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Two sets of data in feet – both have mean = 4 feet

3, 3.25, 3.5, 3.75, 4, 4.25, 4.5, 4.75, 5

0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

Which is more spread out ?

Does it matter ?

Yes – if this is depth of water,

that you have to cross and

you do not know swimming

1-1

1-2 . 0. 3. data point minus mean This will have both +ve and –ve values.e. -2. 7. 2. 8 Deviations are -4. -3. 5.How to find overall spread ? For each data point we will find deviation from mean i. 2. 1. For the data 0. -1. 3. 1. 4. 4 So if we add them to take average they will cancel out. 6.

2.How to avoid cancelling out ? Take the absolute value of the deviations and average those Or square each of the deviations.4.5 – the average is 3 Deviations are -2. find the average of the squares.3.4 1-3 .1.0. and then find square root of that.-1.2 Variance ={(2) (1) (0) (1) (2) }/ 5 10 / 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 Std Dev = Variance 2 1.2 – average deviation is 0 Mean Absolute Deviation = (2+1+0+1+2)/5 = 1. Suppose the data is 1.

75 4 4. Compare the rivers using MAD & SD River 1 Devn Abs Dev dev Sqrd River 2 Devn Abs Dev dev Sqrd 0 3.00 1 3.50 7 4.75 8 5.00 MEAN Avg Dev MAD Std dev MEAN Avg Dev MAD Std dev 4 4 1-4 .25 2 3.50 3 3.00 5 4.25 6 4.

00 -1.50 -0.25 -0.25 0.75 -0.25 6 2 4.00 0.50 7 3 4.50 3 -1 3. Compare the rivers using MAD & SD River 1 Devn Abs Dev dev Sqrd River 2 Devn Abs Dev dev Sqrd 0 -4 3.00 5 1 4.00 1.75 0.75 2 -2 3.00 MEAN Avg Dev MAD Std dev MEAN Avg Dev MAD Std dev 4 0 4 0 1-5 .00 1 -3 3.50 0.25 4 0 4.75 8 4 5.

25 0.25 0.00 MEAN Avg Dev MAD Std dev MEAN Avg Dev MAD Std dev 4 0 2.50 0.75 0.56 1-6 .25 0.75 0.75 -0.50 0.00 1.50 -0.00 5 1 1 4.25 -0.50 3 -1 1 3.75 2 -2 2 3.75 8 4 4 5.25 6 2 2 4.75 0.50 0.50 7 3 3 4.00 1.00 0.00 1. Compare the rivers using MAD & SD River 1 Devn Abs Dev dev Sqrd River 2 Devn Abs Dev dev Sqrd 0 -4 4 3.00 1 -3 3 3.2 4 0 0.00 -1.25 4 0 0 4.00 0.

00 -1.06 4 0 0 0 4.75 -0.50 0.00 1 -3 3 9 3.2 2.00 0.00 1.00 1.50 0.75 0.75 0.25 0.25 7 3 3 9 4.00 5 1 1 1 4.56 2 -2 2 4 3.50 0.50 -0.00 0.00 MEAN Avg Dev MAD Std dev MEAN Avg Dev MAD Std dev 4 0 2.25 0.00 1.75 0.00 0.25 3 -1 1 1 3.25 0. MAD & SD tell us River 1 is unsafe River 1 Devn Abs Dev dev Sqrd River 2 Devn Abs Dev dev Sqrd 0 -4 4 16 3.25 0.75 0.56 8 4 4 16 5.65 1-7 .50 0.75 0.6 4 0 0.06 6 2 2 4 4.50 0.00 1.25 -0.56 0.25 0.00 1.

Another example. but Std Dev is different for the two sets Dev Dev data 1 Devn Abs Dev Sqrd data 2 Devn Abs Dev Sqrd 4 -6 6 36 5 -5 5 25 6 -4 4 16 5 -5 5 25 10 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 14 4 4 16 15 5 5 25 16 6 6 36 15 5 5 25 MEAN Avg Dev MAD Std Dev MEAN Avg Dev MAD Std Dev 10 0 4 4.6 10 0 4 4. here MAD is the same for both data sets.5 1-8 .

Let us look at the data closely without all the workings of MAD and SD data 1 data 2 4 5 6 5 10 10 14 15 16 15 MEAN MEAN 10 10 Which data set has more spread ? Clearly data set 1 1-9 .

6 10 0 4 4.5 Hence which is a better indicator of spread? MAD or SD? 1-10 . Now we see the data with the workings of MAD and SD Dev Dev data 1 Devn Abs Dev Sqrd data 2 Devn Abs Dev Sqrd 4 -6 6 36 5 -5 5 25 6 -4 4 16 5 -5 5 25 10 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 14 4 4 16 15 5 5 25 16 6 6 36 15 5 5 25 MEAN Avg Dev MAD Std Dev MEAN Avg Dev MAD Std Dev 10 0 4 4.

1-11 . Hence it is a more powerful indicator of spread. the standard deviation is always more than the Mean Absolute Deviation. Why do we prefer SD to MAD? When the spread is less the values of Standard deviation and Mean Absolute Deviation are close to each other. But when the spread is more. Because it gives more weight to those far away.

[Ideal] s (always small letter) is the symbol for the sample standard deviation. we divide the sum of squares by (n-1) where n is the sample size. Working with MS. In MS-Excel the formula is =STDEV(……………) 1-12 . we divide the sum of squares of deviation by the population count. And when calculating sample variance.Excel σ (pronounced sigma) is the symbol for population standard deviation and when calculating population variance.

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