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Solutions to Problem Set 1

Apolinario J. Katipunan
Department of Mining, Metallurgical, and Materials Engineering
University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City
Instructors name: Engr. Gabriel Pamintuan

I.

197 ft.

Pump
10 ft. 50 gpm 7 ft.

10 ft.

Figure 1.1. Dewatering set-up.


1. All computations that use the gallon refers to the Imperial gallon.
The pipe used in the problem are 4 in. pipes. Below is a table showing the equivalent head losses due to
shock.
Table 1.1.
Value (ft.)
Equivalent length of straight pipe due to 90o
11
elbows of size 4 inches
No. of elbows in the system 5
Total equivalent number of feet of straight pipe 55
Equivalent length of straight pipe due to check
43
valve
Total equivalent pipe length due to shock 98

The total length of the pipe is


[1]

Accounting for the equivalent pipe length due to shock, the effective total length of the system is
[2]

The following is a table representing friction and static head loss of the system

Table 1.2.
Head loss due to
Change in elevation
Flow (GPM) friction of 304 ft of Total head loss
pipe length (ft.) (ft.)
40 0.73 197 197.73
80 2.67 197 199.67
120 5.88 197 202.88
160 9.81 197 206.81
200 14.62 197 211.62
240 20.77 197 217.77
280 15.35 197 212.35
320 34.91 197 231.91
360 43.56 197 240.56
400 52.80 197 249.80

Sample calculation:
At a flow rate of 40 GPM, the head loss due to friction is

[3]

[4]

From the diagram, the static head (which is the change in elevation) from the pump to the discharge
is
[5]

The total head loss is


[6]

[7]

[8]
H-Q, Eff and BHP Curves
600 40

35
500
30
Head (ft) / Efficiency (%)

400

Bulk Horsepower
25

300 20

15
200
10
100
5

0 0
0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400
GPM
H Eff Mine system BHP

Figure 1.2. H-Q, Eff and BHP Curves (Dewatering curve)


Basing from the graph, the operating point is approximately at
[9]

The corresponding efficiency of the mine system is around 58%.

2. The brake horsepower is computed as

[10]

[11]

[12]

3. Assuming that on average, the pump dewaters a sump with an effective height of 5 ft. Then the
volume of the sump is then equal to:
[13]
.
[14]
With a conversion factor equal to:
[15]

The volume of the sump is now equal to

[16]

[17]

The chart below shows the amount of mine water being dewatered, mine water flowing into the sump,
and amount of dead water as time goes by.
From the graph, the time it takes to dewater the sump is approximately 10. 6 minutes

8000

7000

6000
Amount of water (gallons)

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0
0 5 10 15 20
Time (min.)
Pump dewatering Water inflow Dead water

Figure 1.3. Mine water inflow and outflow

4. The total power consumed is


[18]

The power in terms of kilowatts is

[19]
[20]

The time it takes for the sump to be filled with water again is

[21]

[22]

1 cycle of operation (i.e. time it takes to pump out the water plus the time it takes for the sump to be
filled again) is
[23]

[24]

In a day, the no. of cycles that the system will dewater the sump is

[25]

[26]

The total dewatering cost per cycle if power cost is at P 7.00/kW-h is

[27]

[28]

In a day, the total dewatering cost is


[29]

[30]
II.

1. 50 gpm

197 ft.

Pump

Figure 1.4. Dewatering set-up.


2.
The dead water capacity is 900,000 gallons. The depth of the shaft is 60 m. (or approximately 197 ft.) The
total length of pipe is
[31]

[32]

From the mine characteristic curve


Table 1.3.
Total Hx
Hs
Hf per 100 length of head
Flowrate Q Ht at static Ht at end
ft of pipe pipe Hf (ft) due to
(gpm) start (ft) head (ft.)
(ft) divided by shock
(ft)
100 ft loss
40 0.22 2.07 0.46 0.46 11 197 208.46
80 0.81 2.07 1.68 1.68 11 197 209.68
120 1.78 2.07 3.69 3.69 11 197 211.69
160 2.97 2.07 6.16 6.16 11 197 214.16
200 4.43 2.07 9.17 9.17 11 197 217.17
240 6.29 2.07 13.03 13.03 11 197 221.03
280 4.65 2.07 9.63 9.63 11 197 217.63
320 10.58 2.07 21.90 21.90 11 197 229.90
360 13.20 2.07 27.32 27.32 11 197 235.32
400 16.00 2.07 33.12 33.12 11 197 241.12
600

Head (ft) / Efficiency (%) 500

400

300

200

100

0
0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400

GPM
H Eff Maximum total head Minimum total head

Figure 1.5. H-Q and Efficiency Curves (Dewatering curve).


Plotting the minimum total head, and the maximum total head, well have maximum flowrate, minimum
head to be
[33]

The minimum flowrate, maximum head to be


[34]

The amount of dead water present in the problem is 900,000 gallons with an inflow rate of 50 gpm.
Graphing them, well have
1400000

1200000

1000000
Flow (gallons)

800000

600000

400000

200000

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Time (Days)
Dead water capacity Inflow rate
Max outflow, min head Min outflow, max head

Figure 1.6. Mine water inflow and outflow.


At maximum rate of water outflow, the minimum time to dewater the mine is 1.7857 days.
At minimum rate of water outflow, the maximum time to dewater the mine is 2.1552 days.
On average, the time it takes to dewater the mine is
[35]

[36]

[37]

At 1.9705 days, the amount of water pumped is equivalent to 1,041,876 gallons of water.
From average days and gallons of water pumped, the calculated average pumping rate is equivalent to

[38]

[39]

The corresponding total head of the mine then is approximately 150 ft.
The efficiency of the system is approximately about 40%.
The average operating point then is
[40]

3. The brake horsepower power consumed then is equal to

[41]

[42]

[43]

[44]

[45]

4. For the dewatering curve, refer to figures 1.5 and 1.6.

5. The total daily dewatering cost if power cost is at P 7.00/kW-h is

[46]

[47]