9:00 18 14 10 7 2 4 18 13 146
09:00-10:00 12 21 6 5 2 3 11 12 98
10:00-11:00 20 26 7 3 0 1 21 20 166
11:00-12:00 18 43 5 5 4 3 19 8 149
12:00-13:00 19 22 7 4 4 3 18 14 156
13:00-14:00 19 28 3 4 3 3 17 21 169
14:00-15:00 23 27 12 3 2 2 20 20 181
15:00-16:00 25 32 4 3 3 3 10 7 114
16:00-17:00 27 26 10 2 3 4 18 18 177
Total 181 239 64 36 23 26 152 133 1353.5

Traffic Com position on Gaya - Dobhi Highw ay Hourly Variation of traffic on Dobhi Gaya Highway

Bus/ Minibus car / jeep


16% 21%
200
Tempo 150

No in PCU
18% 100
50
2Wh
0
Cycle Rickshaw 28%

0
3%

:0

:0

;0

;0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0
-9

5
-1

-1

-1

-0

-0

-0

-0

-0
00

0
8:

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0
Tonga 09

10

11

12

01

02

03

04
Cycle
3Wh
2%
4% Fast TimeSlow PCU
8%

Table: Traffic Volume Analysis, Location - Dobhi Gaya Highway, Direction - Gaya To Dobhi
Time Car/jeep 2 wh 3 wh Cycle Tonga Cycle Rickshaw Tempo Bus Total PCU
8:00-9:00 24 32 8 5 2 3 1 5 79
09:00-10:00 17 29 1 3 1 1 2 15 115
10:00-11:00 28 34 5 2 1 2 10 17 166
11:00-12:00 33 47 2 1 3 1 12 12 155
12:00-13:00 26 44 5 3 4 2 7 11 131
13:00-14:00 25 52 3 1 1 3 11 10 138
14:00-15:00 27 57 1 1 4 3 15 17 187
15:00-16:00 19 45 4 4 2 1 11 11 136
16:00-17:00 15 38 6 4 2 3 12 13 143
Total 214 378 35 24 20 19 81 111 1248

189
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Tr af f i c Composi ti on on Dobhi - Gaya Hi ghway


Hourly Variation of traffic on Gaya Dobhi Highway

B us/ M i ni bus car / j eep 200


13% 24%
T empo 150

No in PCU
9%
Cycl e Ri ckshaw 100
2%
T onga 50
2%
0
Cycl e
3%
8:00- 09:00- 10:00- 11:00- 12:00- 01:00- 02:00- 03:00- 04:00-
3 wh 2 wh 9:00 10:00 11;00 12;00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00
4% 43%
Time
Fast Slow Total PCU

Table: Traffic Volume Analysis, Location - Rajapura (River Side Road) Direction - Bodh Gaya To
Gaya
Time Car/jeep 2 wh 3 wh Cycle Tonga Cycle Rickshaw Tempo Bus Total PCU
8:00-9:00 5 19 13 14 5 7 2 1 75
09:00-10:00 9 32 16 12 3 7 8 1 100
10:00-11:00 19 72 35 35 12 18 11 0 220
11:00-12:00 16 66 27 21 8 11 11 0 170
12:00-13:00 9 53 31 37 14 16 8 2 200
13:00-14:00 13 64 23 32 11 16 10 2 190
14:00-15:00 13 45 31 19 10 11 16 2 190
15:00-16:00 18 54 38 22 6 12 12 3 185
16:00-17:00 12 46 42 29 7 12 7 1 165
Total 114 451 256 221 76 110 85 12 1495

Hourly Variation Of Traffic Flow on Riverside Road


Traffic composition on River side Road
Direction - Bodh Gaya to Gaya
250
Tempo Bus/MinBus
6% 1% Car/jeep
9%
200 Cycle Rickshaw
8%
No of Vehicles in PCU

150
Tonga
6%
2 wh
100
35%

50 Cycle
17%

0 3 wh
19%
Time 8:00-9:00 09:00- 10:00- 11:00- 12:00- 01:00- 02:00- 03:00-

10:00 11;00 12;00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00


Time
Fast Slow

Table: Traffic Volume Analysis, River Side Road Direction - Gaya To Bodhgaya

Cycle
Time Car/jeep 2 wh 3 wh Cycle Tonga Rickshaw Tempo Bus Total PCU
8:00-9:00 6 40 13 21 10 3 7 1 65
09:00-10:00 12 45 27 44 12 12 9 0 176.5
10:00-11:00 6 63 13 24 7 6 10 1 132.5
11:00-12:00 10 73 3 20 7 6 12 1 135.5
12:00-13:00 5 71 10 36 10 8 8 1 147.5
13:00-14:00 6 45 7 41 8 8 12 5 151
14:00-15:00 19 39 14 61 13 9 14 2 196.5
15:00-16:00 10 38 14 36 13 12 17 0 182
16:00-17:00 4 40 11 31 6 10 4 1 104.5
Total 78 454 112 314 86 74 93 12 1291

190
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

T r a f f i c C o m p o si t i o n o n R i v e r si d e R o a d
+ , - * ' D i r e c t i on Ga y a t o B o d hg a y a
250
Bus/ Mini bus
Tempo 1% car / jeep
200 8% 6%

Cycle Rickshaw
150 6%

Tonga
100
7%
2 wh
50 37%

8: 00-9: 00 09: 00- 10: 00- 11: 00- 12: 00- 01: 00- 02: 00- 03: 00- 04: 00- Cycle
10: 00 11; 00 12; 00 01: 00 02: 00 03: 00 04: 00 05: 00 26%
3 wh
Time 9%

Fast Slow Total PCU

Parking Analysis at Mahabodhi temple

Table: Hourly Parking Accumulation At Mahabodhi Temple


Time/Mode 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00
2wh 10 18 15 8 25 21 22 19 30
3wh 3 3 4 4 8 8 8 9 16
Car 6 5 6 6 5 9 13 9 10
Buses 1 1 0 2 5 3 0 2 1
Cycle 27 30 47 44 42 51 52 49 70
Cycle Rick 12 18 12 15 23 25 15 21 33
Tonga 3 5 7 5 15 11 12 9 17
Total 62 80 91 84 123 128 122 118 177
Total ECS 52 70 70 70 131 121 104 105 163
Note - Peak hour accumulation is observed at 1700 Hrs for Two Wheelers, Three Wheelers, Cycle
rickshaws and tongas Peak hour accumulation is observed at 1500 Hrs for cars

Table -Mode Wise Parking Demand At Mahabodhi (Ecs)


Fast Slow
Private Public Private Public
2Wh Car Bus Auto Cycle Cycle rick Tonga
Peak Demand 30 13 5 16 70 33 17
Off peak Demand 8 5 1 3 27 12 3
Average 19 8 2 7 46 20 10

Hourly Variation of Parking Accumulation (ECS)


80
Mode wise Hourly Variation of Parked accumulation
180
70
160
60
No of Vehicles

140
50
120
40
100
ECS

30
80
20
60
`` 10
40
0
20
0 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00
Time
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 2wh 3wh Car Buses
Total ECS Fast ECS
Time
Slow ECS Cycle Cycle Rick Tonga

ORIGIN DESTINATION SURVEY

Table: Desire Pattern (Percent) Of Passenger Vehicles Location-1: Rajapura (Riverside Road)

191
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Origin/ Destination Gaya Bodh Gaya


Bodhgaya 93 0
Gaya 0 74
Rest of Bihar 4 22
Total (within BIHAR) 97 96
Kolkata 3 0
Delhi 0 2
Mumbai 0 2
Total 100 100

Table: Desire Pattern (Percent) Of Passengers Location-1: Rajapura (Riverside Road)


Origin/ Destination Gaya Bodh Gaya
Bodhgaya 84 0
Gaya 0 66
Rest of Bihar 2 23
Total (within BIHAR) 86 89
Kolkata 14 0
Delhi 0 1
Mumbai 0 10
Total 100 100

Table: Desire Pattern (Percent) Of Passenger Vehicles Location-2: Magadh Vishwa Vidyalaya (Main
Road)
Origin/ Destination Bodh Gaya
Gaya 77
Magadh University 12
Rest of Bihar 6
Total (within Bihar) 95
Jharkhand 3
Orissa 0.5
Aurangabad 1
Varanasi 0.5
Total 100

Table: Desire Pattern (Percent) Of Passengers Location-2: Magadh Vishwa Vidyalaya (Main Road)
Origin/ Destination Bodh Gaya
Gaya 59
Magadh University 12
Rest of Bihar 9
Total (within Bihar) 80
Jharkhand 15
Orissa 3
Aurangabad 1
Varanasi 1
Total 100

Table: Desire Pattern (Percent) Of Passenger Vehicles Location-2: Magadh Vishwa Vidyalaya (Main
Road)
Magadh Rest of Total (within
Origin/ Destination Gaya University Bihar Bihar) Aurangabad Delhi Varanasi Total
Bodh Gaya 70 11 9 90 6 1 3 100
Desire Pattern (Percent) of Passengers

192
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Magadh Rest of Total (within


Origin/ Destination Gaya University Bihar Bihar) Aurangabad Delhi Varanasi Total
Bodh Gaya 50 6 10 66 13 4 17 100

Table: Desire Pattern (Percent) Of Goods Vehicles Location-2: Magadh Vishwa Vidyalaya (Main
Road)
Origin/ Destination Bodh Gaya
Gaya 76
Magadh University 4.5
Rest of Bihar 17.5
Total (within Bihar) 98
Varanasi 2
Total 100

Table: Desire Pattern (Percent) Of Goods Vehicles Location-2: Magadh Vishwa Vidyalaya (Main
Road)
Origin/ Destination Gaya Magadh University Rest of Bihar Total (Within Bihar) Aurangabad Total
Bodh Gaya 68 9 10 87 11 98
Rest of Bihar 1 0 0 1 0 1
Orissa 1 0 0 1 0 1
Total 70 9 10 89 11 100

Trip purpose of Freight Vehicles


12% Trip Purpose of Passenger
3% Vehicles

Shoppin Work
50% g
Delivery Tourist
43%
38% 54% Shopping
Busines
s

Projections

Population Projections
(Taken from the Heritage led perspective plan of Bodhgaya, Vision 2031)

The decadal population growth for Bodhgaya has been worked out using the following three
methods, the decennial growth method, the curve fitting method and the geometric progression
method.
Decennial growth method: It is assumed that trend of growth set forth by the town during the last
two to three decades will influence the future trend of growth. In this method mean decennial rate
of growth of the last two decades has been taken to project the population in 2030.
Curve fitting method: In this method the population time series graph has been drawn on past
census data and the population in 2030 has been predicted assuming that the growth will follow
the exponential curve presently displayed.
Geometric progression method: In this method the average annual growth rate of the last decade
is taken as a basis for projecting the population in 2030.

Table: Phase wise Projected Population


Method I Method II Method III
Annual Floating
(Decennial Curve fitting average Residen population @
growth method growth rates Average ts 30% of
rate)(Arithmeti (exponential (geometric of all three populat resident Total
c projection) growth rate) projection) methods ion population Population

193
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

40% decadal 3.8 % annual


(av. of last Av. 3% (last decade'
s
two decades) annual average) Say Say
Base
Year
2001 32000*
2005 37120 33000 37100 35740 36000 10800 46540 46500
2007 40090 38000 40000 39363 39000 11700 51063 51000
2012 48108 40000 48100 45403 45000 13500 58903 59000
2017 57729 52000 57500 55743 56000 16800 72543 72500
2022 69275 63000 68500 66925 67000 20100 87025 87000
2027 83130 76000 81800 80310 80000 24000 104310 104000
2031 96431 86000 94250 92227 92000 27600 119827 120000
(*32000 base population include assumed 1000 residents of Bakraur)

Table: Projected Requirement Of Bed Accommodation


(Taken from the Heritage led perspective plan of Bodhgaya, Vision 2031)

Tourist Accommodation

Out of the total number of tourists visiting Bodhgaya, 80% of the domestic tourists spend a night at
Bodhgaya while nearly 100% of the foreign tourists halt at Bodhgaya. The number of tourists halting
at Bodhgaya has been taken as a basis for working out the requirement of beds. The number of
beds required in the town has been calculated by two methods. In the first method, the national
average has been taken as a basis for working out the requirement of beds. At the national level,
the average number of beds per 1000 tourists is 18.4%*. If Bodhgaya were to be at par with the
national average, then by 2011 the number of beds required would be 6323 beds, 10207 by the
year 2021 and 17634 by the year 2031. (* Source: The perspective Tourism Plan for the State of Bihar
2001-2021)

In the second method, the requirement of beds have been worked out by multiplying the
internationally accepted R factor with the number of tourists halting at Bodhgaya

R FACTOR 0.004566
R FACTOR EQUALS 1/ NO. OF DAYS OF YEAR X S X 100/C
R FACTOR - HOTEL BED REQUIREMENT COEFFICIENT
C - IDEAL ANNUAL OCCUPANCY = 75
S = AVERAGE DURATION OF STAY= 2 DAYS

The average of the two values calculated by the above two methods have been adopted for
working out the requirement of beds under hotels and dharamshalas. The additional number of
beds required by 2031 is given below.

OPTION II
OPTION I BASED ON R
RATE 18.2 FACTOR (R REQUIREMT OF
TOTAL BEDS/ 1000 factor x AVERAGE ADDITIONAL BEDS
HALTING HALTING projected halted OF BOTH (EXISTING 1700
YEAR DOMESTIC FOREIGN TOTALS TOURISTS * TOURISTS tourists) METHODS BEDS)**
2001 1.75 0.3
2005 2.21 0.36 2.57 1.393 2535 1003 1769 NIL
2007 2.48 0.43 2.91 1.584 2883 1140 2012 234
2012 3.32 0.6 3.92 2.14 3895 1541 2718 763
2017 4.44 0.8 5.24 2.86 5205 2059 3632 1449
2022 5.95 1.12 7.07 3.871 7045 2787 4916 2412
2027 7.96 1.72 9.68 5.356 9748 3856 6802 3827

194
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

2031 10.05 2.43 12.48 6.969 12684 5018 8851 5363


* Assuming that 50% of domestic tourists and 80% of foreign tourists will stay at Bodhgaya
** Assuming 75% of halting tourists will stay in formal hotel accommodation (rest in camping sites,
monasteries)

A broad estimate of requirement of rooms and hotels under various categories of hotels is listed
below:

Table: Projected Room Requirements

DISTRIBUTION OF ROOMS BY CATEGORIES*

CAMPING SITES/ INFORMAL 1 STAR/


ADDITION ACCOMODATION/ AT GAYA DHARAMSHALAS 2 STAR/ 3 STAR 5 STAR
AL BEDS BEDS ROOMS BEDS ROOMS BEDS ROOMS BEDS ROOMS
YEAR REQD. 50% 20% 20% 10%
2007 234 117 69 47 28 47 28 23 14
2012 763 382 225 153 90 153 90 76 45
2017 1449 725 426 290 170 290 170 145 85
2022 2412 1206 709 482 284 482 284 241 142
2027 3827 1913 1125 765 450 765 450 383 225
2031 5363 2681 1577 1073 631 1073 631 536 315
Rooms calculated assuming double occupancy at 70% as at present

Table: Recommended Standards For Provision Of Amenities And Facilities


(Taken from the Heritage led perspective plan of Bodhgaya, Vision 2031)

Facilities Proposed standards for Bodhgaya Masterplan 2001 - 31


Sector level facilities
Socio-cultural facilities
Milk Booth 1 for 5000 ( 150sqm)
Religious building 1 for 5000 (400 Sqm)
Recreational facilities
Parks 1 for 5000 ( 5000 sqm.)
Playground 1 for 5000 ( 5000 sqm.)
Transportation facilities
Taxi/Rickshaw/Auto stand Within 500m and should not be near road intersections
Education facilities Education facilities
Nursery School 1 for 3750 (0.25 acres)
Primary School 1 for 3750 ( 1.75 Acres)
Shopping Shopping
Convinience shopping 1 shop for 250 persons (per shop 20 sqm.)
Community level
Socio cultural facilities
Community Hall and Library 1 for 15000 (0.75 acres)
Post Office 1 for 15000
Cinema 1 for 25000 ( 0.50 acres)
Electric Substation (11 KV) 2 for15000 ( 460 sqm)
Recreational facilities
Local Parks 1 for 15000 ( 1.5 hect)
Play ground 1 for 15000 ( 1.5 hect)
Transportation facilities
Education facilities
Senior Secondary School 1 for 15000 (4.0 Acres)

195
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Health Facilities
Primary Health Centre 1 for 15000 ( 1.50 acres)
Shopping
Local Shopping including service centre) 25 shops for 10000 persons (area =1.75 acres)
Planning Districts level Facilities
Socio cultural facilities
Police Post 1 for 50,000 ( 0.16hect)
LPG Godown 1 for 50,000 ( 520 sqm.)
Recreational facilities
Park 1 community level park
Transportation facilities
Petrol Pump 1 for 50,000 ( 1670 sqm)
Electric Substation (66 KV) 1 for 50,000 (10,800 sqm.)
Education facilities
School for Handicapped 1 for 100,000 (0.50 hect)
College 1 for 50000 ( 8.0 acres)
Health Facilities
Nursing Home/ Child Welfare and Maternity Centre 1 for 50,000 (2000sqm)
Intermediate Hospital (100-200 beds) 2 for 100,000 (1.0-3.7 hect)
Shopping 1 shop for 200 persons (500 sqm. Per 1000 persons)
Town Level Facilities
Recreation Club 1for100,000 ( 1.00 hect)
Meditation Centre 1for100,000 ( 0.5 hect)
Police Station 1 for 100000 ( 1.15 hect)
Fire station 1 for 100000 ( within 1- 3 kms distance)
Cremation/Burial ground 2 sites for100,000
Telphone Exchange 1 for 100,000
Recreational facilities
Park 1 for 100000 ( 4.00 hect)
Sports complex 1 for 100000 ( 8 .00 hect)
Nature Park 1 for 100000
Maidan 1 for 100000
Transportation facilities
Petrol Pump with service facilities 1 for 100000 ( 1670Sqm)
Bus Terminal 1 for 100,000
Education facilities
Integrated School with Hostel 1 for 100000 ( 39000 sqm)
Technical Center 1 for 100,000 (4.0 hect.)
Health Facilities
Intermediate Hospital (100-200 beds) 2 for 100,000 (1.0-3.7 hect)
Commercial Commercial
Community centre with service centre 1 shop for 300 persons (880 sqm. per 1000 persons)
Organized informal sector eating places 1 for 100,000 (2000 sqm)

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Annexure V

Primary Survey of Bodhgaya


In order to establish a clear picture of the town and its people, a sample survey of the town was
carried out by HUDCO with the support of the local administration. The preparation of the
development plan has been a long drawn out process involving background studies, data
collection, surveys and interaction with the stakeholders. In addition to collection of information
from the town administrative machinery and the line departments, some specific primary surveys
were also conducted.

Socio economic surveys within Bodhgaya town


Transport surveys (Volume of traffic and origin/destination)

The surveys were preluded with extensive discussions with the councilors/peoples representatives,
various interest groups/stakeholders, religious heads and representatives of various monasteries.
The following primary socio economic surveys were held to develop a complete understanding of
the socio economic structure of the town

Household survey
Survey of commercial establishments
Survey of Monasteries
Survey of hotels
Survey of informal sector establishments

Approach

In order to ensure that the process of the survey was participatory, the socioeconomic surveys were
carried out under the supervision of the councilors after a two-day orientation programme. In this
programme the surveyors in presence of the Ward councilors were informed about the need for
carrying out the survey and how it would help the planners to formulate strategies for management
of the Mahabodhi Temple Complex.

A series of meetings were also held with Merchant Associations/ Pavement Shop owners, Taxi
Associations/Transporters. These meetings provided a common platform for various interest groups
to express their concerns and apprehensions in presence of the district authorities. Through these
meetings the people were informed of the need of the survey and the approach being adopted.
There were also two rounds of discussions with the thirty-five monasteries existing within the town.
The meetings provided an overview of their concerns and their expectations from the Plan

A series of meetings with district administration helped in organising the survey teams. A separate
meeting was then held with the teams to orient them for the survey.

Sample size

Due to paucity of time and resources, it was not possible to conduct a 100% survey of the
households. It was therefore decided to conduct a random sample survey ensuring a
representative sample. The ward councilors took upon themselves to ensure that all income, caste
and religious groups were covered in the sample. The sample size of the household survey varied
between 5-10 % of the household, depending on the diversity and density of population in each
ward. Apart from the town, a separate survey was carried out for the Bakraur area, where 100
households were surveyed. The sample size for the commercial survey was more tentative as
authentic figures were not available regarding the number of commercial establishments in the
town. With the help of local representatives, it was decided to have a 50% sample survey of the
commercial establishments in each ward. In the wards with very few commercial establishments,
the sample size was 100%. 100% survey was also conducted for the hotels, the monasteries, and the
informal sector establishments in the town.

Household survey

The percent sample adopted for the household survey is given below:

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CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

Ward no. Total population Total house holds Total samples Percent sample

1 1977 395 40 10%


2 1330 266 22 8%
3 2,677 535 55 10%
4 2381 476 49 10%
5 2509 502 56 11%
6 1112 222 35 16%
7 1790 358 37 10%
8 2109 422 36 9%
9 2385 477 61 13%
10 2990 598 61 10%
11 3621 724 70 10%
12 3038 608 58 10%
13 1583 317 41 13%

14 1381 276 53 19%


TOTAL 30883 6177 674 11%

The following indicators emerged from the survey

A. Socio economic characteristics of the Sample.

1. HOUSEHOLD SIZE
Family Structure
The household size in Bodhgaya
is on the higher side with 5.71
persons per household.

2. FAMILY STRUCTURE

There are a large number of joint Joint Nuclear


50.39% 49.61%
families in Bodhgaya. But the
town is in transition with a
number of nuclear families too.

3. RELIGIOUS DISTRIBUTION OF
SAMPLE

Majority of the households


surveyed belonged to Hindu religion. Buddhists were the largest minority in the sample, with over 8%
of the sample being followers of this faith

Hindu Buddhist Muslim Others

86.71% 8.04% 5.10% 0.15%

4. RELATION TO THE MAHABODHI TEMPLE

The Mahabodhi temple is however the focal point for all religions with over 92% of the sample
saying that they visit the Temple regularly, the frequency of the visit being once a week on
average.

75.18% of the sample likes to visit the temple for religious reasons, and 23.23% for the other reasons
such as peaceful environment. Only 1.6% visit the temple for commercial purposes such as hawking
etc. This shows that veneration for the Temple cuts across the religious lines among the people of
Bodhgaya.

198
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

5. LITERACY
DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE BY EDUCATION
4.15%
The literacy rate of the 6.51%
sample is quite low, i.e.. 57%.
Of these about 50% of the
respondents had school
40.44%
level education. A very low
24.62%
percent (nearly 7%) of the
sample had college
education.

6. EMPLOYMENT TRENDS
24.29%
Employment rate of the
sample is quite high with uneducated educated upto class 5 educated upto class 12 college educated infants

37.24% of the sample being


employed. However, the
OCCUPATION PATTERN OF THE SAMPLE
employment is mostly in
primary sector occupations
with over 50% of the sample 60.00%
being employed in 53.85%

agriculture related 50.00%


occupations. This underlines
two things, firstly the 40.00%
essentially rural nature of the
percent

30.00%
town, secondly, the lack of
job opportunities in other 18.42%
20.00%
sectors as it is well accepted 12.75%
10.53%
that agriculture labour is 10.00%
4.45%
probably the lowest paid
job. Yet the benefits of 0.00%
development are yet to be service business agriculturist labourer others

passed down to the general occupation categories

population.

7. INCOME LEVELS

The above premise is


INCOME LEVELS OF THE SAMPLE
substantiated by the
income levels of the 60.00%
respondents where almost 49.92%
half of the respondents 50.00%
percent of respondents

reported earning less than


40.00%
1000 Rs. per month. The
30.33%
average income per 30.00%
month is around Rs. 2000
for the sample. Since the 20.00%
12.60%
respondents were directly
10.00%
asked their income, one 3.73% 3.42%
has to accept the 0.00%
possibility of <1000 1000 -2500 2500 - 5000 5000 - 10000 >10000

underreporting. However, Monthy income (Rs.)

as the survey teams


included local people and there was a high degree of cooperation, it is felt that this possibility is
slight and the results are more or less accurate. The data emphasizes the poverty in the area with
over 80% of the sample having income levels less than Rs. 2500 per month.

199
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

MIGRANTS AND ORIGINAL RESIDENTS


8. MIGRATION LEVELS 100.00%

90.00% 85.91%
85% of the
80.00%
respondents had

percent of respondents
been living at the 70.00%

place since birth and 60.00%


only 15% were 50.00%
migrants. Most of 40.00%
these migrants came
30.00%
to Bodhgaya for jobs.
This could be an 20.00%
10.41%
indicator to the 10.00%
2.45%
0.00% 0.46% 0.77%
relatively greater level 0.00%
of poverty in the <1 year 1-5 years 5-10 years 10-15 years >15 years since birth
surrounding region. years of residence in bodhgaya

9. AVAILABILITY OF SERVICES

The access to AVAILABILITY OF PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE


essential services is
70.00%
very poor in the town 60.98%
respondents with access to service

with only 35% of 60.00%

residents having 50.00%


access to a regular 38.87%
40.00%
water supply, 40% 34.42%
28.93%
having drainage, only 30.00%

29% having access to 20.00%


19.88%

lavatory facilities, and


10.00%
only 20% reporting
regular garbage 0.00%

collection. The access availability of


water supply
availability of
waste water
availabiity of
lavatory
availability of
garbage
availabiilty of
electricity
to electricity is drain collection

relatively better with


nearly 61% of the sample having electricity.

SOURCE OF WATER
SUPPLY SOURCE OF WATER SUPPLY

According to the survey,


Hand pumps and tube 19.88% 17.21%
wells are the most
common source of water 13.20%
supply with over 57% of
the residents using hand
pumps as their main
source of water supply.
Only 17% had individual
connections to the piped 57.57%

water supply, and about


20% has access to Piped Water Supply River/ Well Handpump/TW CommunityTap
community taps. 13% still
used wells.

200
CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF BODHGAYA UNDER THE JNNURM

TYPE OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL TYPE OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM


SYSTEM

The current system of sewage


disposal is through septic 36.47%
tanks. Nearly half of the
households with access to
49.41%
sewage systems have
individual septic tanks. Approx.
14% of the respondents had
group septic tanks with sewer individual septic tank

lines and approx. 36% have group septic tank with sewer line
group septic tanks without 14.12%
sewer lines. group septic tank without sewer line

SYSTEM OF GARBAGE COLLECTION


GARBAGE DISPOSAL
100.00%
90.70%
According to the respondents, 90.00%

the garbage collection system 80.00%

is very poor and majority of the 70.00%

households surveyed had no 60.00%

proper system of garbage 50.00%

collection. Most of the 40.00%

residents throw the garbage 30.00%

on the road sides and only 20.00%


9.30%
10% report any dependence 10.00%

on the municipal collection 0.00%


thrown on road side/ open areas collection by municipality
system.

HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS

AGE OF STRUCTURES Most of the structures are


20% relatively new with over
18% 19%
18% 80% of the structures
16% constructed during the
14% 12%
11% past thirty years. Average
percent

12%
10% 9% age of structure is 25 years.
7%
8% 6% 7%
6% This shows the fast paced
6%
4% 3% growth that has overtaken
2%
2% 0%
Bodhgaya.
0%
0-5 6-10 11-15 16-20 21-25 26-30 31-35 The outlying wards have
36-40 > 40 40-45 45-50 > 50
years older structures whereas
the central wards have
relatively newer structures. This shows that transformations are taking place rapidly in the central
areas of Bodhgaya.

AVERAGE AGE OF STRUCTURES IN BODHGAYA

50.00
46.00
45.00 43.00

40.00
35.50
35.00
29.00
30.00
26.00
percent

25.00
25.00 23.00