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# Solutions to Problem Set 3

Apolinario J. Katipunan
Department of Mining, Metallurgical, and Materials Engineering
University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City
Instructors name: Engr. Gabriel Pamintuan

## Assuming that the broken density of shale is 80 lbs/ft3. Or

[1]

[2]

If the mine excavator front shovels to be used is a Caterpillar 5130, its corresponding bucket size is around
8.5-10.5 m3. For this problem (and to be conservative in our calculations), well use its mean value which is
9.5 m3 as the bucket size.

If the mine trucks to be used for haulage are Caterpillar 777C, their maximum capacity (in terms of weight)
is around 86.2 metric tons. In terms of volume, their maximum capacity is 51.5 m3 (assuming a heaped load
with a 2:1 ratio angle/angle of repose, which is usually the case).

Accounting only the volume of the shale, the number of passes the front loader excavator needs to fill up
a single unit of Caterpillar 777C is

[3]

Considering now the weight of the shale, the number of passes the front loader excavator needs to fill a
single unit of Caterpillar 777C is

[4]

Since the mine truck achieves the maximum carrying volume it can carry before it can reach the maximum
carrying weight, the number of passes that the front loader excavator needs to fill the truck is 6
passes.

[5]

## The weight of the load is

[6]

To meet the production requirement of 100,000 DMT per day, well need

[7]
Assuming that on average (i.e. the conditions are: (1) no obstruction in the right of way (2) above average
job conditions (3) an operator of average ability and (4) 600 900 swing angle), the loading cycle time (i.e.
(1) loading the bucket (2) swing loaded bucket (3) dump bucket contents on truck (4) swing empty bucket
back to starting position) for a Caterpillar 5130 is around 0.42 minutes, or around 25.2 seconds
(approximately 26 seconds).

If that is the case, then the loading time for a single truck is

[8]

## Table 3.1. Fixed times.

Range of Fixed Time Average Fixed Time
Process
(minutes) (minutes)
Truck maneuver in load area 0.6-0.8 0.7
Maneuver and dump time at
1.0-1.2 1.1
dump point

Assuming for a bias weave in the tires (for a more conservative approach in solving the problem), the rolling
resistance of the tires is 2%, with ramp grade equivalent to 8%, then the total effective grade is

[9]

When travelling uphill, assuming that the mine truck has full load capacity (at the loading point at level -
240 m), and from figure 3.2, the maximum attainable speed of a Caterpillar 777C mine truck is
approximately 14 km/h. For this problem, well assume that the speed of the mine truck when travelling
uphill at all times is 14 km/h.

When travelling downhill, assuming that the mine truck has emptied its load in the dumping point (at the
crushing area at level -120 m), and from figure 3.1, the maximum attainable speed of a Caterpillar 777C
mine truck is approximately 47 km/h. However, since the imposed mine speed limit is 30 km/h, the mine
truck is limited to this speed when travelling downhill. For this problem, well assume that the speed of
the mine truck when travelling downhill at all times is 30 km/h.

Figure 3.1.

With the given figure above, the time it takes for a mine truck to travel up to the dumping point and

[10]
[11]

The variable times for the truck is summarized and provided below.

## Table 3.2. Variable times.

Assumed and Estimated Variable Time
Process
(minutes)
Ramp up to dumping level 6.4491
Ramp (dumping level) to dumping point 0.16
Dumping point to ramp crest 0.08

Computing for the total cycle time per truck, well have:

[12]

[13]

From the previous calculations and by inspection, it means that 2.6 minutes out of the 14.3387 minutes
cycle time of the truck is the only time when the front loader excavator is actually loading material. The
remaining 11.7387 minutes, the front loader excavator is idle. To maintain the front loader excavator
loading material into a truck (i.e. avoiding idle time for front loader excavator), the number of mine trucks
assigned per front loader excavator is

[14]

The fleet composition is one Caterpillar 5130 front loader excavator, and six Caterpillar 777C mine
trukcs. Doing a sample run of a single fleet, well have:

## Table 3.3. Sample fleet operation.

End of End of
Travel Travel
Start of End of time time
time of a time of a
time of time of upon upon
truck to truck to
point point
(minutes) (minutes) point point
(minutes) (minutes)
(minutes) (minutes)

From the previous table shown below, it can be viewed that the first dump of material at the crusher is
after 10.4691 minutes at the beginning of the day. Then a full load of truck is then dumped again in the
crusher after every 2.6 minutes. This means that a single fleet of trucks and excavator can haul material in
a single day amounting to
[15]

[16]

If the stripping operation requires the removal of 100,000DMT per day, then the number of fleets to
accomplish this feat is

[17]

That is, the stripping operation requires the use of 4 Caterpillar 5130 front load excavators, and 24
Caterpillar 777C mine trucks to haul 100,000 DMT of broken shale.

be added can analyzed by knowing the time the front loader excavator needs to fills up a truck, and the
time it takes for a truck to travel from the dumping point to the loading point.

Essentially, there will be a need for another mine truck or another mine truck can be added to the fleet if
idle enough (meaning all other trucks are travelling either to the dumping point or to the loading point) that
it can load up another truck if there were any. It takes 2.6 minutes for a loader to fill up a single truck. If a
loader has been idle for this long enough, then it means that all previous trucks has been travelling either
to the dumping point or the loading point. That is, if the total travel time from the loader, to the dumping,
then back to the loader has increased by 2.6 minutes, then there is now a need to increase the mine truck
number by one.

## Now, if the average travel speed of the mine truck is

[18]

If, on average, the truck has been travelling at this speed, then the distance needed to add another mine
truck is the distance travelled by a mine truck at this speed after 2.6 minutes. This distance is

[19]

Now, if the loading point is, however, in the pit rim (i.e. at elevation 0 m). A new cycle time of the mine
trucks will be considered.

When travelling downhill, assuming that the mine truck has full load capacity (at the loading point at level
0 m), the maximum attainable speed of a Caterpillar 777C mine truck is approximately 26 km/h. For this
problem, well assume that the speed of the mine truck when travelling downhill at all times is 26 km/h.

When travelling uphill, assuming that the mine truck has emptied its load in the dumping point (at the
crushing area at level -120 m), the maximum attainable speed of a Caterpillar 777C mine truck is
approximately 30 km/h. For this problem, well assume that the speed of the mine truck when travelling
uphill at all times is 30 km/h.

With the given information above, the time it takes for a mine truck to travel up to the dumping point
[20]

[21]

## Table 3.4. Variable times.

Assumed and Estimated Variable Time
Process
(minutes)
Pit crest down to dumping level 3.4726
Ramp (dumping level) to dumping point 0.16
Dumping point to ramp bottom 0.08

Computing for the total cycle time per truck, well have:

[22]

[23]

From the previous calculations and by inspection, it means that 2.6 minutes out of the 11.3622 minutes
cycle time of the truck is the only time when the front loader excavator is actually loading material. The
remaining 8.7622 minutes, the front loader excavator is idle. To maintain the front loader excavator
loading material into a truck (i.e. avoiding idle time for front loader excavator), the number of mine trucks
assigned per front loader excavator is

[24]

## Table 3.5. Sample fleet operation.

End of End of
Travel Travel
Start of End of time time
time of a time of a
time of time of upon upon
truck to truck to
point point
(minutes) (minutes) point point
(minutes) (minutes)
(minutes) (minutes)
From the previous table shown below, it can be viewed that the first dump of material at the crusher is
after 7.4926 minutes at the beginning of the day. Then a full load of truck is then dumped again in the
crusher after every 2.6 minutes. This means that a single fleet of trucks and excavator can haul material in
a single day amounting to

[25]

[26]

If the stripping operation requires the removal of 100,000DMT per day, then the number of fleets to
accomplish this feat is

[27]

That is, the stripping operation requires the use of 4 Caterpillar 5130 front load excavators, and 20
Caterpillar 777C mine trucks to haul 100,000 DMT of broken shale.

be added can analyzed by knowing the time the front loader excavator needs to fills up a truck, and the
time it takes for a truck to travel from the dumping point to the loading point.

Essentially, there will be a need for another mine truck or another mine truck can be added to the fleet if
idle enough (meaning all other trucks are travelling either to the dumping point or to the loading point) that
it can load up another truck if there were any. It takes 2.6 minutes for a loader to fill up a single truck. If a
loader has been idle for this long enough, then it means that all previous trucks has been travelling either
to the dumping point or the loading point. That is, if the total travel time from the loader, to the dumping,
then back to the loader has increased by 2.6 minutes, then there is now a need to increase the mine truck
number by one.

## Now, if the average travel speed of the mine truck is

[28]

If, on average, the truck has been travelling at this speed, then the distance needed to add another mine
truck is the distance travelled by a mine truck at this speed after 2.6 minutes. This distance is

[29]
Figure 3.1. Estimation of mine truck speed for downhill travel.

8%
Figure 3.2. Estimation of mine truck speed for uphill travel.