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Introduction to International Relations Ozgur Usenmez ozgurusenmez@hotmail.


( We are responsible for first 12 chapters of Globalization of World Politics )

Globalization >>> Examples : 9 Sept 2011 Terrorist Attack in New York and Washington

Why this is important : This event especially taking place in one country that is actually one of the
biggest capitalist country in the world. It was locally but t did not only affect to only one country.

It observed throughout the world. People could easily follow and watch this event through TV and
Social Links. BecauseEvent was occured by International Terrorist Groupthat is Al Qaeda. Because
of this it is considered as Global Event. Furthermore, Tech was used in this attack. They use
intercontinental flights so some airplanes,flights that are based on international companies.

On the other hand , There were mixed reactions. Examples:There is no one reaction because of this
event. There are some different reactions East asia , Middle east so on. American Imperialism started
to attack Islamist Groups after this event. They used different technics that are intelligent. Arabs and
Muslims were oppressed by USA ( Travel Bans << Example )

Important Economic Effect >> World Trade Center was very important center for Wall Street and
International Trade Market. Al Qaeda targeted directly New York and this place. American finance
market collapsed. It was actually national but as a result it started to be global because of their
economic links to World System.

Nationalities that were killed into attacks. ( After this event )

In the contemporary world, Globalization can be explained by this example. So, Suppose that there is
an event in the Usa. Maybe t can be considered as loca levent but actually it affects to the whole

Reasons of Attackers >> Us Foreign Policy in the Global Context ,Their International Capitalist
System , US Imperialist Policy in the Middle East.
Chapter I
Globalization ( Simply ) >> Widening , deepening and speeding up of world wide interconnectedness.
( Not only geoghraphically )

There are some different views about definition of Globalization.

1. Globalist View
2. Sceptic View

Globalist View

They mention that demise of nation state. Private organizations and civil society uprised after this

Sceptic View ( Realists )

They argue that Nation States actually still retain most of their power and they created it
globalization. Globalization are not independent from National States according to them.

Some people are located btw them.They argue that there is a transformation going on. Some
historical and societical changes occured and they mention that there is a transformation era from
National State to Global State. They dont think that national state lost their power as completely. You
can not say National States are completely powerless according to them.


Streching of social,political and economic activities across political territories. ( Geograpy )

They have affect spread and strech in these territories. Especially nternational economic
activities. Ex > Internet Marketing > You can buy anything from these markets. Amazon ,
Alibaba etc. Everyone can buy something from the another countries. Ex From china to Us.

Electronical financial trading across money markets. Barriers were destroyed.

Intensification of Interconnectedness> Ex > We use social media accounts and web sites
that we can actually connect a lot of people that are located in different part of the world.
Easy spread of epidemics across the world. Ex >> Sars Virus because of this Intensification of
Accelerating pace of global transactions, rapidity and velocity of moving around the world. >
Electronic trading 7/24 around the world. National states could not control these
transactions and limitless system .
Global and Local events have local and global consequencess ( like 9 Sept 2001 Event Global
collapse of International Financial market with collapsing of Wall Street ) Time Space
compression in human relationships.
What is this ? Time > Period Space > Geography
Tech of Communication and Transportation. You can go to the different part of the world
from your own local country by well developed travelling vehicles ( Supersonic Vehicles ,
Airplanes etc ) ( qualitative break from previous period )

State Power and Globalization

Economic Military , Legal , Ecological , Cultural , Social power relationships.

How state power evolved throughout history.
Three Waves ;
1. 1450-1850 ( Time of European Expansion ) This started with this date because of
discovering of new continent. After this date, Europeans became dominant Powers
of the World. Before 16th century Eastern Civilizations were dominant power of the
2. 1850-1945 >> Advancement of European Empires >> This started with this date
because of industrialization process started after this date and British and the other
western countries started to be dominant power of the world.
3. 1945-Post second WWII to present day increasing transborder activites > Post Cold
War period started. Territories were separated btw Capitalists and the Others after
this era.

What defines State Power >> 1648 Westphalian Constitution

Even today our system is covered by this constituion about State Power.

Principles of This

Territoriality Fixed borders of a state ( Territorial Integrity )

Sovereignity Exclusive political and legal authority of state administrations.( In the state borders
right to rule )

Autonomy > Seperate and independent state. Independent of governance outside influence.

In global age since 1970s >

Post-Territoriality ( Some activities surpassed borders ) In today Territoriality is not important

because of Globalization Internet accounts , International Companies etc.

Post Sovereignity > States are not completely independent of outside influence. Ex > Un security
council decree. In the some situations about human rights or civil life( Crimes against humanity ,
gender races , racism ) Un can intervene national states by acrossing this national sovereignity.

Post Autonomy >> Ex > State can not refuse international agreements. Ex > European court of
human right rules.

Government and concept of governance: This brings some kind of limitations. ( Private actors can
administer some sectors or subjects across themselves outside the influence of states). Especially in
this capitalist system . We can see many different private organizations that have big power rather
than State. (Credit Rating Agencies >> Sometimes these agencies can be more powerful than states.
State were not relegated to obscrutiy. States still have some power over global issues. (
Visas,passports >> These provides some power to state especially in human relations )

Can a global democracy possible- on the basis of global citizenship ( a cosmopolitan ideal ) Some
people argue that End of nations or state Powers against globalism. One state one citizenship . (
Liberals , Communists , Constructivist except for Realists )

CHAPTER 2 International Society

International society is any association of distinct political communities which accept some common
values, rules and institutions.

Ancient Worlds : Empires, Kingdoms, Feudal lordships, Religious communities how these political
entities interact with each other.

Ancient Greek : Trade rules, Rules of wars , how to treat foreigners.

Religious norms ( Judaism, Christianity )

Christian Church ( Catholich Church ) >> Christian values under guidance of papacy ( catholic
inquisiton )
In the Middle East - Muslims and Islamic concepts.
>> Sharia law became norm and instituion.

Modern International Society >> Emergence national territories ( With Westphalia Treaty ) that
define geographically the nation state.

>> Equally of sovereign states ;

Negotiate diplomats
Idea of diplomatic immunity Ex : Kuzey Kbrs ( Ekonomik = Sovereign Diplomatic = Not
Sovereign )

>> Non-Intervention by outsiders to domestic affairs

>> Consensual binding of international laws ( Birok devletin insan haklar Avrupa beyannamesini
imzalamas ama uygulamadaki durular ? )

>> In 19th century Europe by Powers balance of power

>> 16th century onwards Monarchies, parliaments became more powerful component to Church.

>> Protestan reformation Formation of Anglican Church ;

Struggle for power accompained the formation of international law.

*** Westphalia ( 1648 ), Uthrecht ( 1713 ) consolidated the sovereignty and rules autonomy in nation

Sovereignty, territoriality, autonomy ** ( Struggle among European Powers )

1789 French Revolution, American institution created new principles in international society;

Popular sovereignty of public right of citizens.

Idea of national self determination , idea of nationalism
Increasing colonialism and imperialist struggles among Western Powers, Us, Russia etc.
During the late 19th century.

1st World War >> They created need for collective security in international relations. ( League of
Nations *** failed ***

Post after 1945 UN established. The dispropartionate(Orantsz) power of UN security council.

There are 5 big countries that have veto powers. ( Unequal Distribution of Power )

Until the end of Cold War >> UN did not work effectively.

1991 US became sole super power, globalization , global relationships stareted to become norms.

Disintegration(dalma) of traditional relationships btw government and citizen.

Civil society started to rise with Non Governmental Organizations ( NGOs )

Humanitarian intervention concept started to be considered as important. Ex : Iraq War

This concept failed in some states. Ex : sub-Saharan,Africa

Not: It cannot even control national economy, security, ethnic, traditional conflicts. ;

>> relations big powers = UGANDA

Unilatetaralism(Tek tarafllk,Sole Power,Single Power ) of USA situation occured in international


Growing spread of Western Culture and ideas reactions to these under globalisation.


1st WW is significant issue of 20th century. Imperialist competition and colonizing different parts of
the world after 1870. Clash of interests, big powers ( Britain , France , Germany , Russia , US, Japan )
significant, they competed for for world wide domination. Before WWI >> There was British
hegemony. Because of significant differences especially ( France and Germany ), BR-FR-RU interest
allied ( before 1914 ).

>> History of IR changed after all of these. They were late for colonization ( The other part of the
WAR ) Germany wanted to change power relationship. This was main reason of WWI.

What is difference in WWI?

It was modern total war that encompassesed civilians infrastructure. Why total war?
(19th,18th most war in continental Europe this was why , it was total war ) Napoleon changed it.
He fought with RU+BR.

With Inventing of air power, civilians immuned to this fighting WWI. Different style of war occured
based on patriotism, idea of nationalism ( national interest )

Trench wars ( Siper Savalar ) ( 1st WW created it ) : In the beginning of the WWI, fighting launch
batter field.

Advance of machine guns, tanks , planes , large number of civilian casualities occured.

Results of war : After 1917 Russian Tsarism ( autocracy , monarchy ) was overthrown. October Rev (
Socialist ) occured in Russia. Creation of 1st workers state ideologically. Socialism became an
important rival against and for capitalism.

Other empires like Habsburg and Ottoman Empire lost their power ( Autocratic and feudal structures
) and were destroyed by new constitutions.

Habsburg + Ottoman lost most of their territories after the war.

Russians also lost territories in 1918 with Brest Li Tovks ( Aristocratic and autocratic administration
lost their powers.

Germany declared Weimar Republic in PPC ( Paris Peace Conference ) In versaille, German
accepted ( after 1918 ) values that more republican.

US Wilsons 14 Points : open diplomacy against colonial expansion idea of self determination
occured ( national ideas ) ( This caused nationalist movements around the whole world )

During negotations, they did not work out weil versaille did not accept these ideas. Most of
rivaliries did not vant to step back. After 1918 in Asia, Latin America, Africa a lot of colonized
countries. Even in PPC ( Paris Peace Conference ) national self determination argued.

Vietnamese nationalist argued to leave from China in PPC.

Arab countries in ( under ottoman authority )

BR+FR promised Arabs ( for national liberties ) ( 1916-17 )

>> 1916 secret meeting occured among RU-BR-FR ( for Middle East regions among them ( distribution
of that lands ) (Rusya ifa etti sava sonras ar ynetimi ortadan kaldrlnca )

Versailles agreement established German war guilt after 1918. Fr affords to demilitarized Germany
and control of GE industrial zones ( Rhine Land )

Fr wanted to make demilitarized GE, GE must be weak so FR wanted to invade industrial area of GE
All big powers wanted to reperations from GE. FR-BR-US could not agree on German payment war
debt. ( 3nun de kar farkl )

US saught ways to increased German domestic markets for US exports market. Clash of interest
BR >> Compete balance of power FR >> daha dominant bir konuma geldi Avrupada >> Almanya
hakknda farkl dncelere sahipti.

Economic depression of 1929, consequences of it increased social and political tensions(Like

Nationalism occured again ). A lot of countries GE ( rise of nationalism ) Germany saw versaille
agreement french pressure occured. Nazi power increased in Germany ( significant result of
nationalists )

Communists, trade unionists, homos, jews were accepted as fascist , weakness of GE. (Cause of
problem is existing of these groups )

Racism, fascism became powerful ideologies with advent of Hitler+Mussolini

Racism + Fascism were very popular in 1920s. Economic depression + unemployment ( bunun
sebeplerinden biri )

Solutions of Hitler + Mussolini, , if they get rid of these weakened populations they would solve
these problems.

Holocaust, WWI ( after 1939 ), solution to Jewish question ethnic genocide

It was fought in territory of USSR after 1941 almost US million people were killed in WWII FR-BR-US
won WWII. FR-BR-US won WWII, in order to prevent large scale war, they created Un in 1944.

New kind of IR, international politics but after 1945 USSR- US started their ideological cold war.

1945-53 cold war history, how evolved it?

In different periods. *** 1948 Berlin crisis emergence of NATO and Warsaw Pact, established by
US+Western forces. NATO>> USSR etkisiz klmak iin.

Western and Eastern Europe divided into 2 spheres >> US-USSR ; Corean War , Chinese Rev. After

Influence of communism enlarged. Consequence of Chinese Revolution ( We have to look at this for
Exam or anything )

After 1953-69 >> Suez Crisis, nationalization of Suez canal by Cemal Abdul Nasser 1956.

Egyptian approachment of USSR increase attention to Mid-East.

Ussr intervention of 1956, Hungary. Hungarian government alternative understanding of socialism.

USSR did not permit to Hungry.

First intervention ( Red Army )

Other important events : Stalins death and Kruschev replaced Stalin in USSR.

Profiletarion of Nuclear weapons ( Hirosima + Nagazakiden sonra )

1962 cuban missile crisis. Leaders of Cubans with ally USSR against US. After 1962, us created
attention. US blockade Cuban Island. Us did not permit US company trade with CUBA. ***

US+USSR did not fight in 1962 because of it. They signed mutual agreement

1969-1979 : Middle East saw two wars btw Israel + Arabs ( 1967 73 ) leadership of Egypt

OPEC oil crisis ( 1973 ) after triggered rise of price of oil.

Egypt approached western governments and Israel ( 1973-1979 )

Left wing governments in US+Military coups

Chile, Argentina, Nicaragua ( in Latin America, with US support Latin American government was
abolished for preventing Cuba Support )

Iranian Revolution in 1979 ( Politics of Middle East changed ) opposition of power in Middle East

Vietnam war defeat of US in Vietnam 1975

1979 Soviet Intervention in Afghanistan. It became pretariat War Sov-Islamists(Supported by US )


4th phase of Cold War (1979-86) Regan administration and star wars Project (Antribalistic missile
defense system ) it increased proliferation of Nuclear weapons.

Soviet Economy in decline and try to agreement with NATO and US Gorbachevs policies of political
and economic liberalization.

1980s Soviet Economy decreased.

1989 Eastern European regimes dissolved, fall of Berlin Wall ( 1991 ), USSR was dissolved.


New world order after 1990, globalization became a catchword(slogan) after 1991(collapsing of
USSR and ending of cold war ). American supremacy occured in IR. Russia,China geographically got
inter influence of western capitalism.

Liberal free market capitalism became only alternative economic order.

Capital wanted to surpass ( overcome,pass ) borders and trade regulations in order to ease ( make
easier , rahatlatmak ) production and marketing transactions.

Cheaper production cost , commodities can be produced. Why producing cheaper socially beneficial?
Because, generaly cheaper production and cheaper commodities raise living standards of ordinary
people. They can buy more commodities. This is why they wanted to decrease cost of production and
produce commodities cheaper.
In geopolitical sense, US became sole superpower after 1991. In IR, in 1990s it became rivalless , US
created unipolar world. There was only US hegemony over IR.

Did US use its power properly and just way?

USstarted to act alone without legitimacy of UN security council decisions. Ex:Invasion of Iraq 2003.
US was defining enemies and rogue states(haydut devlet).

How to define international terrorism after 9/11?

American intervention in Afghanistan October 2001***

1990s Europe : France and Germany in terms of economic and political power became leaders EU
enlargement, EU membership increased in Europe after collapsing of USSR, new countries emerged
from former USSR and Yugoslavia.

Ethnic , religious wars and problems increased in Europe. EU supported American war afford about
international terrorism.

EU states faced new problems because of new immigrants from Africa and Middle East.

NATO ( it is called defensive organization by itself ) enlarged eastward with US hegemony in IR and
created tensions with Russia. Because most weapons remained to Russia because of geopgraphic
heritance of USSR.

EUs enlargement increased with new members. It reached 27 countries.

Did they really adopt to EU standards ( single currency )?

In 1990 after collapse of USSR, Russia became biggest powers in East Europe (they had nuclear
weapons )

UN security can create a resolution >> Member Russia

>> Ukraine, Kazakhistan sent their nuclear weapons to Russia in 1990s ( in terms of economic dup.
about Russia )

Yeltsin became president after 1991. Free market capitalism and shock theraphy of IMF entered into
RU(privatization of state companies ) regulation of life according to free markets and enormous
decrease living standards across Russia.

Alcholism,drug trade, mafia, prostitution ( kadn ticareti ) were main problems.

With privatiziation of market companies in 1990s, oligarchic political organizations started to manage
countrys politics.
Russia became passive in IR in 1990s.

There occured a domestic problem in Chechenia.

After 2000 with Yeltsin was replaced by Putin with help of rising oil pricesgenerally Russian
economic and living standards recovered. Russian army defeated Chechen separatist group.

Putin government reacted against NATO eastward enlargement.

2008 osetha and abhazia conflict occured . They ( Russian border ) declared independency to Russia.

Georgia Russia : Because of border conflict 5Day war occured btw them. 2014 demonstrations of
Kiev, government changed. Ukraine divided in civil war. Russian minority ( east ukraine ) >> They did
not recognize government of Ukraine. 2015 Russian intervention to Syrian war occured after all of

East Asia and Japan : China became powerhouse of global production since 1990s. It became 2nd
biggest economy in the world.

China became new power in pacific tension with USA. Artificial islands(New term was created after
this event in International Law ) were created by China. China was profitable economic market for
US Economic ties and China-Us corporations collaborations occured. China blocked any attempt of
political liberalization. ( Because of autocratic single communist party, western countries discussed
this policy )

Rising global inequality emerged across the world since 1990s still a big portion of global
population live under poverty.

Rising immigration from war-torn ( sava maduru ) countries to developed regions.

Rising anti immigrant sentiment across Europe and North America. Insecurity , violence , terrorism
widespread problems occured.

Thucydides, Machievelli, Hobbes, Rousseau ( Main inspirators )

Reason detat, Reason of State

How to govern a state make it more powerful? ( choses arrange different policies )

Idea of POWER >> general obsession of realism in ir theory.

State is the core actor in international system.

Environment ( international especially ) is dangerous, competitive and anarchic.

Struggle of power >> main target ( self interested creatures state )

Reasons for security, arms build up, national strategies for geo-politics.

Essentials of realist theory are statism , self help, survival behaviour.

Dual morality of citizen and state. Citizens are limited by the law and societal customs and ethic.
However state can not prioritize(ncelik vermek, ncelik tayin etmek ) ethic in a competitive anarchic
environment according to Machiavelli. Prioritize the state interests over all other things. ( Prince ).
Being forced much more benefitial for him. Medieval times, international environment was
pesimistic. Hobbes >> Anarchic

Human nature is nasty ( kt,tiksin), brutish, competitive and selfish. ( T.Hobbes )

State nature is anarchic interstate behaviour. ( During the British civil war )

Trans historical arguments are argued to be valid for all during the historical periods and
times-spaces. (difficult to prove and study )

Promotion of states interest and maximize its power is the primary duty of state leaders.

Self help , survival is the natural results of this anarchic international environment.

Anarchy is dangerous for realists. Problem is how to define anarchy? If there is no supra-national
authority in IR and If there is no authority >> This means that anarchy rises.

So, most powerful states look for their interst, balance of power policy is the most ideal framework
to deal with anarchy.

1819-1911 after Vienna agreement

1945-1990 , Cold war bipolarity.

What about the smaller states? How they protect themselves? Realists argued that this kind of states
should follow bandwagoning policies, follow up a leader country. East Europe ( Varshaw Pact > Soviet

Varieties of Realism
Classical Realism>> Thucydides ; Humans compete to dominate each other, drive for power is
fundamental. State behaviour is some what reflection of human beings that compromise it.

Rousseau ; Majoritys will as a general will of state.

Structural Realism>> Not endorce(support) human nature explanation. Cause of realists >> Systemic
anarchy ( lack of supra-national power in IR ) distribution of power among states ( military power ).

No differentiation among state behaviour. States are power and security maximizers.

Defensive Realists >> Emphasize security maximize behaviour.

Offensive Realists >> States wanted to surpass each other , power maximize.

Neo-realist theory >> Some scholars modify the theory. They look at the statesman/women
behaviour, because the state leaders perceptions can change according to that historical era.

Main Problem
Accumulation of power and control over others if this is the main goal of a state. Then how to define
powerful state? 1967-1973 Arab Israel conflict / Arab army was more powerful but defeated.

When states try to maximize security, all states try to build up more weapons in order to secure
their interests. >> Security Dilemma!! >> All other states also be suspicious of rearmament (
yeniden silahlanma ) so they do the same. At the end the military build up would be more

For the sake(uruna) of survival can states bypass international ethics. ( Human rights
declarations-Humanitarian Interventions ) Basic assumption of realism does not include societal
ethic. Dangerous environment it causes.

Globalization and Realists

Realists insisted that the states are primary actors, behind current globalization.

Western Project ( Globalization ) is the americanization of international society.

Global culture, ideas were hard to define and find according to realists. American state behaviour is
skeptical about globalization.

The problem about realist theory is eevent of Sept 11 2001 >> A non-state actor Al Qaeda targeted
NY and Washington DC.

How can you define this according to interstate behaviour?

Human rights and protection of human rights. This is also a western idea, generally promoted by
USA. International ethic is promotion of Western idea. Human rights defenders that are generally
supported by US violate human rights.