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Notes: FACTORS THAT AFFECT SOLUBILITY and FACTORS

AFFECTING RATE OF SOLUTION

The solubility of a solute is: the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve
in a certain amount of solvent or solution at a certain temperature.

MAIN FACTORS THAT AFFECT SOLUBILITY:

Nature of the solute and solvent The amount of solute that dissolves depends on what
type of solute it is. While only 1 gram of lead (II) chloride can be dissolved in 100 grams of
water at room temperature, 200 grams of zinc chloride can be dissolved. This means that a
greater amount of zinc chloride can be dissolved in the same amount of water than lead II
chloride.

Temperature -- Generally, an increase in the temperature of the solution increases the


solubility of a solid solute. For example, a greater amount of sugar will dissolve in warm
water than in cold water. A few solid solutes, however, are less soluble in warmer solutions.
For all gases, solubility decreases as the temperature of the solution rises. An example of this
is Soda. The solubility of the carbon dioxide gas decreases when a soda is warm, making the
soda flat.

Pressure -- For solid and liquid solutes, changes in pressure have practically no effect on
solubility. For gaseous solutes, an increase in pressure increases solubility and a decrease in
pressure decreases solubility. Example: When the cap on a bottle of soda pop is removed,
pressure is released, and the gaseous solute bubbles out of solution. This escape of a gas
from solution is called effervescence.

FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE RATE OF SOLUTION:

The rate of solution is: a measure of how fast a substance dissolves.

Size of the particles -- When a solute dissolves, the action takes place only at the surface of
each particle. When the total surface area of the solute particles is increased, the solute
dissolves more rapidly. Breaking a solute into smaller pieces increases its surface area and
increases its rate of solution.

Stirring -- With liquid and solid solutes, stirring brings fresh portions of the solvent in contact
with the solute. Stirring, therefore, allows the solute to dissolve faster.

Amount of solute already dissolved When you have very little solute in the solution,
dissolving takes place quickly. When you have a lot of solute in the solution, dissolving takes
place more slowly.

temperature -- For liquids and solid solutes, increasing the temperature not only increases the
amount of solute that will dissolve but also increases the rate at which the solute will dissolve.
For gases, the reverse is true. An increase in temperature decreases both solubility and rate of
solution.
Notes: FACTORS THAT AFFECT SOLUBILITY and FACTORS
AFFECTING RATE OF SOLUTION

The solubility of a solute is: the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve
in a certain amount of solvent or solution at a certain temperature.

MAIN FACTORS THAT AFFECT SOLUBILITY:

Nature of the solute and solvent The amount of solute that dissolves depends on what
type of solute it is. While only 1 gram of lead (II) chloride can be dissolved in 100 grams of
water at room temperature, 200 grams of zinc chloride can be dissolved. This means that a
greater amount of zinc chloride can be dissolved in the same amount of water than lead II
chloride.

Temperature -- Generally, an increase in the temperature of the solution increases the


solubility of a solid solute. For example, a greater amount of sugar will dissolve in warm
water than in cold water. A few solid solutes, however, are less soluble in warmer solutions.
For all gases, solubility decreases as the temperature of the solution rises. An example of this
is Soda. The solubility of the carbon dioxide gas decreases when a soda is warm, making the
soda flat.

Pressure -- For solid and liquid solutes, changes in pressure have practically no effect on
solubility. For gaseous solutes, an increase in pressure increases solubility and a decrease in
pressure decreases solubility. Example: When the cap on a bottle of soda pop is removed,
pressure is released, and the gaseous solute bubbles out of solution. This escape of a gas
from solution is called effervescence.

FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE RATE OF SOLUTION:

The rate of solution is: a measure of how fast a substance dissolves.

Size of the particles -- When a solute dissolves, the action takes place only at the surface of
each particle. When the total surface area of the solute particles is increased, the solute
dissolves more rapidly. Breaking a solute into smaller pieces increases its surface area and
increases its rate of solution.

Stirring -- With liquid and solid solutes, stirring brings fresh portions of the solvent in contact
with the solute. Stirring, therefore, allows the solute to dissolve faster.

Amount of solute already dissolved When you have very little solute in the solution,
dissolving takes place quickly. When you have a lot of solute in the solution, dissolving takes
place more slowly.

temperature -- For liquids and solid solutes, increasing the temperature not only increases the
amount of solute that will dissolve but also increases the rate at which the solute will dissolve.
For gases, the reverse is true. An increase in temperature decreases both solubility and rate of
solution.