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Advanced and state-of-the-art preservation VGB PowerTech4l2015

Advanced and state-of-the-art


preservation of combined cycle
power plants
Frank Udo Leidich

Kurzfassung Introduction well in terms of preservation at least dur-


ing longer outages. The lube oil system it-
Fortschrittliche und state-of-the-art Many combined cycle power plants (CCPP) self again might be more complicated than
Konservierung von GuD-Kraftwerken in Europe cannot be operated economically expected with filters, heat exchangers,
due to market conditions. Therefore they pumps valves, actuators, etc.
Durch die Deregulierung des Energiemarktes
only run in peaking operation with fre- Of course all suppliers deliver a manual
und den Anstieg des Gaspreises knnen Gas-
Kombikraftwerke in Europa nicht wirtschaft- quent standstills of variable lay-up time or that contains preservation recommenda-
lich in Grundlast betrieben werden. Heutzu- even are taken off the grid for longer time tions for the very components. However,
tage werden diese Kraftwerke in der Regel zur like summer periods. Cycling and peaking these recommendations by nature cannot
Deckung der Spitzenlast eingesetzt. Dement- operation as well as frequent starts how- consider the requirements at system inter-
sprechend befinden sich Gas-Kombiblcke sehr ever consume lifetime in terms of equiva- faces and beyond limits of supply. There-
hufig im Stillstand von unterschiedlicher und lent operation hours. If preservation is not fore, it is always necessary to adapt the pro-
meist nicht vorhersehbarer Dauer. In der Som- applied during lay-up times, corrosion pro-
merperiode werden viele dieser Kraftwerke still-
cedures given in the component documen-
cesses at all components of the power plant tation to the site specifics, ideally without
gelegt. are likely to occur in addition to the above conflicting with warranty issues.
Um dennoch sicherzustellen, dass die geplan- and lead to additional lifetime consump-
te Lebensdauer des Kraftwerks whrend der tion and performance degradation. Usual preservation methods recommend-
Stillstandsphasen nicht negativ beeinflut ed by suppliers comprise:
wird, zur Verhinderung von Korrosion an den To assure that the intended lifetime of dry preservation,
Kraftwerkskomponenten, Vermeidung von CCPPs and their components can be
wet preservation,
Wirkungsgradminderungen durch Folgen der achieved, a suitable tailor-made preserva-
hufigen Stillstnde, bei minimalem Investiti- tion concept needs to be elaborated, ap- preservation with inert gas (nitrogen
onskostenaufwand und geringsten Wartungs- plied and monitored. capping) and
und Instandhaltungskosten, muss ein kraft- oil preservation and preservation with
werksspezifisches, angepasstes Konservierungs- The plant is not to be preserved compo- organic agents
konzept ausgearbeitet werden. nent-wise, but all interfaces between the
various sub- and auxiliary systems of a Dry preservation keeps the electrolyte that
Dabei ergeben sich die folgenden Zielkonflikte: is necessary for any corrosion process away
power plant are to be covered. In F i g u r e
Schnelles Wiederanfahren/hohe Verfg- 1 the main sub-systems of a CCPP are high- from the components surfaces by keeping
barkeit Optimaler Korrosionsschutz/ the relative humidity (rH) of the air sur-
lighted in different colours.
beste Konservierung rounding the component to be preserved
Hufige Stillstnde Standardanlagen- Each of these sub-systems comprises of
below 40 % rH. In an industrial environment
konzept mit Grundlastbetrieb various components, pipelines, valves etc.
or close to the shore line, where salt mist or
and might be connected to a number of
Minimale Kosten (Investitionen, Personal) corrosive gases, for example SO2, are likely
Anlagenauslegung und Materialkonzept other sub-systems. For example the boiler
to be present in the air, it is recommended to
is connected upstream to the feedwater
Allgemeine Konservierungsempfehlungen keep the humidity below 30 % rH.
system of the water steam cycle (WSC).
Anlagenbesonderheiten/lokale Anforderungen Dry preservation is commonly recom-
Downstream it is linked to the HP, IP and
Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden die prinzipiell LP steam systems. In parallel to the boiler, mended for steam turbines and gas tur-
mglichen Konservierungsmethoden erlutert bines [1, 2]. Here it is the only viable way
the once-through cooler (OTC) is feeding
und Anwendungsbeispiele fr verschiedene to prevent corrosion during standstill peri-
Kraftwerkssysteme und -komponenten disku- steam into the steam system and is fed it-
self by feedwater or LP boiler water. ods without dismantling of the turbine or
tiert. Dabei wird insbesondere auf eine system-
integrative Konservierung Wert gelegt. l other complicated or costly preparation.
On the flue gas side of the boiler there are
It can be used for short intermediate and
VGB PowerTech - Autorenexemplar - 2015

interfaces to the flue gas outlet of the gas


long lay-up periods. For very long outage
turbine and the exhaust from the boiler
times, however, the energy consumption
goes into a flue gas duct or stack directly.
of the adsorption drier for regeneration of
Another example for a component with the de-humidifier might become an issue
various and complex interfaces to other and it should be considered to adapt oil
sub-systems and components is the steam preservation or preservation with organic
turbine: agents like volatile corrosion inhibitors
It is not only an integral part of the water (VCI) combined with an air-tight enclosure
Author steam cycle with interfaces to the steam (wrapping-in) for the rotor. This method is
systems and the condenser but might also very well established for long storage pe-
Dr. Frank Udo Leidich have a number of steam extractions that riods and it is (almost) maintenance free.
Transverse Technologies
Power Plant Chemistry
connect the turbine to the feedwater tank, Especially when it can be combined with a
Alstom Power GmbH preheaters and/or district heaters. In ad- necessary overhaul that anyway requires
Germany/Mannheim dition the turbine is equipped with a lube opening of the turbine casing, this method
oil system that needs to be considered as should be taken into consideration.

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VGB PowerTech4l2015 Advanced and state-of-the-art preservation

Dry preservation can also be applied to the which if too high, might make this method a layer on the materials surface to be pro-
waste heat steam generator (HRSG), the in-economic. On the other hand the over- tected. This intrinsically requires an enclo-
OTC and the water steam cycle. Longer pressure should not be chosen too small sure (gas tight wrapping or closed contain-
outage periods usually starting from a few compared to the ambient air pressure as er/box) around the part to be protected. If
weeks onwards is the method of choice for temperature fluctuations (even caused by only the inner surface of a vessel or tube
these components. night and day temperature cycling) might shall be protected against corrosion by ap-
Wet preservation keeps the oxygen away already result in 20 mbar pressure differ- plication of VCI, it is sufficient to close all
from the component surfaces that is need- ences. openings of the vessel or tube ends to avoid
ed for corrosion. Most times, this method Besides the boiler, the OTC, the generator loss of VCI vapour.
is combined with the elevation of the pH and the fuel gas system can be protected The reason to apply preservation on com-
of the water (condensate, feedwater, boiler against corrosion by nitrogen filling. Nitro- ponents and systems is to assure that the
water) used for preservation to minimise gen filling is also used for long-term stor- intended lifetime of the power plant is not
the solubility of the protective iron oxide age and transportation of components that negatively impacted during lay-up time by
layers in the water. For all ferrous metal- can be fully isolated (encapsulated) from corrosion reactions or any other kind of
lurgy systems, a pH increase to pH >9.5 is the environment. degradation of plant components. Looking
recommended, for CCPPs equipped with Oil preservation and organic preserva- into the manuals of the component suppli-
an air-cooled condenser this should be not tion agents are used especially for trans- ers might help to find a suitable preserva-
less than even pH 9.8. The oxygen concen- portation and long-term storage of compo- tion method for the particular component.
tration in the water shall not exceed 5 ppb nents and of course for lube and sealing oil However, quite likely, different require-
during lay-up time. Therefore, it is good systems. The basic principle behind is that ments or methods are recommended for
advice to already lower the oxygen con- components connected to each other with-
the oil or organic preservation agent forms
tent in the WSC during load reduction and out the possibility to isolate one from the
a layer on the component that prevents the
shutdown by opening the feedwater de- other, e.g. by closing of a valve. In such a
direct contact between the electrolyte and
aeration vent completely and stop oxygen case, a compromise needs to be found or
the surfaces.
dosing beforehand. Of course water losses a method chosen that works for both com-
and leaks should be minimised during the Oil preservation as well as preservation ponents. In addition to this complication
outage period. A good number for the al- with organic agents is easy to apply and compared to single component preserva-
lowed water loss is <1 % per week of the suitable for long-term corrosion protec- tion other conflicts of goals also arise.
filling volume. In case the system needs tion.
Very often, the time when the unit is to
to be refilled anyway due to water losses, What needs to be considered when choos- be restarted is fairly not known when the
it is good advice to use de-aerated water ing this method of corrosion protection unit is shut down, i.e. that the duration
for refill. Such water can be taken from a is the ease of removal before re-commis- of standstill is not known. The standstill
sister unit or by membrane de-aeration of sioning or the potential interaction of the time is one of the important parameters
demineralised water. After de-aeration the preservation chemical with the operation to decide for the one or other preservation
pH of the refill water shall be adjusted to medium (water, steam or oil). A second method. In many cases there is a strong
the desired target value. hurdle is that these preservation methods economic need for fast re-start ability of
The components, for which wet-preserva- cannot be checked with objective evidence, the power plants. This, however, restricts
tion usually is the method of choice, are the e.g. by measurement of the humidity or in principle the applicable preservation
OTC, the HRSG and the water steam cycle. oxygen content as an early warning before methods to those that do not require long
corrosion arises. Functioning of this kind and extensive preparation work for lay-up
Nitrogen capping is based on the same of preservation methods is usually checked and re-start. It might as well conflict with
principle as wet preservation: It keeps the visually, i.e. corrosion signs are looked for. the aim to assure perfect corrosion pro-
oxygen away from the components surfac- Finding signs of corrosion, however, means tection/preservation to avoid any perfor-
es that is needed for corrosion. Therefore, that it is too late and the corrosion process mance or lifetime degradation.
it can easily be combined with wet preser- has already started.
vation, what designates this method for Frequent layup times might clash with the
boiler preservation. The economiser and Volatile corrosion inhibitors (VCI) are original plant concept and design that very
evaporator sections of the boiler are wet mainly used for the same purpose as oil often assumes base load operation. A com-
preserved whereas the steam containing preservation and preservation with organ- mon requirement from owners side is the
parts like drum and superheaters are filled ic preservation agents. As such, they have realisation of preservation concepts with
with nitrogen for preservation. A good pre- the same advantages and disadvantages as minimum efforts in manpower and invest-
serving nitrogen atmosphere does not con- oil preservation. ments. This very often does not fit together
tain more than 0.5 % of oxygen. To avoid VCI products are available in many dif- with the original plant design and mate-
air ingress into the system or component to ferent forms: powders, fluids, pellets, im- rials concept that are mainly focusing on
least investment costs.
VGB PowerTech - Autorenexemplar - 2015

be protected, a slight overpressure should pregnated foils and papers, etc. All these
be established. Of course nitrogen capping different forms have in common that the In can be summarised that a general pres-
suffers even from small leakages as due to preservation agent itself is released from ervation guideline cannot take into ac-
the overpressure this results in gas losses, the substrate in gaseous form and forms count all these controversial requirements
Tab. 1. Recommended preservation methods for a steam turbine including condenser dependent on the lay-up period.

Type of preservation Hot standby preservation Short-term preservation Medium-term preservation Long-term preservation
Typical period < 2 days 2 to 10 days 10 days to 10 weeks More than 10 weeks
Measures steam turbine Hot standby and CECD Washing and CECD or Dry air preservation Dry air preservation
dry air preservation
Measures steam side condenser Hot standby and CECD CECD or dry air preservation Dry air preservation Dry air preservation
Measures water side condenser Keep filled Periodic flushing with fresh water Periodic flushing with fresh water Drain and dry air preservation
or drain and dry air preservation
Measures hotwell Keep filled Drain Drain and dry air preservation Drain and dry air preservation

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69
Advanced and state-of-the-art preservation VGB PowerTech4l2015

ing of the boiler drain collection tank. The


boiler condensate that develops during the
standstill collects in a tank; as soon as the
filling level of the tank is reached, the tank
is automatically discharged into the con-
denser hotwell. As a result, hot water up
to around 85 C enters the hotwell causing
WSC Feedwater an increase in humidity in the LP turbine
exhaust. One possible modification would
be to avoid discharging the condensate
into the hotwell during the standstill pe-
OTC riod ( F i g u r e 2 ) . An increase inside the
ST
LP casing could also be caused by vapour
that comes from the vacuum flashbox and
gets into the cold condenser ( F i g u r e 3 ) .
This problem could be mitigated by keep-
ing one condensate pump at minimum flow
HRSG and the vacuum pumps turned on during
standstill periods in order to exchange the
hot condensate at the vacuum flash box
with cold condensate. Spraying the hot
GT Generator WSC Condensate condensate over the cold condenser tubes
provides an additional cooling effect as
long as the cooling water pumps are run-
Fig. 1. The main (sub-)systems of a combined cycle power plant.
ning. However, the spray nozzles should be
operated with care, as they could produce
and requests. This can only be covered by pumps, a hot standstill combined with mist leading to an increase in relative hu-
a tailor-made plant specific preservation CECD does normally not require any addi- midity at the turbine neck.
concept. In the following, a few examples tional installation or continuous consump- If the CECD package is applied to the steam
are given. tion of steam or large amounts of electric- turbine and the relative humidity in the
Ta b l e 1 lists the recommended preser- ity. With CECD the shutdown procedure exhaust neck of the LP turbine can be kept
vation methods for a steam turbine com- and the changes in humidity in the area of below 40 % relative humidity during the
bined with the preservation recommenda- the turbine exhaust neck are measured and entire lay-up time, Alstom allows reducing
tions for the condenser. Wet preservation the root causes for the humidity changes the consumption of Equivalent Operation
is not possible for a steam turbine. On the are identified and analysed. By modifica- Hours (EOH) from 50 to 25 per standstill/
other hand, for shorter outage periods with tion of the shutdown procedure and sever- start-up.
fast re-start ability, the condenser hotwell al measures during standstill, the turbine
If the plant is shutdown frequently and the
needs to be kept filled with condensate. and condenser neck can be kept dry for an
duration often exceeds a weekend outage,
This limits the applicable preservation entire weekend standstill.
this preservation method can be combined
method to vacuum preservation or a com- One possible source leading to the increase with dry preservation by installation of a
bination of a hot standstill and optimised of the relative humidity could be the drain- permanent adsorption dryer and automa-
shutdown procedure by application of the
Alstom CECD diagnostics tool. Whereas
vacuum preservation requires continuous
Steam from crossover pipe
generation and consumption of steam (for
example by operation of an auxiliary steam
generator) to feed the gland seals and also
non-interrupted operation of the vacuum

Atmosphere

Turbine exhaust
neck
Boiler drains Minimum
VGB PowerTech - Autorenexemplar - 2015

Drains flow line

Vacuum
Air preheater flash box
condensate Condenser

Level
switch
Minimum
Condenser flow control
To condensate valve
system

Fig. 2. B
 oiler condensate collection tank with possibility to discharge Fig. 3. Cooling down of a vacuum flash box content by operation of the
the collected condensate during standstill. condensate pump in minimum recirculation mode.

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VGB PowerTech4l2015 Advanced and state-of-the-art preservation

Noise hood

Cross-over
Pipe
Connection for
adsorption
IP/LP Turbine dryer
TI

Fig. 4. A
 utomatised preservation of a steam turbine for short
and long standstill periods.

tised as shown in F i g u r e 4 .
Whenever needed, the adsorption drier can
be put into operation by the signal coming
from the humidity probe from the CECD
installation, the gate valves open and the Fig. 6. D
 uct balloon installed between the gas turbine flue gas outlet
dry air is blown into the cross-over pipeline and the HRSG. Figure used with the courtesy of
between the IP and the LP turbines. Special G.R. Werth & Associates, Inc.
types of gate valves for sure need to be in-
stalled to assure tightness at overpressure For the rest of the time, the turning gear dry-out of water residues based on differ-
as well as under vacuum conditions. Very should be switched off, so that the dry air ent water sources and for different com-
often, a recommendation from the turbine can blow into the IP turbine from the cross- monly used condenser tube materials is
suppliers is to keep the turbine in turning- over pipeline in reverse steam direction. estimated.
gear operation at least until the turbine If the outage is even extended to much Another good example for conflicting rec-
has cooled down to a certain temperature longer periods, in addition to the above, ommendations and a potential mitigation is
to avoid distortion of the rotor due to dif- the hotwell should be emptied. Also the shown in F i g u r e 5 . The suppliers of con-
ferent cooling rates in the upper and lower cooling water needs to be drained out of densate pumps with pot-pump casing de-
half of the split casing. Operation of the ro- the condenser tubes to avoid settlement sign usually request for wet preservation of
tor in turning gear, however, works against of dispersed solids or biological growth of the pump to avoid damage to the slip rings.
the dry air flow to the IP turbine. As long aquatic life forms inside of the tubes. To In addition they might even require opera-
as the IP turbines temperature is above avoid corrosion attack at the condenser tion of the pump for at least one hour every
100 C condensation and thereby caused tubes, water residues after drainage of 14 days. This does not match with the rec-
corrosion cannot happen anyway. After the condenser shall be removed by blow- ommendations given by the turbine suppli-
the IP turbine has cooled down to below ing through with compressed air and/or ers to establish dry preservation of the tur-
boiling point, the turning gear should be flushing with clean water, ideally demin- bine and the condenser, if the outage time
switched on only for a short time per week eralised water. This is shown in Ta b l e 2 , lasts longer than a few days. Emptying of
to re-establish the lubricant film in the where the criticality of the water quality the pot pump casing usually is not possible
bearings and the entire lube oil system. that might concentrate in salt content by without dismantling of the impeller.

NH4OH 0.5%
Dosierung
VGB PowerTech - Autorenexemplar - 2015

manuell

Probenahme
Labor

Kunststoffbehlter mit Ablasshahn,


Tauchpumpe

Fig. 5. Creation of a temporary wet preservation loop to protect the slip rings of the condensate pumps from dry-out.

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71
Advanced and state-of-the-art preservation VGB PowerTech4l2015

Tab. 2. Impact of water quality on the corrosion stability of condenser tube material and the OTC are cooling down quickly due
due to dry-out effects. to natural draught caused by the stack.
Demin water/ Drinking water River water/ During weather changes or even caused by
condensate cooling tower water day and night temperature gradients, con-
Assumed concentration of sodium 0.0584 58.4 250 densation might happen on all cold surfac-
chloride (mg/l) es of the entire air intake and flue gas path.
Resutling conductivity (S/cm) 0.18 125 625
Dependent on deposits (mainly after oil fir-
ing), sulphuric acid containing electrolytes
Acid conductivity (S/cm) 0.43 423 2,200 may form and heavy rusting and corrosion
Remaining water residue after dry-out 0.035 % 35% Not stable can happen.
SS304 (resistance limit Cl 100 mg/kg)
A good and easy to establish mitigation is
Remaining water residue after dry-out 0.0025 % 2.5 % 12.5 % the use of duct balloons as shown exem-
SS316 (resistance limit Cl 1500 mg/kg)
plary in Figure 6. These inflatable air cush-
ions can stop the draught and isolate the
To keep the slip rings of the pump wet and Preservation of the flue gas side of the GT, flue gas path from ambient conditions and
the pot pump casing filled, a temporary wet the HRSG and the once-through cooler weathering. Adsorption driers of small ca-
preservation loop can be established by (OTC) for the compressed combustion air pacity can be connected to the gas turbine
connecting temporary hoses to the vent/ is another challenge, that on the one side is or the OTC to keep the entire system dry.
drain lines upstream and downstream of easy to cope with and on the other side also
the pump. The loop is completed by a small reveals some conflicts: References
collection tank and a submersible pump of For cost reasons most combined cycle
low capacity to circulate the water. This [1] VGB-S-036-00-2014-08-DE Konservierung
power plants have no bypass channel von Dampfturbostzen, VGB PowerTech,
system is filled with demineralised water that routes the exhaust flue gas from the Essen, 2014.
or condensate and the pH is adjusted with gas turbine exhaust neck directly into the [2] VGB-R 116e Preservation of Power Plant
ammonia to some pH 10. If the duration stack without passing through the HRSG. Systems VGB Power Tech, Essen, 2009. l
of the standstill is not too long (several For the same reason stack dampers and
months), there is no need to protect the dampers or jalousies in the filter house of
tank against oxygen ingress from the at- the air intake system are not installed. As
mosphere. a consequence, the gas turbine, the HRSG

VGB-Standard
!
Empfehlungen zur Verbesserung der H2-Sicherheit NEU !
< 8 >

NE W
wasserstoffgekhlter Generatoren
Ausgabe/edition 2014 S-165-00-2014-07-DE
VGB-Standard
DIN A4, 58 Pages, Preis fr VGB-Mitglieder 170,, fr Nichtmitglieder 240,, + Versandkosten und MwSt.
DIN A4, 58 Pages, Price for VGB members 170., for non members 240., + VAT, shipping and handling. Empfehlungen
zur Verbesserung der
Der vorliegende VGB-Standard Empfehlungen zur Verbesserung der H2-Sicherheit wasserstoffgekhlter H2-Sicherheit wasserstoff-
gekhlter Generatoren
Generatoren wurde durch die VGB-Projektgruppe H2-Sicherheit bearbeitet. Der aktuelle VGB-S-165
enthlt die berarbeitung der vormaligen VGB-Richtlinie VGB-R 165 aus dem Jahr 2006, welche eine
Fortschreibung der im Jahre 1989 herausgegebenen gleichnamigen VDEW-Richtlinie
darstellte.
VGB-S-165-00-2014-07-DE

Der vorliegende VGB-S-165 bercksichtigt die aktuelle fr die Errichtung und den
Betrieb von Generatoren mit Wasserstoff (H2) als Khlmittel magebende DIN
EN 60034-3 Drehende elektrische Maschinen Teil 3: Besondere Anforderungen
an Vollpol-Synchronmaschinen Ausgabe 2009-03. Auf Basis der in dieser Norm VGB PowerTech e.V.
Klinkestrae 27-31
Fon: +49 201 8128 200
Fax: +49 201 8128 329

gestellten neuen technischen Anforderungen und den mit der Umsetzung der Be-
45136 Essen www.vgb.org

triebssicherheitsverordnung im Sinne der ATEX erfolgten Vorgaben fr die sicherheits- Umschlag-S-165_2014-12-15_DE_A3q.indd 1 15.12.2014 11:56:15

technische Betrachtung beim Betrieb dieser Anlagen wurde eine berarbeitung der bisherigen VGB-Richtlinie erforderlich. Dabei wurden die
VGB PowerTech - Autorenexemplar - 2015

Erfahrungen bei der Anwendung der VGB-R 165 bercksichtigt und die Zustndigkeiten der betrieblichen Experten fr den Ex-Schutz deutlich
herausgestellt. Aktuelle Erkenntnisse zu den geforderten Materialien und Anforderungen an Abdichtungssysteme wurden konkreter gefasst.
Die Projektgruppe Generatoren des VGB-Arbeitskreises Elektrische Maschinen und Anlagen setzte zutzlich die Projektgruppe H2-Sicher-
heit ein, die sich aus Grnden der Ausgewogenheit aus Mitgliedern von Betreibern und Herstellern wasserstoffgekhlter Generatoren zusam-
mensetzte. Die Inhalte wurden zudem mit den Experten der VGB-Kern-AG Betriebssicherheitsverordnung abgestimmt.
Zielsetzung der berarbeitung war, zur weiteren Verbesserung der H2-Sicherheit in einem harmonisierten europischen Umfeld den Herstellern
und Betreibern einheitliche Empfehlungen an die Hand zu geben, nach denen Neuanlagen auszulegen bzw. bestehende Anlagen zu betreiben
sind. Hierbei erfolgte auch die Ableitung grundlegender Empfehlungen fr Manahmen an bestehenden Generatoren, die jedoch im Einzelfall
stets neu zu bewerten und umzusetzen sind.
Der vorliegende VGB-Standard wurde nach bestem Fachwissen erstellt, erhebt jedoch nicht den Anspruch auf Vollstndigkeit. Dem Wesen nach
ist es eine Empfehlung und kann daher nicht den Sachverstand der Anwender ersetzen.

VGB PowerTech Service GmbH Deilbachtal 173 | 45257 Essen | P.O. Box 10 39 32 | Germany
Verlag technisch-wissenschaftlicher Schriften Fon: +49 201 8128-200 | Fax: +49 201 8128-302 | Mail: mark@vgb.org | www.vgb.org/shop

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International Journal for Electricity and Heat Generation

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