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# Spread of data is called ‘dispersion’

 Two sets of data in feet – both have mean = 4 feet

 3, 3.25, 3.5, 3.75, 4, 4.25, 4.5, 4.75, 5

 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

 Which is more spread out ?

 Does it matter ?

 Yes – if this is depth of water,

 that you have to cross and

 you do not know swimming

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1-2 . 0. 3. data point minus mean  This will have both +ve and –ve values.e. -2. 7. 2. 8  Deviations are  -4. -3. 5.How to find overall spread ?  For each data point we will find deviation from mean i. 2. 1.  For the data  0. -1. 3. 1. 4. 4  So if we add them to take average they will cancel out. 6.

2.How to avoid cancelling out ?  Take the absolute value of the deviations and average those  Or square each of the deviations.4.5 – the average is 3  Deviations are -2. find the average of the squares.3.4 1-3 .1.0. and then find square root of that.-1.2 Variance ={(2)  (1)  (0)  (1)  (2) }/ 5  10 / 5  2 2 2 2 2 2   Std Dev = Variance  2  1.2 – average deviation is 0  Mean Absolute Deviation = (2+1+0+1+2)/5 = 1.  Suppose the data is 1.

75 4 4. Compare the rivers using MAD & SD River 1 Devn Abs Dev dev Sqrd River 2 Devn Abs Dev dev Sqrd 0 3.00 1 3.50 7 4.75 8 5.00 MEAN Avg Dev MAD Std dev MEAN Avg Dev MAD Std dev 4 4 1-4 .25 2 3.50 3 3.00 5 4.25 6 4.

00 -1.50 -0.25 -0.25 0.75 -0.25 6 2 4.00 0.50 7 3 4.50 3 -1 3. Compare the rivers using MAD & SD River 1 Devn Abs Dev dev Sqrd River 2 Devn Abs Dev dev Sqrd 0 -4 3.00 5 1 4.00 1.75 0.75 2 -2 3.00 MEAN Avg Dev MAD Std dev MEAN Avg Dev MAD Std dev 4 0 4 0 1-5 .00 1 -3 3.50 0.25 4 0 4.75 8 4 5.

25 0.25 0.00 MEAN Avg Dev MAD Std dev MEAN Avg Dev MAD Std dev 4 0 2.50 0.75 0.56 1-6 .25 0.75 0.75 -0.50 0.00 1.50 -0.00 5 1 1 4.25 -0.50 3 -1 1 3.75 2 -2 2 3.75 8 4 4 5.25 6 2 2 4.75 0.50 0.50 7 3 3 4.00 1.00 0.00 1. Compare the rivers using MAD & SD River 1 Devn Abs Dev dev Sqrd River 2 Devn Abs Dev dev Sqrd 0 -4 4 3.00 1 -3 3 3.2 4 0 0.00 -1.25 4 0 0 4.00 0.

00 -1.06 4 0 0 0 4.75 -0.50 0.00 1 -3 3 9 3.2 2.00 0.00 1.00 1.50 0.75 0.75 0.25 0.25 7 3 3 9 4.00 5 1 1 1 4.56 2 -2 2 4 3.50 0.50 -0.00 0.00 MEAN Avg Dev MAD Std dev MEAN Avg Dev MAD Std dev 4 0 2.25 0.00 1.75 0.00 0.25 3 -1 1 1 3.25 0. MAD & SD tell us River 1 is unsafe River 1 Devn Abs Dev dev Sqrd River 2 Devn Abs Dev dev Sqrd 0 -4 4 16 3.25 0.75 0.56 8 4 4 16 5.65 1-7 .50 0.75 0.6 4 0 0.06 6 2 2 4 4.50 0.00 1.25 -0.56 0.25 0.00 1.

Another example. but Std Dev is different for the two sets Dev Dev data 1 Devn Abs Dev Sqrd data 2 Devn Abs Dev Sqrd 4 -6 6 36 5 -5 5 25 6 -4 4 16 5 -5 5 25 10 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 14 4 4 16 15 5 5 25 16 6 6 36 15 5 5 25 MEAN Avg Dev MAD Std Dev MEAN Avg Dev MAD Std Dev 10 0 4 4.6 10 0 4 4. here MAD is the same for both data sets.5 1-8 .

Let us look at the data closely without all the workings of MAD and SD data 1 data 2 4 5 6 5 10 10 14 15 16 15 MEAN MEAN 10 10 Which data set has more spread ? Clearly data set 1 1-9 .

6 10 0 4 4.5 Hence which is a better indicator of spread? MAD or SD? 1-10 . Now we see the data with the workings of MAD and SD Dev Dev data 1 Devn Abs Dev Sqrd data 2 Devn Abs Dev Sqrd 4 -6 6 36 5 -5 5 25 6 -4 4 16 5 -5 5 25 10 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 14 4 4 16 15 5 5 25 16 6 6 36 15 5 5 25 MEAN Avg Dev MAD Std Dev MEAN Avg Dev MAD Std Dev 10 0 4 4.

1-11 .  Hence it is a more powerful indicator of spread. the standard deviation is always more than the Mean Absolute Deviation. Why do we prefer SD to MAD?  When the spread is less the values of Standard deviation and Mean Absolute Deviation are close to each other.  But when the spread is more.  Because it gives more weight to those far away.

[Ideal]  s (always small letter) is the symbol for the sample standard deviation. we divide the sum of squares by (n-1) where n is the sample size. Working with MS.  In MS-Excel the formula is =STDEV(……………) 1-12 . we divide the sum of squares of deviation by the population count.  And when calculating sample variance.Excel  σ (pronounced sigma) is the symbol for population standard deviation  and when calculating population variance.