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Manual D

Residential Duct Systems


Third Edition, Version 2.50

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15 August 2016
BSR/ACCA 1 Manual D For Public Review

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ISBN # XXXX-XXXXXX-XX-X

The Third Edition of ANSI/ACCA Manual D is the Air Conditioning Contractors

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of America procedure for sizing residential duct systems.

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For Public Review Purposes: Version 2.50 of Manual D has new normative pages that
fully detail the minimum Manual D requirements. The Sections and Appendices that fol-
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low are informative material (discussion, background information, and example prob-
lems). The example problems for air-zoned systems, and related informative material,
are deleted from this version of Manual D. Air zoning content will be placed in the Man-

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ual Zr, Residential Zoning update (planned release is mid-2017). Various minor changes
to the prior-approved 2014 Manual D Sections and Appendices (now marked as
"informative sections") are identified by red-underline text, or strikethrough text.
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Commentators must use the ACCA Response Form to comment


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on this document. Available from:


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www.acca.org/standards/ansi
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The completed Response Form is to be emailed to:


standards-sec@acc.org
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Noting - "Manual D Public Comment from {your last name}" - in the subject line.
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The ANSI Public Review period is: 19 August - 3 October 2016.


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ACCA Contact:
Glenn Hourahan
2800 S. Shirlington Road, Suite 300
Arlington, VA 22206
Voice: 703-575-4477
Copyright and Disclaimer
This publication and all earlier working/review drafts of this publication are protected by copyright. By
making this publication available for use, ACCA does not waive any rights in copyright to this publication.
No part of this publication or earlier working/review drafts of this publication may be reproduced, stored

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in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form by any technology without written permission from ACCA.

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Address requests to reproduce, store, or transmit to: VP-Marketing & Business Development at the ACCA
offices in Arlington, Virginia.

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2016, Air Conditioning Contractors of America
2800 S. Shirlington Road, Suite 300
Arlington, VA 22206
www.acca.org

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Adoption by Reference

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Public authorities and others are encouraged to reference this document in laws, ordinances, regulations,

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administrative orders, or similar instruments. Any deletions, additions, and changes desired by the adopt-
ing authority must be noted separately. The term adoption by reference means references shall be lim-
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ited to citing of title, version, date and source of publication.

Disclaimer and Legal Notice

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Diligence has been exercised in the production of this publication. The content is based on an industry con-
sensus of recognized good practices drawn from published handbooks, manuals, journals, standards,
codes, technical papers, research papers, magazine articles, textbooks used for engineering curriculums,
and on information presented during conferences and symposiums. ACCA has made no attempt to question,
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investigate or validate this information, and ACCA expressly disclaims any duty to do so. The commen-
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tary, discussion, procedures and guidance provided by this publication do not constitute a warranty, guar-
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antee, or endorsement of any procedure, process, formula, concept, observation, recommendation, data-set,
product, or service. ACCA, members of the Manual D Review Committee, and the document reviewers
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do not warrant or guarantee that the information contained in this publication is free of errors, omissions,
misinterpretations, or that it will not be modified or invalidated by additional scrutiny, analysis, or investi-
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gation. The entire risk associated with the use of the information provided by this standard is assumed by
the user.

ACCA does not take any position with respect to the validity of any patent or copyright rights asserted in
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connection with any items, process, procedures, or apparatus which are mentioned in or are the subject of
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this document, and ACCA disclaims liability of the infringement of any patent resulting from the use of or
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reliance on this document. Users of this document are expressly advised that determination of the validity
of any such patent or copyright, and the risk of infringement of such rights, is entirely their own responsi-
bility. Users of this document should consult applicable federal, state, and local laws and regulations.
45

ACCA does not, by the publication of this document, intend to urge action that is not in compliance with
applicable laws, and this document may not be construed as doing so. Nothing in this Manual should be
construed as providing legal advice, and the content is not a substitute for obtaining legal counsel from the
readers own lawyer in the appropriate jurisdiction or state.

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Acknowledgments

The author, Hank Rutkowski, P.E., ACCA Technical Consultant, gratefully acknowledges the help, guid-
ance and encouragement provided by the diverse expertise embodied in the membership of the ACCA
Manual D Review Committee:

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Members of the 2009 Manual D, Third Edition, Review Committee, many of whom served
as reviewers for the 2014 revision, and the 2016 update:

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Mechanical Contractors
Dan Foley, Foley Mechanical Inc.; Lorton, VA
Phillip D. Forner, Allendale Heating Co., Inc.; Allendale, MI

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Dave S. Hutchins, Bay Area A/C & Appliance Inc.; Crystal River, FL
John D. Sedine, Engineered Heating and Cooling; Walker, MI

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Kenneth B. Watson, Roscoe Brown, Inc.; Murfreesboro, TN

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Instructors
Jack Bartell, Virginia Air Distributors; Richmond, VA
Arthur T. Miller, Community College of Allegheny County; Oakdale, PA

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John F. Parker, Clanton, AL
Thomas A. Robertson, Baker Distributing Company; New Haven, MO

Original Equipment Manufacturers


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Bob Cherveny, M&M Manufacturing Company; Fort Worth, TX


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Loran Dailey, The Trane Company; Tyler, TX


Frank Granville, Lennox - HVAC Learning Solutions; Sun City, AZ
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Timothy W. Young, P.E., Fujitsu General America, Inc.; Fairfield, NJ


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Utility Participants
John P. Jackson, Alabama Power Company - HVAC Training Center; Verbena, Al
Justin Moore, Mississippi Power Company; Gulfport, MS
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David E. Swett, Omaha Public Power District; Omaha, NE


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Consultants to the Committee


Charles S. Barnaby, Wrightsoft Inc.; Lexington, MA
Charles Culp, Ph.D, Texas A&M University; College Station, TX
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Henry T. Rutkowski, P.E., H.T.R. Consulting; Dover, OH


William W. Smith, Elite Software; College Station, TX

Association Participants
Glenn C. Hourahan, P.E., ACCA; Arlington, VA
Ralph Koerber, ATCO Rubber Products, Inc.; Fort Worth, TX
Warren Lupson, Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI); Arlington, VA
Richard Wirtz; Columbus, OH

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Other Participants
Michael A. Bergen, Air Handling Services, Inc.; Philadelphia, PA
David A. Butler, Optimal Building Systems; Sierra Vista, AZ
Robert W. George, ICF International; Plano, TX
Dennis J. Stroer, Calcs-Plus; North Venice, FL

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Richard F. Welguisz, Tyler, TX 75709

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Staff Liaison Technical
Glenn C. Hourahan, P.E., ACCA; Arlington, VA

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Staff Liaison Production, Publishing, and Editing
Christopher N. Hoelzel, ACCA; Arlington, VA

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Publishing Consultant
Page layout and electronic publishing provided by Carol Lovelady, Lovelady Consulting; Roswell, GA

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Extended Reviewers to the Committee
Ronald Bladen, ACCA; Arlington,VA
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Charles Culp, Ph.D, Texas A&M University; College Station, TX
Robert Falke, National Comfort Institute; Sheffield Lake, OH

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William J. Gallentine, BEST & Associates; Accident, MD
Gary E. Georgette, Carrier Corporation; Indianapolis, IN
Ellis G. Guiles, Jr,. P.E., TAG Mechanical Systems, Inc.; Syracuse, NY
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Raymond A. Granderson, Rheem Manufacturing Company A/C Division; Fort Smith, AR


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Bruce Harley, Conservation Services Group; Westboro, MA


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James M. Herritage, Energy Auditors, Inc.; Mount Pleasant, SC


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Luis Escobar, Home Innovation Research Laboratory; Upper Barlboro, MD


Patrick L. Murphy; Arlington, VA
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Michael Shnitman, Wrightsoft Inc.; Lexington, MA


Lawrence P. Sutton, Lennox Industries, Inc.; Carrollton, TX
Brent Ursenbach, Salt Lake County Planning & Development (Inspection Services Division); Salt Lake City, UT
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Peter M. Van Lancker, Rheem Manufacturing Company A/C Division; Ft. Smith, AR
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Special thanks and appreciation is extended to John Sedine (Chair of the Committee) for his guidance
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and leadership. Special acknowledgment is extended to Richard Welguisz for his technical contributions,
inputs, and overall support of the Manual D update.

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Dedication

Professional Dedication
The author offers a personal thank you to Paul Stalknecht, President and CEO, ACCA, for his support and
to Glenn Hourahan, Senior Vice President, Research and Technology, ACCA, for valuable suggestions and

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for managing the Version 2.50 project. A robust thank you is extended to all the members of the Manual D

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committee and to the ACCA staff. The guidance and direction provided by this collection of industry lead-
ers is embodied in Manual D.

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Personal Dedication
The author dedicates this work to historical ACCA leadership. This collection of board members and staff
created and consistently supported ACCA's educational mission (which dates back to the 1950's). This
work also is dedicated to the teachers and instructors that provide training for the industry; and to contrac-

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tors, system designers, practitioners and code officials that produce quality installations.

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This overview is not part of the Standard. It is merely informative and does not contain requirements necessary for conformance to the Standard. It has not been pro-
cessed according to the ANSI requirements for a Standard, and may contain material that has not been subject to public review or a consensus process. Unresolved
objections on informative material are not offered the right to appeal at ACCA or ANSI.

Overview

Normative Content of Manual D Section 6 - Duct Sizing Calculations


Section 6 covers duct system design procedures in detail.
Section N1 - Normative Requirements
These procedures are embedded in the Manual D

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The engineering calculations that proceed Manual D use worksheets. Section 6 explains why air balancing damp-

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(prerequisite tasks) are listed. Mandatory duct system ers are required.
features and attributes are listed. Manual D calculation
tools (worksheets and third party software) are identi- Section 7 - Air-Zoned Systems

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fied, with instructions pertaining to proper use of these Manual D procedures apply to single-zone constant Cfm
tools. Prohibited practices are listed. systems and to air-zoned systems, but air-zoned systems
have issues that are peculiar to air-zoned systems. Sec-
Section N2 - Manual D Worksheets
tion 7 provides a commentary, but Manual D defers to

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Section N2 provides detailed instructions for proper use ACCA Manual Zr for more detail pertaining to duct sys-
of Manual D worksheets. Section 2 also provides a set of tem design for air-zoned systems.
blank worksheets.

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Sections 8 through 13
Section N3 - Normative Tables
Example problems demonstrate use of Manual D proce-
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Tables N3-1 and N3-2 provide maximum air velocity val-
ues for duct airways, supply air grilles, return air grilles,
dures for these applications:
Section 8 - Sizing Rigid Constant Cfm Duct Systems
an door undercuts for return air.

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Section N4 - Fitting Equivalent Lengths Section 9 - Sizing Flexible Constant Cfm Duct Systems
Section N4 provides default fitting length values, in terms Section 10 - Sizing Rigid Air-Zoned Duct Systems
of equivalent feet of straight duct. These values (as appli-
cable to the duct system being designed) provide input Section 11 - Sizing Flexible Air-Zoned Duct Systems
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data for the Effective Length Worksheet. Section 12 - Sizing Two-Zone Bi-Level Duct Systems
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Informative Content of Manual D Section 13 - Zone Damper Retrofit

Sections 1 and 2 - Basic Duct Sizing Principles Appendix 1 -Tables and Equations
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and System Operating Point Appendix 1 shows two tables that are used by Manual D
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Duct system physics, as it pertains to duct airflow, blower procedure. A copy of Table N3-1 provides informative air
airflow, and the interaction between a given duct system velocity limits for air flowing through duct airways. A
and a given blower, as this pertains to the system operat- copy of Table N3-2 provides informative gap height val-
ing point. ues for partition door undercut, when a door undercut
provides the return air path from a room or space to a cen-
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Section 3 - Blowers tral return grille. Appendix 1 also summarizes the equa-
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Blower performance, as it pertains to the type of motor tions that are used by Manual D procedures.
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that drives the blower wheel. Blower performance, as it


pertains to altitude. Appendix 2 - Friction Charts, Duct Slide Rules
and Shape Equivalency Tables
Section 4 - System Performance Issues Use of friction charts and equivalency tables, or duct slide
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Duct system physics, as it pertains to the pressure drop rules, is required for Manual D procedures. Duct run per-
across various types of system components. Use of struc- formance, as it relates to duct run pressure drop, depends
tural framing for duct airways (panning), and use of a on the surface roughness of the airway material. Appen-
door undercut for a return air path is covered. dix 2 provides copies of industry approved graphs that
summarize duct material performance. Note that each
Section 5 - Air Distribution System Design type of duct material has its own graph. Similar informa-
Section 5 provides an executive overview of duct system tion is provided by duct slide rules, which tend to have
design procedures. It also covers use of a branch take off one friction rate scale for one type of material. Note that
fitting at the end of a supply air trunk duct. the ACCA duct slide rule has friction rate scales for four
types of duct material. Also note that the Appendix 2

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Overview

graph, and ACCA duct slide rule scale, for flexible wire Appendix 8 - Residential Air Distribution Systems
helix duct is for duct installed to Air Diffusion Council Provides a non-mathematical discussion of residential
(ADC) Standards, which means that there shall be not duct system types, and their attributes. This presenta-
more than 4% compression along the centerline of the tion is suitable for entry level training, and for informing
duct run. Duct slide rules (or adjustment factors) do exist home owners about residential duct system concepts
for flex duct that has more than 4% compression, but and issues.
these tools are not relevant to Appendix 2 because Man-

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ual D requires flexible duct to be installed to ADC stan- Appendix 9 - Equipment and Air-Side Components

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dards. A round airway provides the most efficient
Provides a non-mathematical discussion of residential
shape, as this pertains to minimum airflow resistance.
duct system equipment. This covers the types of primary
Shape equivalency tables convert a round shape to an
heating-cooling equipment, and the various types of
equivalent rectangular shape in that airflow resistance is

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components and devices that may be installed in a duct
the same for both shapes. Since a rectangular shape is
system. This presentation is suitable for entry level train-
less efficient than a round shape, the equivalent rectan-
ing, and for informing home owners about residential
gular airway area is larger than the round airway area;
duct system concepts and issues.
therefore the air velocity through the rectangular airway

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is less than the air velocity through the round airway. In Appendix 10 - Duct System Efficiency
other words, 'equivalency' only applies to rubbing fric-

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tion, and not to air velocity. Duct system efficiency depends on airway shape (some-

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what), duct wall sealing (very significant), and duct wall
Appendix 3 - Fitting Equivalent Length Concept insulation (very significant). These issues are discussed.
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An equivalent length value is a simplified way to
account for fitting pressure drop. As such, an equivalent
SMACNA leakage classes are discussed. Example prob-
lems and output from Florida Energy Center studies
quantify the consequence of duct leakage and the lack of
length value (EL) depends on a friction rate (FR) value

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duct insulation, as this pertains to heating-cooling loads,
(pressure drop per 100 feet of duct) and an air velocity
energy use, and the air temperature at supply air outlets.
value (Fpm). The default values for Section N4 are for
the most severe circumstances allowed by Manual D Appendix 11 - Duct Leakage and
procedure (small friction rate value with a high velocity System Interactions
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value).
Air pressure in conditioned space, and infiltration or
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Appendix 4 - Fitting Equivalent exfiltration, is affected by wind, air density, envelope


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Length Adjustments leakage, building exaust equipment, engineered ventila-


tion intake Cfm and exhaust Cfm, chimneys and flues,
Appendix 3 shows how to calculate equivalent length
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and appliance exhaust fans and vents.


values for a default friction rate value paired with a
default air velocity value. Appendix 4 provides the pro-
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Appendix 12 - Air Quality Issues


cedure for calculating equivalent length values for other
pairs of friction rate and air velocity values. When Combustion appliance back drafting may be due to neg-
Appendix 4 equivalent length values are used, the ative space pressure caused by the HVAC system.
Appendix 4 friction rate value and air velocity value HVAC equipment and duct runs can cause indoor air
quality problems.
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shall be used for all worksheet calculations.


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Appendix 13 - Noise
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Appendix 5 - Terminology
Definitions of terms used by Manual D procedures. Sources of mechanically generated noise and airflow
generated noise. Methods for attenuation.
Appendix 6 - Duct Construction Standards
Appendix 14 - Testing and Balancing
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Cites sources for various codes and standards that relate


to Manual D procedures, and to duct methods and Summary of issues and requirements.
material issues.
Appendix 15 - Air Velocity for Ducts and Grilles
Appendix 7 - Standard of Care and Continuity This appendix explains why the air velocity in the duct
Discusses duct sealing, duct insulation issues, air bal- airway does not determine the amount of air motion in a
ancing issues, and standard of care issues. room or space.

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Overview

Appendix 16 - Excessive Length and Sag


in Flexible Duct
Flexible duct that is not installed to ADC standards, will
have excessive sag and/or droop, and/or compression,
or snaking. This causes a significant difference between
the point-to-point distance of a duct run and the effective
length of the run. Appendix 11 tables provide factors that

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convert point-to-point length to effective length. Example

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problems show the consequences of improper
installation.

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Appendix 17 - Symbols and Abbreviations
Definitions of symbols and abbreviations used by Man-
ual D.

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Table of Contents

The Manual D Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i Section N4 Normative


Copyright and Disclaimer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ii
Fitting Equivalent Length Values by
Acknowledgments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
Group Number

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Dedication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v
Group 1 Supply Air Fittings at the Air Handling

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Overview of This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
Table of Contents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv Group 2 Branch Takeoff Fittings at the
Prerequisites and Learned Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii Supply Trunk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

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Group 3 Reducing Trunk Takeoff Fittings . . . . 152
Group 4 Supply Air Boot and Stack Head Fittings . 154
Section N1 Normative Group 5 Return Air Fittings at the Air
Normative Requirements for Handling Equipment . . . . . . . . . . 155

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System Design Group 6 Branch Return Air Fittings
N1-1 Purpose of this Standard At the Return Trunk . . . . . . . . . . 158

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N1-2 Scope Return Air Boot Fittings . . . . . . . . 160

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N1-3 Definitions Group 7 Panned Joists and Panned Stud
N1-4 Manual D Procedure Return Air Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . 161
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Prerequisite Tasks
Effective Length Worksheet
Group 8 Elbows and Offsets . . . . . . . . . . .
Group 9 Supply Trunk Junction Fittings . . . . .
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164
N1-7 Friction Rate Worksheet Group 10 Return Trunk Junction Fittings . . . . 166

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N1-8 Duct Sizing Worksheet Group 11 Flexible Duct Junction Boxes and
N1-9 Altitude Effects Radius Bends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
N1-10 Return Air Path Requirements Group 12 Transitions
N1-11 Branch Takeoff at the End of a Supply Trunk Diverging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
N1-12 Structural Cavities Used for Airways Converging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
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N1-13 Zone Damper Systems Oval Transition Plenums and


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N1-14 Exhaust Air Systems Abrupt Squeezes . . . . . . . . . . . 170


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N1-15 Duct System Installation Group 13 Manual Balancing Dampers . . . . . . 171


N1-16 Flexible Wire Helix Duct Installation Group 14 Transfer Duct or Transfer Grille . . . . 172
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N1-17 System Air Balancing


N1-18 Approved Software Section 1 Informative
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N1-19 Output and Documentation


Basic Duct Sizing Principles
1-1 Pressure Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Section N2 Normative 1-2 Blower Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Manual D Worksheets 1-3 Duct Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
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N2-1 Effective Length Worksheet 1-4 System Operating Point . . . . . . . . . . . 1


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N2-2 Friction Rate Worksheet 1-5 Objective of the Residential Sizing Procedure . 2
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N2-3 Duct Sizing Worksheet 1-6 Pressure Drop and Friction Rate . . . . . . . 2
N2-4 Blank Worksheets 1-7 Effective Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1-8 Ducted Return . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1-9 Branch Ducts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
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Section N3 Normative 1-10 Pressure Drop for Air-Side Components . . . 4


1-11 Available Static Pressure (ASP) . . . . . . . 4
Normative Tables 1-12 Velocity Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
N3-1 Pressure Drop In A Duct Run . . . . . . . 173 1-13 Psychometric Airflow Calculation . . . . . . 6
N3-2 System Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 1-14 Blower Cfm and Room Cfm . . . . . . . . . 8
1-15 Trunk Cfm Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

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Section 2 Informative 6-2 Balancing Damper Function . . . . . . . . 33
6-3 Balancing Damper Requirement . . . . . . 34
System Operating Point 6-4 Design Value for Blower Cfm . . . . . . . . 34
2-1 System Operating Point. . . . . . . . . . . 11 6-5 Available Static Pressure . . . . . . . . . . 34
2-2 Changing Blower Wheel Speed. . . . . . . 11 6-6 Total Effective Length . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2-3 Changing System Resistance . . . . . . . 11 6-7 Design Friction Rate Value . . . . . . . . . 38
2-4 Operating Envelope . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 6-8 Sensible Heating and Cooling Loads . . . . 39

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2-5 Drawing the System Curve . . . . . . . . . 12 6-9 Summing Room Loads . . . . . . . . . . . 39

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2-6 Drawing the Blower Curve . . . . . . . . . 13 6-10 Room Cfm for Single-Zone Systems . . . . 40
2-7 Establishing the Operating Point . . . . . . 13 6-11 Summing of Room Cfm Values
2-8 Wheel Speed Design Value. . . . . . . . . 14 for Single-Zone Systems . . . . . . . . . 41
2-9 Balance Point Diagram Application . . . 14 6-12 Summing of Room Cfm Values

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for Zone Damper Systems . . . . . . . . 42
Section 3 Informative 6-13 Supply Branch Flow Rates for Airway Sizing . 42
6-14 Primary Trunks and Secondary Trunks . . . 42
Blowers 6-15 Supply Trunk Flow Rates for Airway Sizing 43

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3-1 Blower Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6-16 Return Branch Flow Rates for Airway Sizing . 43
3-2 Multi-Speed Operating Point Blower . . . . 17 6-17 Return Trunk Flow Rates for Airway Sizing. 44

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3-3 Variable-Speed, Operating Range Blower . 18

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6-18 Branch Airway Sizing (Supply or Return) . . 44
3-4 Blower Wheel Speed Vs. System Type. . . 22 6-19 Trunk Airway Sizing (Supply or Return) . . 45
3-5 External Static Pressure . . . . . . . . . . 23 6-20 Equivalent Rectangular Sizes. . . . . . . . 45
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Air Density Correction. . . . . . . . . . .
Inlet and Discharge Conditions . . . . . .
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6-21
6-22
Optional Airway Sizes . . . . . . . . . . .
Air Distribution Hardware . . . . . . . . . .
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3-8 Blower Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 6-23 Air Balance Cfm Values

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for Single-Zone Systems . . . . . . . . . 46
Section 4 Informative 6-24 Air Balance Cfm Values
for Zone Damper Systems . . . . . . . . 47
System Performance Issues
6-25 Refer to Manual Zr for Related Guidance . 47
4-1 Straight Section Pressure Drop . . . . . . . 25
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4-2 Duct Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25


Section 7 Informative
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4-3 Required Standard of Care for Installing


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Flexible Wire Helix Duct . . . . . . . . . 25 Air-Zoned Systems


4-4 Excess Length for Flexible Wire Helix Duct 25 7-1 Procedure Overlap . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
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4-5 Panned Joist Space and Stud Space . . . . 26 7-2 Air-Zoning Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
4-6 Fitting Pressure Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 7-3 Load Calculations for Air-Zoned Systems . 82
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4-7 Pressure Drop for Air-Side Components . . 27 7-4 Zone Dampers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82


4-8 Supply Outlet, Return Grille and 7-5 Bypass Duct and Dump Zones . . . . . . . 82
Hand Damper Pressure Drops . . . . . . . 27 7-6 Equipment Capacity Control . . . . . . . . 83
4-9 Low-Resistance Return Path . . . . . . . . 28 7-7 Air Distribution Effectiveness . . . . . . . . 83
4-10 Grille Air Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 7-8 Two-Zone Flip-Flop Damper . . . . . . . . 83
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7-9 Duct Sizing Examples for


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Section 5 Informative Air-Zoned Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 83


BS

7-10 Balancing Dampers for Zone


Air Distribution System Design
Damper Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
5-1 System Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 7-11 Air Balancing Zone Damper Systems. . . . 84
5-2 Load Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
45

5-3 Equipment Sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30


5-4 Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Section 8 Informative Examples
5-5 Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Sizing Rigid Constant Cfm Duct Systems
5-6 Takeoff at End of Supply Trunk . . . . . . . 30 8-1 Radial Duct System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
5-7 Duct Material and Duct Fabrication . . . . . 31 8-2 Extended Two-Way Plenum System . . . . 52
5-8 Perform the Duct Sizing Calculations . . . . 31 8-3 Reducing Plenum System . . . . . . . . . 57
8-4 Primary and Secondary Trunk System
Section 6 Informative with an Operating Point Blower. . . . . . 60
8-5 Primary and Secondary Trunk System
Duct Sizing Calculations
with an Operating Range Blower . . . . . 66
6-1 Basis for the Sizing Procedure . . . . . . . 33 8-6 Scrutinize Blower Data Footnotes . . . . . 68

xiii
Section 9 Informative Examples A1-7 Pressure Drop for a Fitting
A8-8 Pressure Drop for an Air-Side Component
Sizing Flexible Constant Cfm Duct Systems A1-9 Pressure Drop for a Circulation Path
9-1 Duct Board Trunk with Flex Runouts . . . . 71 A1-10 Bernoulli Equation for Duct Airflow
9-2 Flexible Wire Helix Duct System . . . . . . 75 A1-11 Duct Flow Equation
A1-12 Equivalent Duct Size Based on Friction Rate
A1-13 Hydraulic Diameter

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Section 10 Informative Examples A1-14 Areas and Perimeters

20 vie 01
A1-15 Duct Slide Rule Equations
Sizing Rigid Air-Zoned Duct Systems A1-16 Duct System Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . 126
10-1 Air-Zoned System with an Operating A1-17 Metal Duct Performance for Standard Air . 126
Point Blower and a Bypass Duct . . . . . 87

ct e - 2
10-2 Air-Zoned System with Equipment Speed Appendix 2 Informative
Control and Selective Throttling . . . . . 92
Friction Charts, Duct Slide Rules
Section 11 Informative Examples and Equivalency Tables

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A2-1 Friction Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Sizing Flexible Air-Zoned Duct Systems A2-2 Friction Rate versus Pressure Drop

)
11-1 Flexible Air-Zoned System with Equipment

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Speed Control and Selective Throttling . . 99 Appendix 3 Informative
11-2 Effective Length Calculation . . . . . . . . 99
11-3
11-4
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Design Friction Rate Calculation . . . . . . 99
Duct Sizing Calculations . . . . . . . . . . 99
Fitting Equivalent Lengths
A3-1 Equivalent Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
11-5 Comments and Observations . . . . . . . 101 A3-2 Default Equivalent Length Values . . . . . 144

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A3-3 Equivalent Length Values
Section 12 Informative Examples for Other Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . 144
A3-4 Air Velocity and Friction Rate are not
Sizing Two-Zone Bi-Level Duct Systems Independent Variables
12-1 Bi-Level Zoning with Central Equipment . 105
(1 N 1

12-2 Loads and Performance Data . . . . . . . 107 Appendix 4 Informative


P

12-3 Effective Length Calculation . . . . . . . . 108


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12-4 Design Friction Rate Calculation . . . . . 108 Fitting Equivalent Length Adjustments
12-5 Duct Sizing Calculations . . . . . . . . . . 108 A4-1 Pressure Drop In A Duct Run . . . . . . . 173
S

12-6 Comments and Observations . . . . . . . 111 A4-2 System Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . 173


12-7 Balancing a Simple Damper-Stop System 112 A4-3 Air Delivery Vs. System Resistance . . . . 173
D -D /AC

A4-4 Controlling System Pressure Drop . . . . 173


Section 13 Informative Example A4-5 Equivalent Length Values Are Conditional 173
A4-6 Trading Fitting Length For Velocity . . . . 173
Zone Damper Retrofit A4-7 The Wingard Equation . . . . . . . . . . . 173
13-1 Candidate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 A4-8 Application of the Wingard Equation . . . 174
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13-2 Zoning Geometry Vs. Zoning Hardware. . 114 A4-9 Modified Duct Sizing Procedure . . . . . . 174
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13-3 Bypass Duct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114


9
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13-4 Returns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Appendix 5 Informative


13-5 Data Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
13-6 Airway Sizing Calculations . . . . . . . . 115 Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
13-7 Effective Length Calculation . . . . . . . . 117
45

Appendix 6 Informative
Appendix 1 Informative Duct Construction Standards
Informative Tables and Equations
A1-1 Pertinent Standards and Codes . . . . . . 185
A1-1 Air Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 A1-2 Performance Checklists . . . . . . . . . . 187
A1-2 Door Cut for Return Air . . . . . . . . . . 123 A1-3 Recommended Materials
A1-3 Sensible Heat Equation . . . . . . . . . . 124 Based on Location . . . . . . . . . . . 188
A1-4 Room Airflow Equations . . . . . . . . . . 124
A1-5 Friction Rate Equation . . . . . . . . . . . 124
A1-6 Pressure Drop for a Duct Run

xiv
Appendix 7 Informative Appendix 11 Informative
Standard of Care and Continuity Duct Leakage and System Interactions
A2-1 Statutory Requirements . . . . . . . . . . 191 A6-1 Complex Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
A2-2 General Manual D Requirements . . . . . 191 A6-2 Pressure Differences . . . . . . . . . . . 233
A2-3 Requirements for Installing Flexible Duct . 192 A6-3 Synergistic Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
A2-4 Generic Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 A6-4 Excessive Space Humidity at Part-Load . 241

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A2-5 Procedure Capability vs. Standard of Care . 193 A6-5 Building Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

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Appendix 8 Informative Appendix 12 Informative
Residential Air Distribution Systems Air Quality Issues

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A3-1 Single-Zone Vs. Multi-Zone System . . . . 195 A7-1 Problems Caused by the Duct System . . 243
A3-2 Air Distribution System Performance A7-2 Collective Effect of Pressure Drivers . . . 244
Depends on Airflow and Air Mixing . . . 196 A7-3 Duct Board and Duct Liner . . . . . . . . 244
A3-3 Continuous Blower Operation . . . . . . . 196 A7-4 Duct Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244

O R D
A3-4 Central and Distributed A7-5 Dirty Socks Syndrome . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Air Handling Systems . . . . . . . . . . 196

)
A3-5 Classification of Supply Duct Systems . . 197 Appendix 13 Informative

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A3-6 Classification of Return Duct Systems . . 200
A3-7 System Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Noise
A3-8
A3-9
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Trunk and Branch Systems . . . . . .
Radial Duct Systems . . . . . . . . .
.
.
.
.
204
206
A8-1
A8-2
Blower Noise. . . . . . . . . .
Noise Generated by Duct Runs
. . . . . . 245
. . . . . . 245
A3-10 Perimeter Loop Systems . . . . . . . . . 206 A8-3 Noise Generated by Air

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A3-11 Return Air Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Distribution components . . . . . . . . 245
A3-12 Plenum Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 A8-4 Transmitted Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
A3-13 Architectural Compatibility . . . . . . . . . 210 A8-5 Crosstalk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
A8-6 Vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Appendix 9 Informative A8-7 Attenuation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
(1 N 1

A8-8 Room Absorption Effect . . . . . . . . . . 245


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Equipment and Air-Side Components A8-9 Noise Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246


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A4-1 Air Distribution System Components . . . 211 A8-10 Designing for Noise Control . . . . . . . . 246
A4-2 Primary Heating and Cooling Equipment . 211
S

A4-3 Secondary Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Appendix 14 Informative


A4-4 Air-Side components . . . . . . . . . . . 218
D -D /AC

Testing and Balancing


Appendix 10 Informative A9-1 Scope of Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
A9-2 Blower Door Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Duct System Efficiency A9-3 Calibrated Airflow Matching System. . . . 251
A5-1 Aerodynamic Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . 221 A9-4 Pressure Measurements. . . . . . . . . . 252
R

A5-2 Conduction Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 A9-5 Vents, Chimneys and Exhaust Systems . 252
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A5-3 Vapor Retarders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 A9-6 Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252


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A5-4 Leakage Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 A9-7 Air-Side Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252


A5-5 Duct Sealing Requirements . . . . . . . . 223
A5-6 Duct Leakage Estimates. . . . . . . . . . 224 Appendix 15 Informative
A5-7 Leakage Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
45

A5-8 Duct Loads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Air Velocity for Ducts and Grilles
A5-9 Supply Duct Load Reduces A10-1 Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Delivered Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . 227 A10-2 Why Worry About Air Velocity . . . . . . . 255
A5-10 Return Duct Load Affects A10-3 Balancing Dampers . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Refrigeration Equipment Capacity . . . 228 A10-4 Air Mixing and Room Air Motion . . . . . . 257
A5-11 Illustrative Example of A10-5 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Duct System Loads . . . . . . . . . . . 229
A5-12 Efficiency, Operating Cost
and Demand Load. . . . . . . . . . . . 230
A5-13 Figure of Merit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

xv
Appendix 16 Informative
Excess Length and Sag in Flexible Duct
A11-1 Natural Length of Flexible Wire Helix Duct 259
A11-2 Default Pressure Drop for
Flexible Wire Helix Duct . . . . . . . . . 259
A11-3 Default for Excess Length . . . . . . . . . 259

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A11-4 Affect of Excess Length . . . . . . . . . . 259

20 vie 01
A11-5 Excess Length Geometry . . . . . . . . . 259
A11-6 Equivalent Length for Cut Lengths
that have Negligible Compression . . . 261
A11-7 Flexible Wire Helix Duct Compression . . 261

ct e - 2
A11-8 Equivalent Length for Compression . . . . 262
A11-9 Comparative Examples . . . . . . . . . . 262

Appendix 17 Informative

O R D
Symbols and Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . 265

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Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271

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)
This introduction is not part of the Standard. It is merely informative and does not contain requirements necessary for conformance to the Standard. It has not been
processed according to the ANSI requirements for a Standard, and may contain material that has not been subject to public review or a consensus process. Unre-
solved objections on informative material are not offered the right to appeal at ACCA or ANSI.

Introduction
Residential duct systems have a direct and significant effect on equipment performance, equipment size, equipment effi-
ciency, equipment malfunctions, envelope infiltration, operating cost, utility demand loads, vent performance, exhaust
system performance, indoor air quality, ambient noise, occupant comfort, and owner satisfaction. Therefore, the duct sys-

16 w x
tem must be carefully designed and properly installed, or the benefits of an efficient structure and high-efficiency equip-
ment will not materialize.

20 vie 01
Manual D procedures shall be used to design residential duct systems. The subject material includes information about
duct system performance, duct materials, blower performance, air-side components, and airway sizing procedures. The

ct e - 2
informative part of the manual includes information about duct system efficiency and the synergistic interactions
between the duct system, the building envelope, the HVAC equipment, the vents and the household appliances. Indoor
air quality, noise control, testing and balancing also are discussed. Manual D procedures depend on, or interact with,
other comfort system design procedures, including Manual J (load calculation), Manual S (equipment selection) and

O R D
Manual T (air distribution).

The procedures documented in this Manual shall not be used to design commercial duct systems. This limitation is neces-

)
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sary because the design process for residential applications is different than for commercial applications:
n For the residential problem, equipment manufacturer's blower data establishes the duct sizing criterion

n
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(i.e., available static pressure and total effective length determine the design friction rate value).
For the commercial problem, airways are sized for a selected friction rate, then duct system performance
(Cfm and pressure drop information) determines blower RPM and motor horsepower.

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n Other incompatibilities relate to maximum airflow velocities (air velocities are limited to 900 Fpm for dwell-
ings, they can be much higher for commercial buildings); and fitting loss calculations (equivalent lengths are
used for residential calculations, pressure drops are used for commercial calculations).
(1 N 1
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)
This commentary is not part of the Standard. It is merely informative and does not contain requirements necessary for conformance to the Standard. It has not been
processed according to the ANSI requirements for a Standard, and may contain material that has not been subject to public review or a consensus process. Unre-
solved objections on informative material are not offered the right to appeal at ACCA or ANSI.

Prerequisites and Learned Skills

Manual D procedures process information produced by airway size (diameter or equivalent diameter), air-
other calculation tools and information provided by man- flow rate (Cfm), airflow velocity (Fpm) and fric-
ufacturer's performance data. Manual D procedures tion rate (IWC/100 Ft).

16 w x
assume the practitioner is familiar with these tools and n These four variables (listed above) are interdepen-

20 vie 01
sources of information. The prerequisites for using Man- dent and their relationship is summarized by a
ual D procedures are summarized here: friction chart or a duct sizing slide rule (if two
items are known, the other two are read from the

ct e - 2
Load Calculations Determine chart or slide rule).
Airflow Requirements n These relationships depend on the type of duct
In order to correctly size duct system airways, the practi- material (some materials produce more resistance
tioner shall determine the system airflow requirement to airflow than others).

O R D
(blower Cfm) and room airflow requirements (supply air n The practitioner must be able to read friction
Cfm for each conditioned room or space). charts and know how to use duct sizing slide rules

)
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n For each piece of central heating-cooling equip- before attempting to apply Manual D procedures.
ment, the practitioner shall produce a block load n Instructions for using the ACCA Duct Sizing Slide
g u nu
(and zone loads for zoned systems), and a set of
room and/or space loads. n
Rule are provided with the tool.
The ACCA publication titled Understanding the
n The ANSI procedure for load calculations is pro- Friction Chart provides instructions for using a

c
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vided by Manual J, Eighth Edition Version 2.50 (or friction chart.
later).
n The requirements for producing accurate load cal- Evaluate Equivalent Length and Effective Length
culations are provided by Manual J, Eighth Edi- The observed length of a duct run is determined by the
(1 N 1

tion Version 2.50 (or later), Section 2. measured centerline length of the runs. The effective
P

(flow-resistance) length of a duct run is much longer than


Equipment Performance Data the observed length because of the resistance produced
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Determines Blower Performance by duct fittings. The practitioner shall understand these
concepts and master these skills.
S

Manual D calculations shall be based on blower Cfm vs.


external static pressure (ESP) published by the equip- n Duct fittings have a flow-resistance length. This
D -D /AC

ment manufacturer. length is the length of straight duct (feet) that


would produce the same resistance as the fitting.
n Calculated heating and cooling loads, manufac-
This length is called fitting equivalent length.
turer's heating performance data and expanded
cooling performance data shall be used to select n The practitioner shall be able to calculate the total
R

equipment. effective length of a duct run (the sum of the duct


run lengths, plus the sum of relevant fitting equiv-
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n The manufacturer's blower table for the selected


BS

alent lengths).
equipment determines blower performance.
n The Manual D Effective Length Worksheet is used
n The ANSI procedure for selecting heating and
for these calculations.
cooling equipment is provided by Manual S.
45

Understanding Duct Performance Evaluate Pressure Drop for External


Components and Devices
The practitioner shall be familiar with duct run attributes,
which are sectional shape (round or rectangular, for Blower pressure is used to move a flow of air through the
example), cross-sectional dimensions (diameter or length resistance produced by duct runs, by duct fittings and by
and width), airflow rate (Cfm), airflow velocity (Fpm), components or devices installed in the flow path. Pres-
and a friction rate (FR) expressed as the pressure drop in sure used to move air through components and devices is
Inches Water Column per 100 feet of duct length. not available for duct runs and fittings. The practitioner
shall understand these concepts and master these skills.
n For a given operating condition, duct performance
is summarized by a set of variables, which are,

xix
n External components and devices are items that summarized by a duct friction rate. The practitioner shall
were not in place when blower data was collected understand these concepts and master these skills.
at a test stand (components and devices that were
in place during the blower test are listed in the n The pressure drop for a supply duct run equals the
blower table notes). positive pressure at the entrance (at the blower
discharge collar).
n Blower power used to move air though an external
component or device is not available to move air n The pressure drop for a return duct run equals the

16 w x
through a flow path (duct runs plus fittings). negative pressure at the exit (at the blower return

20 vie 01
collar).
n An external component or device may be a cooling
coil, a water coil, an electric coil, a filter or filter n The pressure drop for a complete circulation path
option, a supply grille, a return grille, a balancing equals the positive supply pressure plus the mag-

ct e - 2
damper, an automatic flow control damper, etc. nitude of the negative return pressure (supply
n Component or device pressure drop is read from pressure value - negative return pressure value).
manufacturer's performance data, except for hand n The rate at which pressure is dissipated along the
dampers, supply air grilles and return air grilles. circulation path is a friction rate, which depends

O R D
n For Manual D, the default pressure drop for a on the total effective length (TEL) of the path.
hand damper, supply air grille or return air grille n Friction charts and duct sizing slide rules only

)
is 0.03 IWC. apply to ducts that are 100 feet long, so these tools

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n Instructions for determining component or device summarize duct performance for a special case
pressure drop are provided by Manual D (latest (the pressure drop for 100 feet of duct).
g u nu
edition). n The circulation path for a real duct system may
have (and usually does have) a total effective
Evaluate Available Pressure

c
length that is less than, or greater than, 100 feet.
Au I Ma
The pressure drops for external components and devices Friction charts and duct slide rules do not model
are subtracted from external static pressure (the blower the performance of real duct systems (except for
table pressure). The result is the available static pressure. those that have 100 feet of total effective length).
The practitioner shall understand these concepts and n Available pressure and total effective path length
(1 N 1

master these skills. shall be converted to a design friction rate


P

(IWC/100 Ft) before using a friction chart or duct


n External static pressure is the pressure read from
ft y A CA

the blower table, which already has been adjusted slide rule.
for the components and devices that were in place n Airway size is read from a friction chart or duct
S

during the blower test (as listed in the blower table slide rule for the design friction rate (IWC/100 Ft)
footnotes). and the local airflow rate (Cfm).
D -D /AC

n The pressured drop for components and devices n The Manual D Friction Rate Worksheet and Duct
not in place when the blower was tested are sub- Sizing Worksheet are used for these calculations.
tracted from the blower table pressure. The result n Instructions for determining the design friction
is the available static pressure.
rate and local airflow rate are provided by Man-
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n Duct airway sizing calculations are based on the ual D (latest edition).
pressure that is available to move air through the
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duct runs and fittings.


Observe Limitations Concerning Noise
n The Manual D Friction Rate Worksheet is used for
this calculation. Noise is an occupant comfort and satisfaction issue. Mov-
ing air generates noise. Duct airway sizes that are ade-
45

quate for air delivery may generate unwanted noise. The


Use the Design Friction Rate to Size Airways practitioner shall understand these concepts and master
For ducted supply flow, the positive static pressure is these skills.
maximum at the duct entrance (at the blower), it dimin-
ishes along the length of the path (because of friction), and n Airways are sized for the air delivery requirement
is zero as it enters the space. For ducted return flow, the (based on the design friction rate and Cfm). The
static pressure is zero as it enters the return grill, it dimin- resulting airway size and Cfm determines air
ishes (becomes more negative) along the length of the velocity.
path (because of friction), and reaches its maximum nega- n Air velocity is compared to the velocity for an
tive value as it enters the blower. This behavior is acceptable noise level.

xx
n Airway size is increased if air velocity exceeds the
velocity limit for noise.
n Air velocity limits are provided by Manual D
Table N3-1.

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O R D

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This Section is part of the requirements of this Standard.

Section N1
Normative Requirements for System Design
N1-1 Purpose of this Standard N1-4 Manual D Procedure

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This Standard defines the requirements for designing Figure N1-1 summarizes the Manual D procedure and

20 vie 01
duct systems that are attached to residential HVAC indicates the Worksheet that is used for each task.
equipment (as defined by the residential sections of the
AHRI Directory of Certified Product Performance, or Step 1) Use the Effective Length Worksheet to identify the
longest circulation path (the path that has the most resis-

ct e - 2
AHAM rated). Manual D procedures shall not be used to
design duct systems that are attached to commercial tance to airflow), and to calculate the total effective length
equipment. value (TEL) for this path.

Step 2) Use the top portion of the Friction Rate Worksheet

O R D
N1-2 Scope to calculate the available static pressure (ASP) for moving
The provisions of this Standard apply to low-pressure, air through the longest circulation path.

)
low velocity duct systems for heating-cooling-ventilating

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Step 3) Per the lower portion of the Friction Rate
equipment that has been designed and rated for residen-
Worksheet, use the ASP value and the TEL value to calcu-
tial applications. The applications include:
n
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Single family detached structures that have one or
late the duct slide rule friction rate value (FR) for duct air-
way sizing.
more residential comfort systems.
Step 4) Use the Duct Sizing Worksheet to calculate the

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n Multifamily attached structures that have sepa- design Cfm values for supply and return ducts. Calculate
rate comfort systems for each dwelling unit Cfm values for runout ducts, secondary trunk ducts, and
(duplexes, triplexes, town houses, row houses; primary trunk ducts.
small to medium size condominiums, three sto-
ries, or less). Step 5) For the Duct Sizing Worksheet, use a duct slide
(1 N 1

rule (or equivalent) to convert the friction rate value and


P

n Large multifamily buildings can have any foot-


the design Cfm values to round sizes for runout ducts,
print size and any number of floor levels; provid-
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secondary trunk ducts, and primary trunk ducts. For rect-


ing that each dwelling unit has its own residential
angular airways, use the duct slide rule to determine a
comfort system equipment; its own exhaust air
S

rectangular size that has the same airflow resistance as


system, or systems; and as required, its own out-
the round size.
door air system for indoor air quality, and/or
D -D /AC

makeup air. Step 6) For the Duct Sizing Worksheet, use airway Cfm
values and airway sizes to determine airway velocities
N1-3 Definitions (where Cfm = FPM x SqFt). Compare airway velocities
Informative Appendix 5 (Terminology) provides a set of with Table N3-1 limits. Increase airway size when airway
R

definitions. velocity exceeds Table N3-1 limits.


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Figure N1

N1
Section N1

Step 7) Record the final airway size values of the Duct Siz- N1-6 Effective Length Worksheet
ing Worksheet.
Circulation path lengths shall be determined by the pro-
cedures that are embedded in the Effective Length
N1-5 Prerequisite Tasks Worksheet. See Section N2-1.
The following work shall be completed before using
Manual D procedures. N1-7 Friction Rate Worksheet

16 w x
Task 1: Produce a set of load calculations using The design friction rate (FR) value for duct slide rule use

20 vie 01
ANSI/ACCA 2 Manual J (Residential Load Calculation). (or electronic equivalent) shall be determined by the pro-
cedures that are embedded in the Friction Rate
n Equipment selection and size shall be based on Worksheet. See Section N2-2.
block load calculations for heating and cooling.

ct e - 2
n Room and space Cfm values shall be based on the N1-8 Duct Sizing Worksheet
heating and cooling loads for each room or space Duct airway sizes shall be determined by the procedures
served by the equipment. that are embedded in the Duct Sizing Worksheet. See Sec-

O R D
tion N2-3. Figure N1-2 (next page) rounding rules apply
Task 2: Determine the design values for cooling Cfm and to final airway sizes.
heating Cfm.

)
- 3 bli al
n Use ANSI/ACCA 3 Manual S (Residential Equip- N1-9 Altitude Effects
ment Selection) procedures to determine equip-
Manual D procedure applies to any altitude, in that

n
g u nu
ment make, model, and size.
For Manual D, blower Cfm values shall be identi-
blower Cfm and the airway size for a given Cfm value are
not affected by altitude.
cal to the Cfm values used to extract equipment

c
Au I Ma
capacity values from OEM expanded perfor- n Manual D sizes duct per the Manual S blower Cfm
mance data, per Manual S equipment sizing value.
procedures. n Manual S procedures increase the blower design
Cfm value, and possibly, the equipment size, to
Task 3: Obtain OEM blower performance data for Man- compensate for a lower air density at altitude.
(1 N 1

ual D procedures.
P

n OEM blower data shall be for the equipment N1-10 Return Air Path Requirements
ft y A CA

selected per Task 2. A low-resistance return air path shall be provided for
n The OEM's blower data shall summarize Cfm vs. every room or space that receives supply air. When a
S

external static pressure relationships for the avail- room or space that can be isolated by an interior door does
D -D /AC

able blower motor control settings. not have its own return grille, an engineered transfer path
n The OEM's engineering and/or installation litera- shall route room or space air to a remote return grille. The
ture shall identify which pressure dissipating requirements for an engineered return air path are
components and devices are accounted for, as this defined here:
pertains to the blower tables external static pres-
R

n When a transfer grille or transfer duct is used, the


sure values. pressure drop across a transfer grille or transfer
ra a
9
BS

n Refer to blower table notes for information per- duct shall not exceed 0.05 IWC (refer to Section N4,
taining to pressure dissipating items that are, or Group 14).
are not, accounted for. If this information is not n When door undercuts are used, they shall con-
part of the blower data, search through the OEM's form to Table N3-2 gap dimensions. Gap distance
45

engineering data and/or installation instructions. is the space between the exposed floor surface or
n When blower table notes, or OEM engineering lit- floor covering surface, and the bottom of the door.
erature, or installation literature do not mention
one or more relevant items, the practitioner shall N1-11 Branch Takeoff at the
contact the OEM and ask the OEM to identify End of a Supply Trunk
which component pressure drop values must be
subtracted from the blower data external static A branch takeoff fitting shall be at least 18 inches
pressure values. upstream from a trunk duct end plate.

N2
Section N1

N1-12 Zoning Damper Systems Rounding Rules for Duct Airway Size
Manual D defers to ANSI/ACCA 11 Manual Zr (Resi-
dential Zoning) design requirements for zoned air distri-
Manual D worksheet calculations typically result in
bution systems, and for bypass duct design.
round or rectangular duct sizes that are somewhat
smaller or larger than the sizes that are normally used
N1-13 Exhaust Air Systems by the industry (no fractional inches; standard steps in

16 w x
Manual D procedures apply to engineered exhaust air duct diameter as size increases; standard steps in

20 vie 01
systems. The airflow physics for exhaust air systems is height and width dimensions as size increases).
exactly the same as the airflow physics for heating-cool-
ing duct systems. When standard duct dimensions increase by one inch:

ct e - 2
n The airflow resistance produced by the airway
n If the tentative round size equals a standard
components, duct runs, and fittings for the critical size plus 0.20 inches, or less; round down to the
circulation path shall be compatible with blower standard size; for more than 0.20 inches, round
or fan performance. up to the next standard size. (For example, 7.2

O R D
is rounded to 7.0; or 7.3 is rounded to 8.0.)
n Blower or fan performance data shall relate Cfm
values to external static pressure values.
n For a rectangular airway, use a duct slide rule

)
to convert a tentative round size value to a ten-

- 3 bli al
n One or more balancing dampers shall be installed tative rectangular size. When reading a height
to achieve the design airflow rates. or width dimension, round down, or up, to a
n g u nu
Kitchen and bathroom exhaust equipment shall be
installed and commissioned per the OEM's engi-
pure inch value, per the 0.20 inch rule that
applies to round duct. (For example, 6.2 x 6.2 is
neering and installation instructions. rounded to 6.0 x 6.0; or 6.3 x 6.3 is rounded to

c
Au I Ma
7.0 x 7.0.)
N1-14 Duct System Installation
When standard duct dimensions increase by two
Manual D duct sizes are invalid when installation attrib-
inches:
utes and details are significantly different than the attrib-
n If the tentative round size equals a standard
(1 N 1

utes and details used for Manual D calculations. Such as;


size plus 0.50 inches, or less; round down to the
P

different blower performance, different air-side compo-


nents and devices, different number of supply outlets and standard size; for more than 0.50 inches, round
ft y A CA

return grills, different duct run geometry, different types up to the next standard size. (For example, 12.5
of fittings, different type of airway material, and/or air- is rounded to 12.0; or 12.6 is rounded to 14.0.)
S

way obstructions, for example: n For a rectangular airway, use a duct slide rule
to convert a tentative round size value to a ten-
D -D /AC

n Beams or columns in an airway.


tative rectangular size. When reading a height
n Structural bracing in an airway. or width dimension, round down, or up, to a
n Piping, tubing, wiring in an airway . pure inch value, per the 0.50 inch rule that
applies to round duct. (For example, 14.5 x 20.5
R

Flexible Wire Helix Duct Installation is rounded to 14.0 x 20.0; or 14.6 x 20.6 is
rounded to 16.0 x 22.0.)
ra a

Flexible wire helix duct shall be installed to Air Diffusion


9
BS

Council (ADC) Standards. The duct run length for Man-


ual D calculation equals the measured centerline length Manual D does not mandate that airway dimensions
of the duct run. be a standard size, so non-standard sizes are
permissible.
45

n Duct run lengths shall be straight, per ADC limits


for droop and sag, with not more than 4% Figure N1-2
compression.
n One piece elbows shall have an adequate radius to
diameter ratio, per Manual D, Section N4,
Group 11 limits. Structural Cavities Used for Airways
n Manual D, Section N4, Group 11 equivalent The AHJ determines when a structural cavity (panned
length values for flexible duct junction boxes shall floor joist space, stud space, etc.) shall be used for an air-
be used for Manual D calculations. way. When use is permitted, Manual D procedures are
valid when construction conforms to these requirements:

N3
Section N1

n The airway length begins at an entrance opening pertains to adjusting blower external static pres-
and ends at an exit opening (see Section N4, sure values.
Group 7). n Copies of component Cfm vs. pressure drop data
n The airway size shall be based on the friction rate for the components listed on Step 2 of the Friction
value for wire helix duct that has 4%, or less, com- Rate Worksheet.
pression (per the ACCA duct slide rule, or n A duct system schematic that shows the details
equivalent).

16 w x
used for the Effective Length Worksheet
n The airway size at an opening, or at any point calculations.

20 vie 01
along the airway length, shall not be less than n A completed Effective Length Worksheet.
allowed by the Duct Sizing Worksheet.
n A completed Friction Rate Worksheet.
n If the airway changes shape or size at one or more

ct e - 2
points along its length, a fitting equivalent length, n A completed Duct Sizing Worksheet.
or a set of equivalent length values, shall account
for the effect on airflow resistance (see Section N4,
Group 12).

O R D
n The AHJ determines the minimum requirements
for airway sealing, and for leakage testing and

)
- 3 bli al
reporting.
n Informative commentary is provided by Sec-
g u nu
tion 4-5, Appendix 10, Appendix 11, and Appen-
dix 12.

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Au I Ma
N1-17 System Air Balancing
The AHJ determines the air balancing damper require-
ments. Informative material is provided by Sections 6-2,
6-23, 6-24, 7-10, 7-11, Appendix 9 in total, and Sec-
(1 N 1

tion A10-3.
P

N1-18 Approved Software


ft y A CA

Approved software shall follow ACCA worksheet proce-


S

dures, as summarized by Figure N1-1, and explained by


the preceding material in this Section. The software shall
D -D /AC

be ACCA approved, or approved by the AHJ.

N1-19 Output and Documentation


The AHJ determines the reporting and documentation
R

requirements for the duct system design. A list of useful


items is provided here.
ra a
9
BS

n A copy of MJ8, Form J1 (or equivalent) showing


the block cooling loads used for selecting and siz-
ing the primary equipment. Plus a summary of the
heating and cooling load values for each room and
45

space served by the duct system.


n A copy of the OEM's blower table, plus all blower
table notes pertaining to component pressure
drops that shall not subtracted from blower exter-
nal static pressure values; and to component pres-
sure drops shall be subtracted from blower
external static pressure values. If one or more rele-
vant items do not appear in the blower table notes,
provide a copy of the OEM literature (or personal
correspondence) that deals with each item as it

N4
This Section is part of the requirements of this Standard.

Section N2
Manual D Worksheets
Manual D worksheets, or a simulation thereof, shall be n The basic duct run geometry (trunk and branch, or

16 w x
used for Manual D calculations. The requirements for radial), and the types of duct runs (a branch run, a
worksheet use are provided here. Blank copies of the duct secondary trunk section, or a primary truck

20 vie 01
sizing worksheets are provided at the end of this section.. section).

Informative: For an extended plenum, the section that


N2-1 Effective Length Worksheet

ct e - 2
has the largest airway is a primary trunk. One or more
A sample of the Effective Length Worksheet is provided reductions in airway size produces one or more
by Figure N2-1. This worksheet is not dependant on out- secondary trunks.
put from any other worksheet. Proceed as follows:
Fitting locations, the Section N4 Group Number

O R D
n
Step 1: A sketch, or a formal mechanical plan, shall show for each fitting, and the equivalent length value for
the attributes of the duct system, as they relate to Man- each fitting.

)
ual D calculations. Show:

- 3 bli al
a) When an equivalent length value depends on fit-
n Blower location. ting dimensions, show the fitting's dimensions.
n
g u nu
The locations and Cfm values for supply air out-
lets and returns per Manual T procedures.
b) When Appendix 4 procedures are used to deter-
mine an equivalent length value, label the equivalent
length value... per Appendix 4... and show the fric-

c
When there is more than one return, show which
Au I Ma
n
tion rate value and air velocity value used for the
supply outlets are associated with a given return.
calculation.
(1 N 1

Effective Length Worksheet


P
ft y A CA

Element Supply Run ID Number Element Return Run ID Number


S

Trunk Length Trunk Length


D -D /AC

Trunk Length Trunk Length


Trunk Length Trunk Length
Runout Length Runout Length
Group 1 Group 5
R

Group 2 Group 6
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9
BS

Group 3 Group 7
Group 4 Group 8
Group 8 Group 10
45

Group 9 Group 11
Group 11 Group 12
Group 12 Group 13
Group 13 Other
Other Other
Total Length Total Length

Figure N2-1

N5
Section N2

n A length value (Feet) for each duct run that starts Friction Rate Worksheet
at a piece of equipment, or component, or fitting,
and terminates at a piece of equipment, or compo-
nent, or fitting. Duct length measurements shall be
based on centerline dimensions and rounded to
the nearest foot.
n The duct material and airway shape for each duct

16 w x
run. Add the airway dimensions for each duct run

20 vie 01
after Manual D calculations are complete.

Step 2: Produce an effective length calculation for each

ct e - 2
supply path, and for each return path. (Most projects will
require more than one worksheet.)
n Total effective length values for all possible circu-
lation paths shall be calculated.

O R D
n The mechanical plan or sketch, or field measure-
ments, provides values for trunk section lengths

)
and runout lengths.

- 3 bli al
n The mechanical plan or sketch, provides equiva-
g u nu
lent length values for each fitting.

Step 3: Determine the total effective length value for the

c
longest circulation path.
Au I Ma
Informative: Per the practitioner's design, one or more sup-
ply air paths are associated with each return air path.
(1 N 1

N2-2 Friction Rate Worksheet


P

Figure N2-2 shows the Friction Rate Worksheet. This


ft y A CA

worksheet processes equipment manufacturer's perfor-


mance data, and Effective Length Worksheet output. This
is the heart of the Manual D procedure because it demon-
S

strates (or not) that blower performance is compatible


Figure N2-2
D -D /AC

with the attributes of the duct system's design.

Step 1: Provide a blower Cfm value and an external static


pressure value. b) For an operating range blower, the Manual D
default value for external static pressure is 70% of
n Output from Prerequisite Task 2 (see
R

the maximum external static pressure value for


Section N1-5) provides design values for the cool- the blower Cfm set point.
ra a
9

ing Cfm and heating Cfm. If the cooling Cfm and


BS

heating Cfm are not equal, the largest Cfm value Step 2: Produce a total pressure drop value for air-side
shall be used for Step 1. components that are external to the blower data for the
n Prerequisite Task 3 (see Section N1-5) provides primary equipment.
45

OEM blower data. The method for determining n Engineering and/or installation data shall pro-
this pressure value depends on the type of blower: vide pressure drop values for components and
devices that are external to the blower data.
a) For an operating point blower, the external
static pressure value is determined by the design
n Performance data shall show the relationship
Cfm value and the design blower motor speed. between component or device Cfm, and compo-
nent or device pressure drop.
Note: If a bypass humidifier is used with an operating n A component or device pressure drop value shall
point blower, the external static pressure value is some- be based on the design Cfm value for the item.
what less than it would be if there was no humidifier, see
informative Section A9-3.

N6
Section N2

n When an item that is not external to the OEM's


blower table is replaced by another item that has
the same function, but a different pressure drop
value, the pressure drop value for the Friction Rate
Worksheet equals the pressure drop for the substi-
tute component, minus the pressure drop for the
original component.

16 w x
n 0.03 IWC is the Manual D default pressure drop

20 vie 01
value for a supply air outlet; and for a return grille
that has no filter; and for an open balancing
damper, and an open zone damper. When a differ-

ct e - 2
ent value from OEM performance data is used,
provide a note that says... Per OEM data.
n OEM pressure drop data shall be used for a return
grille that has a filter.

O R D
n For return air, the maximum pressure drop for a
transfer duct, or transfer grille is 0.05 IWC. Figure N2-3

)
- 3 bli al
Informative: Section N4, Group 14 provides design infor-
mation for a transfer duct, or transfer grille.
g u nu
Step 3: Calculate the available static pressure value for
Informative: The easiest way to adjust the TEL value is to
use one or more fittings that have different equivalent length
duct airway sizing, per Step 3 of the Friction Rate values.

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Au I Ma
Worksheet.
Informative: An available static pressure adjustment will
require modification of upstream equipment selection deci-
Step 4: For the critical circulation path, show the Total
sions, per Prerequisite Tasks 1 and 2 (see Section N1-5);
Effective Length values for the supply run, the return run,
and/or Step 2 of the Friction Rate Worksheet. In some cases,
and the sum of these two values.
(1 N 1

a different piece of primary equipment (make and/or model)


P

is required to obtain adequate blower performance. In some


Step 5: A graph, or an equation, shall be used to deter-
cases, a desired component that has a high pressure drop
ft y A CA

mine the friction rate (FR) value for airway sizing. Fig-
needs to be replaced with a similar component that has a
ure N2-3 shows the graph; the equation is provided here:
smaller pressure drop.
S

FR = (ASP x 100) / TEL Note that Steps 1 through 5, the graph, and this equation ap-
D -D /AC

pears on the full size version of the Friction Rate Worksheet


Where: (ahead 3 pages).
FR units are: IWC per 100 Ft of duct.
ASP = Available static pressure (IWC) per Step 3. N2-3 Duct Sizing Worksheet
TEL = Total effective length of the critical circulation
R

path (Ft), per Step 4. Figure N2-4 (next page) provides an abridged version of
the Duct Sizing Worksheet. Use is detailed here:
ra a
9
BS

n The design friction rate value (FR) shall not be less


than 0.06 IWC per 100 feet of duct, or more than Step 1a: The heating factor (HF) is the blower Cfm for
0.18 IWC per 100 feet of duct. heating, divided by the MJ8 total heating load. The cool-
ing factor (CF) is the blower Cfm for cooling, divided by
n If the Step 5 friction rate value is too low, reduce
the MJ8 total sensible cooling load.
45

the TEL value, and/or increase the available static


pressure value by adjusting the system geometry, n Prerequisite Task 1 (see Section N1-5), provides
or by specifying different fittings/components. the heating load value and the sensible cooling
n If the Step 5 friction rate value is too high, reduce load value.
the available static pressure value, and/or n Prerequisite Task 2 (see Section N1-5), provides
increase the TEL value by adjusting the system the blower Cfm value for heating and the blower
geometry, or by specifying different Cfm value for cooling.
fittings/components.
Step 1b: The design value for the duct slide rule friction
rate (FR) is copied from the Friction Rate Worksheet.

N7
Section N2

Step 1

Step 2

16 w x
20 vie 01
Step 3

ct e - 2
Step 4

O R D

)
- 3 bli al
Step 5
g u nu
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Au I Ma

Figure N2-4
(1 N 1
P
ft y A CA

Step 2: Size each supply air runout duct. Working from n The scales on the tool shall be calibrated for the
left to right: type of material at the inside surface at the airway,
S

a) Associate the supply runout duct with a supply trunk typically metal, duct board, duct liner, or flexible
wire helix duct.
D -D /AC

duct (this determines Cfm values for supply trunk runs).


n For flexible wire helix duct, the scales shall be cali-
b) Prerequisite Task 1 provides a heating load value and a
brated for duct that is cut to length, with no more
sensible cooling load value for each room and space that
than 4% compression.
has a supply air outlet.
n For oval duct, see Sections A1-11 through A1-14,
R

c) When a room or space has more than one supply air and see Appendix 2, Chart 10, or use an oval duct
ra a
9

outlet, room or space heating and cooling loads are sizing tool, if available.
BS

apportioned to each supply air outlet, per a practitioner n The airway size is rounded to a standard size, per
decision based on Manual T principles.
Figure N1-4 rules. This is the tentative size.
d) For a supply air outlet, the design Cfm for heating
45

equals the HF value multiplied by the heating load for the g) Determine the air velocity for the design Cfm value and
outlet; and the design Cfm for sensible cooling equals the the tentative airway size. Compare this value with the air
CF value, multiplied by the sensible cooling load for the velocity limit, per Table N3-1.
outlet. n If the velocity is equal to, or less than, the high
limit, the tentative size is the final size.
e) The larger of the two Cfm values is the design Cfm for
the runout duct that serves the outlet. n If the velocity exceeds the high limit, the final size
is the smallest standard size that results in an
f) The design Cfm value and the friction rate value (FR) acceptable air velocity value.
determine the minimum airway size for round duct, per a n There is no low limit for the air velocity in a duct
duct slide rule, or friction chart, or software equivalent.
airway. (Room air motion depends on the air

N8
Section N2

velocity at the face of a supply grille, or through the cooling Cfms for the related supply air outlets. The
the neck of a ceiling diffuser.) larger of the two Cfm values is the design Cfm for the
return branch.
h) The final column to the far right titled "Normed Cfm"
pertains to air balancing work. b) Steps 2f through 2h for supply branch duct runs apply
to return branch duct runs
Informative: See Section 6-23 for information.

16 w x
Step 5: Size each return air trunk duct. Working from left
Step 3: Size each supply air trunk duct. Working from left

20 vie 01
to right:
to right:
a) Upstream branch ducts are counted from the end of a
a) Downstream branch ducts are counted from the begin- trunk duct section. The heating Cfm for a trunk section

ct e - 2
ning of a trunk duct section. The heating Cfm for a trunk equals the sum of the branch heating Cfms, and the cool-
section equals the sum of the branch heating Cfms, and ing Cfm for a trunk section equals the sum of the branch
the cooling Cfm for a trunk section equals the sum of the cooling Cfms. The larger of the two Cfm values is the
branch cooling Cfms. The larger of the two Cfm values is design Cfm for the truck duct.

O R D
the design Cfm for the truck duct.
b) Steps 2f through 2h for supply branch duct runs apply

)
b) Steps 2f through 2h for supply branch duct runs apply to return truck duct runs.

- 3 bli al
to supply trunk duct runs.

g u nu N2-4 Blank Worksheets


Step 4: Size each return air runout duct. Working from
left to right: The next page provides two blank copies of the Effective
Length Worksheet; a blank copy of the Friction Rate

c
Au I Ma
a) Per the Effective Length Worksheet (Figure N2-1), one Worksheet is ahead two pages; and a blank copy of the
or more supply outlets are associated with each return Duct Sizing Worksheet is ahead three pages.
grille. The heating Cfm for the return grille and its runout
duct equals the sum of the heating Cfms for the related
supply air outlets, and the cooling Cfm equals the sum of
(1 N 1
P
ft y A CA
S
D -D /AC
R
ra a
9
BS
45

N9
Section N2

Effective Length Worksheet


Element Supply Run ID Number Element Return Run ID Number

Trunk Length Trunk Length


Trunk Length Trunk Length

16 w x
Trunk Length Trunk Length

20 vie 01
Runout Length Runout Length
Group 1 Group 5

ct e - 2
Group 2 Group 6
Group 3 Group 7
Group 4 Group 8

O R D
Group 8 Group 10
Group 9 Group 11

)
- 3 bli al
Group 11 Group 12
Group 12
Group 13
g u nu Group 13
Other
Other Other

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Au I Ma
Total Length Total Length
(1 N 1

Effective Length Worksheet


P

Element Supply Run ID Number Element Return Run ID Number


ft y A CA
S

Trunk Length Trunk Length


Trunk Length Trunk Length
D -D /AC

Trunk Length Trunk Length


Runout Length Runout Length
Group 1 Group 5
R

Group 2 Group 6
ra a
9
BS

Group 3 Group 7
Group 4 Group 8
Group 8 Group 10
45

Group 9 Group 11
Group 11 Group 12
Group 12 Group 13
Group 13 Other
Other Other
Total Length Total Length

N10
Section N2

Friction Rate Worksheet

Step 1) Manufacturers Blower Data


External static pressure (ESP) = ______ IWC Cfm = __________

16 w x
Step 2) Component Pressure Losses (CPL)

20 vie 01
Direct expansion refrigerant coil ______
Electric resistance heating coil ______
Hot water coil ______

ct e - 2
Heat exchanger ______
Low efficiency filter ______
High or mid-efficiency filter ______
Electronic filter ______

O R D
Other items that impede airflow ______
Supply outlet ______

)
Return grille ______

- 3 bli al
Balancing damper ______
Zone damper (full open) ______
g u nu
Total component losses (CPL) ______ IWC

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Au I Ma
Step 3) Available Static Pressure (ASP)
ASP = (ESP CPL) = ( ______ _______ ) = _______ IWC
(1 N 1

Step 4) Total Effective Length (TEL)


P

Supply-side TEL + Return-side TEL = ( _______ + _______ ) = _______ Feet


ft y A CA

Step 5) Friction Rate Design Value (FR)


S

FR value from friction rate chart = ______ IWC/100 Ft


D -D /AC

ASP x 100
FR =
R

TEL Inadequate Fan Performance


Increase blower speed
ra a
9

Change blower
BS

Reduce TEL
45

Fan is too Powerful


Decrease blower speed
Increase TEL
Excessive air velocity

N11
Section N2

Duct Sizing Worksheet


HF = Blower Cfm / Manual J Heat Loss = ( )/( ) = FR Value
CF = Blower Cfm / Manual J Sensible Heat Gain = ( )/( ) =

Supply-Side Runouts
Supply - Trunk Heating Cooling Heating Cooling Design Round Velocity Final Normed

16 w x
Btuh Btuh Cfm Cfm Cfm Size Fpm Size Cfm
S1

20 vie 01
S2
S3

ct e - 2
S4
S5
S6

O R D
S7
S8

)
- 3 bli al
S9
S10
S11
S12
g u nu
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Au I Ma
Supply-Side Trunks
Run numbers: S-Trunk 1
Run numbers: S-Trunk 2
Run numbers: S-Trunk 3
(1 N 1

Run numbers: S-Trunk 4


P

Return-Side Runouts
ft y A CA

Return - Trunk Associated Supply Runs Heating Cooling Design Round Velocity Final Normed
Cfm Cfm Cfm Size Fpm Size Cfm
S

R1
D -D /AC

R2
R3
R4
R5
R

R6
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9
BS

R7
R8

Return-Side Trunks
45

Run numbers: R-Trunk 1


Run numbers: R-Trunk 2
Run numbers: R-Trunk 3
Run numbers: R-Trunk 4

1) Room heating and cooling Btuh obtained per Section 6 information.


2) Heating Cfm for runouts = HF Heating Btuh; Cooling Cfm for runouts = CF Sensible Cooling Btuh.
3) For trunks, sum heating Cfm values for branches served by the trunk, and sum the cooling Cfm values for branches served by the trunk.
The design Cfm for branches and trunks is equal to the larger of the heating Cfm or cooling Cfm values for the run.
4) Round size is based on FR value. Final size is based on FR value if air velocity is acceptable, or the maximum allowable velocity value.
Final size can be a standard round size, or a standard equivalent rectangular size.
5) Normed Cfm = Normalized Cfm for air balancing single-zone systems (see Section 6-23). For zoned systems, see Section 7-11.
6) Per Manual Zr, Sections 7-9 and 8-11, a bypass airway is sized for 900 Fpm and the bypass Cfm from the Bypass Cfm Worksheet.

N12
Section N3
Normative Tables
This Section provides maximum air velocity values for

16 w x
airways, supply air grilles, and return air grilles; and min- Minimum Door Undercut Gap
imum gap height values for door undercuts.

20 vie 01
Cfm Door Width (Inches)
Under
N3-1 Maximum Air Velocity Door 24 30 36 42 48 54 60

ct e - 2
The average air velocity through a duct cross-sectional Clearance (Inches) to Floor or Top of Carpet
area shall not exceed Table N3-1 values. The face velocity 2.0 1.6 1.3 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8
100
or neck velocity for a supply air outlet shall not exceed
Table N3-1 values. The face velocity for a return air grille 200 4.0 3.2 2.7 2.3 2.0 1.8 1.6

O R D
shall not exceed Table N3-1 values. 300 6.0 4.8 4.0 3.4 3.0 2.7 2.4
n For design calculations, a face velocity value or 400 8.0 6.4 5.3 4.6 4.0 3.6 3.2

)
neck velocity value shall be provided by the air

- 3 bli al
500 10.0 8.0 6.7 5.7 5.0 4.4 4.0
distribution hardware manufacturer's engineer-
ing data for a given make, model, and size.
n
g u nu
For field measurements, the face velocity equals
the measured outlet Cfm value divided by the out-
600
700
12.0

14.0
9.6

11.2
8.0

9.3
6.9

8.0
6.0

7.0
5.3

6.2
4.8

5.6

16.0 12.8 10.7 9.1 8.0 7.1 6.4

c
let's free area in SqFt units. 800
Au I Ma
n For field measurements, the neck velocity equals 900 18.0 14.4 12.0 10.3 9.0 8.0 7.2
the measured outlet Cfm value divided by the
1,000 20.0 16.0 13.3 11.4 10.0 8.9 8.0
neck airway area in SqFt units.
1,200 24.0 19.2 16.0 13.7 12.0 10.7 9.6
(1 N 1

N3-2 Door Undercut Gap for Return Air


P

1,400 28.0 22.4 18.7 16.0 14.0 12.4 11.2


The gap for a door undercut used for return air shall not
ft y A CA

1,600 32.0 25.6 21.3 18.3 16.0 14.2 12.8


be less than the relevant Table N3-2 value.
Door gap height based on 300 Fpm air velocity though the gap.
S

Table N3-2
D -D /AC

Maximum Air Velocity Values for Airways and Air Distribution Hardware
R

Component Supply-Side (Fpm) Return-Side (Fpm)


ra a

Rigid Flex Rigid Flex


9
BS

Trunk Ducts 900 900 700 700

Branch Ducts 900 900 700 700


700 ~
45

Supply Outlet Face Velocity

Supply Outlet Neck Velocity 700 ~

Return Grille Face Velocity ~ 500 per Note 1

Filter Grille Face Velocity ~ 300 per Note 1


1) For a duct airway section, Fpm air velocity equals the design Cfm value, or a measured Cfm value, divided by the cross-sectional area in
SqFt units.
2) Depending on the type of outlet, a face velocity value or neck velocity value shall be provided by the air distribution hardware manufacturer's
engineering data for the make, model, and size that will be installed in the duct system.

Table N3-1

N13
N14
Section N3
BS
45 R
D -D /AC
ra a
ft y A CA
(1 N 1
9 S
Au I Ma
P
g u nu
- 3 bli al
c
O R D
ct e - 2
20 vie 01
16 w x
)
This Section is part of the requirements for this Standard.

Section N4
Fitting Equivalent Lengths
This Section provides Manual D equivalent length values Group 8: Pages N33 and N34.

16 w x
for supply-side fittings, and for return-side fittings; plus Elbows and Offsets.
Manual D pressure drop values for supply air outlets,

20 vie 01
return air grilles, and open balancing dampers. This Sec- Group 9: Pages N35 and N36.
tion also shows the maximum pressure drop for return air
Supply Trunk Junction Fittings.
transfer duct, or transfer grille.

ct e - 2
Group 10: Page N37.
A list of fitting table items is provided here:
Return Trunk Junction Fittings.
Group 1: Pages N16 to N19.
Group 11: Page N38.

O R D
Supply Air Fittings at the Air Handling Equipment.
Flexible Duct Junction Boxes and Radius Bends.

)
Group 2: Pages N20 to N22

- 3 bli al
Group 12: Pages N39 to N41.
Branch Takeoff Fittings at the Supply Trunk.
Transitions (Diverging).
g u nu
Group 3: Pages N23 and N24.
Reducing Trunk Takeoff Fittings.
Transitions (Converging).
Oval Transition Plenums and Abrupt Squeezes.

c
Au I Ma
Group 4: Page N25.
Group 13: Page N42.
Supply Air Boot and Stack Head Fittings.
Manual Balancing Dampers.
Group 5: Pages N26 toN28.
Group 14: Page N43.
(1 N 1

Return Air Fittings at the Air Handling Equipment.


P

Transfer Duct and Transfer Grille


ft y A CA

Group 6: Pages N29 to N31.


Branch Return Air Fittings at the Return Trunk
S

Group 7: Page N32.


D -D /AC

Panned Joists and Panned Stud Return Air Fittings.


R
ra a
9
BS
45

N15
Section N4

Group 1
Supply Air Fittings at the Air Handling Equipment
Reference Velocity = 900 Fpm
Reference Friction Rate = 0.08 IWC per 100 Feet

16 w x
20 vie 01
ct e - 2
O R D

)
- 3 bli al
g u nu
c
Au I Ma
(1 N 1
P
ft y A CA
S
D -D /AC
R
ra a
9
BS
45

N16
Section N4

Group 1 Continued
Supply Air Fittings at the Air Handling Equipment
Reference Velocity = 900 Fpm
Reference Friction Rate = 0.08 IWC per 100 Feet

16 w x
20 vie 01
Bull H/W EL

ct e - 2
Head 0.50 120
1F 1.0 85

O R D

)
- 3 bli al
g u nu
c
Au I Ma
Tapered H/W EL
Head 0.50 35
1G 1.0 25
(1 N 1
P
ft y A CA
S
D -D /AC

No H/W EL
Vanes 0.5 120
1H 1H 1.0 85
R
ra a
9
BS
45

With
1I Vanes EL = 20
1I

N17
Section N4

Group 1 Continued
Supply Air Fittings at the Air Handling Equipment
Reference Velocity = 900 Fpm
Reference Friction Rate = 0.08 IWC per 100 Feet

16 w x
20 vie 01
Miterd
Inside

ct e - 2
EL = 85
Corner
1K
1K

O R D

)
- 3 bli al
g u nu Radius R/W EL
Ell 0.25 40

c
Au I Ma
No
Vanes 0.50 20
1L 1.0 10
1L
(1 N 1
P
ft y A CA
S

1-Vane 2-Vane
D -D /AC

Radius R/W EL EL
Ell 0.05 30 20
with
Vanes 0.25 20 10
1M
R

1M 0.50 10 10
ra a
9
BS
45

N18
Section N4

Group 1 Continued
Supply Air Fittings at the Air Handling Equipment
Reference Velocity = 900 Fpm
Reference Friction Rate = 0.08 IWC per 100 Feet

16 w x
20 vie 01
ct e - 2
Bull H/W EL
Head 0.50 120
No Vanes
1O 1O 1.0 85

O R D

)
- 3 bli al
g u nu
Vaned

c
Au I Ma
1P Tee EL = 20
1P
(1 N 1
P

1Q 1R
ft y A CA

EL = 50 EL = 120
1Q
1R
S
D -D /AC

Vanes EL
R

Radius 0 60
ra a
9

Elbow
BS

1S 1 40
2 30
45

1S
1T

EL = 60
1T

N19
Section N4

Group 2
Branch Takeoff Fittings at the Supply Trunk
Reference Velocity = 900 Fpm
Reference Friction Rate = 0.08 IWC per 100 Feet

16 w x
20 vie 01
ct e - 2
O R D

)
- 3 bli al
g u nu
Number of Downstream Branches to End of Trunk Duct or
EL Values

c
Au I Ma
Number of Downstream Branches to a Trunk Reducer

Fitting 0 1 2 3 4 5 or More

2A 35 45 55 65 70 80
(1 N 1
P

2B 20 30 35 40 45 50
ft y A CA

2C 65 65 65 65 70 80
S

2D 40 50 60 65 75 85
D -D /AC

2E 25 30 35 40 45 50

2F 20 20 20 20 25 25
R

2G 65 65 65 70 80 90
ra a
9
BS

2H 70 70 70 75 85 95

Note: If the trunk has a reducer, count down to the reducer; then begin a new count after the reducer.
45

Refer to Fitting 2D Refer to Fitting 2A or 2C Refer to Fitting 2E

N20
Section N4

Group 2 Continued
Branch Takeoff Fittings at the Supply Trunk
Reference Velocity = 900 Fpm
Reference Friction Rate = 0.08 IWC per 100 Feet

16 w x
20 vie 01
ct e - 2
O R D

)
- 3 bli al
g u nu
c
Au I Ma
(1 N 1

Number of Downstream Branches to End of Trunk Duct or


P

EL Values
Number of Downstream Branches to a Trunk Reducer
ft y A CA

Fitting 0 1 2 3 4 5 or More
S

2I 65 75 85 95 100 110
D -D /AC

2J 50 60 65 70 75 80

2K 50 60 65 70 75 80
R

2L 70 80 90 95 105 115
ra a
9
BS

2M 70 80 90 95 105 115

Note: If the trunk has a reducer, count down to the reducer; then begin a new count after the reducer.
45

Refer to Refer to Refer to


Fitting 2J Fitting 2J Fitting 2I

N21
Section N4

Group 2 Continued
Branch Takeoff Fittings at the Supply Trunk
Reference Velocity = 900 Fpm
Reference Friction Rate = 0.08 IWC per 100 Feet

16 w x
20 vie 01
ct e - 2
O R D

)
- 3 bli al
g u nu
c
Au I Ma
(1 N 1

Number of Downstream Branches to End of Trunk Duct or


P

EL Values
Number of Downstream Branches to a Trunk Reducer
ft y A CA

Fitting 0 1 2 3 4 5 or More
S

2N 35 35 40 40 40 40
D -D /AC

2O 55 65 75 85 90 100

2P 50 55 60 65 70 75
R

2Q 10 10 15 20 20 25
ra a
9
BS

Note: If the trunk has a reducer, count down to the reducer; then begin a new count after the reducer.
45

N22
Section N4

Group 3
Reducing Trunk Takeoff Fittings
Reference Velocity = 900 Fpm
Reference Friction Rate = 0.08 IWC per 100 Feet

16 w x
20 vie 01
3C 3G 3K

3D
3H
3L

ct e - 2
3A
3E 3I
3B 3F 3J

O R D

)
3N

- 3 bli al
g u nu 3R
3O 3U
3M 3P 3S
3T
3Q

c
Au I Ma
(1 N 1

Fitting ID EL Description of Assembly


P

3A and 3I 15 Full radius takeoff


ft y A CA

3B and 3L 30 Full radius takeoff plus offset transition


S

3C and 3K 20 Full radius takeoff plus straight transition


35 Radius takeoff elbow (see 3S) plus easy-bend elbow
D -D /AC

3D and 3J 55 Tight radius takeoff elbow (see 3S) plus easy-bend elbow
110 Miterd inside corner takeoff elbow (see 3S) plus easy-bend elbow
3E 30 Transition wall takeoff
R

3F 3D + 15 Transition wall takeoff elbow (radius, tight radius or Miterd corner) plus easy-bend elbow
3G 35 Transition wall takeoff plus straight-aspect transition
ra a
9
BS

3H 35 Transition wall takeoff plus offset-aspect transition


3M 25 In line eased takeoff fitting (see 3T) plus one elbow
3N 40 In line eased takeoff fitting (see 3T) plus two elbows
45

3O and 3R 20 Transition wall eased takeoff fitting (see note)


3P 50 Transition wall eased takeoff fitting plus two elbows (see note)
3Q 35 Transition wall eased takeoff fitting plus one elbow (see note)
15 Full radius takeoff elbow
3S and 3U 35 Tight inside radius takeoff elbow
90 Miterd inside corner takeoff elbow
3T 10 In line eased takeoff fitting
Note: Add 15 feet to the equivalent length if a round sleeve is simply butted to the transition wall.

N23
Section N4

Group 3 Continued
Reducing Trunk Takeoff Fittings
Reference Velocity = 900 Fpm
Reference Friction Rate = 0.08 IWC. per 100 Feet

16 w x
20 vie 01
(3A or 3I) 3U

ct e - 2
O R D

)
Full Vanes EL

- 3 bli al
Miterd
Radius EL = 15 Takeoff Yes 10
Takeoff 3U
g u nu
3A or 3I No 80

c
Au I Ma
(1 N 1
P
ft y A CA
S
D -D /AC
R
ra a
9
BS
45

Corner EL
Hard
Bend Miterd 90
Takeoff Tight 35
3S
Full 15

N24
Section N4

Group 4
Supply Air Boot and Stack Head Fittings
Reference Velocity = 900 Fpm
Reference Friction Rate = 0.08 IWC per 100 Feet

16 w x
20 vie 01
4A 4B 4C 4D 4E

ct e - 2
EL = 30 EL = 35 EL = 60 EL = 55 EL = 70

4F 4G 4H 4I 4J

O R D
EL = 45 80
EL = 30 EL = 50 EL = 10 EL = 30

)
- 3 bli al
4K 4L 4M 4N 4O 4P

EL = 30
g u nu EL = 80 EL = 45 EL = 10
EL = 20 EL = 20

c
Au I Ma
4Q 4R 4S 4U
4T 4V
(1 N 1

EL = 50 EL = 20 EL = 20 EL = 20 EL = 20 EL = 60
P

4W 4X 4Y
ft y A CA

4Z 4AB
4AA
S

EL = 35 EL = 35 EL = 35 EL = 60 EL = 35 EL = 90
D -D /AC

4AC 4AG
4AF
4AD 4AE
4AH
R

EL = 100 EL = 60 EL = 55 EL = 50 EL = 60 EL = 60
ra a
9
BS

4AI 4AK 4AL

4AJ 4AM 4AN


45

EL = 20 EL = 25 EL = 55 EL = 70 EL = 70 EL = 70

4AQ 4AR

4AO 4AP

EL = 40 EL = 40 EL = 10 EL = 70

N25
Section N4

Group 5
Return Air Fittings at the Air Handling Equipment
Reference Velocity = 700 Fpm
Reference Friction Rate = 0.08 IWC per 100 Feet

16 w x
20 vie 01
ct e - 2
5B
5A

O R D

)
- 3 bli al
g u nu
c
Au I Ma
(1 N 1

5D
P
ft y A CA

5C
S
D -D /AC
R
ra a
9
BS

5E

5G
45

5F

N26
Section N4

Group 5 Continued
Return Air Fittings at the Air Handling Equipment
Reference Velocity = 700 Fpm
Reference Friction Rate = 0.08 IWC per 100 Feet

16 w x
20 vie 01
W

Square H/W EL

ct e - 2
Elbow 1 45
5H 2 30

O R D
5H

)
- 3 bli al
g u nu W

c
Au I Ma
Miterd H/W EL
Inside 1 45
Corner
5I 2 30
H
(1 N 1
P

5I
ft y A CA
S

W
D -D /AC

R/W EL
Radius 0.25 20
R Elbow
5J 0.50 15
R

1.00 10
ra a
9
BS

5J
45

Square EL
Elbow
with Vanes 10
5K

5K

N27
Section N4

Group 5 Continued
Return Air Fittings at the Air Handling Equipment
Reference Velocity = 700 Fpm
Reference Friction Rate = 0.08 IWC per 100 Feet

16 w x
5L

20 vie 01
EL = 75

ct e - 2
O R D

)
- 3 bli al
5L or 5M
g u nu
c
Au I Ma
5M
EL = 10

EL = 55
(1 N 1
P

5N
ft y A CA
S
D -D /AC

EL = 35
R
ra a
9
BS

5O
45

N28
Section N4

Group 6
Branch Return Air Fittings at the Return Trunk
Reference Velocity = 700 Fpm
Reference Friction Rate = 0.08 IWC per 100 Feet

16 w x
20 vie 01
6A
6B
6C

ct e - 2
O R D
Cfm 2 Cfm 2 Cfm 2
6A 6B 6C

)
- 3 bli al
Cfm 1 Cfm 1 Cfm 1
Cfm1/Cfm2
g u nu Branch EL Trunk EL Branch EL Trunk EL Branch EL Trunk EL
0.40 or less 10 10 10 10 10 10
0.50 25 25 40 25 30 25

c
Au I Ma
0.60 40 25 40 25 50 25
0.70 60 25 75 25 75 25
0.80 75 25 110 25 115 25
1.00 75 NA 110 NA 115 NA
(1 N 1

The branch EL value applies to the turn and the trunk EL value applies to the upstream fittings (see example below).
P
ft y A CA
S
D -D /AC
R
ra a
9
BS
45

EL Values Associated with Return Trunk Fittings


Run Branch EL Trunk EL Total EL
R1 to AH 75 25 + 10 110
R2 to AH 68 10 78
R3 to AH 10 0 10

N29
Section N4

Group 6 Continued
Branch Return Air Fittings at the Return Trunk
Reference Velocity = 700 Fpm
Reference Friction Rate = 0.08 IWC per 100 Feet

16 w x
20 vie 01
6D
45 6E

ct e - 2
90

O R D
Cfm2 Cfm 2

)
Cfm1

- 3 bli al
6D Cfm 1 6E
Cfm1/Cfm2 Branch EL Trunk EL Cfm1/Cfm2 Branch EL Trunk EL
0.10
g u nu 10 5 0.10 15 10
0.20 15 5 0.20 30 10

c
Au I Ma
0.30 20 5 0.30 40 10
0.40 30 5 0.40 40 10
0.60 30 5 0.50 40 25
(1 N 1

0.80 30 5 0.80 40 25
P

1.00 30 NA 1.00 40 NA
ft y A CA

Refer to example below Refer to example below


S
D -D /AC
R
ra a
9
BS
45

EL Values Associated with Return Trunk Fittings


Run Branch EL Trunk EL Total EL
R1 to AH 30 10 + 10 50
R2 to AH 35 10 45
R3 to AH 35 0 35

N30
Section N4

Group 6 Continued
Return Air Boot Fittings
Reference Velocity = 700 Fpm
Reference Friction Rate = 0.08 IWC per 100 Feet

16 w x
20 vie 01
6F
6G

ct e - 2
EL = 25 EL = 30

O R D
6H

)
- 3 bli al
g u nu
6I
EL = 15
6J

c
Au I Ma

6K EL = 55
EL = 30
(1 N 1
P
ft y A CA
S

EL = 10
6M
D -D /AC

6L
R

EL = 20 EL = 20
ra a
9
BS

6N Round or Square
45

EL = 10 6P
6O

EL = 5
EL = 10

N31
Section N4

Group 7
Panned Joists and Panned Stud Return Air Fittings
Reference Velocity = 700 Fpm
Reference Friction Rate = 0.08 IWC per 100 Feet

16 w x
200 Cfm Maximum

20 vie 01
7A in Stud Space

Cfm EL 400 Cfm


Maximum

ct e - 2
100
in Joist
150 25 Space
200

O R D
7C
7B

)
- 3 bli al
Cfm EL
100 10
150
200
g u nu
15
25
7C
Cfm EL
100 10

c
Au I Ma
See D for
Double Turn
200 30
300 60
40 Ft for
merging 400 110
flow
See E for
(1 N 1

Double Joist
P
ft y A CA
S
D -D /AC

200 Cfm
Maximum
in Stud Space
R
ra a
9

7D
BS

7E

800 Cfm
Maximum
45

in Double
Joist Space Cfm EL
Cfm EL 200 10
100 20 400 30
Panned joist and stud space airway leakage increases duct loads, can
150 50 produce an undesirable or unacceptable space pressure effect, can 600 60
200 90 adversely effect indoor relative humidity and /or indoor air quality, can 800 110
cause mold, mildew, and condensation to form on a structural surface. Use
Group 7 equivalent length values to evaluate existing systems. Manual D
procedure does not apply when there are obstructions in any type of airway.
See informative Section 4-5, and the informative appendix material cited by
Section 4-5.

N32
Section N4

Group 8
Elbows and Offsets
Reference Velocity = 900 Fpm
Reference Friction Rate = 0.08 IWC per 100 Feet

16 w x
Round and Oval Elbow EL Values

20 vie 01
8A

ct e - 2
4 or 5 Smooth Easy Hard 3-Piece 2-Piece
Smooth 3 Piece
R/D Piece Miterd Bend Bend 45 45

Miterd (R = 0) 75 4-Piece 4-Piece


0.75 20 30 35 25 30

O R D
10 15
1.0 15 20 25 3-Piece 3-Piece

)
1.5 or Larger 10 15 20 30 35

- 3 bli al
g u nu For Smooth Radius Round Elbows
Angles (q) Less Than 90

c
Au I Ma
Multiply EL by One of the Following Factors

20 30 45 60 75 110 130 150


(1 N 1

8A Continued
0.31 0.45 0.60 0.78 0.90 1.13 1.20 1.28
P
ft y A CA
S
D -D /AC

Radius Elbow EL Values Radius Elbow EL Values

8B 8C
R

Hard Easy Hard Easy


H/W=1 H/W=1
R/W Bend Bend R/W Bend Bend
ra a
9
BS

Miterd (R = 0) 90 75 65 Miterd (R = 0) 30 25 40
0.25 35 30 25 0.25 10 10 10
0.5 or Larger 20 15 10 0.5 or Larger 5 5 5
45

For Angles (q) Less Than For Angles (q) Less Than
90 Multiply EL by One 90 Multiply EL by One
of the Following Factors of the Following Factors

30 45 60 30 45 60

0.45 0.60 0.78 0.45 0.60 0.78

N33
Section N4

Group 8 Continued
Elbows and Offsets
Reference Velocity = 900 Fpm
Reference Friction Rate = 0.08 IWC per 100 Feet

16 w x
Square Elbow EL Values 8E Square Elbow EL Values

20 vie 01
8D

H H

ct e - 2
W W
Hard Easy Hard Easy
H/W=1 H/W=1
Bend Bend Bend Bend
Single Thickness
No Vanes
80 80 65 Turning Vanes 10 10 10

O R D
L/H EL
No

)
1 160

- 3 bli al
Vanes EL = 200
8G No Vanes
2 260
8F
4 g u nu
190

ELs No With

c
Au I Ma
H/L Vanes Vanes
8H 0.5 55 8I
1.0 330 55
EL = 20
1.5 430 55
(1 N 1

2.0 470 55
P
ft y A CA

4 45 Ells R/H EL
8J R = Inside radius
S

H= Duct height Miterd (R=0) 250


EL = 20
0.25 100
D -D /AC

0.50 20
4 90 Ells 8K
1.00 20
Double Ell 1 Plane
R

8L 1.7 EL value
Double Ell 2 Plane
ra a

for single elbow


9
BS

8M 2.0 EL value
for single elbow

8N
45

EL = 10

EL Values Inside Corners


Riser Miter Radius
Inside Corner EL
3-1/4 x 10 75 60
Miter (R=0) 235 8P
3-1/4 x 12 90 75
R = 0.25 90
8O 3-1/4 x 14 90 75
R > 0.50 45

N34
Section N4

Group 9
Supply Trunk Junction Fittings
Reference Velocity = 900 Fpm
Reference Friction Rate = 0.08 IWC per 100 Feet

16 w x
The equivalent lengths for this group apply

20 vie 01
when the branch duct is a secondary trunk duct. EL
See Group 2, Branch Takeoff Fittings for branch Branch 35
runout equivalent length values.
Main 5

ct e - 2
9G

O R D
EL
EL
Branch 100

)
Branch 80

- 3 bli al
Main 5
Main 5
9A 9H
g u nu
c
Au I Ma
EL
EL
Branch 85
Branch 80
Main 5
Main 5
9I
9B
(1 N 1
P
ft y A CA

EL EL

Branch 80 Branch 25
S

Main 5 Main 5
D -D /AC

9C 9J

EL
EL = 65
R

Branch 75
Main 5
ra a
9
BS

9D 9K

EL
45

Branch 50 EL = 20
Main 5
9E 9L

EL
Branch 45 EL = 20
Main 5 9M
9F

N35
Section N4

Group 9 Continued
Supply Trunk Junction Fittings
Reference Velocity = 900 Fpm
Reference Friction Rate = 0.08 IWC per 100 Feet

16 w x
The equivalent lengths for this group apply when the

20 vie 01
branch duct is a secondary trunk duct. See Group 2,
Branch Takeoff Fittings for branch runout equivalent
length values. EL = 70

ct e - 2
9P

O R D

)
- 3 bli al
EL = 55
EL = 15

9Q
9N g u nu
c
Au I Ma

EL = 35
EL = 15
9R
(1 N 1

9O
P
ft y A CA
S
D -D /AC
R
ra a
9
BS
45

N36
Section N4

Group 10
Return Trunk Junction Fittings
Reference Velocity = 700 Fpm
Reference Friction Rate = 0.08 IWC per 100 Feet

16 w x
The equivalent lengths in this group apply when the flow
in two return trunks merge. See Group 6, Branch Return

20 vie 01
Fittings, for branch return equivalent length values.
EL = 25

ct e - 2
10E

O R D
EL = 75

)
EL = 35

- 3 bli al
10A
g u nu 10F

c
Au I Ma

EL = 75
EL = 10

10B
(1 N 1

10G
P
ft y A CA
S

EL = 10
D -D /AC

10C
R

EL = 25
ra a
9
BS

10D
45

N37
Section N4

Group 11
Flexible Duct Junction Boxes and Radius Bends
Reference Velocity = As Indicated
Reference Friction Rate = 0.08 IWC per 100 Feet

16 w x
D

20 vie 01
q
R

ct e - 2
For bends that are not equal to 90,

O R D
multiply the 90 equivalent length by
the ratio of the desired angle to the
90 angle.

)
- 3 bli al
Example: IF R/D = 1.0, find the EL for
a 45 bend and 700 Fpm velocity:
g u nu 15 45 / 90 = 7.5 Ft

c
Au I Ma
Equivalent Length Values
2D Velocity Junction 90 Bend (Ft)
B B in Flex Box
Duct (Ft) R / D Ratio (In / In) 4
(Fpm) Notes 1, 2,
(1 N 1

B Diffuser 1.0 1.5 2 to 3 4 to 5


D = Upstream A and 3
Optional
P

Duct Diameter
400 20 5 5 5 5
ft y A CA

B 500 30 5 5 5 5
B
S

600 40 10 5 5 5
2D
700 60 15 10 5 5
D -D /AC

Construction that is compatible with Group 11 EL values. 800 75 15 10 10 8


Entrance (A) has a diffuser fitting that recovers velocity
900 95 20 15 10 8
pressure and prevents swirl (optional).
Straight approach(A) and straight exit (B). 1) No anti-swirl regain diffuser at entrance. Swirl tends to feed one
Exit opening on side (no top or bottom exits). side of the box and starve the other side. Swirl can be induced
R

Exit opening at least two diameters from entrance (L). by spiral wire geometry. Swirl attributes (such as direction) can
Make box as small as possible, but comply with L = 2 D. change when the blower shuts down and restarts.
ra a
9
BS

2) Use a straight-run approach and a straight-run departure (no


turns in duct runs near the junction box).
3) Entrance and exits on side of box (no top or bottom openings).
4) Radius of turn divided by diameter of duct.


45

Not compatible with Group 11 EL values.


Turn or bend near entrance or exit.
Top or bottom exits. This construction is compatible with Group 11 EL values,
Exit opening less than two diameters from entrance. providing the construction complies with the L = 2 x D rule.

N38
Section N4

Group 12
Transitions (Diverging)
Reference Velocity = 900 Fpm
Reference Friction Rate = 0.08 IWC per 100 Feet

16 w x
20 vie 01
EL Values A1/A2 A1/A2 EL Values A1/A2 A1/A2
Slope 2 4 Slope 2 4

12A 1:1 20 40 1:1 20 40

ct e - 2
2:1 20 40 12F 2:1 20 40
4:1 20 30 4:1 15 30

O R D

)
- 3 bli al
EL Values A1/A2 A1/A2 EL Values A1/A2 A1/A2
Slope 2 4 Slope 2 4
g u nu
Abrupt 20 40 Abrupt 20 40
12B

c
12G
Au I Ma
(1 N 1

EL Values A1/A2 A1/A2 EL Values A1/A2 A1/A2


P

Slope 2 4 Slope 2 4
ft y A CA

1:1 20 40 1:1 20 40
S

2:1 20 40 2:1 20 40
12H
12C 4:1 20 30 4:1 15 25
D -D /AC
R

EL Values A1/A2 A1/A2 EL Values A1/A2 A1/A2


ra a
9

Slope 2 4 Slope 2 4
BS

1:1 20 40 1:1 20 35
2:1 20 40 2:1 15 25
12D 12I
4:1 20 30 4:1 10 10
45

A2 A1
EL = 25

12E A1 / A2 = Larger Area / Smaller Area

N39
Section N4

Group 12 Continued
Transitions (Converging)
Reference Velocity = 900 Fpm
Reference Friction Rate = 0.08 IWC per 100 Feet

16 w x
EL Values A1/A2 A1/A2 EL Values A1/A2 A1/A2

20 vie 01
Slope 2 4 Slope 2 4
1:1 10 10 1:1 10 10

ct e - 2
12J 2:1 5 5 2:1 5 5
12O
4:1 5 5 4:1 5 5

O R D

)
- 3 bli al
EL Values A1/A2 A1/A2 EL Values A1/A2 A1/A2
Slope 2 4 Slope 2 4

12K
g u nu
Abrupt 25 25
12P
Abrupt 30 30

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Au I Ma

EL Values A1/A2 A1/A2 EL Values A1/A2 A1/A2


Slope 2 4 Slope 2 4
(1 N 1
P

1:1 10 10 1:1 10 10
ft y A CA

2:1 5 5 2:1 5 5
12Q
12L 4:1 5 5 4:1 5 5
S
D -D /AC

EL Values A1/A2 A1/A2 EL Values A1/A2 A1/A2


R

Slope 2 4 Slope 2 4
ra a
9
BS

1:1 10 10 1:1 5 5
2:1 5 5 2:1 5 5
12M 12R
4:1 5 5 4:1 5 5
45

A2 A1
EL = 10

12N
A1 / A2 = Larger Area / Smaller Area

N40
Section N4

Group 12 Continued
Oval Transition Plenums and Abrupt Squeezes
Reference Velocity = 900 Fpm or as Indicated
Reference Friction Rate = 0.08 IWC per 100 Feet

16 w x
12T

20 vie 01
ct e - 2
EL = 30 EL = 30
12S

O R D

)
- 3 bli al
g u nu
EL = 25 12U EL = 30

c
Au I Ma
12V
(1 N 1
P
ft y A CA

VIn
V A1 A1 V
S

A2
SP-1
D -D /AC

12W Vout
12X
R

EL Values for Flow Through Large Plenum Abrupt Squeeze


ra a
9

Out Vin (Fpm) Velocity A1 / A2 = 2 A1 / A2 = 4


BS

(Fpm) (Fpm)
600 700 800 900 EL Min SP-1 EL Min SP-1
600 40 40 35 35 600 65 0.12 245 0.52
700 55 55 50 50 700 90 0.16 330 0.71
45

800 70 70 70 65 800 115 0.20 430 0.92


900 90 90 90 85 900 145 0.26 545 1.17
Min SP-1 = Minimum upstream static pressure (IWC) for positive
static pressure at A2 (air velocity doubles or quadruples at A2).

N41
Section N4

Group 13
Manual Balancing Dampers
Component Pressure Loss (CPL) for Damper Blade in Wide-Open Position
Reference Velocity = 900 Fpm

16 w x
20 vie 01
Component
Component Pressure Loss

ct e - 2
Pressure Loss 0.03 IWC
0.03 IWC

O R D
13A 13C

)
- 3 bli al
g u nu
c
Au I Ma
Component Component
Pressure Loss Pressure Loss
0.03 IWC 0.03 IWC
(1 N 1
P
ft y A CA
S

13D
D -D /AC

13B
R
ra a
9
BS
45

N42
Section N4

Group 14
Transfer Duct and Transfer Grille
Component Pressure Loss (CPL) for Recommended Practice

16 w x
20 vie 01
Transfer Duct Transfer Grille

ct e - 2
A B

A B

O R D
Cfm Cfm
Cfm Cfm

)
- 3 bli al
Maximum A-B Pressure Drop for Assembly = 0.05 IWC

Cfm
g u nu B The A-B pressure drop includes two return grilles at
0.025 IWC per grille, or less.

c
Au I Ma

Example Grille Size


Cfm Size
100 12 8
(1 N 1

A
200 14 10
P

300 18 12
ft y A CA

Cfm
400 20 12
S
D -D /AC

Maximum A-B Pressure Drop for Assembly = 0.05 IWC

The A-B pressure drop includes these items:


R

n Two return grilles at 0.02 IWC per grille, or less


(use OEM performance data and Cfm for size).
ra a
9
BS

n Grille frame size determines duct airway size, or flex


duct equivalent
n Two 90 degree fittings, or flex duct equivalent
(15 feet equivalent length per fitting, or less).
45

Example Grille-Airway Size


Cfm Size
100 12 8
200 14 10
300 18 12
400 20 12

N43
N44
Section N4
BS
45 R
D -D /AC
ra a
ft y A CA
(1 N 1
9 S
Au I Ma
P
g u nu
- 3 bli al
c
O R D
ct e - 2
20 vie 01
16 w x
)
Informative Sections

These informative Sections are not part of this Standard.

16 w x
Section 1 Basic Duct Sizing Principles

20 vie 01
Section 2 System Operating Point
Section 3 Blowers

ct e - 2
Section 4 System Performance Issues

Section 5 Air Distribution System Design

O R D
Section 6 Duct Sizing Calculations

)
- 3 bli al
Section 7 Air-Zoned Systems
g u nu
c
Au I Ma
(1 N 1
P
ft y A CA
S
D -D /AC
R
ra a
9
BS
45
BS
45 R
D -D /AC
ra a
ft y A CA
(1 N 1
9 S
Au I Ma
P
g u nu
- 3 bli al
c
O R D
ct e - 2
20 vie 01
16 w x
)
This Section is not part of the standard. It is merely informative and does not contain requirements necessary for conformance to the standard. It has not been pro-
cessed according to the ANSI requirements for a standard, and may contain material that has not been subject to public review or a consensus process. Unresolved
objections on informative material are not offered the right to appeal at ACCA or ANSI.

Section 1
Basic Duct Sizing Principles
Poor heating and cooling performance is commonly attrib-

16 w x
uted to inadequate equipment size when the actual problem
is a restrictive or deficient duct system. Air-side design is

20 vie 01
critical. Poor air-side design causes inadequate heating
and/or cooling in some or all rooms. This Section intro-
duces the basic principles for sizing duct runs. These prin-

ct e - 2
ciples are the basis of the Manual D duct sizing procedure.

1-1 Pressure Units

O R D
The pressures for residential air distribution systems are
quite small, typically less than 0.025 pounds per square
inch (positive or negative). Because these pressures val-

)
- 3 bli al
ues are so small, it is more convenient to use inches of
water column (IWC) for the pressure unit (27.7 inches
g u nu
water column equals 1.0 pound per square inch.)
For the USA, Inches Water Column is the unit of choice
Figure 1-2
for air distribution system design work and for summa-

c
Au I Ma
rizing blower performance. However, Pascals (Pa) are
used for blower door testing and duct blaster testing (1.0
IWC = 249 Pa).

1-2 Blower Performance


(1 N 1
P

Blowers move air through duct systems. For example, the


ft y A CA

flow rate (Cfm) delivered by an operating point blower


(PSC or constant torque motor) depends on the external
resistance (pressure) the blower has to work against. This
S

behavior is summarized by OEM blower data, which


D -D /AC

may be a table (Figure 1-1) or a graph (Figure 1-2). Notice


that the airflow rate decreases as resistance increases.

Blower Data for One Wheel RPM


R

Figure 1-3
Cfm Resistance (IWC)
ra a
9
BS

1,300
1,350 0.69 1-3 Duct Performance
1,400 0.62 Resistance is created when air is forced through a duct
1,450 0.55 system. This resistance is caused by friction. Figure 1-3
45

1,500 0.47 provides an example of duct system performance. Notice


1,550 0.39 that resistance increases rapidly as more air is forced
through the duct.
1,600 0.31
1,650 0.23
1-4 System Operating Point
1,700 0.14
If a blower (Figure 1-2) is connected to a duct system (Fig-
1,750 0.04
ure 1-3) there is only one possible operating point. Since
1,800 this point must be compatible with blower performance,
it must fall on the blower curve. And, since this point
Figure 1-1

1
Section 1

components), in terms of static pressure drop, shall match


the external static pressure (ESP) produced by the blower
package (furnace or air handler) when the blower deliv-
ers the desired Cfm.
This concept is demonstrated by Figure 1-5. In this case
the blower delivers 1,000 Cfm when it works against a re-
sistance of 0.20 IWC. Therefore, the only acceptable duct

16 w x
size is the size that produces a 0.20 IWC of resistance

20 vie 01
when the flow rate is 1,000 Cfm. Ultimately, the required
duct size is determined by a friction chart or duct slide
rule, but first it is necessary to distinguish between a pres-

ct e - 2
sure drop and a friction rate.

1-6 Pressure Drop and Friction Rate


A pressure drop (PD) is the pressure loss between any

O R D
Figure 1-4 two points in a duct system. For example, in Figure 1-5,
the pressure drop for 300 feet of duct is 0.20 IWC. (Note

)
that IWC units are used for pressure drop values.)

- 3 bli al
must be compatible with duct performance, it must fall on
A friction rate (FR) is the pressure drop between two
the system curve. This can happen only at the intersection of
g u nu points in a duct system that are separated by a specific
the two performance curves, as demonstrated by Fig-
distance. Friction charts and duct slide rules use 100 feet
ure 1-4.
for the reference distance (see Appendix 2). Therefore,

c
Au I Ma
For this example, the system delivers 1,600 Cfm to the before using a friction chart or duct slide rule to size a duct
conditioned space. If the practitioner is not satisfied with run, the system pressure drop value must be converted to
this airflow rate, blower performance may be adjusted or a friction rate value for 100 feet of duct. (Friction rate units
duct system performance may be modified. Since the are inches water column per 100 feet of duct, or for conve-
blower performance curve (Figure 1-2) depends on a fixed nience, IWC/100 Ft.)
(1 N 1

blower geometry (per the manufacturers design) and


P

This equation converts a pressure drop value (PD) to a


blower wheel speed, the only way to change the blower
friction rate value (FR). Where TEL represents the total
ft y A CA

performance curve is to change wheel speed. And, since


effective length of the duct run. (TEL is explained in the
the duct system performance (Figure 1-3) depends on the
following sections.)
S

duct geometry, duct fittings, and the duct material, the


only way to change the duct system curve is to alter duct PD x 100
D -D /AC

geometry, use different fittings, or change duct material. FR =


TEL

1-5 Objective of the Residential Sizing Procedure For example, in Figure 1-5, the friction rate for the duct
run is equal to 0.067 IWC/100 Ft. This value is deter-
Residential equipment manufacturers provide a blower mined as follows:
R

with the equipment package (furnace or air handler). The


basic objective of the Manual D procedure is to design a 0.20 x 100
ra a
9

FR = = 0.067 IWC / 100


BS

duct system that it will work with the blower that is sup- 300
plied with the HVAC equipment.
Now that the friction rate is known, duct size is determined
To meet this objective, the airflow resistance produced by by using a friction chart or a duct slide rule. Figure 1-6
the duct system (duct runs, duct fittings and air-side
45

Figure 1-5

2
Section 1

For example, adding a few jogs to the Figure 1-5 duct sys-
tem may increase the effective length of the run by 80 feet
(see Figure 1-7). For this scenario, the blower perfor-
mance is the same and the Cfm is the same, but the effec-
tive duct length is 80 feet longer (TEL = 380 feet). Since a
longer duct produces more airflow resistance, a larger
duct section is required.

16 w x
As explained in Section 1-5, the only acceptable duct size

20 vie 01
is the size that produces a resistance of 0.20 IWC when the
flow rate is 1,000 Cfm. For this example the friction rate
for the sizing calculation is 0.053 IWC/100 Ft, as demon-

ct e - 2
strated here:

Figure 1-6 0.20 x 100


FR = = 0.053 IWC / 100
380

O R D
Now that Cfm and friction rate are known, duct size is de-
(next page) shows that a 15-inch diameter sheet metal termined by using a friction chart or a duct slide rule. This

)
duct is required for 1,000 Cfm and a 0.067 IWC/100 Ft produces a 16-inch diameter for a metal duct.

- 3 bli al
friction rate. (See Appendix 2 for more information about
using friction charts and duct slide rules.) n The flow rate is 1,000 Cfm
g u nu
1-7 Effective Length
n

n
The friction rate is 0.053 IWC/100 Ft
The metal duct diameter is 16 Inches

c
Duct runs have straight sections and fittings; and pressure
Au I Ma
losses are produced by these elements. Therefore, the total 1-8 Ducted Return
pressure drop for a duct run equals the pressure loss for In the two previous examples there was no return duct, so
all straight sections plus the pressure loss produced by all the blower pressure is used to move the air through the
each and every fitting in the duct run. supply duct. If a return duct is added to the system (Fig-
(1 N 1

It is not unusual for a fitting pressure loss to be equal to, or ure 1-8, next page), some pressure is used to move air
P

greater than, the pressure loss for a fairly long section of through the return duct, so less pressure is available for
ft y A CA

straight duct. For example, a fitting could produce the the supply-side of the system.
same airflow resistance as a 60-foot section of straight Procedurally, this example is not any different than the
S

duct. In this case the fitting is said to have an equivalent previous examples, except the return duct adds 100 feet of
length (EL) of 60 feet.
D -D /AC

effective length to the system. Blower performance is still


Fitting equivalent lengths are a convenient way to the same, and Cfm is still the same, but now the effective
account for fitting pressure losses because fitting length length is 480 feet. Since the total effective length produces
values are simply added to the straight run lengths. The more resistance, a larger duct diameter is required. When
resulting total effective length (TEL) represents the total the sizing calculation is based on 480 feet, the design fric-
R

airflow resistance of the duct run. The corresponding tion rate is 0.042 IWC/100 Ft, as demonstrated here:
ra a

pressure drop (PD), depends on the friction rate


9
BS

0.20 x100
(IWC/100 Ft) and duct length, as explained by Sec- FR = = 0.042 IWC / 100
480
tion 1-6.
45

Figure 1-7

3
Section 1

16 w x
20 vie 01
Figure 1-8

ct e - 2
Now that Cfm and friction rate are known, duct size is tainly satisfy the airflow requirement at all other supply and
determined by using a friction chart or a duct slide rule. return openings.
One size is used for both sides of the system.

O R D
As demonstrated by the previous example, the design
n The flow rate is 1,000 Cfm friction rate is 0.042 IWC/100 Ft for a 480 foot length. This

)
friction rate is used to size all trunk ducts and all branch

- 3 bli al
n The friction rate is 0.042 IWC/100 Ft
runs. This friction rate, the Figure 1-9 Cfm values and the
n The metal duct diameter is 16.6 Inches duct slide rule provide the round duct sizes, as demon-
g u nu
1-9 Branch Ducts
strated by Figure 1-10 (next page).

Supply air systems normally have more than one outlet 1-10 Pressure Drop for Air-Side Components

c
Au I Ma
and many return air systems have more than one inlet. A resistance is created when air is forced through equip-
For example, Figure 1-9 shows a system that has three ment or a device that is installed in the air stream; a filter,
outlets and two inlets. In this case the system has six effec- coil, damper, supply outlet or return grille, for example.
tive lengths (circulation paths). This resistance translates to a pressure drop across the
(1 N 1

n Air flows into R2 and out of S1 or S2 or S3. component. The size of this pressure drop depends on the
P

flow (Cfm) through the component. Figure 1-11 (next page)


n Air flows into R1 and out of S1 or S2 or S3. provides an example of the air-side performance of an
ft y A CA

electric heating coil. Notice that the pressure drop increases


The procedure for sizing these duct runs is not any differ- rapidly as more and more air is forced through the coil.
S

ent than used for previous example. In this case, the


appropriate sizes are based on the largest effective length
D -D /AC

1-11 Available Static Pressure (ASP)


value, which is 480 feet (380 feet for the supply-side plus
100 feet for the return-side). Component pressure drops are very important because
the pressure dissipated by one or more items must be sub-
If the blower can deliver the required flow to the outlet that re- tracted from the external static pressure value from the
quires the most blower pressure and capture the required flow OEM's blower table. The resulting value is the pressure
R

from the inlet that requires the most blower pressure, it will cer-
ra a
9
BS
45

Figure 1-9

4
Section 1

Trunks Cfm FR Diameter


Coil Pressure Drop
Fan to S1 1,000 0.042 17" 0.35

S1 to S2 900 0.042 16" 0.30

S2 to S3 500 0.042 13" 0.25

Pressure - IWC
Fan to R-1 1,000 0.042 17" 0.20

16 w x
R1 to R2 300 0.042 11"
0.15

20 vie 01
0.10

Runouts Cfm FR Diameter 0.05

ct e - 2
S1 100 0.042 7" 0
0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000
400 0.042 12" CFM
S2
S3 500 0.042 13"

O R D
R1 700 0.042 15" Figure 1-11

R2 300 0.042 11"

)
- 3 bli al
Sheet metal duct diameters rounded up to eliminate fractional that produces a resistance of 0.12 IWC when the flow is
dimensions.
1,000 Cfm. Based on 0.12 IWC, the design friction rate is
g u nu Figure 1-10 0.025 IWC/100 Ft, and the size from the duct calculator is
18.6 inches. Notice that if no coil was installed, the duct
size would have been based on 0.20 IWC of pressure,

c
Au I Ma
that is available to move the air through the straight runs
which would have resulted in a 0.042 IWC/100 Ft friction
and fittings of a circulation path.
rate and a 16.6 inch duct (see Section 1-8).
n Duct sizes are not based on the amount of pressure
that the blower produces (i.e, the external pressure 1-12 Velocity Limits
(1 N 1

for the furnace or air handler), but on the net pres- The friction rate procedure described above always pro-
P

sure that is available to move the air through the duces a design that delivers adequate airflow (Cfm) at
circulation path that produces the most resistance
ft y A CA

each supply and return. However, this is not the only


to airflow (i.e., the critical path). design criterion. If the velocity in an airway gets too high,
n For a given amount of blower pressure, duct sizes it may produce turbulence and objectionable noise. When
S

have to be increased to compensate for the pres- this happens, the duct airway size that satisfies the fric-
D -D /AC

sure dissipated by components and devices tion rate requirement is increased to comply with air
located in the critical circulation path of the duct velocity limitations specified by Table N3-1.
system.
Once the design value for air velocity is known, a friction
This concept is demonstrated by Figure 1-12. The blower chart or duct sizing slide rule is used to determine the
R

still delivers 1,000 Cfm when working against 0.20 IWC of duct size for the desired velocity. For example,
resistance, but 0.08 IWC of pressure is dissipated by the Figure 1-13 shows that a 14.5 inch duct is required for a
ra a
9
BS

coil. Therefore, the only acceptable duct size is the size 1,000 Cfm flow rate and a 900 Fpm (maximum) velocity.
45

Figure 1-12

5
Section 1

Maximum Air Velocity Values for Airways and Air Distribution Hardware
Component Supply-Side (Fpm) Return-Side (Fpm)
Rigid Flex Rigid Flex
Trunk Ducts 900 900 700 700
Branch Ducts 900 900 700 700

16 w x
Supply Outlet Face Velocity 700 ~

20 vie 01
Supply Outlet Neck Velocity 700 ~
Return Grille Face Velocity ~ 500 per Note 1

ct e - 2
Filter Grille Face Velocity ~ 300 per Note 1
1) For a duct airway section, Fpm air velocity equals the design Cfm value, or a measured Cfm value, divided by the cross-sectional area in
SqFt units.
2) Depending on the type of outlet, a face velocity value or neck velocity value shall be provided by the air distribution hardware manufacturer's

O R D
engineering data for the make, model, and size that will be installed in the duct system.

Copy of Table N3-1

)
- 3 bli al
Figure 1-14 (next page) shows that the available pressure
g u nu
is 0.60 IWC and the total effective length is 480 feet, so the
design friction rate is 0.125 IWC/100 Ft. Duct airways are
sized for this friction rate, provided airflow velocities do
not exceed limits.

c
Au I Ma
Figure 1-15 (next page) shows how velocity limits affect
final duct size. In this case a sheet metal duct system has a
blower that produces a relatively large amount of pres-
sure when it moves 1,000 Cfm through the system.
(1 N 1
P

Figure 1-15 summarizes the design calculations for this


ft y A CA

system. In this case, most of the duct sizes that satisfy the
friction rate procedure are too small to satisfy the
S

Table N3-1 velocity requirement. When this happens, the


final duct size is the size that is compatible with the veloc-
D -D /AC

ity limit. Figure 1-13


So, there are two sizes for every duct section; the size that
satisfies the airflow requirement (per the friction rate pro-
cedure) and the size that satisfies the velocity limit. The fi- equation, which is adjusted for altitude (ACF is the alti-
R

nal design always uses the larger of these two sizes. tude correction factor from Manual J, Table 10A).
ra a
9

If the airway size is dictated by a velocity limit, the duct Load


BS

Cfm =
run produces less airflow resistance than a smaller size 1.1 x ACF x TD
that satisfies the friction rate procedure. The reduction in
path resistance causes increased airflow for the path, For example, at sea level (ACF = 1.0), the value for supply
which will exceed the desired value. Excessive path Cfm air temperature is 56F, and the temperature of the air in
45

problems are resolved by installing and adjusting balanc- the conditioned space is 75F, so the TD value is 19F. If
ing dampers in appropriate locations. the Manual J calculation for the sensible cooling load for a
room or space is 4,500 Btuh , the supply airflow rate for
1-13 Psychometric Airflow Calculation cooling is 237 Cfm.
The airflow rate (Cfm) that is required for a conditioned 4,500
space, depends on the sensible cooling load (Btuh) or the Cfm = = 237
1.1 x 1.0 x19
heating load (Btuh) for the space, and on the temperature
difference (TD) between the supply air and the room air. This principle applies to any room or space, and to the
This relationship is summarized by the sensible heat entire conditioned space. For example, if the Manual J

6
Section 1

16 w x
20 vie 01
ct e - 2
Figure 1-14

O R D
calculation for the sensible cooling load for the entire con- practitioner uses total load values from Manual J, Form

)
ditioned space is 30,000 Btuh , the design airflow rate for J1, line21 and OEM expanded performance data to find

- 3 bli al
cooling is 1,435 Cfm. equipment that has the correct output capacity for the line
21 loads. Since this data correlates output capacity values
g u nu
However, the heating load and sensible cooling load on
the equipment may be larger than the load for the condi-
tioned space. This difference is typically caused by an
with blower Cfm values, the design value for blower Cfm
is read from the OEM's equipment capacity table.

c
engineered ventilation load, and/or a blower heat load.
Au I Ma
1-14 Blower Cfm and Room Cfm
Therefore, the Manual J load value for a psychrometric
airflow calculation equals the sum of the line 14, line 15 The design value for blower Cfm shall be available before
and line 20 values on Manual J, Form J1, as explained by Manual D duct sizing calculations begin. As previously
Section 6-9. noted, this value is obtained when primary equipment is
(1 N 1

selected by use of Manual S procedures (which require


A psychometric airflow calculation is correct in principle,
P

Manual J solutions for the heating and cooling loads).


but it is not used in practice. Per Manual S , the
ft y A CA
S

Trunk Cfm FR Diameter Velocity Design Diameter Design


Section for (Fpm) Velocity for Diameter
D -D /AC

Airflow (Fpm) Velocity


Fan to S1 1,000 0.125 13.5" 1,050 900 14.5" 15"
S1 to S2 900 0.125 13.0" 1,000 900 13.8" 14"
S2 to S3 500 0.125 10.3" 890 900 10.2" 11"
R

Fan to R1 1,000 0.125 13.5" 1,050 700 16.5" 17"


ra a
9
BS

R1 to R2 300 0.125 8.5" 780 700 9.0" 9"

Runouts Cfm FR Diameter Velocity Design Diameter Design


for (Fpm) Velocity for Diameter
45

Airflow (Fpm Velocity


S1 100 0.125 5.5" 600 900 4.5" 6"
S2 400 0.125 9.5" 840 900 9.1" 10"
S3 500 0.125 10.3" 880 900 10.2" 11"
R1 700 0.125 11.7" 960 600 14.8" 15"
R2 300 0.125 8.5" 780 600 9.6" 10"
Sheet metal duct diameters rounded up to eliminate fractional dimensions.

Figure 1-15

7
Section 1

Once the design value for the blower Cfm is known, the With heating and cooling factors in hand, the heating Cfm
airflow (Cfm) for each room is estimated by multiplying and cooling Cfm for each room or space is estimated by
the blower Cfm by the room load and dividing by the multiplying the room load (line 21, Form J1 or Line 20 on
Manual J equipment sizing load for the entire space the MJ8AE spreadsheet) by the corresponding flow factor.
served by heating-cooling the equipment (total heating
load or total sensible cooling load from line 21 of Form J1). Room Heating Cfm = HF Room Heating Load
Room Cooling Cfm = CF Room Sensible Load

16 w x
Blower Cfm x Room Load
Room Cfm = However, only the larger of the two Cfm values is used to
Equipmen Sizing Load

20 vie 01
size the duct run.
Normally, two calculations are required for each room.
One for the heating and one for sensible cooling. This Design Cfm = Larger of the two room Cfm values

ct e - 2
work is expedited by using a heating factor (HF) and a
cooling factor (CF), as defined here: Sometimes there is not much difference between the
room heating Cfm and the room cooling Cfm. Sometimes
HF =
Blower Cfm for Heating there is a significant difference. Manual D sizes duct runs

O R D
Sizing Load for Heating for the worst-case condition, which may be for heating or
cooling. In any case, airway sizes are compatible with
Blower Cfm for Heating maximum airflow requirement and more than adequate

)
CF =

- 3 bli al
Sizing Load for Sensible Cooling for a lesser requirement. In other words, the correct air-
flow for cooling is often incorrect for heating, so duct air-
Note: The blower Cfm for heating may be equal to, or dif-
g u nu way are sized for the worst case (largest) Cfm value, as
ferent than, the blower Cfm for cooling. When different explained by the sidebar on the this page.
blower Cfm values are used, it is normally because the For example, Figure 1-16 (previous page) shows a system
cooling Cfm is not compatible with a furnace temperature

c
Au I Ma
that provides cooling and heating to three large rooms.
rise limitation. This is determined when equipment is Manual J and Manual S procedures were used to gener-
selected (per Manual S procedures). ate block load and room load values, to select equipment
(1 N 1
P
ft y A CA
S
D -D /AC
R
ra a
9
BS

Figure 1-16
45

Room Cooling Heating Design


Cfm
Load CF Cfm Load HF Cfm
S1 4,000 0.050 200 4,000 0.033 133 200
S2 6,000 0.050 300 12,469 0.033 415 415
S3 10,000 0.050 500 13,531 0.033 450 500
Blower CF = 1,000 / 20,000 = 0.050 HF = 1,000 / 30,000 = 0.033 1,000
For this example, the same blower speed used for heating and cooling.

Figure 1-17

8
Section 1

and to obtain a blower Cfm value. This is all that is


System Air Balance
required to determine the design Cfm for each room.
Manual D procedures (Figure 1-15 duct sizes, for
Figure 1-17 (previous page) summarizes the room Cfm example) do not produce a perfectly balanced system
calculations for the example system. Note that the larger because all airway sizes are based on a worst case fric-
of the two room Cfm values determines airway sizes (the tion rate. Therefore, the airway sizes for the runs in the
duct slide rule converts a Cfm value and a friction rate critical circulation path are correct, but the airway
value to a duct diameter or equivalent rectangular shape). sizes for the runs in the other circulation paths are

16 w x
larger than needed. This causes excessive airflow

20 vie 01
1-15 Trunk Cfm Values (somewhat more than the design Cfm value) through
the shorter circulation paths. Also note that:
The Cfm flowing through any point along a supply trunk
equals the sum of the Cfm values flowing through the

ct e - 2
n Manual D sizes duct runs for the most
downstream supply air outlets. Two calculations are demanding operating condition, which may
required, one for summing cooling Cfm values, and one be heating or cooling. So, airway sizes are for
for summing heating Cfm values. Depending on circum- the maximum seasonal airflow requirement.
stances, the two sums may be equal or different. When

O R D
n Airways are first sized for correct airflow resis-
they are different, the larger Cfm value is used for supply
tance, with no regard for velocity or standard
trunk sizing.
size consequences. System balance is affected

)
- 3 bli al
The Cfm flowing through any point along a return trunk when an airway size is increased to comply
equals the sum of the Cfm values flowing through the with an air velocity limit, and when a duct slide
g u nu
upstream return grilles. Two calculations are required, one
for summing cooling Cfm values, and one for summing n
rule size is rounded to a standard size.
Excessive airflow problems are resolved by
heating Cfm values. Depending on circumstances, the installing balancing dampers in the branch runout

c
Au I Ma
two sums may be equal or different. When they are differ- ducts. Once the balancing dampers are adjusted,
ent, the larger Cfm value is used for return trunk sizing. the total effective length of all the circulation
paths are approximately equal, and each sup-
n If 100% of the blower Cfm enters a supply trunk or
ply air run will deliver the desired Cfm.
leaves a return trunk, simply use the blower Cfm
(1 N 1

value for trunk airway sizing because this is the n A system balanced for the desired heating Cfm
P

maximum Cfm that can flow through the trunk. values is usually not correct for the cooling
Cfm values, and vice versa. Hand dampers
ft y A CA

n Calculations similar to the Figure 8-8 example


optimize the performance of single-zone sys-
apply when the blower feeds two supply trunks.
tems and zone damper systems
S

n Calculations similar to the Figure 8-13 and Fig- n See Section 6-2 and Section 6-3. For zone damper
ure 8-1 example apply when one long supply trunk
D -D /AC

systems, see Appendix 9 in Manual Zr)


reduces in size downstream from a set of branch
runouts.
n The Figure 8-18 example has one section of supply
trunk that carries 100% of the blower Cfm, three
R

secondary supply trunks that carry a portion of


the blower Cfm, and two return trunks that carry a
ra a
9
BS

portion of the blower Cfm.


n The Figure 8-8 example has four supply trunks
that carry a portion of the blower Cfm, and two
return trunks that carry a portion of the blower
45

Cfm.

9
10
Section 1
BS
45 R
D -D /AC
ra a
ft y A CA
(1 N 1
9 S
Au I Ma
P
g u nu
- 3 bli al
c
O R D
ct e - 2
20 vie 01
16 w x
)
This Section is not part of the Standard. It is merely informative and does not contain requirements necessary for conformance to the Standard. It has not been pro-
cessed according to the ANSI requirements for a Standard, and may contain material that has not been subject to public review or a consensus process. Unresolved
objections on informative material are not offered the right to appeal at ACCA or ANSI.

Section 2
System Operating Point
The air distribution system operating point is defined in

16 w x
Section 1-4. This Section shows how motor speed set
points, or a motor torque set points, and system resistance

20 vie 01
changes affect the system operating point. This Section
also shows how to determine the operating point, how to
adjust the operating point, and how to use this informa-

ct e - 2
tion during field tests.

2-1 System Operating Point

O R D
Blower performance is summarized by a pressure vs.
flow rate curve and duct system performance is charac-
terized by a resistance-flow relationship. These behaviors

)
- 3 bli al
may be summarized by two tables or one graph. The
advantage of using a graph is that the operating point is
g u nu
obvious, as shown by Figure 2-1.
The operating point is the only possible condition that can
Figure 2-1
occur when a particular blower (operating at a given

c
Au I Ma
speed) is attached to a duct system. Therefore, the practi-
tioner shall be sure the Cfm value at the operating point
equals (or is close to) the design Cfm value. (The design
Cfm is determined when Manual J loads and Manual S
procedures are used to select and size heating and cooling
(1 N 1

equipment.)
P
ft y A CA

The practitioner has little control over the size and power
of the blower because it is (normally) a standard compo-
S

nent in a residential furnace or air handler. This means


that the practitioner must match the air distribution sys-
D -D /AC

tem's performance to the blower. If this is done correctly,


the system curve will intersect the blower curve at (or near)
the design Cfm value.

2-2 Changing the Blower Motor Set Point


R

If the system curve does not intersect the blower curve at Figure 2-2
ra a
9

the desired Cfm, the operating point may be adjusted by


BS

changing the PSC motor speed set point, or the constant n A blower wheel speed change produces a rela-
torque motor set point. Figure 2-2 shows that a system
tively small Cfm change if the blower curves are
with three blower motor set points has three operating
steep.
points. (Operating points occur at the intersection of the
45

system curve and the blower curves for each set point.) n Steep blower curves characterize the performance
of wheels that have forward curved vanes.
Note that when a motor set point is changed, it is not pos- n The forward curved design is commonly used for
sible to know what the new flow rate will be by just look-
residential equipment.
ing at the OEM's blower data. The only thing that can be
said about the consequence of a set point change is that
As already explained, blower Cfm depends on how the
more blower wheel RPM produces more airflow, and less
blower interacts with the resistance produced by the air
RPM produces less airflow.
distribution system. A balance point diagram, such as
Figure 2-2, shall be used to evaluate the consequences of a
wheel speed change.

11
Section 2

2-3 Changing System Resistance


If the system curve does not intersect the blower curve at
the desired Cfm, the operating point may be adjusted by
changing system resistance. Such changes may be inten-
tional or unintentional. Intentional adjustments are nor-
mally made by opening or closing balancing dampers.

16 w x
n If balancing damper positions decrease or increase
system resistance, the new operating point occurs

20 vie 01
at the intersection of the blower curve and a new
system curve.

ct e - 2
n System resistance and operating point will unin-
tentionally change if equipment and/or a device is
added to or removed from the duct system (a
pleated filter retrofit by a homeowner or contractor,

O R D
for example). Figure 2-3
n System resistance and operating point may be

)
modified by replacing inefficient fittings with

- 3 bli al
more efficient fittings, or vice versa.
n The resistance produced by any component or fit- Dots denote limits of stable operation.
g u nu
ting is unintentionally modified when it gets
fouled by dirt, debris or biological growth.

c
Au I Ma
Figure 2-3 shows how a change in system resistance
affects the system curve and the operating point. Note
that when flow path resistance is changed, the new oper- Stable Operating Range
ating point occurs at the intersection of the blower curve
and the new system resistance curve.
(1 N 1
P

A system resistance adjustment, by itself, cannot be used


to evaluate the effect of a system modification because
ft y A CA

system Cfm also depends on the blower performance.


The only thing that can be said is that increased resistance
S

produces less airflow, and decreased resistance allows


more airflow. Therefore, a system balance point diagram Figure 2-4
D -D /AC

shall be used to predict the consequences of a system


resistance change (see Figure 2-3).
n For a given blower wheel speed, stable operation
2-4 Operating Envelope is defined by the range of Cfm and pressure values
R

Hand damper and motor set point adjustments produce a in the manufacturer's blower table (see the blower
curves on Figure 2-4).
ra a
9

large set of operating points. The Blower wheel speed


BS

motor set point shall be adjusted first. Ideally, blower n System airflow may be deficient, erratic or negligible
Cfm should slightly exceed the design Cfm when all the if system resistance causes the blower to operate
registers, balancing dampers and control dampers are in outside its stable operating range.
the wide open position. After wheel speed the motor set
45

point is adjusted, branch runout dampers are adjusted so 2-5 Drawing the System Curve
that each outlet provides the desired airflow. Figure 2-4
provides an example of a stable operating envelope pro- A system resistance curve can be drawn if a single perfor-
duced by combinations of speed changes and damper mance point (P1, Cfm1) is known. This point may be the
adjustments. desired operating point or it could be a point that was
measured during a balancing test.
n Blowers are designed to operate over a certain
range of flow rates and pressures. This equation associates system resistance (Px) with air-
flow (Cfmx) for any point on the duct system curve.

12
Section 2

16 w x
20 vie 01
ct e - 2
Figure 2-6

O R D
Figure 2-5

)
Blower Data for One Wheel RPM

- 3 bli al
Figure 2-5 (next page) shows the system resistance curve
for P1 = 0.216 IWC and Cfm1 = 1,200. Cfm IWC
g u nu
Px = P 1 x [ Cfmx / Cfm1] 2
1,300
1,350

0.69
1,400 0.62

c
Au I Ma
2-6 Drawing the Blower Curve 1,450 0.55
Some manufacturers publish blower performance data in 1,500 0.47
graphical form, which makes the blower curve immedi- 1,550 0.39
ately available. Figure 2-6 provides an example of this 1,600 0.31
(1 N 1

method of presentation.
1,650 0.23
P

If blower performance is not presented as a graph, it will 1,700 0.14


ft y A CA

be defined by a table that correlates flow (Cfm) and pres- 1,750 0.04
sure (IWC). In this case, the blower curve is graphed from
S

1,800
data points in the manufacturers blower data table. Fig-
ure 2-7 shows the blower table for the Figure 2-6 blower
D -D /AC

Figure 2-7
curve.

2-7 Establishing the Operating Point n Inspect the manufacturer's blower table for the
heating-cooling equipment.
The operating point is determined by drawing the blower
R

curve and the system curve on the same graph. This pro- n Use the design Cfm value to find a set of airflow
duces a balance point diagram and the operating point is resistance values (IWC external static pressure) for
ra a
9
BS

at the intersection of the two curves (see Figure 2-8, next the available blower motor set points.
page). n Select a wheel speed blower motor set point and
note the corresponding resistance value .
Note that a balance point diagram is not used to design a
n The design Cfm, and the selected resistance value,
45

residential duct system. In practice, the operating point


(Cfm value and resistance value) is read from the equip- define the system operating point for Manual D
ment manufacturer's blower table. calculations.

n Use Manual J to evaluate block load. For example, suppose 1,350 Cfm is obtained from the
n Use manufacture's expanded performance data equipment selection procedure and blower performance
and Manual S procedures to select equipment. is summarized by Figure 2-9 (next page). In this case,
there are two possible operating points. The external
n The design Cfm is the Cfm used for equipment
static pressure value is 0.25 IWC if the blower operates at
selection.
medium speed or 0.69 IWC if the blower operates at high
speed. (The blower cannot deliver 1,350 Cfm at low speed.)

13
Section 2

External Static Pressure (IWC)


Cfm Blower Wheel Speed
High Medium Low
1,150 0.45
1,200 0.30

16 w x
1,250 0.49 0.05

20 vie 01
1,300 0.37
1,350 0.69 0.25

ct e - 2
1,400 0.62 0.14
1,450 0.55 0.04
1,500 0.47

O R D
Figure 2-8 1,550 0.39
1,600 0.31

)
- 3 bli al
1,650 0.23
After a blower wheel speed and external static pressure
value are selected, duct runs are sized so that system
g u nu
resistance is equal to, or less than, the available pressure
value. In other words, if the system resistance curve was
Figure 2-9

superimposed on the blower curve, it would intersect the

c
Au I Ma
blower curve at the correct operating point. Operating Points
0.70

2-8 Wheel Speed Design Value 0.60


High

If possible, calculations are made for a mid-range (medium) 0.50


(1 N 1

Pressure IWC

blower wheel speed because this provides the most flexi-


P

0.40 Duct
bility for field adjustment. However, a high speed is com- Medium
ft y A CA

patible with a relatively large system resistance, and a 0.30


low speed is compatible with a relatively low system
0.20
resistance. In any case, the system operating point shall be
S

compatible with the Cfm value that was used to select 0.10
D -D /AC

equipment.
0
1,100 1,200 1,300 1,400 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800
For example, if the equipment selection procedure was CFM
based on 1,350 Cfm, Figure 2-9 shows that one operating
point is compatible with 0.25 IWC of system resistance
Figure 2-10
R

and the other is compatible with 0.69 IWC of system resis-


tance. In this case, the medium speed setting is desired,
ra a
9
BS

but is not arbitrarily used for duct sizing calculations.


2-9 Balance Point Diagram Application
n The medium speed is appropriate if the Manual D
resistance calculation for the critical circulation After the air distribution system is designed and in-
path (longest supply-side plus longest return- stalled, airflow rates shall be verified by field tests. The
45

side) is approximately 0.25 IWC. primary task is to measure total airflow (Cfm) delivered
by the blower when all dampers and registers in the wide
n The high speed setting is appropriate if the Man-
open position. A blower wheel speed adjustment is
ual D resistance calculation for the critical circula-
required if this test shows that system airflow is excessive
tion path is significantly larger than 0.25 IWC.
or deficient. However, the consequences of a speed change
n Balancing dampers dissipate excess pressure if the cannot be predicted by looking at the blower table.
resistance of the critical circulation path is less
than the available static pressure. For example, the desired flow rate for an existing air dis-
tribution system is 1,600 Cfm, Figure 2-10 defines blower

14
Section 2

performance and system flow rate is measured at of the system curve and the high-speed blower
medium speed. But system airflow and pressure mea- curve.
surements indicate the blower delivers 1,330 Cfm against n Figure 2-10 shows the system flow rate will
0.29 IWC of system resistance. Since the airflow is less
increase to 1,550 Cfm at 0.40 IWC at the high speed
than desired, performance at high speed setting is
setting, which is less than the desired value
evaluated.
(1,600 Cfm).
Figure 2-10 shows that at high speed, the blower will This is the best the blower can do when operating

16 w x
n

deliver 1,600 Cfm against 0.31 IWC of resistance; there- at high speed. If a larger flow rate is required, the

20 vie 01
fore 1,600 Cfm will not flow through the existing duct sys- resistance of the critical circulation path must be
tem because system resistance at 1,600 Cfm is larger than reduced (clean the filter and coil, replace inefficient
0.31 IWC (Figure 2-10 shows 0.43 IWC for 1,600 Cfm). fittings with aerodynamically efficient fittings,

ct e - 2
Therefore, a balance point diagram similar to Figure 2-10 measure the pressure drop across air-side equipment
must be used to determine the benefit of the speed and devices and substitute components that have
change. smaller pressure drops.)

O R D
n If blower speed in increased from medium to high,
the new operating point will fall at the intersection

)
- 3 bli al
g u nu
c
Au I Ma
(1 N 1
P
ft y A CA
S
D -D /AC
R
ra a
9
BS
45

15
16
Section 2
BS
45 R
D -D /AC
ra a
ft y A CA
(1 N 1
9 S
Au I Ma
P
g u nu
- 3 bli al
c
O R D
ct e - 2
20 vie 01
16 w x
)
This Section is not part of the Standard. It is merely informative and does not contain requirements necessary for conformance to the Standard. It has not been pro-
cessed according to the ANSI requirements for a Standard, and may contain material that has not been subject to public review or a consensus process. Unresolved
objections on informative material are not offered the right to appeal at ACCA or ANSI.

Section 3
Blowers
A centrifugal fan (blower) moves air against the resis-

16 w x
tance produced by the air distribution system (return External Static Pressure (IWC)
grille, return duct work, filter, casing, heat transfer

20 vie 01
Cfm Blower Wheel Speed
equipment, supply duct work, balancing dampers and
supply air grille, for example). This Section looks at the High Medium Low
types of blowers found in residential equipment 1,150 0.45

ct e - 2
packages. 0.30
1,200

3-1 Blower Selection 1,250 0.49 0.05


1,300 0.37

O R D
Normally, the practitioner does not specify blower size or
performance because the blower is a standard, fac- 1,350 0.69 0.25
tory-installed component of the equipment package.

)
1,400 0.62 0.14

- 3 bli al
Therefore, one part of the Manual D procedure is used to
see if blower performance is roughly compatible with the 1,450 0.55 0.04
g u nu
airflow and pressure requirements of the proposed air
distribution system (see the Friction Rate Worksheet,
Appendix 19). After verifying blower capability, duct air-
1,500
1,550
0.47
0.39
ways are sized so that system airflow resistance matches

c
0.31
Au I Ma
1,600
the external static pressure produced by the blower when 0.23
1,650
it delivers the desired Cfm (see Section 1).
Figure 3-1
3-2 Multi-Speed Operating Point Blower
(1 N 1

At a selected blower wheel speed the OEM blower data


P

for an operating point blower (per a PSC or constant


ft y A CA

torque motor) has a unique static pressure value for each


Cfm value. In this case, blower performance data appears
S

in manufacturers literature as a table or graph that corre-


lates delivered flow (Cfm) with the airflow resistance
D -D /AC

(IWC) that the blower works against.


For example, Figure 3-1 shows tabular data for a three
speed blower. Note that for each blower-wheel motor
speed set point, pressure values are listed for a few Cfm
R

values. These Cfm values define the operating range for a


given speed. This range defines the upper and lower lim-
ra a
9
BS

its of the blowers air delivery capability at a given speed.


n For a given speed there is a unique static pressure
value for each Cfm value.
Figure 3-2
45

n The largest Cfm value corresponds to the flow rate


delivered against a smallest system resistance.
n The smallest Cfm value corresponds to the flow not exceed the value that causes stall. For example, Figure
rate delivered against a large system resistance. 3-1 shows that the maximum system resistance that will
n The lowest Cfm value is compatible with the aero- not cause stall is 0.69 IWC at high speed, 0.49 IWC at
dynamic stability of the fan blades. medium speed and 0.45 IWC at low speed.
Operating point blowers are normally may be driven
If blower Cfm is too low, the fan blades will stall and cause directly by a multi-speed PSC or constant torque motor.
erratic performance (possibly little or no flow). Therefore, or indirectly by a belt drive. The performance
for a given blower wheel speed, system resistance shall

17
Section 3

characteristics for such designs are summarized by tables


that are similar to Figure 3-1, or performance curves that ECM Blower Performance
are similar to Figure 3-2. Setting Max. RPM Cfm ESP (IWC)
Note that there is one performance curve for each blower SR-1 500 800 0.22 0.40
motor set point wheel speed. Also note that blower Cfm
SR-2 700 1,000 0.24 0.50
decreases as system resistance increases. Therefore, to
obtain the desired system flow rate (blower Cfm), system SR-3 1,000 1,200 0.23 0.70

16 w x
resistance shall be equal to, or somewhat less than, the 1,200 1,400 0.19 0.80

20 vie 01
SR-4
external pressure value from a blower table or blower
curve. SR-5 1,300 1,600 0.15 0.80

SR-6 1,400 1,800 0.11 0.75

ct e - 2
For example, if the blower operates at medium speed and
the desired flow rate is 1,300 Cfm, Figures 3-1 and 3-2 SR-7 1,400 2,000 0.08 0.50
show that the air distribution system shall be designed
1) ECM motor control logic.
and balanced so system resistance is 0.37 IWC when sys- 2) Wheel speed range = 300 to 1,400 RPM.
tem airflow is 1,300 Cfm.

O R D
Figure 3-4
3-3 Variable-Speed, Operating Range Blower

)
- 3 bli al
Blower wheel speed may be continuously adjusted, per
electronic control, when driven by a variable-speed
g u nu
motor or drive. In this case, an unlimited number of
blower curves summarize blower performance.

Figure 3-3 shows just a few of the blower curves for a

c
Au I Ma
wheel that operates between 300 and 1,400 RPM. Note
that speed control can accommodate any operating point
(Cfm value and resistance value) that is within the enve-
lope of the blower curves.
(1 N 1

Figure 3-3 is not the only way to summarize vari-


P

able-speed performance. Equipment manufacturers may


ft y A CA

provide performance data in tabular form, but there is no


standard format for presenting performance data.
S

Figure 3-4 provides an example of tabular data. In this Figure 3-5


D -D /AC

case, the table correlates an ECM motor speed setting and


a Cfm value with a range of external static pressure (sys-
tem resistance) values.
For example, if SR-5 setting is selected, the blower will
R

deliver 1,600 Cfm when it operates against a system resis-


ra a
9

tance that ranges between 0.15 IWC and 0.80 IWC. Note
BS

that wheel speed increases from a low RPM to 1,300 RPM


as system resistance increases from 0.15 IWC to 0.80 IWC.

Figure 3-5 shows the relationship between the tabular


45

data (Figure 3-4) and the graphical data (Figure 3-3). In


this diagram, the tabular data corresponds to a set of ver-
tical lines. Each of these lines correlates a static pressure
range with the Cfm value for the selected motor speed
setting.
Note that, for a pure variable-speed blower, there are an
unlimited number of pressure-Cfm lines (one for each
Cfm value from the OEM's minimum allowable Cfm
value to the maximum allowable Cfm value), as demon-
Figure 3-3 strated by Figures 3-3. For an ECM blower, the OEM's

18
Section 3

For example, if the desired flow rate is 1,600 Cfm and if


the blower motor is operated on the SR-5 speed setting
(per Figure 3-4), the resistance air distribution system
resistance may vary between 0.15 and 0.80 IWC.
A more common example of operating range data is pro-
vided by Figure 3-7. In this case, performance is tabulated
for various airflow set point options. The selected airflow

16 w x
set point (heating Cfm or cooling Cfm) will be main-

20 vie 01
tained, or nearly maintained, over a range of external
static pressures. Related issues:

ct e - 2
SR-4 SR-5 n Design values for cooling Cfm and heating Cfm
are determined when primary equipment is
selected per Manual S procedures.
Figure 3-6 n For furnaces and electric heating coils, the heating

O R D
Cfm shall be compatible with Manual J loads and
the equipment manufacturer's limits for mini-
mum and maximum temperature rise (heating

)
- 3 bli al
motor control logic provides a defined set of Cfm lines, as Cfm may not equal cooling Cfm).
demonstrated by Figures 3-4 and 3-5.
n Jumper cables or switches, or pins or taps are set
g u nu
Figure 3-6 (next page) shows how a variable-speed, oper-
ating range blower that has an ECM motor interacts with n
for the desired heating Cfm and cooling Cfm.
The equipment's control package sensors monitor
an air distribution system. Per Figure 3-4, the SR-4 speed motor RPM and motor power draw or external

c
Au I Ma
setting, provides 1,400 Cfm for 0.19 IWC to 0.80 IWC of static pressure.
external airflow resistance. Figure 3-6 graph shows that
n Blower performance data is mapped into control
as the system resistance varies (curves A, B and C), sys-
package software, or a memory chip. The four
tem Cfm holds constant as wheel speed modulates
variables are Cfm, IWC pressure, RPM and Watts.
between a minimum value and 1,200 RPM.
(1 N 1

If two variables are known, the other two variables


P

Figure 3-6 shows that operating range blowers are more are uniquely determined.
ft y A CA

forgiving than operating point blowers because system n Computer logic software (or chip) compares
airflow resistance does not have to be carefully matched instantaneous RPM and Watts (or external static
S

to a specific external static pressure value it just has to pressure) with the embedded blower perfor-
fall within a range of resistance values. mance map and determines Cfm.
D -D /AC

ECM Blower Performance (Cfm Vs. Resistance)


R

Function Cfm ESP External Static Pressure (IWC)


Set (IWC)
ra a
9
BS

Point Range 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00

Low Heat 735 0.0 0.5 735 725 ~

High Heat 1,180 0.0 1.0 1,160 1,165 1,175 1,180 1,175
45

525 0.0 0.5 525 510 ~


700 0.0 0.5 700 695 685 ~
Cooling
Set point 875 0.0 1.0 875 865 855 845 840
Options 1,050 0.0 1.0 1,050 1,045 1,035
1,225 0.0 1.0 1,205 1,215 1,225 1,210
Maximum 1,400 0.0 1.0 1,395 1,400 1,385 1,360 1,310
No notes concerning air-side components in place when blower was tested.

Figure 3-7

19
Section 3

n If the instantaneous Cfm value is not equal to the Cfm n 450 to more than 500 Cfm per Ton is appropriate
set point, the software increases or reduces motor for dwellings that have a small latent load, com-
speed, and the blower delivers the desired Cfm. pared to the sensible load, or no latent load (Man-
ual J sensible heat ratio 0.90 to 1.00).
Cooling Cfm Set Point for Blower Driven
by an ECM Motor The preceding bullet items just summarize a concept. The
Equipment manufacturer's ECM blower data may corre- procedure for determining cooling Cfm and cooling Cfm

16 w x
late Cfm set point with cooling capacity. For example, an per Ton for a particular dwelling is provided here:
OEM's version of Figure 3-7 may suggest something like

20 vie 01
n Manual J shall be used to calculate sensible and
this: latent loads for a particular dwelling for a particu-
lar location.
n 1.5 Tons set for 525 Cfm

ct e - 2
n The total, sensible and latent capacities of the cool-
n 2.0 Tons set for 700 Cfm
ing equipment (operating at Manual J design con-
n 3.0 Tons, set for 875 Cfm ditions) shall conform to the sizing limits provided
n Etc. by Manual S, Second Edition, Section N2.

O R D
n Manual S procedures and expanded cooling per-
The practitioner shall investigate the consequences of formance data for condenser-evaporator combi-

)
using suggested Cfm set points based on cooling Tons. nations, as published in manufacturer's

- 3 bli al
For example, the preceding suggestions reduce to 350 engineering literature, shall be used to determine
Cfm per Ton, which is incorrect for most USA dwellings. cooling equipment size (sensible and latent capac-
n
g u nu
The Manual J sensible heat ratio equals the sensi-
ble load divided by the total (sensible plus latent) n
ity) and the design blower Cfm for cooling.
The design Cfm for cooling shall be a value allowed
load. by the OEM's expanded performance data for

c
Au I Ma
n 350 Cfm per Ton is appropriate for dwellings that cooling capacities.
have a relatively large latent load, compared to the n Manufacturer's data may list total cooling capac-
sensible load (Manual J sensible heat ratio about ity; or total capacity equals the sum of listed sensi-
0.70). ble capacity and listed latent capacity.
(1 N 1

n 400 Cfm per Ton is appropriate for dwellings that n Cooling Tons equals total capacity divided by
P

have a significant latent load, compared to the sen- 12,000.


ft y A CA

sible load (Manual J sensible heat ratio about 0.80).


S
D -D /AC

ECM Blower Performance (Cfm Vs. Resistance)


Nominal (ARI) Cfm / Ton Blower Speed Switch Setting External Static Pressure (IWC)
Condensing Options
Unit Tons S1 S2 S3 S4 0.10 0.30 0.50 0.70 0.90
R

350 open close open close 1,210 1,210 1,220 1,230 1,230
ra a
9

3.5 400 open close open open Cfm 1,400 1,440 1,450 1,450 1,410
BS

450 open close close open 1,590 1,600 1,610 1,600 1,380
350 close open open open 1,390 1,400 1,430 1,440 1,420

4.0 400 close open close open Cfm 1,620 1,650 1,670 1,640 1,480
45

450 close open open close 1,840 1,830 1,820 1,670 1,490
350 open open open close 1,800 1,780 1,780 1,700 1,530

5.0 400 open open open open Cfm 2,050 2,010 1,960 1,710 1,530
450 open open close open 2,160 2,040 1,920 1,790 1,620

1) No deduction required for standard throw-away filter (blower unit tested with filter in place).
2) Deduct pressure drop for wet refrigerant coil.
3) The 350 Cfm / Ton option is for comfort in a very humid climate; the 400 Cfm / Ton option is for most climates that produce a latent load;
the 450 Cfm / Ton option is the dry climate setting.

Figure 3-8

20
Section 3

n The correct Cfm per Ton for a particular dwelling


Maximum Static Pressure (IWC)
equals the design Cfm for cooling divided by cool-
ing Tons. Model Discharge Available Static
Cfm Pressure
After cooling equipment has been selected for a specific Air-air 700 1.00
indoor coil Cfm, go to the corresponding blower data heat pump
875 1.00
table and search for a Cfm set point that matches the with operating
range blower 1,050 1.00

16 w x
design value for cooling Cfm. Some equipment manufac-
(ECM motor). 1,225 1.00
turer's provide blower data for more than one Cfm per

20 vie 01
Ton setting (see Figure 3-8, previous page). 1,400 0.80
The preferred scenario would be to find a Cfm set point No notes concerning air-side components in place when blower
was tested.

ct e - 2
option that matches the Cfm/Ton requirement and the
design cooling Cfm value. Since set point Cfm options are Figure 3-9
limited, the desired cooling Cfm value may not be avail-
able. In this case, the practitioner shall select the Cfm set
point that exceeds the design cooling Cfm value by the

O R D
the top of the pressure values says External Static
least amount. For example, if the design cooling Cfm Pressure. Also note that the table has no footnotes con-
value is 1,150, the Figure 3-7 set point choice would be cerning air-side devices in place when the blower was

)
- 3 bli al
1,225 Cfm, or 1,220 for Figure 3-8. tested. Therefore, the table implies that a common
air-side component, such as a standard throw-away filter
Using more than the design cooling Cfm value to size
g u nu
duct airways assures that duct system performance will
be adequate for the larger Cfm set point. However, the
is an external device (an item for Step 2 on the Friction
Rate Worksheet).
larger Cfm value may not be the set point Cfm value after Figure 3-8 is another exhibit of manufacturer's blower

c
Au I Ma
the equipment is installed and commissioned. The oper- data. In this case, the heading at the top of the pressure
ating Cfm set point depends on what Cfm is best for con- values says External Static Pressure. Also note that this
trolling indoor humidity. table does have footnotes concerning air-side devices in
place when the blower was tested.
n The design value for indoor humidity is specified
(1 N 1

before making Manual J calculations. Figure 3-9 shows heat pump blower data published by
P

n The cooling Cfm that will satisfy the sensible and the Figure 3-7 equipment manufacturer. Note that the
ft y A CA

latent loads is determined when Manual S proce- table has no footnotes concerning air-side devices in place
dure are used to select cooling equipment. when the blower was tested. Therefore, the blower table
S

implies that common, necessary air-side components,


n Indoor humidity will be somewhat higher than
such as a refrigerant coil, electric resistance heater and
the design value if the operating Cfm exceeds the
D -D /AC

standard throw-away filter are external devices (items for


design Cfm.
Step 2 on the Friction Rate Worksheet).
n Indoor humidity will be somewhat lower than the
design value if the operating Cfm is less than the Also note that the header at the top of the pressure col-
design Cfm. umn of Figure 3-9 says Available Static Pressure. The
R

manufacturer's use of this term is not compatible with


n If the design value for indoor relative humidity is
Manual D (or with their own furnace blower table), but
ra a
9

50% or less, the indoor humidity can drift to 55%,


BS

equipment manufacturer's have no obligation to use


or even close to 60%, and still be in the comfort zone.
Manual D terminology.
n The larger blower Cfm value may be the operating
Cfm if the indoor humidity is in the comfort zone, n For Figure 3-9, Available Static Pressure actually
and if the occupants are satisfied. means the External Static Pressure for the duct
45

runs, fittings, and all air-side devices not in place


n If the indoor humidity is too high at the larger
when the blower was tested (for Line 1 on the Fric-
blower Cfm value, a lower blower Cfm set point
tion Rate Worksheet).
determines the operating Cfm
n For Manual D, the Available Static Pressure
n Duct system airway sizes are compatible with
(Line 3 on the Friction Rate Worksheet) is the pres-
either Cfm set point.
sure value from Figure 3-9, minus the pressure
Pressure Data for Operating Range Blowers drop for all air-side devices not in place when the
blower was tested. Stated differently, the pressure
Figure 3-7 is similar to furnace blower data published by a that is available for straight duct runs and duct run
major equipment manufacturer. Note that the heading at fittings.

21
Section 3

Determining external static pressure for Line 1 on the external static pressure for an air-zoned system is the
Friction Rate Worksheet is an important issue. Figure 3-9 same as for a constant Cfm system (as discussed above).
shows that the blower produces a relatively large amount However, the design values for airway Cfm at various
of static pressure, but after subtracting the pressure drop point in the duct system may be different than the values
for a refrigerant coil, electric resistance heating coil and used for a constant Cfm system that has the same duct
standard filter, the available static pressure for every- geometry. In addition, an air-zoning system may have a
thing else in the duct system could be less than 0.50 IWC, by-pass air duct (see ACCA Manual Zr).

16 w x
which isn't much different than a common operating
point blower (see the Section 8-5 example). 3-4 Blower Wheel Speed Vs. System Type

20 vie 01
Each equipment manufacturer has their own format for Normally, one blower wheel speed is adequate for single-
presenting blower performance data. This data may, or zone, constant Cfm systems; but in some cases, two-

ct e - 2
may not, be discounted for factory installed components speeds settings are required. Speed control (multi-speed
and devices. When there are no blower table notes per- or variable-speed) is very desirable when zoning is pro-
taining to items in place when the blower was tested, the vided by zone dampers, and/or when the primary equip-
practitioner shall scrutinize the manufacturer's engineer- ment has compressor capacity control, and/or burner

O R D
ing data to determine what External Static Pressure or capacity control.
Available Static Pressure actually means. If this effort fails
Single-Speed Operation
to produce a definitive answer, the practitioner shall have

)
- 3 bli al
the equipment manufacturer, or manufacturer's repre- Many comfort systems (a furnace, with or without a cool-
sentative, provide a definitive answer (in writing). ing coil, a cooling-only unit or heat pump) can operate at
g u nu
Implications for Constant Cfm Systems
one blower wheel speed without degrading the
year-round comfort. But if one speed setting is used, there
shall be adequate airflow through a furnace heat
The design friction rate for airway sizing depends on an
exchanger, electric coil or refrigerant coil during any

c
Au I Ma
external static pressure value from a blower table (see
Sections 1-2 and 3-5). When an ECM motor maintains a operating condition.
constant Cfm (Figure 3-7 or 3-8), there is no external static n Minimum and maximum airflow requirements
pressure value for a given Cfm. Instead, there is an exter- for heat exchangers and coils are specified by the
nal static pressure range. This seems to imply that any equipment manufacturer.
(1 N 1

external static pressure in the range could be the design


P

value for external static pressure, but this is not the case. n Cooling coil Cfm has an effect on total cooling
capacity, and how total cooling capacity is split
ft y A CA

The adaptability of ECM blowers is no excuse for not


making detailed airway sizing calculations. There are between sensible capacity and latent capacity.
Therefore, blower wheel speed shall be compati-
S

good reasons for keeping external static pressure as low


as possible. ble with the sensible and latent cooling loads.
D -D /AC

n As far as air distribution is concerned, single- speed


n System efficiency decreases and blower motor operation is desirable because the supply air grilles
power increases as external static pressure increases. and registers are (typically) constant Cfm devices.
n Unnecessary use of blower motor power increases
occupant utility bills and adds an unnecessary Two-Speed Operation
R

demand load on the electric power grid. In some cases heating-cooling equipment must accom-
ra a

modate a mismatch between the size of the design cooling


9

The useful range of the blower motor speed


BS

n
load and the size of the design heating load. For example,
depends on external static pressure. For example,
a relatively large supply Cfm for cooling may not be com-
if the blower's external static pressure range is 0.0
patible with the minimum acceptable temperature rise
to 1.0 IWC, and if an inefficient duct system pro-
across a furnace heat exchanger. In this case a higher
duces 0.90 IWC of resistance for the design Cfm,
45

blower wheel speed is appropriate for cooling and a


the effective blower adjustment range is 0.10 IWC.
lower speed is used for heating (wheel speed is deter-
In other words, avoid designs that operate in the
mined by the heating-cooling switch and has nothing to
top third of the blower pressure range.
do with capacity control).
Implications for Variable Cfm Systems Two blower speeds may be used to tune the performance
After the heating and cooling loads for a zoned damper of single-zone equipment. For example, two-stage furnaces
system are determined, the basic procedure for sizing air- and cooling units or heat pumps that have two stages of
ways is the same as used for a constant Cfm system. This compressor capacity, benefit from two blower wheel
means that the procedure for selecting a design value for speeds. This arrangement produces a better match between

22
Section 3

equipment load, equipment capacity, and heat exchanger


External Static Pressure (IWC)
or refrigerant coil airflow during part-load operation.
Cfm High Medium Low
Two-speed operation may be used with a zone damper
system. This way, blower Cfm may be reduced when 1,200 0.45
automatic control dampers significantly throttle system 1,250 0.49 0.30
Cfm at part-load.
1,300 0.37 0.08

16 w x
Two-speed operation may cause air distribution prob- 1,350 0.25

20 vie 01
lems. If supply grille sizes are based on the maximum air-
flow requirement, they may be too large to provide 1,400 0.62 0.14
adequate mixing at reduced flow. 1,450 0.55 0.04

ct e - 2
1,500 0.47
Variable-Speed Blowers
Variable blower wheel speed is a refinement of the two- 1,550 0.39
speed option (see above). Variable-speed blowers tend to 1,600 0.31

O R D
reduce heating-cooling change-over problems and Tested with wet coil and filter in place. Subtract pressure drop for a
improve the performance of equipment that has staged or resistance heating coil.
modulated heating capacity and/or cooling capacity.

)
- 3 bli al
Figure 3-10
Variable-speed blowers are desirable for zone damper
systems, particularly if the capacity of the heating and
g u nu
cooling equipment can be staged or modulated. This way,
the system airflow rate is continuously monitored and
the blower test was conducted and/or may list equip-
ment and devices that are not accounted for.
adjusted as automatic control dampers regulate the heat-

c
Au I Ma
ing or cooling capacity delivered to each zone. For example, for an air-source heat pump, the Figure 3-10
notes indicate that the pressure drop for a wet cooling coil
n A minimum flow of air through heat exchangers, and a standard filter are accounted for, but the pressure
electric coils and refrigerant coils shall be main- drop for an electric resistance heating coil is not
tained during any operating condition. accounted for. In this case, the pressure drop for an elec-
(1 N 1

n Variable-speed blowers may cause air distribution tric resistance coil must be subtracted from the external
P

problems when blower Cfm is reduced. If constant static pressure listed in the blower table.
ft y A CA

Cfm grilles, registers or diffusers are used, the


throw distance, mixing ability, and generated 3-6 Air Density Correction
S

noise may not be compatible with the range of air- Unless stated otherwise, blower table data is for standard
flow rates produced by the maximum and mini- air. Standard air has a specific weight of 0.075 pounds per
D -D /AC

mum wheel speeds. cubic foot, which is the specific volume of 70F air at sea
n Variable volume diffusers provide adequate per- level. Other temperatures and altitudes are non-standard
formance for a range of Cfm values, per the OEM's conditions.
engineering data.
As far as the performance of the blower and the air distri-
R

bution system are concerned, air density effects can be


3-5 External Static Pressure
ra a
9

ignored for elevations less than 2,500 feet and air temper-
BS

Blower table data is based on laboratory tests that docu- atures between 40F and 110F. Therefore, an air density
ment the performance of a specific equipment configura- adjustment is not required for a large percentage of com-
tion. This data does not apply to any other configuration. fort systems. Altitude effects shall be evaluated when the
elevation exceeds 2,500 feet.
45

For example, if a furnace is tested with a filter in place, the


blower table applies to a heating-only furnace that is Figure 3-11 (next page) shows how altitude affects the
equipped with a similar filter, but does not apply to a fur- performance of the blower, the resistance of the air distri-
nace that is equipped with a cooling coil. In this case, it is bution system and the system operating point. The dia-
necessary to subtract the pressure drop for the cooling gram shows that there is no change in volume flow
coil from the external static pressure value listed in the (blower Cfm) at altitude. However:
blower table.
n Mass flow (pounds of air per minute) is reduced at
Always read the footnotes for the blower table. These altitude because the air is less dense.
notes may list the components that were installed when

23
Section 3

n There is less system resistance (IWC) and blower


pressure (IWC) at altitude, and both pressure val-
ues are reduced by the same amount.
n The system operating point at altitude occurs at
the intersection of the sea level Cfm value and a
pressure value that is less than the sea level value.
n For a given Cfm, less blower power is required at

16 w x
altitude because mass flow system resistance is

20 vie 01
reduced.

Since altitude does not affect the Cfm for the system oper-

ct e - 2
ating point, standard (sea level) duct sizing slide rules (or
friction charts) are used to size duct runs. In other words,
for a given Cfm, there is no altitude correction for airway
sizing calculations.

O R D
n At altitude, more supply air Cfm is required to Figure 3-11
duplicate sea level heating and cooling capacity

)
(i.e, mass flow at altitude must equal mass flow at

- 3 bli al
sea level). Equipment Capacity at Altitude
n If sea level Cfm is used at altitude, the heating and Published HVAC equipment performance values for
g u nu
cooling capacities of supply air are derated for
altitude.
heating and cooling capacity are based on sea-level
conditions. At altitude, the heating and cooling capac-
ity of HVAC equipment is reduced. Therefore, a slightly

c
Au I Ma
n If sea level capacity is required at altitude, Cfm at larger piece of equipment and/or a slightly larger blower
altitude is increased to duplicate sea level mass Cfm compensates for reduced capacity. After the design
flow. value for blower Cfm is known (when the equipment is
n Airways are sized for the desired Cfm value. selected and sized), the duct sizing procedure for altitude
is identical to the sea level procedure. ACCA Manual S,
(1 N 1

3-7 Inlet and Discharge Conditions Second Edition (2014), Appendix 5, provides proce-
P

dures for equipment selection, at altitude.


Normally, residential air moving equipment has the
ft y A CA

blower and heat exchanger, or cooling coil, in the same


cabinet (i.e., furnace or air handler). When such equip-
S

ment is tested; straight, full-size duct sections are fitted to


the inlet collar and discharge collar. This produces a uni-
D -D /AC

form velocity profile as airflow approaches and leaves the 3-8 Blower Noise
cabinet. Any deviation from this ideal condition degrades A blower must be capable of moving the required airflow
blower performance. against the resistance produced by the air distribution
When the equipment is installed, the conditions at the system. When possible, a medium wheel speed is used to
R

inlet and discharge openings seldom duplicate the test select equipment because high speed operation produces
ra a

more noise. But if maximum blower pressure is required


9

stand conditions. Occasionally, elbows and tees are


BS

placed close to, or may even be attached to, the cabinet. to overcome system resistance, equipment selection may
This practice will degrade the performance of the blower. be based on a high wheel speed. In any case, air moving
This loss of performance is accounted for when the total equipment in should be located in a room that is physi-
equivalent length of the duct system is calculated. Sec- cally and acoustically isolated from the occupied space. If
45

tion N4 provides equivalent length values for fittings that the equipment must be installed in or near an occupied
are attached to air handling equipment. space, special measures should be taken to reduce noise.
Appendix 13 provides more information about noise
control.

24
This Section is not part of the Standard. It is merely informative and does not contain requirements necessary for conformance to the Standard. It has not been pro-
cessed according to the ANSI requirements for a Standard, and may contain material that has not been subject to public review or a consensus process. Unresolved
objections on informative material are not offered the right to appeal at ACCA or ANSI.

Section 4
System Performance Issues
Residential duct system components fall in four catego- n Metal duct friction depends on seam spacing,

16 w x
ries: straight duct sections, fittings, air-side equipment, seam construction and is marginally affected by
and air distribution devices. This Section provides infor- surface roughness.

20 vie 01
mation about the pressure losses produced by these n Various types of flexible wire helix duct have coil
components. spacing differences, wall lining differences (rough

ct e - 2
materials, smoother materials), inner core diameter
4-1 Straight Section Pressure Drop differences, material flaps, no material flaps, in-ward
When air flows through straight duct, friction causes the protruding wires, encapsulated wires, and more.
static pressure in the duct to decrease in the direction of n Duct board and duct liner is affected by seam

O R D
flow. Figure 4-1 demonstrates this behavior and the fol- spacing, seam construction, fasteners and the
lowing equation computes the pressure drop (PD) for a roughness of the facing material.
section of duct. For this equation, FR is the friction rate

)
- 3 bli al
(IWC pressure drop per 100 feet of straight duct length), 4-3 Required Standard of Care for Installing
which is read from a duct slide rule or a friction chart;
Flexible Wire Helix Duct
g u nu
and L is the length (in feet) of a straight section of duct.

FR x L
The pressure drop for a section of flexible wire helix duct
is significantly affected by the way it is tested and
PD =
100 installed. This is the Manual D Standard of care:

c
Au I Ma
n Duct sections cut to length (0% to 4% longer than
4-2 Duct Material
the straight line span), for a maximum of 4% com-
The laboratory friction rate depends on the surface prop- pression along a straight line.
erties of the airway material. Smooth materials have
(1 N 1

n Duct centerline relatively straight, no significant


smaller friction rates than rough materials. For example,
sag or snaking (2.5 inches sag per 5 feet of span, or
P

an aluminum duct has a significantly smaller friction rate


less).
ft y A CA

than a fiberglass duct.


n The radius of a bend (R) or turn shall not be less
Manual D uses generic friction charts as a default refer- than the diameter (D) of the airway (R/D shall be
S

ence and advises practitioners to use specific friction data 1.0 or greater).
provided by the product manufacturer.
D -D /AC

n No crimping or crushing at any point in a duct


n Material construction differences affect friction run.
loss. This applies to all types of duct materials. n Friction charts and duct slide rules shall model
friction rate performance in accordance with Air
R

Diffusion Council (ADC )Test Code FD 72-R1, or


ASHRAE Standard 120. Use compliant informa-
ra a
9

tion provided by the product manufacture, if


BS

available. Appendix 2 of this Manual provides a


default friction chart for flexible wire helix duct.
n Installation methods, materials and accessories
45

shall conform to the requirements specified by


Section 4 and Section 5 of the ADC Flexible Duct
Performance and Installation Standard, 5th edi-
tion, 2010.
n Appendix 7 provides related information.

4-4 Excess Length for Flexible Wire Helix Duct


Excess length is the difference between the fully stretched
cut length and the measured, straight-line, entrance-to-exit
Figure 4-1 span length. Excess length increases duct run pressure drop.

25
Section 4

n Excess length may not cause compression in the n Panned airways that are primarily in an uncondi-
duct section (the run may have sag or bends, but tioned space, or which significantly interface with
the duct inner core material is fairly taught). an unconditioned space, shall be sealed to prevent
n Excess length may cause compression in the duct significant leakage from an unconditioned space.
section (the run is reasonably straight or has some The recommended minimum sealing requirement
sag, and the duct inner core material is not taught). for panned airways is 0.09 Cfm of leakage per
square foot of airway surface area with the airway
n Excess length may act like a fitting (the sag or bend

16 w x
pressurized to 0.10 Inches Water Column (IWC).
does not have a long, sweeping radius).

20 vie 01
n Friction rate information for panned airways and
n The default Manual D procedure is for 0% to 4% stud spaces is not available, but it is reasonable to
excess length (duct length defaults to span length). assume that the roughness index for panned joists

ct e - 2
n The Manual D duct sizing calculations are based and stud spaces is larger than the value for galva-
on the industry-recognized recommendations of nized steel duct.
4% or less axial compression (refer to the flexible n Since the surface irregularities for framing and
duct documents listed in Appendix 6). sheathing materials are smaller than the surface

O R D
n Appendix 16 provides a procedure for evaluating irregularities for flexible wire helix duct, it is rea-
the consequences of excess length. sonable to assume that the roughness index for
panned joists and stud spaces is smaller than the

)
- 3 bli al
4-5 Panned Joist Space and Stud Space value for flexible duct that has negligible compres-
sion and negligible sag.
Panned joist space and stud space have been, and still are,
g u nu
used as airways, usually as part of a return air system.
Manual D does not endorse this practice.
n For lack of certified information, assume the friction
rate information for duct liner applies to panned
airways and stud spaces.

c
Au I Ma
n A local building code, local fire code, and various n There is no procedure for adjusting effective air-
model codes and standards may prohibit all types of way size if there are obstructions in the airway
structural cavity airways, or specific types of struc- (bracing, piping, wiring or anything that reduces
tural cavity airways. the size of the framed or panned airway).
n Local fire codes, and various model codes and
(1 N 1

n There is no procedure for adjusting effective air-


standards may have specific rules pertaining to
P

way size, if the airway size of entrance and exit


construction methods and materials..
ft y A CA

openings cut into structural framing is less than


n Codes and standard requirements for duct airway the framed or panned airway size.
sealing and duct wall insulation apply to struc-
S

tural cavity airways. 4-6 Fitting Pressure Loss


D -D /AC

n See also: Duct fittings fall in two categories those that have dif-
Section A10 (annual energy use). ferent entering and leaving airflow velocities and those
that have a constant flow-through velocity. For sce-
Section A11 (space pressure issues, air delivery nario one, it is not correct to use an equivalent length
and air return issues, indoor humidity and mois- value to simulate the pressure loss across the fitting. For
R

ture, building damage). scenario two, fitting pressure drop can be simulated by an
ra a
9

Section A12 (health, safety, and indoor air qual- equivalent length value.
BS

ity).
Velocity Change Across the Fitting
The following comments pertain to potential space pres- When velocities at the entrance and exit of the fitting are
sure problems, and air quality problems, duct system effi- different, some static pressure is used to increase air
45

ciency problems and air delivery problems caused by velocity, or some static pressure is recovered if velocity
panned construction. If the practitioner chooses to use decreases. Some examples of this type of fitting include:
this type of construction, the practitioner assumes full
responsibility for all unintended consequences. n Transitions between straight duct sections of differ-
ent airway sizes.
n Leakage is an important issue for all airways, n Elbows with different entrance and exit areas.
regardless of construction material and detail.
n Tees with different entrance and exit velocities.
Leakage affects, or may affect, indoor air quality,
n Inlets and outlets.
ambient pressure in a room(s) or space(s), duct
system efficiency, energy use and operating cost. For these fittings, use of an equivalent length value is
approximate not precisely correct because an equivalent

26
Section 4

length value this model does not account for static pres- Coil Resistance (IWC)
sure difference caused by air velocity change. However,
Cfm Dry Wet
for residential designs, this technicality may be ignored
1,000 0.11 0.18
because airflow velocities, velocity changes, and subse-
quent pressure conversions are relatively small. 1,200 0.15 0.26
1,400 0.22 0.35
Constant Velocity Fittings 1,600 0.28 0.46

16 w x
There is no velocity pressure effect when airflow veloci-
ties at the entrance and exit of the fitting are equal. For

20 vie 01
these fittings, pressure drop is entirely due to friction and
aerodynamic turbulence, so an equivalent length value Electronic Filter Resistance
does simulate fitting pressure drop.

ct e - 2
Cfm IWC
1,000 0.06
Equivalent Length Information
1,200 0.08
As explained in Section 1-7, duct run resistance depends
1,400 0.12
on the total effective length of the run. This length is calcu-

O R D
1,600 0.15
lated by summing straight section lengths and fitting
equivalent lengths for a given duct run.

)
- 3 bli al
n Section N4 provides a comprehensive list of Heater Resistance
equivalent length values for fittings that are com-

n
g u nu
monly used for residential duct systems.
Equivalent length values are based on a specific
Cfm
1,000
1,200
IWC
0.09
0.13
reference velocity, and a specific friction rate.

c
Au I Ma
1,400 0.18
n Default values for reference velocity and friction 1,600 0.23
rate are for a worst case scenario:
a) 900 Fpm velocity for supply air, and 700 Fpm
velocity for return air.
(1 N 1

Figure 4-2
b) Supply-side and return-side friction rate
P

equals 0.08 IWC per 100 feet of duct length.


ft y A CA

n Adjustment for other velocities, and/or, friction


rates may be made (per Appendix 3 comments
S

and Appendix 4 procedures), but this increase in 4-7 Pressure Drop for Air-Side Components
calculation complexity refinement is not necessary
D -D /AC

When equipment or a device is installed in a duct system


because Manual D equivalent length values are airway, it produces resistance to the airflow, so there is a
conservative estimates of airflow resistance. pressure drop across the component. Examples of items
n Overestimating the airflow resistance for an air that are commonly installed in residential duct systems
circulation path duct run is not a problem when include filters (low to high effectiveness, new, and dirty),
R

balancing dampers are used to increase circula- refrigerant coils (dry, wet, clean to dirty), hot water and
electric heating coils (clean to dirty), and airflow control
ra a

tion path pressure drop. compensate for the error.


9
BS

dampers (in the wide open position ). and humidifiers.


Fitting and Duct Run Pressure Drop Calculations
Information about the pressure drop produced by a par-
Usually, there is no need to calculate the pressure drop for ticular component (when new) is obtained from engi-
a single fitting. Normally, the practitioner is interested in neering data published by the equipment manufacturer.
45

the pressure drop for an entire duct run. As explained in Examples of the pressure drop information for a refriger-
Section 1-6, the pressure drop (PD) across a single fitting, ant coil, an electronic filter, and an electric resistance heat-
or an entire duct run, depends on the fitting equivalent ing coil, are provided by Figure 4-2.
length (EL), or path total effective length (TEL), and a fric-
tion rate (FR) value. This equation summarizes this Figure 4-2 shows that the pressure drop (Px) across a
relationship. piece of air-side equipment increases exponentially as
airflow (Cfm) through the equipment increases linearly.
FR x EL FR x TEL This behavior is summarized by this equation:
PD (IWC )= or
100 100
Px (IWC) = Resistance x = P1 x (Cfmx / Cfm1) 2

27
Section 4

Use this equation when pressure drop and Cfm are mea-
sured. For example, if the measured pressure drop across Minimum Door Cut Height for Return Air
a wet refrigerant coil is 0.26 IWC when 1,200 Cfm flows Cfm Door Width (Inches)
through the coil, the estimated pressure drop is 0.46 IWC Under
Door 24 30 36 42 48 54 60
when the flow rate is 1,600 Cfm.
Clearance (Inches) to Floor or Top of Carpet
Px (IWC) = 0.46 = 0.26 x (1,600 / 1,200) 2 100 2.0 1.6 1.3 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8

16 w x
200 4.0 3.2 2.7 2.3 2.0 1.8 1.6

20 vie 01
4-8 Supply Outlet, Return Grille, and
300 6.0 4.8 4.0 3.4 3.0 2.7 2.4
Hand Damper Pressure Drops
400 8.0 6.4 5.3 4.6 4.0 3.6 3.2
The pressure drop produced by supply air grilles, regis-

ct e - 2
ters and diffusers, return air grilles, and manual balanc- 500 10.0 8.0 6.7 5.7 5.0 4.4 4.0
ing dampers is small, typically 0.03 IWC or less. For 600 12.0 9.6 8.0 6.9 6.0 5.3 4.8
Manual D, 0.03 IWC is the default value for a grille, regis-
700 14.0 11.2 9.3 8.0 7.0 6.2 5.6
ter, diffuser, and an open balancing damper. If more

O R D
accurate information is desired, it is provided by manu- 800 16.0 12.8 10.7 9.1 8.0 7.1 6.4
facturers performance data, but this refinement gener- 18.0 14.4 12.0 10.3 9.0 8.0 7.2
900

)
ally does not have a significant effect on airway sizes.

- 3 bli al
1,000 20.0 16.0 13.3 11.4 10.0 8.9 8.0
4-9 Low-Resistance Return Path 1,200 24.0 19.2 16.0 13.7 12.0 10.7 9.6
g u nu
An engineered, low-resistance return path shall be pro-
vided for every room or space that receives supply air.
1,400 28.0 22.4 18.7 16.0 14.0 12.4 11.2

1,600 32.0 25.6 21.3 18.3 16.0 14.2 12.8


These methods may be used for rooms and spaces that

c
Au I Ma
have a privacy door installed in an interior partition: Copy of Table N3-2
n The path from a return grille in an particular room
or space to the return-side of the blower may be
through a dedicated return air duct.
(1 N 1

An isolated room or space may have a transfer grille, and 500 Fpm for a simple bar grille. These values
P

duct to a space that has a central return, or a trans- are based on the Cfm through the grille and the area
ft y A CA

fer grille. See Section N4, Fitting Group 14. enclosed by the grille frame (i.e., the nominal size listed in
the OEM's product performance data). For example, the
n A privacy door or partition wall may have an
S

maximum return air Cfm for a 10 Inch 8 Inch filter grill


opening fitted with two return grilles so air flows is 167 Cfm, for a 300 Fpm velocity limit.
D -D /AC

from an isolated room or space to a central return.


Provide a sealed sleeve for wall openings. Maximum Filter Grille Cfm = Face Velocity (Fpm) x
n Appendix 3, Fitting Group 14 provides rules for Frame Area (SqFt)
designing return air transfer paths.
Maximum Cfm = 300 (10 8) / 144 = 167
R

A door undercut does not provide a reasonable solution


ra a
9

to the return air problem because the required gap is 4-11 Air Velocity Leaving a Supply Grille vs.
BS

objectionably large. If a door undercut is used as a return Air Velocity in the Supply air Duct
path, the gap shall not be less than the Table N3-2 value.
Section A15-2 shows that the air velocity at the face of a
n Home owners tend to object to the appearance of a supply air grill does not depend on the air velocity
door cut that has an adequate airflow area..
45

through the upstream supply air duct.


n Adequate door cuts create privacy issues (a signif-
icant amount of noise is transmitted though a small
crack, a large door gap proves negligible
attenuation).
n Airflow under doors soils carpets.

4-10 Return Grille Air Velocity


The Table N3-1 limit for the maximum air velocity
through the face of a return a grille is 300 Fpm for a filter

28
This Section is not part of the Standard. It is merely informative and does not contain requirements necessary for conformance to the Standard. It has not been pro-
cessed according to the ANSI requirements for a Standard, and may contain material that has not been subject to public review or a consensus process. Unresolved
objections on informative material are not offered the right to appeal at ACCA or ANSI.

Section 5
Air Distribution System Design
Duct airway sizing is one step in the design process. primary equipment, the space that is available for

16 w x
Other mandatory tasks precede the Manual D procedure. the duct runs, the location of the supply outlets,
Figure 5-1 summarizes this relationship. Commentary the location of the return grilles.

20 vie 01
regarding various aspects of the work is provided here: n Select supply air and return air systems that are
compatible with the heating and cooling equip-
5-1 System Selection

ct e - 2
ment, the structural features of the dwelling, and
Everything begins with a concept. Decisions regarding project cost constraints.
the type of heating and cooling equipment and type of air n Consider duct system efficiency (conduction and
distribution system shall be made prior to performing leakage losses), and airborne noise.

O R D
design calculations.
n Consider the advantages and disadvantages of
n Scrutinize codes and regulations. using various types of duct materials and con-

)
struction techniques.

- 3 bli al
n Consider the local climate, the architectural features
of the dwelling, the seasonal and hourly character-
The supply air system may be a trunk and branch system,
g u nu
istics of the heating and cooling loads for the vari-
ous rooms and spaces.
a radial system, a perimeter loop system, or a plenum sys-
tem. The return air system might feature a single central
n Consider zoning requirements and select the type or return with transfer paths, multiple returns (with transfer

c
Au I Ma
types of primary heating and cooling equipment. paths, as required), or a return in every room. Appendix 8
n Consider the number of supply and return air provides a comprehensive discussion of residential air
openings that will be required, the location of distribution systems.
(1 N 1
P

Construction Type of
Details HVAC System
ft y A CA
S
D -D /AC

Room Load Type of Type of


Loads Entire House HVAC Equipment Duct System
R
ra a
9

Size HVAC
BS

Equipment
45

Geometry and
Component Fitting Data
Blower Table
Pressure Drop

Duct Sizing
Procedure

Figure 5-1

29
Section 5

5-2 Load Calculations n The airway sizing calculations are invalid if the fit-
tings that are actually installed in the duct system
Duct system design work shall be based on information
are not identical to the fittings used for Manual D
provided by the Manual J load calculation procedure.
calculations (design, then verify).
Calculations for block heating-cooling loads and room
heating-cooling loads are required.
5-5 Geometry
n If one heating-cooling unit is used, one block load The lengths of straight duct sections and the equivalent

16 w x
for the entire dwelling is required. lengths of the associated fittings shall be used to calculate

20 vie 01
n If multiple units are used, a block load calculation the effective length of duct runs. Therefore, a scale draw-
for the space served by each unit is required. ing, or rough sketch, that includes dimensional informa-
n Per MJ8, Figure A11-1: The standard procedure is tion is required. This drawing, or sketch, should show the

ct e - 2
used to calculate average room and space loads for location of the:
single-zone systems; and the optional procedure is n Air handling equipment.
used to calculate peak zone, peak room, and peak
space loads for zoned systems. n Supply air outlets, with the heating load, cooling

O R D
load values, and design Cfm values for each sup-
n Block heating-cooling loads are used to select and ply outlet.
size the primary heating and cooling equipment

)
(single-zone and multi-zone. n Return air grilles, with the Cfm val;ue for each

- 3 bli al
return.
n The heating-cooling loads for each conditioned
n All duct runs, with length values for the straight
g u nu
room or space determine the room or space air-
flow requirement (supply air Cfm value) .
n
sections.
Fittings, with fitting identification numbers and
the corresponding equivalent length values (see

c
5-3 Equipment Sizing
Au I Ma
Section N4).
Heating-cooling equipment sizing, per Manual S proce-
dures, shall precede duct system design work because
manufacturer's blower performance data is essential to 5-6 Takeoff at End of Supply Trunk
Manual D procedures. The closing plate at the end of a trunk duct causes a turbu-
(1 N 1

lent zone in the trunk airway just upstream from the


P

n Blower data is provided with the manufacturers plate. A branch takeoff fitting shall not be installed in this
ft y A CA

equipment performance data, usually in tabular zone. Figure 5-2 (next page) shows that the centerline of a
form, or as a graph. branch takeoff shall be at least 18 inches upstream from a
S

n In some cases, blower table data has to be adjusted trunk end plate, or trunk reducing fitting. Figure 5-2 also
for the pressure drop produced by components shows an acceptable way to install one or two branch runs
D -D /AC

and devices that were not in place when the at the end of a trunk duct.
blower was tested. This adjustment is made by
subtracting the component or device pressure 5-7 Duct Material and Duct Fabrication
drop from the external static pressure listed in the
For new construction, specify duct materials and fabrica-
blower table (refer to Section 1-10).
R

tion methods before using the Manual D procedure. For


n Information about the pressure drop produced by existing construction, inspect the job site and collect infor-
ra a
9

a particular component or device (filter, refriger-


BS

mation about duct materials and fabrication methods


ant coil, electric resistance heater, humidifier, for before using the Manual D procedure.
example) is provided by equipment manufac-
turers performance data. n Fabrication and retrofit methods and materials
shall conform to industry standards and good
45

5-4 Fittings practice guidelines (see Appendices 6 and 7).

Duct fittings should be efficient (the total pressure drop


n The friction chart or duct slide rule used to size
for a set of circulation path fittings is typically much duct airways shall be representative of the perfor-
larger than the pressure drop for the straight run length of mance of the duct material used to fabricate the
the circulation path). duct run. This information should be obtained
from the manufacturer of the duct material (if
n Section N4 can be used to compare fitting equiva- available).
lent length values. Use the fittings that have n The airway sizing calculations may be invalid if
smaller equivalent length values. the methods and materials used to fabricate the

30
Section 5

actual duct system are not the same as the meth-


Provide an 18 inch ods and materials used for Manual D calculations
cushion head
after the last branch (design, then verify).
takeoff for all three
scenarios.
5-8 Perform the Duct Sizing Calculations
HD
Manual D duct sizing calculations are based on the heat-
ing-cooling loads for each room or space, the blower data,

16 w x
HD the pressure drop values for various types of air-side

20 vie 01
components and effective length information. The details
of the Manual D duct sizing procedure are presented in
the next section. Sections 7 and 8 10 , 11, 12 and 13 provide

ct e - 2
For a takeoff at the end of a examples that show how to apply the Manual D proce-
trunk, use a reducing fitting dure to various types of trunk and branch systems, radial
HD to transition from the trunk
airway to one or more systems, flexible duct systems, and variable Cfm systems.
branch airways.

O R D

)
- 3 bli al
HDs
HD g u nu
c
Au I Ma
Figure 5-2
(1 N 1
P
ft y A CA
S
D -D /AC
R
ra a
9
BS
45

31
32
Section 5
BS
45 R
D -D /AC
ra a
ft y A CA
(1 N 1
9 S
Au I Ma
P
g u nu
- 3 bli al
c
O R D
ct e - 2
20 vie 01
16 w x
)
This Section is not part of the Standard. It is merely informative and does not contain requirements necessary for conformance to the Standard. It has not been pro-
cessed according to the ANSI requirements for a Standard, and may contain material that has not been subject to public review or a consensus process. Unresolved
objections on informative material are not offered the right to appeal at ACCA or ANSI.

Section 6
Duct Sizing Calculations
If noise was not a consideration, the minimum airway n Trunk ducts common to multiple circulation paths

16 w x
size for every duct run could be based on one friction rate must be sized for the path that has the longest
value that depends on the available static pressure, the effective length.

20 vie 01
total effective length of the longest circulation path and n Since the trunk sizes will be too large for shorter
Cfm values at various points in the duct system. How- circulation paths, runout ducts must be sized to
ever, noise is an important consideration, so airway sizes

ct e - 2
compensate for trunk sections that do not provide
based on this friction rate are tentative. enough airflow resistance.
The practitioner shall verify that all airway sizes are com- n Room supply air Cfm is typically different for
patible with the velocity limits for the supply and heating and cooling, so room Cfm design values

O R D
return-sides of the duct system. If a velocity limit is may be based on a set of normalized Cfm values
exceeded, the offending section of duct shall be resized. In for year round use (see Section 6-23).
these cases, the final airway size is based on the maxi-

)
- 3 bli al
mum allowable air velocity and the Cfm that flows However, a self balancing design is not practical and the
through the section of duct. system could be noisy. These comments apply:
g u nu
Worksheets and a reference chart are used for airway siz-
ing calculations. This Section reviews these procedures
n Self balancing calculations are complex and time
consuming.
and calculations. This formalizes the procedure that was n Non-standard airway sizes are required to obtain

c
Au I Ma
introduced by Section 1. the desired pressure drops for self-balancing.
n Air velocity at points in the shorter circulation
6-1 Basis for the Sizing Procedure paths could exceed the maximum limit.
Calculations for minimum airway size shall be based on
(1 N 1

n Room supply air Cfm is typically different for


blower performance data (including relevant footnotes)
heating and cooling, so seasonal performance is
P

and air-side component pressure drop data provided by the


compromised by a self-balancing design.
ft y A CA

equipment manufacturer (as applicable). This information


correlates the design value for system airflow (Cfm) with
The problems created by the desire for a self-balancing
S

the design value for available static pressure.


design cannot be reconciled. These problems are not an
n The practitioner shall verify that the pressure drop issue when balancing dampers are installed in each
D -D /AC

for the critical circulation path (the longest combi- branch runout duct, and in each branch return run when
nation of a supply path and its related return path) there are two or more return grilles. Per Manual D proce-
does not exceed the available static pressure. dure:
n The practitioner shall verify that the air velocity n For airway sizing, the heating Cfm is compared to
R

through any section of duct does not exceed the cooling Cfm, and the larger value is used, so duct
section airway sizes are compatible with the maxi-
ra a

Manual D limit.
9
BS

mum airflow requirement.


n The practitioner shall verify that the discharge or
intake velocity of air leaving or approaching n The size of any duct section is a compromise
grilles, registers and diffusers does not exceed the between the standard airway size that provides
Manual D limit. the desired amount of airflow resistance, and the
45

standard airway size required for a quiet system.


n See Table N3-1 for preferred velocities and maxi-
mum velocities. n For constant Cfm systems, airflow should be bal-
anced for the heating season, and re-balanced for
6-2 Balancing Damper Function the cooling season. However, this is pragmatically
unacceptable, therefore airflow values for balancing
A duct system could be self-balancing if duct sections are may be based on a set of normalized Cfm values
sized to ensure the pressure drop for each circulation path that are derived from the set of heating Cfm and
is exactly equal to the available static pressure. In this the set of cooling Cfm values (see Section 6-23).
case, these rules apply:

33
Section 6

n For zone damper systems, airflow values for adjusted by reaching through the supply grille
rough manual-damper balancing are the maxi- opening.
mum of the heating Cfm or cooling Cfm. System n Install a balancing damper, and prior to interior
airflow (design blower Cfm) shall be in the range finish closure, adjust the damper for a Cfm value
of 10% to 20% when all automatic control that is 10 to 20 percent more than the maximum
dampers are wide open). Manual D Cfm for heating or cooling, then
n For air zoning systems, thermostatically con- mechanically lock the damper with a fastener that

16 w x
trolled dampers fine tune airflow for season will not work loose over time. Final airflow adjust-

20 vie 01
change and variation in hourly load. ment may be per a supply air register damper.
n Manual Zr, Appendix 9 has methods and proce-
dures for balancing zone damper systems. The following comments pertain to potential air distribu-

ct e - 2
tion balancing problems, comfort problems, and noise
problems caused by missing or inappropriately placed
6-3 Balancing Damper Installation Requirement
balancing dampers. If a practitioner chooses to not use
For Manual D, the standard of care requires balancing balancing damper, the practitioner assumes full responsi-
dampers at critical points in the duct system. The location bility for any undesirable consequences.

O R D
of the dampers depends on the complexity of the duct
n Room or space comfort will not be adequate
system's geometry.
if room airflow is excessive or deficient.

)
- 3 bli al
n Balancing dampers shall not be installed in the tur- n Single blade dampers at outlets and returns are
bulent wake of an upstream fitting or obstruction poor balancing devices (a relatively large amount
g u nu
(install dampers where the airflow is well- ordered
and uniform).
of closure is required to significantly reduce air-
flow, this tends to cause noise). It is better to use
n To avoid or reduce undesirable noise, balancing opposed blade dampers that have a set of blades.

c
Au I Ma
dampers should be installed as far from a supply n Objectionable noise may be produced by aggres-
air outlet or return air grille as possible. sive use of a throttling device located at, or near, a
n Balancing dampers shall have a locking device. supply air outlet or return grille. (access and
adjustment may still be a problem).
n If there are main supply air trunks and secondary
(1 N 1

supply air trunks, dampers in the secondary n Some of the operating range of a modulating zone
P

trunks are useful for gross balancing. damper is used to limit maximum airflow (less
ft y A CA

operating range for controlling space tempera-


n For the supply-side of the system, install branch
ture).
run dampers near the trunk duct take-off. These
S

dampers may be used for gross balancing and final n Balancing dampers could be installed at critical
balancing. points, then roughly adjusted and locked before
D -D /AC

being isolated by structural panels.


n If there are main return air trunks and secondary
return air trunks, dampers in the secondary trunks n If all stakeholders agree (after knowing the conse-
are useful for gross balancing. quences of not having balancing dampers), struc-
tural panels should have covered access holes.
n For the return-side of the system, install branch
R

run dampers near the trunk entrance fitting. These


6-4 Design Value for Blower Cfm
ra a

dampers may be used for gross balancing and


9
BS

final balancing. The design value for blower Cfm is determined when
n Aerodynamic fittings and soft airways (duct liner, manufacturer's expanded performance data is used to
duct board, or flexible wire helix duct) located select equipment, per Manual S procedures. The blower
downstream from dampers tend to attenuate Cfm used for Manual D calculations depends on the type
45

damper generated noise. of blower.


n There may be a blower Cfm for heating and a
Access to a balancing damper is a problem if the duct run blower Cfm for cooling, or one Cfm may be used
space is enclosed by construction materials (a basement for heating and cooling.
ceiling, for example). When this is the case: practitioners
tend to not install balancing dampers in affected duct
n For an operating point blower (PSC or constant
runs. Manual D neither endorses nor condemns this prac- torque), the design value for blower Cfm is the
tice. Cfm from the Manual S procedure. If the design
Cfm value is not explicitly listed in the blower
n Install an access hatch, or use a damper that has a table, an interpolated static pressure value is
remote control feature, or a damper that can be

34
Section 6

Friction Rate Worksheet


Multi-Speed (PSC) Blower Data
Step 1) Manufacturers Blower Data
External static pressure (ESP) = ______ IWC Cfm = __________
External Static (IWC) vs. Speed
Step 2) Component Pressure Losses (CPL)
Direct expansion refrigerant coil ______
Cfm High Med Low
Electric resistance heating coil ______
Hot water coil ______ 1,200 0.45
Heat exchanger ______
Low efficiency filter
High or mid-efficiency filter
______
______
1,250 0.49 0.30

16 w x
Electronic filter ______
Humidifier, UV lights, other ______ 1,300 0.37 0.08
Supply outlet ______

20 vie 01
Return grille ______ 1,350 0.25
Balancing damper ______
Zone damper (full open) ______
1,400 0.62 0.14
Total component losses (CPL) ______ IWC
1,450 0.55 0.04

ct e - 2
Step 3) Available Static Pressure (ASP)
ASP = (ESP - CPL) = ( ______ - _______ ) = _______ IWC 1,500 0.47

Step 4) Total Effective Length (TEL) 1,550 0.39


Supply-side TEL + Return-side TEL = ( _______ + _______ ) = _______ Feet
1,600 0.31

O R D
Step 5) Friction Rate Design Value (FR)
1) Tested with wet coil and filter in place.
FR value from friction rate chart = ______ IWC/100
2) Subtract pressure drop for a resistance heating coil.

)
Figure 6-2

- 3 bli al
ASP x 100
FR = Inadequate Fan Performance
TEL
Increase blower speed
Change blower
Reduce TEL

g u nu performance for changing circumstances, blower


Cfm at part-load is not relevant to the airway siz-

c
Au I Ma
Fan is too Powerful
Decrease blower speed
Increase TEL
Excessive air velocity
ing procedure.
n Determine the system design values for heating
Cfm and cooling Cfm, then use the larger of the
Figure 6-1 two values for airway sizing.
(1 N 1

n The values for the design Cfm for heating and


P

cooling are obtained during the equipment selec-


ft y A CA

based on the design Cfm value and two other tion process. As explained in Manual S, heating
listed blower Cfm values. For an operating range and cooling equipment shall be sized and selected
S

blower (ECM), the design value for blower Cfm is to satisfy the Manual J loads when the dwelling is
the Cfm from the Manual S procedure. If this Cfm subjected to Manual J design conditions.
D -D /AC

value is not explicitly listed in the blower table, n Blower Cfm values also must be compatible with
select the next highest value (blower Cfm set the OEM operating limits for entering and leaving
point) listed in the blower table. This Cfm set point air temperature, and furnace heat exchanger tem-
determines blower pressure range (minimum and perature rise.
maximum static pressure values).
R

n Per Manual Zr, Section A8-2: The design value for


blower Cfm is determined when the heating-cool-
ra a
9
BS

6-5 Available Static Pressure ing equipment is selected and sized per Manual S
It is absolutely essential to verify how much static pres- procedures applied to the block load for the space
sure is available to move the air through the circulation served by the equipment. The design Cfm for zone
path that produces the most airflow resistance. Steps 1, 2 damper systems is the same as the design Cfm for
45

and 3 on the Friction Rate Worksheet shall be used for this single-zone systems because the Manual J block
purpose (see Figure 6-1). load is the same for both types of systems.
Step 1 - For an Operating Point Blower
Step 1 - Blower Cfm and External Static Pressure
Use the manufacturers blower data to determine how If the equipment has a multi-speed, or multi torque, oper-
much external static pressure is available when the ating point blower (see Section 3-2), it is prudent, but not
blower delivers the design Cfm. absolutely necessary, to base the duct sizing calculations
on medium speed, or torque. This provides the ability to
n Duct airways are sized for the maximum system adjust the blower performance after the equipment has
airflow rate. When equipment capacity controls been installed.
an d/o r zoning controls adjust b lo w e r

35
Section 6

For example, if 1,250 Cfm is required for an application,


Heater Resistance
Figure 6-2 (previous page) indicates that, at medium
speed, the blower will deliver 1,250 Cfm when it operates Cfm IWC
against 0.49 IWC of system resistance. Therefore, the 1,250 1,000 0.09
operating point for Step 1 of the Friction Rate Worksheet 1,200 0.13
is 1,250 Cfm and 0.49 IWC of external static pressure. 1,400 0.18

Step 1 - For an Operating Range Blower 1,600 0.25

16 w x
0.14
1,800 0.34
An operating range blower (see Section 3-3) delivers a

20 vie 01
selected Cfm value over a range of external static pressures.
In this case, speed taps or switches determine blower Cfm Figure 6-3
and this Cfm setting determines the blower pressure range,

ct e - 2
per the OEM's blower table.

The design value for external static pressure must fall


within the blower table range, but this value should be For example, referring to Figure 6-2, the notes at the bot-

O R D
significantly lower than the maximum pressure value tom of this heat pump blower table indicate that external
listed in the blower table (the issues are blower KW load static pressure values are discounted for the pressure dis-
and KWH energy use, blower motor abuse, and to allow a sipated by a wet refrigerant coil and a standard low effi-

)
- 3 bli al
margin for design/installation error for air distribution). ciency air filter. These notes also advise that there is no
Therefore, use the system design Cfm value and 70% adjustment for the resistance produced by a supplemen-
g u nu
(0.70 factor) of the maximum external static pressure
value from the OEM's blower table as the operating point
for Step 1 of the Friction Rate Worksheet.
tal electrical resistance heating coil.
Bower Table Notes

c
Au I Ma
Blower table footnotes may not exist, or may not provide
For example, for the 1,225 Cfm setting, the Figure 3-7
adequate information for blower table use. For example,
blower table shows an external static pressure range of 0.0
Figure 3-7 shows an operating range blower table that
to 1.0 IWC. Per the preceding paragraph, the external
says 1.0 IWC is the maximum external static pressure
static pressure value for Step 1 of the Friction Rate
value, but there is no footnote to explain what this actu-
(1 N 1

Worksheet is 0.70 IWC. (In regard to the 1,225 Cfm set-


ally means.
P

ting, the data shows this may be somewhat more or less


than 1,225 Cfm for very low and high static pressure val- If footnote information is missing, or incomplete, search
ft y A CA

ues, but the difference is small, and may not be relevant to the OEM's engineering literature for the missing informa-
the static pressure behavior of the installed system, so this tion, or personally ask the OEM for the information. For
S

nuance may be ignored.) the Figure 3-7 example, it turns out that the blower data is
for no cabinet components other than the blower, and the
D -D /AC

Step 2 - Component Pressure Drop equipment mounting racks. So, if the pressure drop for a
Evaluate the component pressure drops for air-side items wet cooling coil, an electric heating coil, and a standard
that will be installed in the critical circulation path (other filter add up to something like 0.50 IWC (or more), the
than those that were in place when the equipment manu- maximum external static pressure for moving air through
R

facturer produced the blower table). This is important external components, duct runs and fittings is only
because pressure dissipated by cabinet components that 0.50 IWC, not 1.00 IWC.
ra a
9
BS

are not relevant to the OEM's blower table, and pressure


Component Pressure Drop
dissipated by external equipment and devices, is not
available to force air through the straight duct runs and Values for component pressure drops are normally pro-
fittings. vided by equipment manufacturers engineering infor-
45

mation. As noted above, component pressure drop for


Examples of pressure dissipating components that may cabinet components that are not relevant to the blower
not be relevant to published blower performance data table data, and external components specified by the
include refrigerant coils, electric resistance heating coils, practitioner shall be subtracted from the external static
heat exchanges, hot water coils, and air filters. humidifi- pressure obtained from the blower table.
ers Refer to the footnotes below the equipment manufac-
turers blower table for a list of items that were in place For example, Figure 6-3 provides pressure drop data for
when the blower was tested, and/or, a list of items that an electric resistance heating coil. This table shows that
are not relevant to the OEM's blower data. the coil will dissipate 0.14 IWC of pressure (approximate)
when 1,250 Cfm flows through the coil. Figure 4-2 provides

36
Section 6

examples of pressure drop data for a cooling coil and a Effective Length Worksheet
Element Supply Run ID Number Element Return Run ID Number
filter.
Trunk Length Trunk Length

Component Substitution Trunk Length Trunk Length


Trunk Length Trunk Length
Runout Length Runout Length
Sometimes an optional component is substituted for the Group 1 Group 5

similar standard component that was in place when the Group 2 Group 6
Group 3 Group 7
blower was tested. In this case, the difference between the Group 4 Group 8

16 w x
pressure drops produced by the two components shall be Group 8
Group 9
Group 10
Group 11

subtracted from, or added to, the available static pressure.

20 vie 01
Group 11 Group 12
Group 12 Group 13
For example: Group 13 Other
Other Other

n A high efficiency media filter (a pleated filter, for Total Length Total Length

ct e - 2
example) usually has a much larger pressure drop Figure 6-4
than a standard filter.
n An electronic filter protected by a pre-filter may
have a larger pressure drop than a standard filter.

O R D
External static pressure = 0.49 IWC
n If a standard filter is used as a pre-filter for an elec-
Component pressure loss = 0.14 + 0.03 + 0.03 + 0.03
trostatic grid, the additional pressure loss is pro-

)
= 0.23 IWC

- 3 bli al
duced by the electrostatic grid.
Available pressure for airway sizing = 0.49 0.23
Air Distribution and Balancing Devices = 0.26 IWC
g u nu
Air distribution devices such as supply air grilles,
diffusers and registers, return air grilles and filter-grilles, For most applications, the available static pressure for
and manual balancing dampers (open position), dissipate straight runs and fittings should be about 0.15 to

c
Au I Ma
pressure. The exact value for the pressure drop across 0.35 IWC. Values less than 0.15 IWC may not be accept-
these devices is normally provided by manufacturers able unless the total effective length of the critical circula-
performance data. However, it is an acceptable and typi- tion path is relatively short. Values greater than 0.35 IWC
cally conservative practice to use a default value may be too large unless the total effective length of the
critical circulation path is unusually long. If the available
(1 N 1

(0.03 IWC) for the pressure drop across any of these


static pressure is deficient or excessive, the practitioner
P

devices. For example, the total pressure loss for one sup-
ply outlet, one return, and a balancing damper is may use one or more of these options:
ft y A CA

0.09 IWC. n Use more efficient fittings to reduce the total effec-
tive length of the critical circulation path (see Sec-
S

Total Component Pressure Loss tion 6-6).


Sum the pressure drop values for the items listed for
D -D /AC

n Use one or more air-path components that have a


Step 2 of the Friction Rate Worksheet. lower pressure drop. Eliminate an air-path com-
ponent that may be desired, but not absolutely
Step 3 Available Static Pressure
necessary.
Determine how much pressure is available to move air n For a PSC or constant torque blower motor, use a
R

through straight duct sections and fittings. To calculate


different blower speed or torque setting to deter-
the available static pressure value, subtract the total com-
ra a
9

mine the Step 1 operating point.


BS

ponent pressure loss value from the external static pres-


sure value. n For an operating range blower, increase the 0.70
limit factor for Step 1 external static pressure.
For example, Figure 6-3 shows a blower operating at However, values of 0.85 and higher are not recom-
1,250 Cfm and 0.49 IWC of external static pressure. The mended, use some other solution.
45

pressure loss for an auxiliary heating coil is 0.14 IWC (per n If a blower adjustment this does not produce a
Figure 6-3), plus the loss for one supply outlet (0.03 IWC),
usable operating point for Step 1, find an alterna-
one return (0.03 IWC), and one open balancing damper
tive product that has a blower that will provide a
(0.03). This adds up to 0.23 IWC. This is subtracted from
suitable operating point.
the blower table pressure. Therefore, the pressure that is
available to move air though the straight runs and fittings
in the supply-return path that produces the most resis-
6-6 Total Effective Length
tance to airflow (the critical circulation path) is 0.26 IWC. The Friction Worksheet requires a value for the total
effective length of the critical circulation path. The total
effective length of a particular duct run is calculated by

37
Section 6

summing the straight lengths of all duct sections and the


fitting equivalent lengths for the run. This calculation is
made on the effective length worksheet (see Figure 6-4).
n The length of a section of ridged duct is measured
from entrance to exit.
n The base value for a length of a section of flexible

16 w x
duct is a straight line measurement from entrance
to exit.

20 vie 01
When flexible wire helix duct is not installed to ADC
standards, apply the relevant Table A16-1 and
Table A16-2 equivalent length multiplier to the

ct e - 2
base-length value to find the effective length of a flexi-
ble wire-helix duct run.
n Duct length measurements and calculations are

O R D
rounded to the nearest foot. Figure 6-5
n Fitting group numbers and equivalent length val-

)
ues are extracted from Section N4.

- 3 bli al
Do Not Use a Default Friction Rate
The length of a circulation path equals the sum of a sup-
g u nu
ply-path length and an associated return-path length. An
estimate for the effective length of every circulation path
Section 6-7 and Figure 6-5 invalidate guidance printed
on some duct sizing slide rules, and in some technical
is not required. The goal is to find the total effective length literature. This may be a statement, note, arrow or

c
Au I Ma
of the longest circulation path (e.g., the critical circulation font-face emphasis, that suggests that duct systems
path.) are designed for a default friction rate value, typically
0.10 IWC per 100 Ft of duct. The fallacy of this recom-
Sometimes, the longest runs can be identified by inspec- mendation is rooted in the fact the design friction rate
tion, but do not jump to conclusions. Depending on the value depends on project circumstances.
(1 N 1

equivalent length of the fittings, the run that has the lon- As demonstrated on these pages, the friction rate
P

gest effective length may not be the run that has the lon- value depends on the available static pressure and the
ft y A CA

gest measured length. If there is any doubt about which total effective length of the longest circulation path.
run is the longest, check the effective length of each likely For example, if the length of the critical path is 200 feet,
S

candidate. a design friction rate value of 0.10 IWC per 100 Ft of


n Fitting equivalent lengths have more influence on duct is only correct when the available static pressure
D -D /AC

total effective length than straight run lengths. is 0.20 IWC, per this equation.
n Improperly installed flexible wire helix duct can ASP x 100
produce a large value for duct run length (see FR = (IWC / 100 Ft )
TEL
Tables A16-1 and A16-2).
R

n Runs with inefficient fittings are prime candidate The second objection to use of a default friction rate is
ra a
9

for a longest path investigation. related to noise. Air velocity may exceed recom-
BS

n A run that has a branch takeoff fitting near the air mended limits if duct sizes are based on an arbitrary
handler may be the longest run (see Section N4, friction rate. For example, at 1,200 Cfm, the velocity in
Groups 2 and 6). a trunk duct is excessive (1,000 Fpm) if the airway size
is based on a 0.10 IWC per 100 Ft of duct friction rate.
45

n If inefficient fittings are used for return runs, it is


possible for the effective length of the longest
return run to be larger than the effective length of
the longest supply run.
n If there is any doubt about selecting longest-run
candidates, calculate the total effective length of n Effective length calculations do not have to be per-
all runs and look for the longest circulation path fect. A ten percent error in total effective length
(e.g., the longest combination of a supply-path will not produce a significant change in the final
length, and the associated return-path length). airway sizes.

38
Section 6

After the total effective lengths of the critical supply path rate on the Friction Rate Chart (0.18 IWC/100 Ft), air
and the associated return path are determined, enter velocity depends on Cfm and the type of duct material.
these length values in the spaces provided by Step 4 of the
Friction Rate Worksheet. Also enter the sum of these val- n For rigid supply duct, air velocity will be 900 Fpm
ues on the worksheet. or less if the flow rate is 300 Cfm or less.
n For rigid return duct, air velocity will be 700 Fpm
6-7 Design Friction Rate Value or less if the flow rate is 100 Cfm or less.

16 w x
The purpose of the Friction Rate Worksheet is to deter- n For wire helix flexible duct, air velocity will be 700

20 vie 01
mine the design friction rate value (IWC per 100 feet of Fpm or less if the flow rate is 300 Cfm or less.
length) for duct airway sizing. The design friction rate
(FR) value depends on the available static pressure (ASP) In other words, blower performance is compatible with

ct e - 2
value and the total effective length (TEL) value. The fric- total effective length value when the friction rate solution
tion rate value is produced by the equation below, or it point falls within the wedge produced by the 0.06 friction
may read from the Friction Rate Chart at the bottom of the rate line and the 0.18 friction rate line. A blower pressure
Friction Rate Worksheet (see Figure 6-5). adjustment, and/or component pressure drop change,
and/or effective length change is required if the point of

O R D
FR =
ASP x 100
(IWC / 100 Ft ) intersection does not fall in this wedge.
TEL n For a PSC or constant torque blower motor,

)
- 3 bli al
increase or decrease the blower wheel speed to get
After the design friction rate is determined, enter the a new external static pressure value for Step 1 of
value on the Friction Rate Worksheet (Step 5). This fric-
g u nu the Friction Rate Worksheet.
tion rate and the Cfm values at various points in the duct
system are used to size duct airways.
n For an ECM blower motor, adjust the design value
for external static pressure value for Step 1 of the

c
Au I Ma
Friction Rate Chart Friction Rate Worksheet (do not exceed 0.85 per-
cent of the maximum external static pressure
The friction rate chart at the bottom of the Friction Rate
value in the OEM's blower data).
Worksheet has a set of friction rate lines that slope from
the lower left corner of the chart to the upper right corner. n Revisit Step 3 of the Friction Rate Worksheet and
(1 N 1

These lines provide a graphical solution for the friction use components that produce a smaller or larger
P

rate equation. value for component pressure drop.


ft y A CA

n Use more efficient fittings to reduce the total effec-


To use the friction rate chart, draw a vertical line that rep-
tive length of the critical circulation path.
resents the available static pressure (ASP) value and a
S

horizontal line that represents the total effective length n Then re-evaluate the design friction rate value per
(TEL) value. The friction rate design value (FR) is at the Steps 2 through 5 on the Friction Rate Worksheet.)
D -D /AC

intersection of these two lines. n If use of one or more of these options does not pro-
duce the necessary result, find some other product
If the friction rate value does not fall on a friction rate line,
that has suitable blower performance.
interpolate (eyeball method) between two friction rate
values. For example, Figure 6-5 shows that a 0.07 friction
R

6-8 Sensible Heating and Cooling Loads


rate correlates with 300 feet of effective length and
ra a

Blower Cfm, room Cfm and space Cfm values depend on


9

0.21 IWC of available static pressure.


BS

the heating loads and sensible cooling loads. There is only


The advantage of the chart method is that it immediately one type of Manual J heating load. The sensible cooling
shows incompatibilities between available pressure and load may be an average daily load plus an AED excursion
total effective length. Figure 6-5 shows that more blower load, or an average daily load plus the full excursion load.
45

power (more blower wheel Rpm) is required if the solu-


tion point is above the 0.06 friction rate line, and less
n Use Manual J (Eighth Edition, unabridged Ver-
blower power (less blower wheel Rpm) is required if the sion 2.50 (or later) to evaluate heating-cooling
solution point is above the 0.18 friction rate line. loads. Read Manual J Section 11, opening com-
ments through Section 11-9, and study the copy of
Another benefit is that the chart method flags excessive Figure A11-1.
air velocity in runout ducts (see Table N3-1 for velocity n For any type of comfort system, cooling equip-
limits). However, a duct slide rule must be used to deter- ment size, and the corresponding design blower
mine when the air velocity through a trunk run is compat- Cfm value, are based on block cooling load, as
ible with Table N3-1 limits. For the maximum friction determined by the standard Manual J procedure.

39
Section 6

n Constant Cfm systems do not have the ability to n Infiltration loads (line 12 on form J1) and engi-
respond to hourly changes in room load. There- neered ventilation loads (line 16 on Form J1) are
fore, the standard Manual J procedure determines calculated for the local summer design condition
room and local space cooling loads. This proce- that occurs at about 4 PM DST, so these loads do
dure adds an AED excursion load to the average not depend on time of day.
daily fenestration load.
Sensible Cooling Loads for Occupants
n Zone damper systems have the ability to adjust

16 w x
and Appliances
supply air Cfm to track momentary changes in
The Form J1, line 13 occupant loads and internal loads can

20 vie 01
room or space load. Therefore the optional Man-
ual J procedure determines room and local space be a time of day issue, because load distribution among
cooling loads. This procedure adds the full excur- the rooms and local spaces, and load assignment to a par-
ticular room or space, depends on the time of day for the

ct e - 2
sion load to the average daily fenestration load.
load calculation. However, this has no effect on block
For Manual J, Form J1, Lines 6A and 6B hold val-
load vs. the sum of the room/space loads if the number of
ues for the average fenestration load for windows
occupants for the block load calculation and the calcula-
and skylights, and Line20 holds the AED excur-
tions for the room/space loads are equal, and if the total

O R D
sion value for the standard procedure, or the full
internal load for the block load and the room/space loads
excursion value for the optional (peak load)
are equal. In other words, Form J1, line 13 does not cause a
procedure.

)
time of day issue if the total occupant load and the total

- 3 bli al
n Manual J insists that no safety factors or allow- internal load are the same for the block load, and the room
ances be applied to any part of the procedure or to and local space loads.
g u nu
the total values for heating load, sensible cooling
load and latent cooling load. Sensible Cooling Loads for Fenestration
The sensible cooling loads for windows and skylights,

c
Au I Ma
6-9 Summing Room Loads per lines 6a and 6b on Form J1, are average loads for the
For Manual J load calculations, the sum of the room and whole day, so they do not depend on time of day. How-
local space heating loads for the block load space will be ever, the excursion value on line 20 of Form J1 deals with
equal to the heating load for the block load space. For sen- the time of day issue, as explained here:
(1 N 1

sible cooling, the sum of the room and local space cooling
The AED excursion value for fenestration cooling load on
P

loads for the block load space will, normally, not be equal
line 20 of Form J1 is a space load. Therefore the sensible
to the sensible cooling load for the block load space.
ft y A CA

cooling load for the block load space, and for the associ-
Summing Room Heating Loads ated rooms and local spaces, equals the sum of the line 14,
S

line 15, and line 20 values. However, the line 20 value for
There are no time of day issues for Manual J heating the block load is, normally, not equal to the sum of the
D -D /AC

loads. Therefore, the total heating load for the block load line 20 values for the rooms/spaces.
space, and for each room or local space associated with
the block load, equals the sum of the building envelope n For single-zone systems and fenestration that
loads (line 14 on MJ8 Form J1), plus the duct load (line 15 faces two or more directions, the AED excursion
on Form J1). Since there are no time of day issues, line 14 value for the block load will not be equal to sum of
R

plus line 15 for the block load equals the sum of the line 14 the AED excursion values for the associated
plus line 15 values for the rooms and spaces. rooms and spaces. Therefore, the block sensible
ra a
9
BS

cooling load will, normally, not be equal to the


Sensible Cooling Loads for Opaque Panels, sum of the room sensible cooling loads.
Infiltration, and Engineered Ventilation n For single-zone systems with all fenestration fac-
There are no time of day issues for the Manual J sensible ing one direction, the fenestration loads peak dur-
45

cooling loads for opaque panels, infiltration, and engi- ing the same hour of day, so the AED excursion
neered ventilation. Since there are no time of day issues, value for the block load will be equal to sum of the
block load values for opaque panels, and infiltration, are AED excursion values for the associated rooms
equal to the sum of the values for the rooms and local and local spaces. Therefore, the block sensible cool-
spaces. The engineered ventilation load is typically a sys- ing load will be equal to the sum of the room sensi-
tem load that does not affect room and local space loads, ble cooling loads.
or exhaust fan ventilation increases infiltration loads. n For zoned systems, an AED excursion value is
n Opaque panel loads (lines 7 through 11 on Form J1) used for the block load, and full excursion values
are average loads for the whole day, so they do not are used for the associated rooms and local spaces.
depend on time of day. The AED excursion value for the block load will

40
Section 6

not equal the sum of the full excursion values for Duct Sizing Worksheet
the associated rooms and local spaces. Therefore, HF = Blower Cfm / Manual J Heat Loss = ( )/(
CF = Blower Cfm / Manual J Sensible Heat Gain = (
) =
)/( ) =
FR Value

the block sensible cooling load will not be equal to Supply-Side Runouts
Supply - Trunk
the sum of the room sensible cooling loads. Heating
Btuh
Cooling
Btuh
Heating
Cfm
Cooling
Cfm
Design
Cfm
Round
Size
Velocity
Fpm
Final
Size
Normed
Cfm
S1
S2

Other Manual J Procedures S3


S4

The Seventh Edition of Manual J and the abridged ver- S5

16 w x
S6
sion of MJ8 have no hour of day sensitivity for fenestra- S7

tion loads (these procedures are based on the assumption S8

20 vie 01
S9

that the conditioned space always has adequate exposure S10


S11
diversity). These simplified procedures do not apply to S12

zoned systems, or to any single-zone system that serves a Supply-Side Trunks

ct e - 2
Run numbers: S-Trunk 1

block load space that has a fenestration excursion load. Run numbers: S-Trunk 2
Run numbers: S-Trunk 3
Run numbers: S-Trunk 4

6-10 Room Cfm for Single-Zone Systems


Figure 6-6

O R D
As explained by Section 1-13 and Section 6-8, the design
value for blower Cfm is determined when OEM
expanded performance data is used to find equipment This way, room Cfm calculations are just a simple multi-

)
- 3 bli al
that is compatible with the Manual J loads that appear on plication. As demonstrated here, room Cfm equals the
line 21 of Form J1. This blower Cfm value is used to deter- product of the flow factor and the room load.
g u nu
mine the supply air Cfm for each room and local space
served by the equipment. Room Cfm = Flow Factor Room Load

The local airflow rate (supply air Cfm) is proportional to However, there are two room loads, one for heating and

c
Au I Ma
the size of the room or local space load in comparison to one for cooling. Therefore, there is a flow factor for heat-
the block load for the space served by the equipment. For ing and a flow factor for cooling.
example, if the room sensible load is 7,000 Btuh and the
The heating flow factor equals blower Cfm for heating
block sensible load for the space served by the equipment
divided by the block space load for heating. The cooling
(1 N 1

is 35,000 Btuh, the room supply Cfm is 20 percent of the


flow factor equals blower Cfm for cooling divided by the
P

blower Cfm (7,000 divided by 35,000). This equation pro-


block space load for sensible cooling. These factors are
vides room Cfm values:
ft y A CA

called the heating factor (HF) and the cooling factor (CF).
Blower Cfm x Room Load
Room Cfm =
S

Blower Cfm for Heating


Block Space Load HF =
Block Space Heating Load
D -D /AC

Where: The blower Cfm is the Manual D design value for


Blower Cfm for Cooling
an operating point blower, or an operating range blower CF =
Block Space Load for Sensible Cooling
(see Section 6-4).

Since there are two flow factors, there are two room Cfm
R

Where: The room/space load values for heating and sensi-


ble cooling are provided by line 21 on Form J1. values. Room airflow rates are obtained by multiplying
ra a
9

room heating and sensible cooling loads by HF and CF.


BS

The four columns at the far right of Form J1 are for room
and space loads. For heating, these columns show that the Room Heating Cfm = HF Room Heating Load
line 21 load is equal to the line 14 space load plus the line Room Cooling Cfm = CF Room Sensible Load
15 duct load. For sensible cooling, these columns show
45

that the line 21 load is equal to the line 14 space load plus, These room Cfm values represent the maximum supply
the line 15 duct load, plus the line 20 excursion load. air requirements for winter and summer. One value is
usually larger than the other, so the design Cfm for air-
Room Cfm calculations are expedited by dividing the way sizing is the larger value.
blower Cfm by the block space load. This creates a flow
factor that represents the supply air Cfm requirement for Design Cfm = Maximum [ Heating Cfm : Cooling Cfm]
one Btuh of load.
Design Cfm values are calculated by the Duct Sizing
Blower Cfm for Heating
Flow Factor = Worksheet. Figure 6-6 shows that HF and CF calculations
Block Space Heating Load are made at the top of the worksheet. Then there are

41
Section 6

columns for recording room heating loads (H-Btuh) and Example Two Supply Runs for One Room
sensible cooling loads (C-Btuh) at the left side of the Br Run H-Btuh C-Btuh H-Cfm C-Cfm Dsn Cfm
worksheet. The next two columns (H-Cfm and C-Cfm)
3 3,040 2,100 94 105 105
hold the results of the heating Cfm and cooling Cfm cal-
4 5,500 4,000 170 200 100
culations. Then the larger of the two seasonal Cfm values
is entered in the Design Cfm column. 5 100
6 4,500 2,900 139 145 145
n The sum of the design Cfm (Dsn Cfm) values on

16 w x
the Duct Sizing Worksheet will not be equal the A room requires 200 Cfm for cooling and 170 Cfm for heating. The
design Cfm is 200 Cfm. Branches 4 and 5 deliver 100 Cfm each to

20 vie 01
blower Cfm value because some values are for the same room.
heating and some are for cooling.
Figure 6-7
n Manual D sizes airways for the worst-case contin-

ct e - 2
gency. Since there are different values for room
heating Cfm and cooling Cfm, the local airway is
sized for the larger value (per the design Cfm col- Examples of Primary and Secondary Trunks
umn on the Duct Sizing Worksheet). Use of the Example Primary Trunks Secondary Trunks

O R D
duct
larger value to size airways provides the capability, system Supply Return Supply Return
if so desired, to deliver the worst case Cfm to the Figure 8-8 0 RT-1 ST-1, ST-2 0
room or local space.

)
Figure 8-12 ST-2 RT-1 ST-1 0

- 3 bli al
n Cfm values for air-balancing are an entirely differ- Figure 8-18 ST-4 0 ST-1 > ST-3 RT-1, RT-2
ent matter. See Sections 6-23 and 6-24. Figure 8-1 ST-2 RT-2 ST-1 RT-1
g u nu
6-11 Summing of Room Cfm Values
Figure 8-8 0 0 ST1 > ST5 RT-1, RT-2
A primary trunk is attached to the equipment cabinet, or to a plenum
for Single-Zone Systems

c
that is attached to the equipment cabinet. A supply trunk downstream
Au I Ma
from a reducing fitting is a secondary trunk. A secondary trunk must
The sum of the room heating Cfm values on the Duct Sizing serve two or more branches.
Worksheet will be equal the blower Cfm value. This is
because the sum of the room heating loads is equal to the Figure 6-8
heating load for the block load space, as explained by Sec-
(1 N 1

tion 6-9. n Most rooms and spaces have one supply outlet for
P

the design Cfm value on the Duct sizing


The sum of the room cooling Cfm values on the Duct Sizing
ft y A CA

Worksheet.
Worksheet will normally not be equal the blower Cfm
value. This is because the sum of the room sensible cooling
n A rooms or space that requires a relatively large
S

loads will not normally be equal to the sensible cooling flow of supply air may have two or more supply
load for the block load space, as explained by Section 6-9. air outlets, because one properly sized outlet may
D -D /AC

be objectionably large.
6-12 Summing of Room Cfm Values n When a room is relatively large, discharge air
for Zone Damper Systems throws from two or more properly sized supply
air outlets may be required to obtain adequate air
The Duct Sizing Worksheet and Section 6-10 provide
R

mixing and motion within the occupied zone.


base-case design Cfm (Dsn Cfm) values for zone damper
n In a cold climate, when a room has a relatively
ra a
9

systems. However, the design Cfm for one or more of the


BS

branch runs is increased if the zone has overblow or selec- large amount of exposed wall and glass area, it
tive throttling. When this is the case, the sum of the room may be desirable to use two or more properly
heating Cfm values on the Duct Sizing Worksheet will be sized supply air outlets (vertical discharge floor
equal the blower Cfm value, and for cooling the differ- outlets) to reduce stratification and improve com-
45

ence will be larger than for no overblow or selective throt- fort in the occupied space.
tling. See Manual Zr, Section A8-6 for more instruction.
There are no fixed rules regarding the number of supply
air outlets for a room or space. The practitioner can mini-
6-13 Supply Branch Flow Rates for Airway Sizing
mize duct system geometry and installed cost if comfort is
A branch runout duct is required for each supply air out- not adversely affected. The design also should be sensi-
let and at least one supply air outlet is required for each tive to aesthetics, window shading devices and probable
conditioned room or local space. However, some furniture locations. Refer to ACCA Manual T for more
rooms/spaces may require two or more supply air out- information about selecting and sizing air distribution
lets, depending on the design Cfm value for the room or hardware.
space, and the attributes of the room or space.

42
Section 6

Two or more lines on the duct sizing worksheet are used


Blower Cfm
for one room or space if there are two or more runouts to 1,240
the room or space. For this scenario, use the first line to
calculate the H-Cfm and C-Cfm values for the room, but
do not transcribe the largest Cfm value to the Dsn Cfm
column, because it will be portioned to two or more
branch runs. After the design Cfm value is split into two

16 w x
or more runout Cfm values, they are entered on the form,
using as many lines as necessary. A multiple runout

20 vie 01
example is provided by Figure 6-7 (lines 4 and 5). In this
case, two branch ducts deliver 200 Cfm of supply air to
the room.

ct e - 2
Figure 6-9
6-14 Primary Trunks and Secondary Trunks
A primary trunk is the section of supply duct or return

O R D
duct directly downstream or upstream from the blower. Supply Trunk Cfm
All of the blower Cfm enters a primary supply trunk at Run - Trunk H-Cfm C-Cfm Dsn-Cfm
the blower discharge fitting or collar, and all of the

)
1 T-4 65 75

- 3 bli al
blower Cfm leaves a primary return trunk at the blower
2 T-4 115 100
intake fitting, or collar. Primary trunks may serve:
3 T-4 95 105
n

n
g u nu
Runout ducts.
Secondary trunks.
4 T-4
5 T-3
95
100
110
115

c
Au I Ma
n Primary trunk runouts and secondary trunks. 6 T-3 85 85
7 T-3 90 100
Only part of the blower Cfm enters a secondary supply 8 T-3 110 125
trunk or leaves a secondary return trunk. Secondary 9 T-1 115 125
trunks may serve:
(1 N 1

10 T-1 110 115


n Runout ducts.
P

11 T-2 95 80
n Other secondary trunks. 12 T-2 85 100
ft y A CA

n Secondary trunk runouts and other secondary 13 T-2 80 90


S

trunks. Sum downstream Trunk T1 225 240 240


Cfm for T1, T2 Trunk T2 260 270 270
and T3; use
D -D /AC

Sections 8 and 9 provide duct system sketches for exam- blower Cfm for Trunk T3 870 935 935
ple duct sizing problems. Figure 6-8 (previous page) T4. Trunk T4 1,240 1,240 1,240
identifies the primary trunks and secondary trunks for
these sketches. Figure 6-10
R

6-15 Supply Trunk Flow Rates for Airway Sizing n Manual D sizes secondary trunks and branch run-
ra a

out ducts for the worst-case contingency, as


9

There is a set of branch runout Cfm values for heating and


BS

explained by Section 6-10.


a set of values for cooling. For constant Cfm, single-zone
systems, the sum of the heating Cfm values will equal the n The supply air Cfm entering a section of second-
blower Cfm, but this may not be true for air-zoned sys- ary supply trunk equals the sum of the Cfm values
tems. For either type of system, the sum of the cooling for all of the supply air outlets that are down-
45

Cfm values will normally not be equal to the blower Cfm stream from the trunk entrance.
(see Sections 6-8, 6-9, 6-11, and 6-12). n The trunk Cfm for heating is the sum of the down-
stream heating Cfm values, and the trunk Cfm for
Use these rules to determine the design Cfm for a section
cooling is the sum of the downstream cooling Cfm
of supply trunk:
values.
n For a primary supply trunk, simply use the blower n A trunk section is sized for the larger sum, which is
Cfm to size the trunk. This is because the largest normally the sum of the cooling Cfm values.
Cfm that can flow through a primary trunk is the n Figures 6-9 and 6-10 demonstrate procedure.
design value for blower Cfm.

43
Section 6

The preceding rules apply to zone damper systems. In Return-Side Runouts


Return - Trunk Associated Supply Runs
this case, the branch cooling Cfm values for a zoned sys- Heating
Cfm
Cooling
Cfm
Design
Cfm
Round
Size
Velocity
Fpm
Final
Size
Normed
Cfm
R1
tem tend to be larger than for a single-zone system R2

because supply air Cfm is based on the size of the peak R3


R4


fenestration cooling load for the room or space served by R5
R6
the branch runout (see Section 6-8). In addition, when R7

overblow or selective throttling applies, the cooling or R8

16 w x
Return-Side Trunks
heating Cfm that is correct for the room or space load will Run numbers: R-Trunk 1

be increased by some amount, per Manual Zr proce- Run numbers: R-Trunk 2

20 vie 01
Run numbers: R-Trunk 3

dures. In other words, airway sizes for a zone damper Run numbers: R-Trunk 4

1) Room heating and cooling Btuh obtained per Section 6 guidance.


system tend to be larger than for the same duct system 2) Heating Cfm for runouts = HF x Heating Btuh; Cooling Cfm for runouts = CF x Sensible Cooling Btuh.
3) For trunks, sum heating Cfm values for branches served by the trunk, and sum the cooling Cfm values for branches served by the trunk.

with no zone dampers. This makes the zone damper, not The design Cfm for branches and trunks is equal to the larger of the heating Cfm or cooling Cfm values for the run.

ct e - 2
4) Round size is based on FR value. Final size is based on FR value if air velocity is acceptable, or the maximum allowable velocity value.
Final size may be a standard round size, or a standard equivalent rectangular size.

the airway size, the controlling authority for the amount 5) Normed Cfm = Normalized Cfm for air balancing single-zone systems (see Section 6-23). For zoned systems, see Section 9-11.
6) Per Manual Zr, Sections 7-9 and 8-11, a bypass airway is sized for 900 Fpm and the bypass Cfm from the Bypass Cfm Worksheet.

of airflow to a room or space.


Figure 6-11
6-16 Return Branch Flow Rates for Airway Sizing

O R D
The number of branch return runs for a particular system
equals the number of return air openings. For example, if

)
- 3 bli al
return air grilles are installed in every room, there will be
as many return branches as there are rooms. Or at the
other extreme, there are no return branches for a system
g u nu
that features one central return near the air handler
(located in a closet, hall or attic).

c
Au I Ma
A low-resistance return path (see Section 4-9) shall be pro-
vided for isolated rooms or spaces that do not have a ded-
icated return. For each occurrence, the Cfm for a common
return equals the total supply Cfm delivered to the rooms
or areas served by the return.
(1 N 1
P

The Duct Sizing Worksheet (Figure 6-11, next page)


determines the design Cfm value for a return branch. If a
ft y A CA

room has one return, the Cfm for the return run equals the Figure 6-12
supply air Cfm for the room. If two or more rooms have a
S

common return, the Cfm for the return run equals the
total supply air Cfm delivered to the rooms.
D -D /AC

Example Cfm Values for Multiple Returns


An example of a multiple return system is provided by Run - Trunk Asoc. Supply Runs H-Cfm C-Cfm D-Cfm
Figure 6-12. In this case, four return grilles and four 1 R1 9, 10 225 240 240
branch return ducts collect air that was distributed to four 2 R2 11, 12, 13 260 270 270
different areas of the dwelling.
R

3 R3 5, 6, 7, 8 385 425 425


ra a

The portion of the duct sizing worksheet that pertains to 1, 2, 3, 4 370 390 390
9

4 R4
BS

the return duct system is used to calculate Cfm values for Figure 6-12 shows the duct system geometry for this example.
branch return ducts. For example, Figure 6-13 shows the
calculations for the Figure 6-12 system. In this case return Figure 6-13
branch 1 is for supply runs 9 and 10; return branch 2 is for
45

supply runs 11, 12, and 13; return branch 3 is for supply Use these rules to determine the design Cfm for a section
runs 5, 6, 7, and 8; and return branch 4 is for supply runs 1, of return trunk for a single-zone system, and for a zone
2, 3, and 4. damper system.

6-17 Return Trunk Flow Rates for Airway Sizing n For a primary return trunk, simply use the blower
Cfm to size the trunk. This is because the largest
The airway size of a return trunk section depends on the
Cfm that can flow through a primary trunk is the
Cfm entering the section. This value equals the sum of the
design value for blower Cfm.
Cfm values for the relevant upstream returns. The Duct
Sizing Worksheet is used to calculate these values.

44
Section 6

n The Cfm entering a section of return trunk equals Example Cfm Values for Return Trunks
the sum of the Cfm values for all of the return Run - Trunk Asoc. Supply Runs H-Cfm C-Cfm D-Cfm
grilles that are upstream from the trunk entrance.
1 R1 9, 10 225 240
n The trunk Cfm for heating is the sum of the heat- 2 R2 11, 12, 13 260 270
ing Cfm values, and the trunk Cfm for cooling is
3 R3 5, 6, 7, 8 385 425
the sum of the cooling Cfm values.
4 R4 1, 2, 3, 4 370 390
n A trunk section is sized for the larger heating-cool-

16 w x
Trunk RT-1 (R1, R3) 610 665 665
ing sum, which is normally the sum of the cooling

20 vie 01
Trunk RT-2 (R2, R4) 630 660 660
Cfm values.
Figure 6-12 shows the duct system geometry for this example.
n Figure 6-14 (next page) applies these rules to the
Figure 6-12 system. Figure 6-14

ct e - 2
6-18 Branch Airway Sizing (Supply or Return)
Once design values for the friction rate and branch Cfm

O R D
are known, the size of the branch duct airway is deter-
mined by a duct slide rule or friction chart. For example,
Figure 6-15 shows that for metal duct, a 6.3 inch diameter

)
- 3 bli al
airway is compatible with 100 Cfm and a 0.07 IWC/100 Ft
friction rate.
g u nu
Also verify that air velocities in branch runs do not exceed
the recommended limit (see Table N3-1). This calculation
depends on the tool that was used to find the design fric-

c
Au I Ma
tion rate value.
n If the design friction rate value was produced by
the friction rate equation (see Section 6-7), a duct
slide rule or friction chart is used to verify that run- Figure 6-15
(1 N 1

out velocity is acceptable.


P

n If the design friction rate value was read from the


ft y A CA

friction rate chart (see Figure 6-5), runout veloci-


ties tend to be less than the recommended maxi-
S

mum, providing that the design friction rate does


not exceed 0.18 IWC/100 Ft.
D -D /AC

For the maximum friction rate on the Friction Rate Chart


(0.18 IWC/100 Ft), air velocity depends on Cfm and the
type of duct material.
R

n For rigid return duct, air velocity will be 700 Fpm


or less if the flow rate is 100 Cfm or less.
ra a
9
BS

n For wire helix flexible duct, air velocity will be


700 Fpm or less if the flow rate is 300 Cfm or less.
Figure 6-16
If runout velocity exceeds the maximum value, the
45

branch duct must be resized. The new size is determined


by the branch Cfm and the velocity limit. This size is read
6-19 Trunk Airway Sizing (Supply or Return)
from a duct slide rule, or a friction chart. For example, Fig- Once the design friction rate value and trunk Cfm are
ure 6-16 shows that for metal duct, a 5.2 inch diameter air- known, the preliminary size for a trunk section is read
way is compatible with 130 Cfm and 900 Fpm. from a duct slide rule or a friction chart. For example, if
The duct sizing worksheet is used to organize sizing cal- the friction rate is 0.10 IWC/100 Ft, a duct slide rule for
culations for branch ducts. Figure 6-17 (next page) pro- metal duct shows that a 15.5 inch diameter is compatible
vides an example that shows final metal duct sizes are with 1,300 Cfm of airflow.
based on Cfm and friction rate when air velocity is in the After finding a duct size that is compatible with the
acceptable range. design friction rate, verify that the air velocity does not

45
Section 6

exceed the maximum value (see Table N3-1). If the veloc- FR Value = 0.12 and Maximum Velocity = 900 Fpm
ity exceeds the maximum value, the trunk shall be Dsn Cfm Round Size Velocity Final Size
resized. In this case, the new size is based on airway Cfm
120 6.0" 620 ok 6"
and permitted velocity.
90 5.4" (use 6") 460 6"
For example, it has already been demonstrated that a 15.5 140 6.4" (use 7") 540 7"
inch (metal) duct is compatible with 1,300 Cfm and a
0.10 IWC/100 Ft friction rate, but air velocity is excessive Figure 6-17

16 w x
(the duct slide rule for metal duct indicates the air velocity

20 vie 01
is about 1,020 Fpm). Therefore, airway size is based on
1,300 Cfm and 900 Fpm. A duct slide rule for metal duct FR Value = 0.12 and Maximum Velocity = 900 Fpm
indicates the appropriate size is 16.5 inches. Dsn Cfm Round Size Velocity Final Size

ct e - 2
500 10.3" (use 11) 790 ok 11"
The duct sizing worksheet is used to perform sizing cal-
1,100 14.0" 1,050 15"
culations for trunk ducts. Figure 6-18 (next page) pro-
vides two examples for metal ducts. The first line shows Figure 6-18
that when velocity is acceptable, airway size is based on

O R D
friction rate and Cfm. The second line shows that when
air velocity is excessive, airway size depends on Cfm and Normalized Cfm Values for a Single-Zone System

)
- 3 bli al
maximum allowable velocity. Based on 1,000 blower Cfm for air balancing
Supply Heating Cooling Average Normalized
6-20 Equivalent Rectangular Sizes
g u nu Run Cfm Cfm Cfm Cfm
If square or rectangular shapes are required, a duct slide 1 106 130 118 113.3
rule, or a round-to-square conversion table, is used to find 2 106 99 102.5 98.4

c
Au I Ma
the equivalent rectangular size. This size is entered in the 3 110 133 121.5 116.7
column on the right side of the Duct Sizing Worksheet. 4 118 115 116.5 111.9

n Equivalent rectangular size is the size that pro- 5 107 125 116 111.4
duces the same airflow resistance (friction rate) as 6 125 109 117 112.3
(1 N 1

the round size, but the velocity through the equiv- 7 128 146 137 131.5
P

alent rectangular airway is always lower than the 8 135 156 145.5 139.7
velocity through the round airway.
ft y A CA

9 65 70 67.5 64.8
n Equivalent rectangular sizes may vary, depend- Totals 1,000 1,083 1,041.5 1,000
S

ing on the duct slide rule, because the industry has 1) The Duct Sizing Worksheet provides heating Cfm, cooling
two, slightly different, equations for converting Cfm and design Cfm values, and a column for normalized Cfm
D -D /AC

round sizes to equivalent rectangular sizes. values. Design Cfm values are used to size airways; normalized
Cfm values are used air balancing.
n The velocity for a round airway is read from any 2) If blower Cfm for heating and cooling are not equal, the blower
duct sizing slide rule. Cfm for calculating normalized Cfm values is the larger of
the two values.
n The velocity for a rectangular airway is read from 3) A normalized Cfm value equals the average Cfm value
R

the Auxiliary Calculations side of the ACCA multiplied by the design value for blower Cfm and divided by the
Duct Sizing Slide Rule. total of the average Cfm values. Line 1 For example:
ra a
9

118 (1,000 / 1,041.5) = 113.5 Cfm


BS

n The velocity for any airway shape is calculated by


dividing airway Cfm by square feet of cross-sec-
tional area. Figure 6-19
45

6-21 Optional Airway Sizes


the need for balancing dampers (as explained in Sec-
The Manual D procedure returns the minimum accept-
tions 6-2 and 6-3).
able airway size for duct runs that comply with good
industry practice regarding design, fabrication and
installation. The designer has the option to specify larger 6-22 Air Distribution Hardware
airway sizes when there is concern, or anticipation, that After air distribution hardware has been selected, the
the actual fabrication and installation procedures and locations and sizes of the supply air outlets and returns
details may cause the actual total effective length of the are recorded on a sketch of the duct system. This is useful
installed circulation path to be longer than the calculated for evaluating straight run lengths and fitting requirements.
length of the best practices path. However, this increases

46
Section 6

n The air distribution devices (supply outlets and


Design Cfm vs. Air Balancing Cfm
returns) shall be selected in accordance with pro-
cedures provided by Manual T. Manual D sizes airways for the worst-case contin-
n Manufacturer's performance data shall be used to gency. Since there are different values for room heat-
select air distribution devices. ing Cfm and cooling Cfm, the local airway is sized for
the larger value (per the design Cfm column on the
6-23 Air Balance Cfm Values Duct Sizing Worksheet). Use of the larger value to size

16 w x
for Single-Zone Systems airways provides the capability, if so desired, to

20 vie 01
deliver the worst case Cfm to the room.
The air balance values for a single-zone system may be
based on the average of the heating Cfm values and cool- Balancing the system is an entirely different matter
ing Cfm values on the Duct Sizing Worksheet. However, than airway sizing. The column of design Cfm values

ct e - 2
the sum of a set of average values will normally be greater on the Duct Sizing Worksheet is a column of maxi-
than the design blower Cfm value (e.g., the largest blower mum values that cannot occur simultaneously (some
Cfm at the top of the Duct Sizing Worksheet). This differ- are for heating and some are for cooling). Therefore,
ence is normalized by multiplying each average value by this list of values, and their sum, are not relevant to air

O R D
the design blower Cfm value and dividing by the sum of balancing work (see Section 6-23).
the average values, as demonstrated by Figure 6-19 (pre- The sum of the normalized Cfm (N-Cfm) values on

)
vious page).

- 3 bli al
the Duct Sizing Worksheet will be equal the blower
Sections 6-2, 6-3, 6-8, 6-9, 6-10, 6-11, and the side bar on the Cfm value, as explained in Section 6-23.
g u nu
this page explain why the sum of set of Cfm values for the
rooms and spaces in a dwelling will not be equal to the
blower Cfm. Balancing a single-zone system is a compro-

c
Au I Ma
mise, as far as room and space Cfm values are concerned. overblow or selective throttling adjustment. This
The normalized Cfm values on the Friction Rate increases the Cfm value for airway sizing, and for
Worksheet are a starting point. air balancing.
n Based on the owner's experience with the space n For single-zone systems, the normalized Cfm col-
umn for the Duct Sizing Worksheet may be used
(1 N 1

temperature for various rooms and spaces during


for air balancing. The values in this column only
P

winter and summer, it may be necessary to


increase or reduce the Cfm for one or more spaces. apply to single-zone systems.
ft y A CA

n If there is a large difference between the occu- n The air balancing procedure for air-zoned systems
pant-preferred heating and cooling Cfm for a also uses normalized Cfm values, but these are not
S

room or space, one or more damper settings must the same as the normalized Cfm values on the
Duct Sizing Worksheet. See Section 7-11 Man-
D -D /AC

be readjusted for winter and summer.


ual Zr for more guidance on this issue.
n If a room or a space has a very large excursion for
the time-of-day fenestration load, the runout
6-25 Refer to Manual Zr for Related Procedures
damper setting may have to be readjusted for win-
ter and summer. Section 1 Zoning Benefits
R

This Section discuses single-zone performance vs. zoned


n Temperature excursions (vs. the set-point of a
ra a

system performance, as far as comfort and energy use are


9

remote thermostat) in rooms and spaces are the


BS

concerned.
unavoidable attribute of a single-zone system.
Section 2 Zoning Methods
6-24 Air Balance Cfm Values This Section discusses zoning issues and the type of
45

for Zone Damper Systems equipment that may be used to provide zoned comfort.
Figure 2-1 compares the attributes of various methods.
In principle, the Manual D procedure for single-zone sys-
tems also applies to zone damper systems, in that the Cfm Section 3 Making Zoning Decisions
values for airway sizes are maximum need values, and This Section discuses the issues that create a zone, and the
that the sum of these Cfm values will be greater than the issues that affect the maximum number of zones.
blower Cfm value. However, there are differences in the
air balancing procedure for the two types of systems. Section 4 Load Calculations for Zoned Systems
This Section explains Manual J procedures for zoned sys-
n Section 6-12 of this Manual explains that one or tems, and shows how to use AED curves to group rooms
more of the zone Cfm values may have an and spaces into zones.

47
Section 6

Appendix 7 Air Distribution


This Appendix discusses air distribution hardware
(diffusers, registers and grilles) for air-zoned systems.
Appendix 8 Duct System Design
This Appendix explains how Manual J and Manual D
procedures apply to duct system design for zoned
systems.

16 w x
20 vie 01
Appendix 9 Balancing Zone Damper Systems
This Appendix provides step-by-step instructions for bal-
ancing zone damper systems.

ct e - 2
O R D

)
- 3 bli al
g u nu
c
Au I Ma
(1 N 1
P
ft y A CA
S
D -D /AC
R
ra a
9
BS
45

48
This Section is not part of the Standard. It is merely informative and does not contain requirements necessary for conformance to the Standard. It has not been pro-
cessed according to the ANSI requirements for a Standard, and may contain material that has not been subject to public review or a consensus process. Unresolved
objections on informative material are not offered the right to appeal at ACCA or ANSI.

Section 7
Air-Zoned Systems
The airway sizing procedures for air-zoned systems are 8-4 and 8-10 discuss dump zones. See also, portions of

16 w x
basically the same as the single-zone procedures. Com- Sections 5 and 6, and see Manual Zr, Appendix 3.
ments pertaining to differences are provided here, and

20 vie 01
related Manual Zr Sections are cited for further study. 7-7 Air Distribution Effectiveness
An open-close zone damper allows the full room/space
7-1 Room and Space Temperature Swings

ct e - 2
Cfm value, or essentially no Cfm (ignoring some leakage).
Room and space temperature excursions, above or below, Therefore, the open-close type is compatible with supply
the set-point at the central thermostat, are an attribute of outlet hardware that is designed for constant Cfm. A
single-zone, constant airflow rate (Cfm) system perfor- modulating sone damper throttles supply air Cfm

O R D
mance. Room and space temperature excursions may be incrementally. Therefore, the modulating type is not
eliminated or reduced by installing zone dampers in compatible with supply outlet hardware that is designed
branch duct runs. Acceptable performance for single for constant Cfm. See Manual Zr, Appendix 7.

)
- 3 bli al
zone systems, and for zoned systems, is summarized by
ACCA Manual Zr, Figure 1-2. This is a Manual T issue, but supply air outlet locations
and Cfm values effect Manual D calculations.
g u nu
7-2 Load Calculations for Air-Zoned Systems
7-8 Manual D Procedures or Air-Zoned Systems
The load calculation procedure for air-zoned systems is

c
Au I Ma
somewhat different than for single-zone systems. See Sec- The Friction Rate Worksheet, the Total Effective Length
tion 6-8 and Section 6-12 in this manual. See Manual Zr, Worksheet, and the Duct Sizing Worksheet fully apply to
Section 4 and Section A8-1. See also, Manual Zr, Section 3. air-zoned systems, with no modification. The only differ-
ence with air-zoned systems is that the Manual J peak
load procedure is used for room and space loads, and that
7-3 Primary Equipment Selection and Sizing
(1 N 1

these loads are grouped into a set of zone loads.


P

Manual S procedures and sizing limits apply to single


zone systems, and to air-zoned systems. OEM engineer- When an air-zoned system has a bypass duct, Manual Zr
ft y A CA

ing data provides blower performance information for procedures determine the design value for bypass air
use in Manual D procedures. See Manual Zr, Appendix 6. Cfm, and for sizing the bypass duct airway.
S

Manual Zr explains how air-zoning performance is max- 7-9 Duct Sizing Examples for Air-Zoned Systems
D -D /AC

imized when excess heating and cooling capacity is mini-


mized. See Manual Zr, Section 8-12. For example problems, Manual Zr, First Edition, Ver-
sion 1.0 (2012 through 2016), refers to Manual D, Third
Edition, Version 2.0 (2014 through 2016), Sections 10, 11, 12
7-4 Duct System Design for Air Zoned Systems
and 13. For Manual D, Third Edition, Version 2.5 (2017),
R

Manual Zr, Appendix 8 provides a summary of duct sys- these Sections move the next version of Manual Zr (2017).
tem design issues and procedure.
ra a
9
BS

7-10 Air Balance for Zone Damper Systems


7-5 Zone Dampers
Balancing dampers for limiting the maximum airflow to
Zone dampers may be open-close, three position, or mod- the system's zone dampers, and the maximum airflow to
ulating. The only thing that matters for duct airway sizing rooms and spaces that do not have zone dampers, are
45

is the pressure drop through an open zone damper; this is required. When the system has a bypass duct, a balancing
a component pressure loss item for Step 2 on the Friction damper shall be installed in the bypass path. See Man-
Rate Worksheet. The pressure drop value for a zone ual Zr, Section 5-5, Section 6-13, Section A1-15, and
damper is obtained from the manufacturer's performance Appendix 9.
data. See Manual Zr, Section 5 and Section 6.

7-6 Bypass Duct and Dump Zones


Manual Zr, Sections 7 and 8 provide bypass duct sizing
and bypass air control procedures. Manual Zr, Sections

49
Section 7

Minimize Excess Equipment Capacity


Manual J mandates that no safety factor, as an explicit
7-1 Procedure Overlap value, or by input data fudging, be applied to any step
The same equipment selection and sizing procedures in the Manual J procedure, or to the total values for the
apply to single-zone constant Cfm systems, and to heating load or cooling load. Manual S does allow a
air-zoned systems. These are noted here: limited amount of over sizing when the equipment is
selected for Manual J loads, based on an OEM's set of

16 w x
n A block load calculation for the entire space served expanded performance data.

20 vie 01
by the central equipment and load calculations for
each room and space is served by the equipment n These rules exist because excess equipment
are required. capacity causes a variety of comfort and equip-

ct e - 2
n A design value for blower Cfm is required for duct ment performance problems. This is especially
airway sizing. This is determined when Manual S true for air-zoned systems because of various
procedures use Manual J loads and OEM expanded technical issues caused by interrupted, or
performance data to select and size central equip- throttled, supply airflow during part-load con-
ditions.

O R D
ment.
n Blower Cfm delivery must be correlated with n When zone dampers throttle supply air, excess
equipment capacity acerbates the excess air

)
external static pressure values. This information is

- 3 bli al
provided by the OEM's blower table. Such tables problem (excess air equals the momentary dif-
may, or may not, have footnotes that list the equip- ference between the blower Cfm and the sum
g u nu
ment cabinet components that were in place when
the blower was tested. If blower table notes are n
of the Cfm values for the rooms and spaces).
Excess air tends to limit the number of zones,
missing, or if there is doubt about what cabinet and tends to increase the complexity of the

c
Au I Ma
components do, or do not, pertain to the blower air-system control strategy.
table, the practitioner shall get accurate informa- n Primary equipment that has staged or variable
tion from other sections of the OEM's engineering capacity tends to improve the excess air situa-
guidance, or from an OEM representative. tion, but this may not fully nullify an excess air
(1 N 1

problem.
7-2 Air-Zoning Issues
P

n For any type of primary equipment, keep the


The Manual D procedure for sizing duct airways for
ft y A CA

Manual S allowance for excess capacity to an


air-zoned systems is functionally identical to the constant absolute minimum.
Cfm procedure (see Manual Zr, Appendix 8). There are
S

n See Manual Zr, Section 8-12.


some differences in detail for the topics listed below.
Additional information for these topics is provided by
D -D /AC

Sections 7-3 through 7-8).


n Load calculation procedure.
same block load procedure applies to single-zone
n Zone damper performance and control. systems, and to air-zoned systems.
R

n Bypass duct and dump zones. n For single-zone systems, the room/space cooling
ra a
9

n Equipment capacity control. load for fenestration is the sum of a daily average
BS

n Air distribution effectiveness. value plus an AED excursion value (see the excur-
sion arrow on Manual J, Figure A3-2).
n Air balancing for zone damper systems.
n For zoned systems, the room/space cooling load
45

for fenestration is the true peak loads for a specific


7-3 Load Calculations for Air-Zoned Systems
hour of day (see the maximum Btuh value on the
The load calculation procedure for air-zoned systems is hourly fenestration load curve for Manual J, Fig-
somewhat different than for single-zone systems. This is ure A3-2).
explained by the Eighth Edition of the unabridged ver- n Per the two preceding bullets, the room/space
sion of Manual J, Appendix 3, and Figure A11-1 of this
cooling loads for a zoned system are larger than for
document provides this procedure:
a single-zone system. Therefore, the design values
n The heating and cooling loads for the entire space for room/space Cfm are larger than for a single-
served by the central equipment (i.e., the block load) zone system. For heating, the room/space loads
is used to select and size primary equipment. The are the same for both types of system.

50
Section 7

n As explained in Section 6 of this Manual, the sum air are provided below. See also, Manual Zr, Figure 5-1,
of the room/space sensible cooling loads will not Section 5-7, Section 8-10, and Figure 8-2 .
be equal to the block sensible cooling load. This
difference will be larger for an air-zoned system Bypass Duct
vs. a single-zone system. For heating, the sum of A bypass duct provides a commonly-used method for
the room/space heating loads will equal the block managing excess air, however, additional air management
heating load for both types of system. measures may be required. A bypass duct short-circuits

16 w x
n Manual Zr, Section 4, explain how Manual J AED blower discharge air to the return-side of the equipment
cabinet. This causes the return air to get warmer and

20 vie 01
curves for rooms and spaces are used to group
rooms and spaces into zones. warmer for heating and colder and colder for cooling.
The bypass air Cfm value that will not cause a high-limit

ct e - 2
7-4 Zone Dampers or low-limit problem for the primary heating-cooling
Zone dampers may be open-close, three position, or mod- equipment, or a blower stall problem, depends on operat-
ulating (see Manual Zr, Section 5-5). The only thing that ing circumstances. The design Cfm value for bypass duct
matters for duct airway sizing is the pressure drop sizing also depends on the type of bypass damper con-

O R D
through an open zone damper (this is a component pres- trol(counterweight damper vs. use of flow and tempera-
sure loss item on the Friction Rate Worksheet). The pres- ture sensors for feed-back control of a modulating

)
sure drop value for a zone damper is obtained from the damper actuator).

- 3 bli al
manufacturer's performance data.
The bypass air circulation path is in parallel with all the
g u nu
Damper stops provide a simple mechanical method for
managing excess air (Manual Zr calls this distributed
relief). However, additional air management measures
other supply-return paths of the duct system. The bypass
path tends to have a relatively small total equivalent
length. During system commissioning , a hand damper in
are normally required (see Manual Zr, Figure 5-1 and the bypass path is adjusted so that bypass path airflow

c
Au I Ma
Section 5-7). Note that zone temperature control is dimin- resistance is similar to the airflow resistance of the longest
ished when a damper stop allows air to flow through a circulation path. This tends to stabilize operating condi-
zone damper that the zone thermostat wants to close. tions for the bypass damper, which enhances the operat-
Therefore, the maximum supply airflow through a ing range and authority of the bypass damper.
(1 N 1

damper stop is limited. Manual Zr, Figure 8-1, provides a


Manual Zr, Sections 7 and 8 provide procedures pertain-
P

damper stop worksheet, see also Sections 8-5, 8-10 and


Figure 8-2. ing to bypass duct sizing and bypass air control. Per Sec-
ft y A CA

tion 7-10, the design value for bypass Cfm and a 900 Fpm
To manage excess air, zoning controls may use overblow air velocity value determine bypass airway size. Sec-
S

(digital damper stop control for a designated damper, tion 8-11 and Figure 8-6 show how the Bypass Airway
which may have a fixed or conditional set-point), or selec- Sizing Worksheet is used to determine the design value
D -D /AC

tive throttling (digital damper-position override to the for bypass Cfm. The Excess Air Worksheet is a related cal-
full-open position to create a conditionally selected dump culation tool, see Section 8-10 and Figure 8-2. Sections 7,
zone, normally applied in concert with digital blower 10, and 11 provide examples that show calculations for
motor speed control). However, zone temperature con- managing excess air, and for bypass duct sizing. Appen-
trol is diminished when overblow or selective throttling dix 3 goes into more detail about bypass air physics.
R

allows air to flow through a zone damper that the zone


ra a
9

thermostat wants to close. Therefore, the maximum Cfm Dump Zone


BS

for overblow and selective throttling is limited. See Man- A dump zone is similar to a bypass duct, but the ramping
ual Zr, Figure 5-1, Section 5-7, 8-6, 8-7, and Figure 8-2. See effect on return air temperature at the primary equipment
also, Section 6-12 for airway sizing guidance that pertains is moderated because return air from the dump zone is
to circulation paths that have overblow or selective throt- mixed with other return air before it enters the equip-
45

tling. ment. A dump zone circulation path has the same issues
as a bypass duct, as far as path pressure drop adjustment
7-5 Bypass Duct and Dump Zones and path airflow control are concerned. Temperature
A bypass duct and a dump zone provide similar methods for control in a dump zone will be poor because the flow of
managing excess air in that the difference between the supply air to this space has nothing to do with the temper-
momentary blower Cfm and the momentary Cfm flowing ature in the space. Various issues arise if dump zone tem-
to the rooms and spaces is routed through a dedicated cir- perature excursions get too large, therefore the maximum
culation path. Comments about bypass air and dump zone flow through a dump zone is limited. See Manual Zr, Sec-
tions 8-4, 8-10, and Figure 8-2.

51
Section 7

7-6 Equipment Capacity Control single-zone systems. Because there are no


time-of-day issues for the room and space heating
Two-stage equipment and variable-capacity (modulat-
loads, the sum of the local heating loads will equal
ing) equipment provide an effective air management tool.
the block heating load. Therefore, the sum of the
The ability to reduce blower Cfm as zone dampers close
local heating Cfm values will equal the blower
reduces the amount of excess air when the system oper-
Cfm value.
ates at part-load. A coordinated reduction in the heating
or cooling capacity of the primary equipment has the n The Manual J block value for the total cooling load

16 w x
appropriate and necessary effect on the temperature (i.e., the sum of the sensible and latent block loads)

20 vie 01
ramp for bypass air. See Manual Zr, Figures 5-1, 5-3, 5-9, is used to select and size central equipment, per
and Sections 5-8 through 5-13. Manual S procedures and limits. This block load
value load is identical to the load for single-zone

ct e - 2
7-7 Air Distribution Effectiveness systems. Because there are time-of-day issues for
sensible room and space cooling loads, the sum of
Zone damper action effects air distribution effectiveness. the local sensible cooling loads will not be equal to
The open-close type flows the full room/space Cfm value, the block sensible cooling load (see Sections 6-8
or essentially no Cfm (ignoring some leakage). Therefore, through 6-12). Therefore, local airways are sized

O R D
the open-close type is compatible with supply outlet for worst case circumstances that may not simulta-
hardware that is designed for constant Cfm. The modu- neously occur. Therefore, the sum of the local cool-

)
lating type throttles supply air Cfm incrementally. There-

- 3 bli al
ing Cfm values will be greater than the blower
fore, the modulating type is not compatible with supply Cfm value.
outlet hardware that is designed for constant Cfm. See
g u nu
Manual Zr, Appendix 7 for instructions. n The OEM's blower table for the selected equip-
ment and the design value for blower Cfm deter-
mine the external static pressure value for Step 1
7-8 Two-Zone Flip-Flop Damper

c
Au I Ma
on the Friction Rate Worksheet.
The basic zoning problem for a two-story home is that the
n OEM performance data provides pressure drop
upper level tends to be too warm and the lower level
values for all airstream components that are external
tends to be too cool (multiple fenestration exposures may
to the OEM's blower table. This list shall include
create additional zoning issues). The consequences of the
the pressure drop for an open zone damper. The
(1 N 1

air buoyancy effect are minimized by installing two sepa-


pressure drops for relevant items are summed, per
P

rate systems (one for each level), or by using one system


Step 2 on the Friction Rate Worksheet.
with a diverting damper (flip-flop damper) in a trunk duct.
ft y A CA

n The available static pressure to move air through


With a flip-flop system, heating and cooling capacity may the straight duct runs and duct fittings equals the
S

be somewhat increased for one level and simultaneously external static pressure from the blower table,
reduced for the other level. The Manual D default for minus the sum of the pressure drop for airstream
D -D /AC

increasing and decreasing the total amount of airflow to a components that are external to the OEM's blower
level is twenty percent of the design Cfm for the level. In table. This calculation is made, per Step 3 on the
other words, the supply Cfm delivered to the supply air Friction Rate Worksheet.
outlets for a level may vary from the design Cfm by a 0.80 n Equivalent length values from the Manual D fit-
factor to a 1.20 factor). Section 12 provides See for an
R

ting tables and the measured lengths of the


application examples.
straight runs determine circulation path lengths.
ra a
9
BS

For wire flexible helix duct, point-to-point lengths


7-9 Duct Sizing Examples for are adjusted for installation deficiencies per
Air-Zoned Systems Appendix 16 of this Manual, as applicable.
Manual Zr does not provide step by step examples of the n The values for the total effective length of the lon-
45

design procedures for air-zoned systems. However, gest, circulation path is noted on the Friction Rate
examples are provided by Sections 10 through 13 of this Worksheet, per Step 4.
Manual. The duct sizing rules for zone-damper systems n Step 5 on The Friction Rate Worksheet uses the
are summarized here:
available static pressure value for moving air
n Equipment selection procedures determine the through the straight runs and fittings in the critical
design value for blower Cfm. circulation path, and the total effective length of
the path to determine the friction rate value for
n The Manual J block heating load is used to select
duct airway sizing.
and size central equipment, per Manual S proce-
dures and limits. This is identical to the load for

52
Section 7

n For local (branch) ducts, there is a heating Cfm and overblow for one or more zones increases the difference
a cooling Cfm. The Duct Sizing Worksheet calcu- between the sum of the local Cfm values vs. the blower
lates these values and uses the larger value (design Cfm value. Manual Zr, Appendix 9 provides instructions
Cfm) for airway sizing. for balancing air-zoned systems, as summarized here:
n The Duct Sizing Worksheet uses the friction rate n Proportional balancing resolves Cfm inequality
value from the Friction Rate Worksheet and issues.
design Cfm values for branch ducts to determine

16 w x
local airway sizes. n For gross system balancing, hand dampers are
installed upstream from the zone dampers. For

20 vie 01
n The Duct Sizing Worksheet uses the friction rate balancing zone-damper air that flows to two or more
value from the Friction Rate Worksheet and rooms/spaces (local air), additional hand dampers
design Cfm value for a trunk duct to determine may be installed downstream from a zone damper.

ct e - 2
trunk airway sizes.
n Blower Cfm is measured with all hand dampers
n The design Cfm value for a primary trunk is the open, and a closed bypass damper (if applicable).
blower Cfm value. If blower Cfm values for heat- Blower Cfm is adjusted if it is deficient, or exces-
ing and cooling are different, use the larger value. sive, compared to the design Cfm value.

O R D
n For secondary supply trunks, there is a set of heat- n Zone dampers are adjusted with all downstream
ing Cfm values and a set of cooling Cfm values for dampers open (if there are downstream dampers)

)
- 3 bli al
the downstream supply air outlets. These values and the bypass damper closed (if applicable).
are summed separately, and the larger of the two
sums is used to size a secondary trunk. n The design Cfm values (larger of the heating and
n
g u nu
For secondary return trunks, there is a set of heat-
ing Cfm values and a set of cooling Cfm values for
cooling Cfm values) from the Duct Sizing Worksheet,
are modified by an overblow adjustment (as appli-
cable) and summed, then this sum is divided by

c
Au I Ma
the upstream return grilles. These values are the design blower Cfm value to determine a diver-
summed separately, and the larger of the two sity factor for proportional balancing. Then, zone
sums is used to size a secondary trunk. Cfm values are multiplied by the diversity factor
n Per Manual Zr, a bypass duct airway size is based to obtain Cfm values for adjusting the hand damp-
on the design bypass Cfm value from the Bypass ers that are upstream from the zone dampers. This
(1 N 1

Airway Sizing Worksheet and a 900 Fpm air veloc- is demonstrated by Manual Zr, Figure A9-1.
P

ity value (see Manual Zr, Section 7-9 and Sec- n Two or more branch balancing dampers may be
ft y A CA

tion 8-11). installed downstream from a zone damper that


serves two or more rooms/spaces. The total Cfm
S

7-10 Hand Dampers for Zoned Damper Systems value for these rooms/spaces is the balancing Cfm
With the zone damper wide open, and the bypass value for the zone damper (per the preceding bul-
D -D /AC

damper closed (if installed), use of hand dampers to bal- let). The diversity factor for the zone equals the
ance system airflow at the primary equipment, and the sum of the averages for the heating and cooling
airflow to various rooms and spaces maximizes the Cfm values for the rooms and spaces in the zone
authority and effectiveness of the zone dampers. Stated divided by the balancing Cfm value for the zone
R

differently, zone damper action (the cycling rate for the damper. The balancing Cfm for a particular
open-close type), or zone damper position (for the modu- room/space equals the average of the heating and
ra a
9

cooling Cfm values for the room/space, multi-


BS

lating type) is determined, to the best possible extent, by


the need for space temperature control, and not by a need plied by the diversity factor for the zone. This is
to throttle excessive airflow prior to achieving zone demonstrated by Manual Zr, Figure A9-2.
damper authority for temperature control.
45

The same principle applies to use of a hand damper in a


bypass duct. See Manual Zr, Sections 5-15, 6-13, A1-15,
and all of Appendix 9.

7-11 Air Balancing for Zoned Damper Systems


Because cooling loads have a time of day issue, the sum of
the room and space (local) Cfm values will not be equal to
the blower Cfm value. In addition, local heating and cool-
ing Cfm values are seldom equal. Furthermore, the use of

53
54
Section 7
BS
45 R
D -D /AC
ra a
ft y A CA
(1 N 1
9 S
Au I Ma
P
g u nu
- 3 bli al
c
O R D
ct e - 2
20 vie 01
16 w x
)
Informative Examples

These informative example problems are not part of this Standard.

16 w x
Section 8 Sizing Rigid Constant Cfm Duct Systems

20 vie 01
Section 9 Sizing Flexible Constant Cfm Duct Systems
Section 10 Sizing Rigid Air-Zoned Duct Systems

ct e - 2
Section 11 Sizing Flexible Air-Zoned Duct Systems

Section 12 Sizing Two-Zone Bi-Level Duct Systems

O R D
Section 13 Zone Damper Retrofit

)
- 3 bli al
g u nu
c
Au I Ma
(1 N 1
P
ft y A CA
S
D -D /AC
R
ra a
9
BS
45

55
56
BS
45 R
D -D /AC
ra a
ft y A CA
(1 N 1
9 S
Au I Ma
P
g u nu
- 3 bli al
c
O R D
ct e - 2
20 vie 01
16 w x
)
This Section is not part of the Standard. It is merely informative and does not contain requirements necessary for conformance to the Standard. It has not been pro-
cessed according to the ANSI requirements for a Standard, and may contain material that has not been subject to public review or a consensus process. Unresolved
objections on informative material are not offered the right to appeal at ACCA or ANSI.

Section 8 Illustrative Examples


Sizing Rigid Constant Cfm Duct Systems
This Section provides examples of airway sizing calcula-

16 w x
tions for constant Cfm duct systems fabricated from rigid
materials. The examples are for a simple radial system, an

20 vie 01
extended plenum system, a reducing trunk system, and a
complex trunk and branch system. The Manual J proce-
dure for single-zone comfort systems (the Standard pro-

ct e - 2
cedure, per Manual J, Figure A11-1) provides cooling
load values for supply Cfm calculations (see also, Sec-
tion 6-8, this Manual).

O R D
8-1 Radial Duct System
Figures 8-1 and 8-2 show an 800 Cfm radial system that

)
- 3 bli al
has below-slab supply runs and above-ceiling return
runs. The supply-side ducts are plastic (for below grade
g u nu
use) and the return-side ducts are sheet metal.
A heat pump provides heating and cooling. Figure 8-3
(next page) shows the Manual J heating and cooling loads

c
Au I Ma
for calculating Cfm values for supply air outlet selection,
and for duct airway sizing. Figure 8-4 (next page) pro-
vides the equipment manufacturers blower table and
component pressure drop data.
(1 N 1

Effective Length Calculation Figure 8-2


P

Considering system geometry and fitting types, the criti-


ft y A CA

cal circulation path is defined by supply run 7 and return and return runs, the longest run is determined by com-
run R3. (Since the same fittings are used for supply runs paring straight run lengths.)
S
D -D /AC
R
ra a
9
BS
45

Figure 8-1

57
Section 8

Duct Lengths and Manual J Loads for the Blower Data for the Radial System Example
Radial System Example
Discharge External Resistance (IWC) vs. Speed
Runout Length Heating Cooling
Feet Btuh Btuh Cfm
High Medium Low
1 22 4,250 2,750 600 0.48
2 17 3,970 3,500
650 0.66 0.33

16 w x
3 16 3,800 2,380
725 0.67 0.51 0.17

20 vie 01
4 15 4,590 3,800
800 0.51 0.36
5 16 2,350 1,690
12 3,020 2,590 875 0.36 0.19
6

ct e - 2
7 26 3,430 2,700 950 0.17
8 10 4,500 2,610 1) Operating point blower tested with wet coil, auxiliary heater and
low efficiency filter in place.
Total ~ 29,910 22,020 2) For an electronic filter, subtract 0.11 IWC from the pressure

O R D
1) Block loads (Btuh): Heating = 29,910 Sensible cooling = 21,120. values listed in this table.
2) For cooling, fenestration excursion loads cause the sum of the
room cooling loads to be more than the block cooling load (see Figure 8-4

)
Sections 6-8 through 6-12).

- 3 bli al
Figure 8-3
g u nu external resistance. An electronic filter is added to the sys-
tem, so the resistance produced by this item (0.11 IWC), a
Figure 8-5 shows that the effective length of the critical supply outlet (0.03 IWC), a return (0.03 IWC) and a hand

c
Au I Ma
circulation path is 221 feet. This path flows through sup- damper (0.03 IWC) is 0.20 IWC. The available static pres-
ply run 7 (111 feet), and the R3 return run (110 feet). sure is 0.16 IWC, so the design friction rate is
0.07 IWC/100 Ft, as demonstrated by Figure 8-6 (next
Design Friction Rate Calculation
page).
Blower data for medium speed shows the blower will
(1 N 1

deliver 800 Cfm when it operates against 0.36 IWC of


P
ft y A CA
S

Effective Length Worksheet for the Radial System Example


Element Supply Run ID Number Element Return Run ID Number
D -D /AC

S7 Notes R3 Notes
Trunk Length Trunk Length 10
Trunk Length Trunk Length
R

Runout Length 26 Runout Length 20


ra a

35 40
9

Group 1 (A) Group 5 (B)


BS

Group 2 Group 6 (L) 20


Group 3 Group 7
Group 4 (J) 30 Group 8 (A) 20 (2 @ 10)
45

Group 8 (A) 20 (2 @ 10) Group 10


Group 9 Group 11
Group 11 Group 12
Group 12 Group 13
Group 13 Other
Other Other
Total Length 111 Total Length 110

Figure 8-5

58
Section 8

Friction Rate Worksheet for the Radial System Example

Step 1) Manufacturers Blower Data


External static pressure (ESP) = 0.36 IWC Cfm = 800

16 w x
Step 2) Component Pressure Losses (CPL)

20 vie 01
Direct expansion refrigerant coil ______
Electric resistance heating coil ______
Hot water coil ______

ct e - 2
Heat exchanger ______
Low efficiency filter ______
High or mid-efficiency filter ______
Electronic filter 0.11

O R D
Other items that impede airflow ______
Supply outlet 0.03

)
Return grille 0.03

- 3 bli al
Balancing damper 0.03
Zone damper (full open) ______
g u nu
Total component losses (CPL) 0.20 IWC

c
Au I Ma
Step 3) Available Static Pressure (ASP)
ASP = (ESP CPL) = ( 0.36 0.20 ) = 0.16 IWC
(1 N 1

Step 4) Total Effective Length (TEL)


P

Supply-side TEL + Return-side TEL = ( 111 + 110 ) = 221 Feet


ft y A CA

Step 5) Friction Rate Design Value (FR)


S

FR value from friction rate chart = 0.07 IWC/100 Ft


D -D /AC

ASP x 100
FR =
R

TEL
ra a
9
BS
45

Figure 8-6

59
Section 8

Duct Sizing Worksheet for the Radial System Example


HF = Blower Cfm / Manual J Heat Loss = 800 / 29,910 = 0.0267 FR Value
CF = Blower Cfm / Manual J Sensible Heat Gain = 800 / 21,120 = 0.0379 0.07
Supply-Side Runouts
Supply - Trunk Heating Cooling Heating Cooling Design Round Velocity Final Normed
Btuh Btuh Cfm Cfm Cfm Size Fpm Size Cfm

16 w x
S1 Radial 4,250 2,750 114 104 114 7 ok 7 107

20 vie 01
S2 Radial 3,970 3,500 106 133 133 7 ok 7 117
S3 Radial 3,800 2,380 102 90 102 6 ok 6 94
S4 Radial 4,590 3,800 123 144 144 7 ok 7 131

ct e - 2
S5 Radial 2,350 1,690 63 64 64 6 ok 6 62
S6 Radial 3,020 2,590 81 98 98 6 ok 6 88
S7 Radial 3,430 2,700 92 102 102 6 ok 6 95

O R D
S8 Radial 4,500 2,610 120 99 120 7 ok 7 107
Supply-Side Trunks

)
No supply trunks for a radial system.

- 3 bli al
Return-Side Runouts
g u nu
Return - Trunk Associated Supply Runs Heating
Cfm
Cooling
Cfm
Design
Cfm
Round
Size
Velocity
Fpm
Final
Size
Normed
Cfm
R1 Radial S2, S3 208 223 223 9 520 9 211

c
Au I Ma
R2 Radial S4, S5 186 208 208 8 610 8 193
R3 Radial S6, S7 173 200 200 8 580 8 183
R4 Radial S8, S1 234 203 234 9 550 9 214
Return-Side Trunks
(1 N 1

No return trunks for a radial system.


P

1) Room heating and cooling Btuh obtained per Section 6.


ft y A CA

2) Heating Cfm for runouts = HF Heating Btuh; Cooling Cfm for runouts = CF Sensible Cooling Btuh.
3) For trunks, sum heating Cfm values for branches served by the trunk, and sum the cooling Cfm values for branches served by the trunk.
S

The design Cfm for branches and trunks is equal to the larger of the heating Cfm or cooling Cfm values for the run.
4) Round size is based on FR value. Final size is based on FR value if air velocity is acceptable, or the maximum allowable velocity value.
D -D /AC

Final size may be a standard round size, or a standard equivalent rectangular size.
5) Normed Cfm = Normalized Cfm for air balancing single-zone systems (see Section 6-23). For zoned systems, see Section 7-11.
6) Per Manual Zr, Sections 7-9 and 8-11, a bypass airway is sized for 900 Fpm and the bypass Cfm from the Bypass Cfm Worksheet.

Figure 8-7
R

Duct Sizing Calculations n Supply runs 2 and 3 are for return R1, supply runs
ra a
9
BS

Figure 8-7 summarizes the duct sizing calculations for 4 and 5 are for return R2, supply runs 6 and 7 are
this example. Additional detail is provided here: for return R3 and supply runs 8 and 1 are for
return R4.
n The sum of the branch cooling Cfm values is n Final airway size for supply runs is based on the
45

greater than the blower Cfm value (see Sections 6-8 design friction rate (0.07 IWC/100 Ft) because air
through 6-12). velocities are less than the 900 Fpm limit.
n Since the ACCA Duct Slide Rule does not provide n Final airway size of the return runs is based on the
information about plastic ducts, supply duct sizes design friction rate (0.07 IWC/100 FT) because air
were read from the metal duct scale. This is con- velocities are less than the 700 Fpm limit.
servative because plastic is smoother than galva-
nized metal.
8-2 Extended Two-Way Plenum System
n All return airway sizes were read from the metal
Figure 8-8 (next page) shows an extended plenum system
duct scale.
with galvanized metal airways. Air handling equipment

60
Section 8

is near the center of the system between two trunk ducts. preferred for hand calculations because it takes less time.
This configuration minimizes the size of the trunk ducts For this example, runs 1, 5, 6 and 9 are candidates because:
(each trunk carries about one-half of the required air-
flow). All return air is collected at a single grille located n All the branch runouts are about the same length,
near the unit (transfer grilles provide an unrestricted so this item is discounted.
return air path for each conditioned room or space). n Runs 1 and 9 are furthest from the air handler and
have the longest measured lengths and the small-
A furnace equipped with an evaporator coil provides

16 w x
est branch takeoff equivalent length values.
heating and cooling. Figure 8-8 shows the Manual J heat-

20 vie 01
ing and cooling loads for calculating Cfm values for sup- n Runs 5 and 6 are closest to the air handler and have
ply air outlet selection, and for duct airway sizing. the shortest measured lengths and the largest
Figure 8-8 also summarizes the equipment manufac- branch takeoff equivalent length values.

ct e - 2
turers blower table and component pressure drop data. n The other runs are ignored because the distances
between the branch takeoff fittings are smaller
Effective Length Calculation than the differences in the branch takeoff equiva-
Effective length estimates are critical to the sizing proce- lent length values.

O R D
dure. The objective is to identify the longest supply run
and the longest return run. This information is obtained In other words, measured lengths are compared to the
equivalent lengths for branch takeoff fittings. If the differ-

)
by using the brute force method (calculate the effective

- 3 bli al
length of each run and compare the answers), or by select- ences in measured lengths are relatively small compared
ing candidates for the longest run and ignoring the other with the differences in branch takeoff equivalent lengths,
g u nu
runs (calculate the effective length of a few candidate
runs and compare the answers). The candidate method is
the longest run is the run that has a branch fitting near the
air handler. If the differences in measured lengths are rel-
atively large compared with the differences in branch

c
Au I Ma
(1 N 1
P
ft y A CA
S
D -D /AC

Runout Heat Btuh Cool Btuh


R

S1 3,810 3,110
ra a
9

S2 3,800 2,380
BS

S3 3,970 3,200
S4 4,250 2,750
S5 3,860 3,010
S6 4,500 2,610
45

S7 4,590 3,500
S8 4,870 3,750
S9 2,350 1,690
Total 36,000 26,000
Block heating Btuh = 36,000
Block sensible cooling Btuh = 24,000
For cooling, fenestration excursion loads
cause the sum of the room cooling
All airways are metal. loads to be more than the block cooling
load (see Sections 6-8 through 6-12).

Figure 8-8

61
Section 8

takeoff equivalent lengths, the longest run is the one that Note: When two branch runout ducts are directly across from
has a branch fitting that is far from the air handler. each other, count the opposing runout as a downstream branch.
It also is necessary to compare the efficiency of the fittings For example, refer to Figure 8-8 and note that run 6 has three
that are inserted in each duct run. For this example, we downstream branches and run 7 has three downstream
expect to find the longest run on the right side of the sys- branches.
tem (run 6 or 9) because the fittings are considerably less
Design Friction Rate Calculation
efficient than the fittings on the left side of the system.

16 w x
(Normally, the same types of fittings are used on both For this example, the blower data shows that the blower
will deliver 1,000 cooling Cfm when it operates against

20 vie 01
sides of the system. Different fittings are used for this
example to demonstrate a concept.) 0.67 IWC of external resistance. Since the resistance pro-
duced by a wet refrigerant coil (0.25 IWC), a supply outlet
n The equivalent length of a 4G boot is 80 feet and (0.03 IWC), a return (0.30 IWC) and a hand damper (0.03

ct e - 2
the equivalent length of a 4J boot is 30 feet. IWC) is 0.34 IWC, the available static pressure is
n The basic equivalent length (no downstream 0.33 IWC. Therefore, the design friction rate is based on
branches) for a 2A takeoff is 35 feet and the basic 0.33 IWC of pressure and 327 feet of effective length.
equivalent length value for a 2B takeoff is 20 feet. These calculations are made on Figure 8-10 (next page),

O R D
which shows the friction rate for airway sizing is
Based on these observations, we speculate (without mak- 0.10 IWC/100 Ft.

)
- 3 bli al
ing a calculation) that run number 6 is the longest supply
run. Figure 8-9 confirms this assumption. In this case the Duct Sizing Calculations
effective length of the longest supply run is 207 feet and
g u nu Figure 8-11 (ahead two pages) summarizes the duct siz-
the effective length of the return run is 120 feet. Therefore ing calculations, which begin with heating factor and
the total effective length of the critical circulation path is cooling factor calculations; followed by supply runout
327 feet. sizing calculations, supply trunk sizing calculations and

c
Au I Ma
(1 N 1

Effective Length Worksheet for the Extended Two-Way Plenum Example


P

Element Supply Run ID Number Element Return Run ID Number


ft y A CA

S1 S5 S6 S9 RT-1
S

Trunk Length 28 5 10 33 Trunk Length 10


D -D /AC

Trunk Length Trunk Length


Runout Length 12 18 22 15 Runout Length
Group 1 (S) 30 30 30 30 Group 5 (I) 30

Group 2 (A) 65 35 Group 6 (H) 15


R

Group 3 Group 7
ra a
9
BS

Group 4 (G) 80 80 Group 8 (D) 65 (easy bend)

Group 8 Group 10
Group 9 Group 11
45

Group 11 Group 12
Group 12 Group 13
Other Other
Other (2B) 20 45 Other
Other (4J) 30 30 Other
Total Length 120 128 207 193 Total Length 120

Figure 8-9

62
Section 8

Friction Rate Worksheet for the Extended Two-Way Plenum Example

Step 1) Manufacturers Blower Data


External static pressure (ESP) = 0.67 IWC Cfm = 1,000

16 w x
Step 2) Component Pressure Losses (CPL) for Cooling

20 vie 01
Direct expansion refrigerant coil 0.25
Electric resistance heating coil ______
Hot water coil ______

ct e - 2
Heat exchanger ______
Low efficiency filter ______
High or mid-efficiency filter ______
Electronic filter ______

O R D
Other items that impede airflow ______
Supply outlet 0.03

)
Return grille 0.03

- 3 bli al
Balancing damper 0.03
Zone damper (full open) ______
g u nu
Total component losses (CPL) 0.34 IWC

c
Au I Ma
Step 3) Available Static Pressure (ASP)
ASP = (ESP CPL) = ( 0.67 0.34 ) = 0.33 IWC
(1 N 1

Step 4) Total Effective Length (TEL)


P

Supply-Side TEL + Return-Side TEL = ( 207 + 120 ) = 327 Feet


ft y A CA
S

Step 5) Friction Rate Design Value (FR)


D -D /AC

FR value from friction rate chart = 0.10 IWC/100 Ft

ASP x 100
FR =
R

TEL
ra a
9
BS
45

Figure 8-10

63
Section 8

Duct Sizing Worksheet for the Extended Two-Way Plenum Example


HF = Blower Cfm / Manual J Heat Loss = 1,000 / 36,000 = 0.0278 FR Value
CF = Blower Cfm / Manual J Sensible Heat Gain = 1,000 / 24,000 = 0.0417 0.10
Supply-Side Runouts
Supply - Trunk Heating Cooling Heating Cooling Design Round Velocity Final Normed
Btuh Btuh Cfm Cfm Cfm Size Fpm Size Cfm

16 w x
S1 ST-1 3,810 3,110 106 130 130 6 ok 6 113

20 vie 01
S2 ST-1 3,800 2,380 106 99 106 6 ok 6 98
S3 ST-1 3,970 3,200 110 133 133 7 ok 7 117
S4 ST-1 4,250 2,750 118 115 118 6 ok 6 112

ct e - 2
S5 ST-1 3,860 3,010 107 125 125 6 ok 6 111
S6 ST-2 4,500 2,610 125 109 125 6 ok 6 112
S7 ST-2 4,590 3,500 128 146 146 7 ok 7 132

O R D
S8 ST-2 4,870 3,750 135 156 156 7 ok 7 140
S9 ST-2 2,350 1,690 65 70 70 5 ok 5 65

)
Supply-Side Trunks

- 3 bli al
Run numbers: S1 through S5 S-Trunk 1 547 602 602 12 780 12 551
Run numbers: S6 through S9 S-Trunk 2 453 481 481 11 750 12 449
g u nu Return-Side Runouts
One Central Return with transfer grilles, no branches.

c
Au I Ma
Return-Side Trunks
Run numbers: Primary trunk R-Trunk 1 1,000 1,000 1,000 14 950 16 std 1,000
1) Room heating and cooling Btuh obtained per Section 6.
2) Heating Cfm for runouts = HF Heating Btuh; Cooling Cfm for runouts = CF Sensible Cooling Btuh.
(1 N 1

3) For trunks, sum heating Cfm values for branches served by the trunk, and sum the cooling Cfm values for branches served by the trunk.
P

The design Cfm for branches and trunks is equal to the larger of the heating Cfm or cooling Cfm values for the run.
4) Round size is based on FR value. Final size is based on FR value if air velocity is acceptable, or the maximum allowable velocity value.
ft y A CA

Final size may be a standard round size, or a standard equivalent rectangular size.
5) Normed Cfm = Normalized Cfm for air balancing single-zone systems (see Section 6-23). For zoned systems, see Section 7-11.
6) Per Manual Zr, Sections 7-9 and 8-11, a bypass airway is sized for 900 Fpm and the bypass Cfm from the Bypass Cfm Worksheet.
S

Figure 8-11
D -D /AC

the return duct sizing calculations. Additional detail is n The final size of supply runouts is based on the
provided here: design friction rate (0.10 IWC/100 Ft) because air
velocities are less than 900 Fpm.
n The sum of the branch cooling Cfm values is
n Runout velocities are less than 900 Fpm because
R

greater than the blower Cfm value (see Sec-


tions 6-8 through 6-12.). the design friction rate point falls inside the 'wedge'
ra a
9

on the friction rate chart.


BS

n Supply runs 1 through 5 are for trunk ST-1 and


supply runs 6 through 9 are for trunk ST-2.
n The final size of supply trunks ST-1 and ST-2 are
based on the design friction rate (0.10 IWC/100 Ft)
n The supply trunks are secondary trunks and the because air velocities are less than 900 Fpm.
return trunk is a primary trunk (see Section 6-14).
45

n The final size of return trunk RT-1 is based on


n The entering Cfm value for each supply trunk allowable velocity (700 Fpm) because sizing for the
equals the sum of the downstream branch Cfm friction rate design value (0.10 IWC/100 Ft) pro-
values, and the return trunk Cfm value equals the duced excessive air velocity.
blower Cfm value (see Section 6-15).
n All of the values in the round size column were Equivalent Rectangular Sizes
read from the Galvanized Metal Duct scale on the The ACCA Duct Sizing Slide Rule converts round sizes to
ACCA Duct Sizing Slide Rule. equivalent rectangular sizes. The rectangular size is
equivalent because it produces the same airflow resistance
as the round size.

64
Section 8

16 w x
20 vie 01
ct e - 2
Runout Heat Btuh Cool Btuh
S1 3,810 3,110
S2 3,800 2,380

O R D
S3 3,970 3,200
S4 4,250 2,750
S5 3,860 3,010

)
- 3 bli al
S6 4,500 2,610
S7 4,590 3,500
S8 4,870 3,750
g u nu S9
Total
2,350
36,000
1,690
26,000
Block heating Btuh = 36,000

c
Au I Ma
Block sensible cooling Btuh = 24,000
All airways are metal. For cooling, fenestration excursion loads
cause the sum of the room cooling
loads to be more than the block cooling
load (see Sections 6-8 through 6-12).
(1 N 1

Figure 8-12
P
ft y A CA

However, the air velocities for the round size and equivalent supply air outlet selection, and for duct airway sizing.
rectangular size are not equal because the equivalent rect- Figure 8-12 also summarizes the equipment manufac-
S

angular size has a larger cross-sectional area. This poses no turers blower table and component pressure drop data.
D -D /AC

problem, because the velocity for the equivalent rectangular


size is always less than the velocity for the round size. Effective Length Calculation
Thoughtful observations expedite effective length circu-
8-3 Reducing Plenum System lations. Considering system geometry and fitting types
Figure 8-12 provides an example of a simple reducing runs 1, 6 and 9 are candidates for the longest supply run.
R

plenum system that has galvanized metal airways. This Figure 8-13 (next page) shows the effective length calcula-
ra a
9

example is very similar to the Figure 8-8 example. The


BS

tions for these supply runs and the return run. The result
only difference is that the equipment has been moved to is that the effective length of the longest supply run is 255
one end of the duct system and an electronic filter has feet and the effective length of the return run is 120 feet.
been added to the system. The total effective length of the critical circulation path is
45

n This arrangement requires a different type of ple- 375 feet.


num fitting at the air handler.
Design Friction Rate Calculation
n Per Section A8-8, the size of a plenum airway shall
For this example, blower data indicates that the blower
be reduced if the air velocity just upstream from a
will deliver 1,000 Cfm when it operates against 0.67 IWC
branch duct slows to about 50 percent of the initial
of external resistance. Since the resistance produced by a
velocity.
wet refrigerant coil (0.25 IWC), electronic filter (0.10
IWC), a supply outlet (0.03 IWC), a return (0.03 IWC) and
A furnace equipped with an evaporator coil provides
a hand damper (0.03 IWC) is 0.44 IWC, the available static
heating and cooling. Figure 8-12 shows the Manual J
pressure is 0.23 IWC. Therefore, the design friction rate is
heating and cooling loads for calculating Cfm values for

65
Section 8

Effective Length Worksheet for the Reducing Plenum Example


Element Supply Run ID Number Element Return Run ID Number
S1 S6 S9 RT- 1
Trunk Length 6 43 66 Trunk Length 10
Trunk Length Trunk Length

16 w x
Runout Length 12 22 15 Runout Length

20 vie 01
Group 1 (1L) 40 40 40 Group 5 (I) 30 H/W=2
Group 2 (B, A) 45 65 35 Group 6 (H) 15
Group 3 Group 7

ct e - 2
Group 4 (J, G) 30 80 80 Group 8 (D) 65 (easy bend)
Group 8 Group 10
Group 9 Group 11

O R D
Group 11 Group 12
Group 12 (O) 5 5 Other

)
- 3 bli al
Other Other
Total Length 133 255 241 Total Length 120
g u nu Figure 8-13

c
Au I Ma
based on 0.23 IWC of pressure and 375 feet of effective n Final airway size for supply trunks ST-1 and ST-2
length. These calculations are made on Figure 8-14 (next is based on the friction rate design value (0.06
page), which shows the design friction rate is 0.06 IWC/100 Ft) because air velocities are less than
IWC/100 Ft. 900 Fpm limit.
(1 N 1
P

n Final airway size of return trunk RT-1 is based on


Duct Sizing Calculations
the friction rate design value (0.06 IWC/100 Ft)
ft y A CA

Figure 8-15 (ahead two pages) summarizes the duct siz- because the 720 Fpm air velocity is close to the
ing calculations. Additional detail is provided here: allowable velocity (700 Fpm).
S

n The sum of the branch cooling Cfm values is greater n The ACCA Duct Slide Rule converts round sizes
D -D /AC

than the blower Cfm value (see Sections 6-8 to equivalent rectangular sizes.
through 6-12.).
Comments and Observations
n Supply runs 1 through 5 are for trunk ST-2 and
supply runs 6 through 9 are for trunk ST-1. The Figure 8-12 duct system is similar to the Figure 8-8
duct system, except for the position of the furnace and the
R

n The supply trunk ST-1 is a secondary trunk, sup- electronic filter. These two changes reduced the design
ply trunk ST-2 is a primary trunk and the return
ra a

friction rate (0.10 IWC/100 Ft to 0.06 IWC/100 Ft),


9
BS

trunk is a primary trunk (see Section 6-14). increased the total effective length (375 feet versus 327
n The entering Cfm value for ST-1 equals the sum of feet) and decreased in the available static pressure (0.23
the downstream branch Cfm values, the entering IWC versus 0.33 IWC). Since airway size depends on the
Cfm value for ST-2 equals the blower Cfm value, design friction rate, the 0.06 IWC/100 Ft value caused a
45

and the return trunk Cfm value equals the blower one inch increase in runout sizes and a one or two inch
Cfm value (see Section 6-15.) increase in the supply trunk sizes (in both cases, return
n All values in the round-size column were read ducts are sized to satisfy the 700 Fpm velocity limit).
from the Galvanized Metal Duct scale on the Note that the 0.06 friction rate value is barely in the wedge
ACCA Duct Sizing Slide Rule. on the friction rate chart. This friction rate could be
n Final airway size for supply runouts is based on increased by designing for a higher blower wheel speed
the design friction rate (0.06 IWC/100 Ft) because or by reducing the total effective length of the critical cir-
air velocities are less than 900 Fpm limit. culation path. In this regard, the best approach is to
change the inefficient branch takeoff and boot fittings for
trunk 2. Figure 8-16 (ahead two pages) shows that when

66
Section 8

Friction Rate Worksheet for the Reducing Plenum Example

Step 1) Manufacturers Blower Data


External static pressure (ESP) = 0.67 IWC Cfm = 1,000

16 w x
Step 2) Component Pressure Losses (CPL)

20 vie 01
Direct expansion refrigerant coil 0.25
Electric resistance heating coil ______
Hot water coil ______

ct e - 2
Heat exchanger ______
Low efficiency filter ______
High or mid-efficiency filter ______
Electronic filter 0.10

O R D
Other items that impede airflow ______
Supply outlet 0.03

)
Return grille 0.03

- 3 bli al
Balancing damper 0.03
Zone damper (full open) ______
g u nu
Total component losses (CPL) 0.44 IWC

c
Au I Ma
Step 3) Available Static Pressure (ASP)
ASP = (ESP CPL) = ( 0.67 0.44 ) = 0.23 IWC
(1 N 1

Step 4) Total Effective Length (TEL)


P

Supply-Side TEL + Return-Side TEL = ( 255 + 120 ) = 375 Feet


ft y A CA
S

Step 5) Friction Rate Design Value (FR)


FR value from friction rate chart = 0.06 IWC/100 Ft
D -D /AC

ASP x 100
FR =
R

TEL
ra a
9
BS
45

Figure 8-14

67
Section 8

Duct Sizing Worksheet for the Reducing Plenum Example


HF = Blower Cfm / Manual J Heat Loss = 1,000 / 36,000 = 0.0278 FR Value
CF = Blower Cfm / Manual J Sensible Heat Gain = 1,000 / 24,000 = 0.0417 0.06
Supply-Side Runouts
Supply - Trunk Heating Cooling Heating Cooling Design Round Velocity Final Normed
Btuh Btuh Cfm Cfm Cfm Size Fpm Size Cfm

16 w x
S1 ST-2 3,810 3,110 106 130 130 7 ok 7 113

20 vie 01
S2 ST-2 3,800 2,380 106 99 106 7 ok 7 98
S3 ST-2 3,970 3,200 110 133 133 7 ok 7 117
S4 ST-2 4,250 2,750 118 115 118 7 ok 7 112

ct e - 2
S5 ST-2 3,860 3,010 107 125 125 7 ok 7 111
S6 ST-1 4,500 2,610 125 109 125 7 ok 7 112
S7 ST-1 4,590 3,500 128 146 146 8 ok 8 132

O R D
S8 ST-1 4,870 3,750 135 156 156 8 ok 8 140
S9 ST-1 2,350 1,690 65 70 70 6 ok 6 65

)
Supply-Side Trunks

- 3 bli al
Run numbers: S6 through S9 S-Trunk 1 453 481 481 12 630 12 551
Run numbers: Primary trunk S-Trunk 2 1,000 1,000 1,000 16 720 16 449
g u nu Return-Side Runouts
One Central Return with transfer grilles, no branches.

c
Au I Ma
Return-Side Trunks
Run numbers: Primary trunk R-Trunk 1 1,000 1,000 1,000 16 720 16 1,000
1) Room heating and cooling Btuh obtained per Section 6.
2) Heating Cfm for runouts = HF Heating Btuh; Cooling Cfm for runouts = CF Sensible Cooling Btuh.
(1 N 1

3) For trunks, sum heating Cfm values for branches served by the trunk, and sum the cooling Cfm values for branches served by the trunk.
P

The design Cfm for branches and trunks is equal to the larger of the heating Cfm or cooling Cfm values for the run.
4) Round size is based on FR value. Final size is based on FR value if air velocity is acceptable, or the maximum allowable velocity value.
ft y A CA

Final size may be a standard round size, or a standard equivalent rectangular size.
5) Normed Cfm = Normalized Cfm for air balancing single-zone systems (see Section 6-23). For zoned systems, see Section 7-11.
6) Per Manual Zr, Sections 7-9 and 8-11, a bypass airway is sized for 900 Fpm and the bypass Cfm from the Bypass Cfm Worksheet.
S

Figure 8-15
D -D /AC

2B branch takeoffs and 4J boots are substituted for the 2A supply air outlet selection, and for duct airway sizing.
and 4G fittings, total effective length is reduced by 75 feet Figure 8-20 (ahead three pages) provides the equipment
(300 feet versus 375 feet). manufacturers blower table and component pressure
drop data for an operating point blower.
When total effective length is decreased, there is a corre-
R

sponding increase in the design friction rate. As indicated Effective Length Calculation
ra a
9

Figure 8-17 (next page), the new friction rate (0.075


BS

Considering system geometry and fitting types, it


IWC/100 Ft approximate) is well inside the wedge on the
appears that runs 1, 5, 9 and 11 are candidates for the lon-
friction rate chart.
gest supply run. The corresponding return runs are R3,
R2, R1 and R4. Figure 8-21 (ahead three pages) provides
8-4 Primary and Secondary Trunk System
45

effective length calculations for these runs. The Figure 8-22


with an Operating Point Blower (ahead three pages) summary shows that the effective
Figure 8-18 (ahead two pages) shows a heat pump blower length of the critical circulation path is 446 feet. This path
delivering 1,500 Cfm to a duct system that has duct board flows through the #11 supply (187 feet) and the R4 return
trunks and metal runouts. The primary supply trunk has (259 feet).
a reducing fitting to a secondary trunk, then this trunk
tees to two more secondary trunks. The return path has Design Friction Rate Calculation
four return branches and two return trunks. For this example, heating and cooling is provided by an
air-to-air heat pump. The blower data for medium speed,
Figure 8-19 (ahead two pages) shows the Manual J heat- shows the blower will deliver 1,500 Cfm when it operates
ing and cooling loads for calculating Cfm values for

68
Section 8

Alternative Effective Length Worksheet for the Reducing Plenum Example


Element Supply Run ID Number Element Return Run ID Number
S1 S6 S9 RT-1
Trunk Length 6 43 66 Trunk Length 10
Trunk Length Trunk Length

16 w x
Runout Length 12 22 15 Runout Length

20 vie 01
Group 1 (L) 40 40 40 Group 5 (I) 30 H/W=2
Group 2 (B) 45 40 20 Group 6 (H) 15
Group 3 Group 7

ct e - 2
Group 4 (J) 30 30 30 Group 8 (D) 65 (easy bend)
Group 8 Group 10
Group 9 Group 11

O R D
Group 11 Group 12
Group 12 (J) 5 5 Other

)
- 3 bli al
Other Other
Total Length 133 180 176 Total Length 120
g u nu Figure 8-16

c
Au I Ma
against 0.32 IWC of external resistance. Since the resis-
tance produced by the auxiliary heating coil (0.08 IWC), a
supply outlet (0.03 IWC), a return (0.03 IWC) and a hand
damper (0.03 IWC) is 0.17 IWC, the available static pres-
(1 N 1

sure is 0.15 IWC. Therefore, the design friction rate is


P

based on 0.15 IWC of pressure and 446 feet of effective


length. These calculations are made on Figure 8-23 (ahead
ft y A CA

three pages), which shows that the blower cannot produce


adequate static pressure at medium speed.
S

There are two ways to deal with inadequate blower per-


D -D /AC

formance, either increase the blower wheel speed or


reduce the total effective length. The second option is pre-
ferred, but the first option is applied to this example
because the fittings are reasonably efficient.
Figure 8-17
R

At high speed, the blower will deliver 1,500 Cfm when it


operates against 0.53 IWC of external resistance. When
ra a
9
BS

0.17 IWC of component pressure drop is subtracted from n Supply runs 9 and 10 are for return R1, supply
this value, the design friction rate is based on 0.36 IWC
runs 5 through 8 are for return R2, supply runs 1
of pressure and 446 feet of effective length. Figure 8-23
through 4 are for return R3 and supply runs 11
shows that the adjusted friction rate is 0.08 IWC/100 Ft.
through 13 are for return R4.
45

Duct Sizing Calculations n Return runs R1 and R2 feed return trunk RT-1, and
Figure 8-24 (ahead four pages) summarizes the duct siz- return runs R3 and R4 feed return trunk RT-2.
ing calculations for this example. Additional detail is pro- n The sum of the branch cooling Cfm values is greater
vided here: than the blower Cfm value (see Sections 6-8
through 6-12).
n Supply runs 1 through 4 are for primary trunk ST-4,
supply runs 5 through 8 are for primary trunk
n Supply trunks ST-1, ST-2 and ST-3 are secondary
ST-3, supply runs 11 through 13 are for secondary trunks, and supply trunk ST-4 is a primary trunk.
trunk ST-2, and supply runs 9 and 10 are for sec- Return trunks RT-1 and RT-2 are secondary trunks
ondary trunk ST-1. (see Section 6-14).

69
Section 8

6'

16 w x
20 vie 01
18'

ct e - 2
O R D

)
18'

- 3 bli al
g u nu
21'

c
Au I Ma

80'
Duct board trunks, metal runouts.
(1 N 1
P

Figure 8-18
ft y A CA

n The entering Cfm value for ST-1, ST-2 and ST-3 Duct Lengths and Manual J Loads for the
Primary-Secondary Example
S

equals the sum of the downstream branch Cfm


values. The entering Cfm value for ST-4 equals the Runout Length Ft Heat Btuh Cool Btuh
D -D /AC

blower Cfm value. The entering Cfm value for S1 16 4,250 2,750
RT-1 and RT-2 equals the sum of the upstream 14 3,860 3,010
S2
branch Cfm values (see Section 6-15).
S3 16 3,970 3,200
n All supply branch runout sizes were read from the
S4 14 2,780 2,130
R

Galvanized Metal Duct scale on the ACCA Duct


Sizing Slide Rule. S5 17 3,800 2,380
ra a
9

16 4,440 3,420
BS

n All supply trunk sizes and return duct sizes were S6


read from the duct board scale on the ACCA Duct S7 17 4,590 3,500
Sizing Slide Rule. S8 16 4,620 3,510
n Final airway size for supply runouts is based on S9 12 2,350 1,690
45

the design friction rate (0.08 IWC/100 Ft) because S10 12 3,020 2,590
air velocities are less than 900 Fpm limit. S11 8 3,810 3,110
n Final airway size for supply trunks ST-1, ST-2, S12 12 3,430 2,400
ST-3 and ST-4 is based on the design friction rate
S13 8 4,500 2,610
(0.08 IWC/100 Ft) because air velocities are less
1) Block loads (Btuh): Heat= 44,920; Sensible cooling = 32,670.
than 900 Fpm limit.
2) For cooling, fenestration excursion loads cause the sum of the
n Final airway size for return branch ducts R1 and R4 room cooling loads to be more than the block cooling load (see
is based on the design friction rate (0.08 Sections 6-8 through 6-12).

Figure 8-19

70
Section 8

Blower Data for the Primary-Secondary Example Summary of Figure 8-21 Calculations
Discharge External Resistance (IWC) vs. Speed Run S1 S5 S9 S11
Cfm
High Medium Low Supply TEL 106 139 192 187
1,200 0.58 Run R3 R2 R1 R4
1,300 0.62 0.43 Return TEL 162 226 228 259

16 w x
1,400 0.68 0.47 0.27
Figure 8-22

20 vie 01
1,500 0.53 0.32 0.12
1,600 0.38 0.15

ct e - 2
1,700 0.20 Fpm) because sizing for the design friction rate
(0.08 IWC/100 Ft) produced excessive air velocity.
1) Operating point blower tested with a wet refrigerant coil and low
efficiency filter in place. n Figure 8-25 (ahead three pages) provides a sum-
2) If an auxiliary heating coil is required, subtract 0.08 IWC from mary of the Group 6A equivalent length values.

O R D
the values that are listed in this table.
n The ACCA Duct Slide Rule converts round sizes
Figure 8-20 to equivalent rectangular sizes.

)
- 3 bli al
Comments and Observations
IWC/100 Ft) because air velocities are less than the
g u nu This example is characterized by marginal blower perfor-
700 Fpm limit. mance and a large effective length value. But as demon-
n Final airway size for return branch ducts R3 and strated above, there was enough blower power (at the
high speed setting) for the required airflow.

c
Au I Ma
R5 is based on the maximum allowable velocity
(700 Fpm) because sizing for the design friction rate This example also is characterized by an absence of acces-
(0.08 IWC/100 Ft) produced excessive air velocity. sory components, which results in a practical solution for
n Final airway size for return trunks RT-1 and RT-2 airway sizes. If a simple device, such as an electronic fil-
is based on the maximum allowable velocity (700 ter, is added to the system, the blower has marginal
(1 N 1
P
ft y A CA

Effective Length Worksheet for Primary-Secondary Example


S

Element Supply Run ID Number Element Return Run ID Number


S1 S5 S9 S11 R1 R2 R3 R4
D -D /AC

Trunk Length 10 37 95 79 Trunk Length 24 18 18 39


Trunk Length Trunk Length
Trunk Length Trunk Length
16 17 12 8 64 50 17 80
R

Runout Length Runout Length


Group 1 (D) 10 10 10 10 Group 5 (I) 30 30 30 30
ra a
9
BS

Group 2 (B) 40 40 20 35 Group 6 (A br) 75 68 37 75


Group 3 Group 7
Group 4 (J) 30 30 30 30 Group 8 (E) 10 10 10 10
45

Group 8 Group 10
Group 9 (L) 20 20 Group 11
Group 11 Group 12
Group 12 (O) 5 5 5 Other (6A main) 25 25
Other Other (6F) 25 25 25 25
Other Other
Total Length 106 139 192 187 Total Length 228 226 162 259

Figure 8-21

71
Section 8

Friction Rate Worksheet for Primary-Secondary Example

Step 1) Manufacturers Blower Data


0.53
External static pressure (ESP) = 0.32 IWC Cfm = 1,500

16 w x
Step 2) Component Pressure Losses (CPL)

20 vie 01
Direct expansion refrigerant coil ______
Electric resistance heating coil 0.08
Hot water coil ______

ct e - 2
Heat exchanger ______
Low efficiency filter ______
High or mid-efficiency filter ______
Electronic filter ______

O R D
Other items that impede airflow ______
Supply outlet 0.03

)
Return grille 0.03

- 3 bli al
Balancing damper 0.03
Zone damper (full open) ______
g u nu
Total component losses (CPL) 0.17 IWC

c
Au I Ma
Step 3) Available Static Pressure (ASP) 0.36
0.53
ASP = (ESP CPL) = ( 0.32 0.17 ) = 0.15 IWC

Step 4) Total Effective Length (TEL)


(1 N 1
P

Supply-side TEL + Return-side TEL = ( 187 + 259 ) = 446 Feet


ft y A CA

Step 5) Friction Rate Design Value (FR) 0.08 @ 0.36 IWC


S

FR value from friction rate chart = Out of range @ 0.15 IWC/100 Ft


D -D /AC

ASP x 100
FR =
R

TEL
ra a
9
BS
45

Figure 8-23

72
Section 8

Duct Sizing Worksheet for the Primary-Secondary Example Operating Point Blower
HF = Blower Cfm / Manual J Heat Loss = 1,500 / 49,420 = 0.0304 FR Value
CF = Blower Cfm / Manual J Sensible Heat Gain = 1,500 / 32,670 = 0.0459 0.08
Supply-Side Runouts
Supply - Trunk Heating Cooling Heating Cooling Design Round Velocity Final Normed
Btuh Btuh Cfm Cfm Cfm Size Fpm Size Cfm

16 w x
S1 ST-4 4,250 2,750 129 126 129 7 ok 7 121

20 vie 01
S2 ST-4 3,860 3,010 117 138 138 7 ok 7 121
S3 ST-4 3,970 3,200 120 147 147 7 ok 7 127
S4 ST-4 2,780 2,130 84 98 98 6 ok 6 86

ct e - 2
S5 ST-3 3,800 2,380 115 109 115 7 ok 7 106
S6 ST-3 4,440 3,420 135 157 157 7 ok 7 138
S7 ST-3 4,590 3,500 139 161 161 7 ok 7 142

O R D
S8 ST-3 4,620 3,510 140 161 161 7 ok 7 143
S9 ST-1 2,350 1,690 71 78 78 6 ok 6 71
S10 ST-1 3,020 2,590 92 119 119 6 ok 6 100

)
- 3 bli al
S11 ST-2 3,810 3,110 116 143 143 7 ok 7 123
S12 ST-2 3,430 2,400 104 110 110 6 ok 6 101
g u nu
S13 ST-2 4,500 2,610 137 120
Supply-Side Trunks
137 7 ok 7 122

c
Au I Ma
Run numbers: S9, S10 S-Trunk 1 163 197 197 8 570 8 171
Run numbers: S11, S2, S13 S-Trunk 2 357 373 373 10 690 10 346
Run numbers: S5 to S13 S-Trunk 3 1,049 1,157 1,157 16 825 16 1,046
Run numbers: Primary trunk S-Trunk 4 1,500 1,500 1,500 18 850 18 1,500
(1 N 1

Return-Side Runouts
P

Return - Trunk Associated Supply Runs Heating Cooling Design Round Velocity Final Normed
Cfm Cfm Cfm Size Fpm Size Cfm
ft y A CA

R1 RT-1 S9, S10 163 197 197 9 462 9 171


S5, S6, S7, S8 529 588 588 12 775 14 std 529
S

R2 RT-1
R3 RT-2 S1, S2, S3, S4 450 509 509 11 800 12 455
D -D /AC

R4 RT-2 S11, S12, S13 357 373 373 10 680 10 346


Return-Side Trunks
Run numbers: R1 and R2 R-Trunk 1 692 785 785 14 750 16 700
Run numbers: R3 and R4 R-Trunk 2 807 882 882 14 840 16 801
R

1) Room heating and cooling Btuh obtained per Section 6.


2) Heating Cfm for runouts = HF Heating Btuh; Cooling Cfm for runouts = CF Sensible Cooling Btuh.
ra a
9
BS

3) For trunks, sum heating Cfm values for branches served by the trunk, and sum the cooling Cfm values for branches served by the trunk.
The design Cfm for branches and trunks is equal to the larger of the heating Cfm or cooling Cfm values for the run.
4) Round size is based on FR value. Final size is based on FR value if air velocity is acceptable, or the maximum allowable velocity value.
Final size may be a standard round size, or a standard equivalent rectangular size.
5) Normed Cfm = Normalized Cfm for air balancing single-zone systems (see Section 6-23). For zoned systems, see Section 7-11.
45

6) Per Manual Zr, Sections 7-9 and 8-11, a bypass airway is sized for 900 Fpm and the bypass Cfm from the Bypass Cfm Worksheet.

Figure 8-24

ability (even at the high speed setting) to deliver the available static pressure is 0.26 IWC instead of 0.36 IWC.
required airflow. Under these circumstances, Figure 8-26 (next page) shows
the design friction rate is less than 0.06 IWC/100 Ft, which
For example, if an electronic filter adds an additional 0.10 is slightly outside the wedge. This problem is corrected by
IWC to the component pressure loss calculation, the using equipment that has a more powerful blower.

73
Section 8

8-5 Primary and Secondary Trunk System


Summary of Group 6A Equivalent Lengths
with an Operating Range Blower
Summary R1 R2 R3 R4
Figure 8-18 shows a heat pump operating range blower
delivering 1,500 Cfm to a duct system that has duct board Cfm1 / Cfm 2 1.00 0.75 0.56 1.00
trunks and metal runouts. The primary supply trunk has Branch EL 75 68 33 75
a reducing fitting to a secondary trunk, then this trunk
Main EL NA (0) 25 25 NA (0)
tees to two more secondary trunks. The return path has

16 w x
four return branches and two return trunks. Figure 8-25

20 vie 01
Figure 8-19 summarizes the heating and cooling loads for
the runout ducts, and Figure 8-27 provides blower data

ct e - 2
for an operating range blower. When this equipment is
shipped, the blower cabinet will have a refrigerant coil, an
electric resistance heater, and an electronic filter.

Effective Length Calculation

O R D
Figure 8-21 provides effective length calculations for the
duct runs. The Figure 8-22 summary shows that the effec-

)
- 3 bli al
tive length of the critical circulation path is 451 feet. This
path flows through the #9 supply (192 feet) and the R4
g u nu
return (259 feet).

Blower Cfm Set-Point

c
Au I Ma
The Manual S design value for blower Cfm is 1,500 Cfm.
From Figure 8-27, the two closest blower table set point
options are 1,400 and 1,750 Cfm. Since the desired 1,500 Cfm Figure 8-26
set point is not available, 1,750 Cfm is used to size airways
(see Section 3-3 this Manual).
(1 N 1
P

Blower Table Pressure Component Pressure Drop


ft y A CA

The performance of the ECM blower is summarized by The heat pump will be shipped with a standard refriger-
Figure 8-27. In this case, footnotes advise that the blower ant coil (there are other coil options), an electric resistance
coil, and an electronic filter. Figure 8-28 (next page) shows
S

data is not adjusted for air-side components installed at


the factory, and that the pressure drop for such compo- the manufacturer's pressure drop data for these compo-
D -D /AC

nents shall be subtracted from the published external nents. The total pressure drop for components installed in
static pressure values. the cabinet is 0.65 IWC, and additional pressure is
R

ECM Blower Data for the Primary-Secondary Example


ra a
9
BS

Function Cfm ESP External Static Pressure (IWC)


Set (IWC)
Point Range 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00
875 0.0 0.5 875
45

1,050 0.0 1.0 1,050 1,045 1,035


Cooling
Cfm 1,225 0.0 1.0 1,215 1,220 1,225 1,220
Set Points 1,400 0.0 1.0 1,370 1,385 1,395 1,400 1,395 1,390
1,750 0.0 1.0 1,750 1,745 1,740 1,735 1,725
Maximum 2,000 0.0 1.0 2,000 1,990 1,975 1,950 1,925 1,900 1,865
1) No OEM blower table notes pertaining to air-side components in place when the blower was tested.
2) Per other parts of the OEM's engineering data, deduct pressure drop for wet refrigerant coil, filter and electric heating coil.

Figure 8-27

74
Section 8

required for a supply air outlet, a return grille and a hand Coil Resistance (IWC)
damper, so the pressure drop for all system components
Cfm Dry Wet
is 0.74 IWC.
1,225 0.11 0.18

Cfm = 1,750 1,400 0.15 0.26


Refrigerant coil = 0.35 IWC 1,750 0.22 0.35
Electric coil = 0.18 IWC 2,000 0.28 0.46

16 w x
Filter = 0.12 IWC
Total pressure drop for cabinet items = 0.65 IWC

20 vie 01
Supply air outlet = 0.03 IWC
Return Grille = 0.03 IWC Electronic Filter Resistance
Hand damper = 0.03 IWC Cfm IWC

ct e - 2
Total pressure drop for all components = 0.74 IWC
1,225 0.06
1,400 0.08
Default for Available Static Pressure
1,750 0.12
For an operating range blower, the default value for avail-

O R D
2,000 0.15
able static pressure is 70% (0.70 factor) of the maximum
external static pressure value from the OEM's blower

)
- 3 bli al
table (see Section 6-5). Since the maximum pressure for
the OEM's blower table for the 1,725 Cfm setting is Heater Resistance
1.0 IWC, the external static pressure for the Friction Rate
g u nu Cfm IWC
Worksheet is 0.70 IWC.
1,225 0.09
Total System Resistance 1,400 0.13

c
Au I Ma
The total airflow resistance produced by air-side compo- 1,750 0.18
nents for a 1,725 Cfm flow rate is 0.74 IWC. Since the 2,000 0.23
default external static pressure value for the Friction Rate
Worksheet is 0.70 IWC, the available pressure for just the
Figure 8-28
(1 N 1

air-side components is slightly deficient.


P

However, and addition increment of pressure is required


ft y A CA

for the fittings and straight runs in the critical circulation way to do this is to use more efficient duct fittings. In this
path. The pressure required for the path depends on the case, the Figure 8-21 duct fittings are relatively efficient,
S

friction rate design value. For the lowest value recom- so other measures are investigated.
mended by the Friction Rate Worksheet (0.06 IWC per 100
D -D /AC

feet of duct), an additional 0.27 IWC is required for fit- The design blower Cfm for Manual S equipment selec-
tings and duct runs. tion was 1,500 Cfm. Figure 8-27 shows the closest values
for the ECM blower are 1,400 Cfm and 1,750 Cfm. Per Sec-
0.27 IWC = 0.06 451 / 100
tion 3-3, the 1,750 value was used for duct design. If the
system is designed for 1,400 Cfm, Figure 8-28 shows that
R

Therefore, the total amount of external static pressure the wet coil pressure drop is reduced by 0.09 IWC, the
ra a

required for all pressure dissipating items in the critical


9

electronic filter pressure drop is reduced by 0.04 IWC and


BS

circulation path is 1.01 IWC for 1,725 Cfm. the electric heater pressure drop is reduced by 0.05 IWC,
for a total reduction of 0.18 IWC. This reduces the pres-
1.01 IWC = 0.74 for components + 0.27 ducts
sure requirement from 1.01 to 0.83, but 0.83 exceeds the
desired 0.70 value.
45

This 1.00 IWC maximum available pressure vs. 1.01 IWC


required pressure scenario is close enough to be a mathe- Total ESP required = 1.01 0.18 = 0.83 IWC
matically correct solution for airway sizing, but a design
value for external static pressure that exceeds 70% of the Find similar equipment that has a blower table that shows
maximum value is not recommended, per Section 6-4. a maximum of 1.0 IWC of static pressure for something
Therefore, something must change. near 1,500 Cfm with footnotes that say a wet cooling coil,
and standard filter were in place during the blower test
System Design Adjustments
(see Figure 8-29, next page). This will reduce the compo-
The first measure to reduce system airflow resistance is to nent pressure drop for Step 2 of the Friction Rate
shorten the length of the critical circulation path. The best Worksheet from 0.74 IWC to something like 0.35 IWC,

75
Section 8

ECM Blower Data for the Primary-Secondary Trunks


Function Cfm ESP External Static Pressure (IWC)
Set (IWC)
Point Range 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00
875 0.0 0.5 875
1,050 0.0 1.0 1,050 1,045 1,035

16 w x
Cooling
Cfm 1,225 0.0 1.0 1,215 1,220 1,225 1,220

20 vie 01
Set Points 1,400 0.0 1.0 1,370 1,385 1,395 1,400 1,395 1,390
1,750 0.0 1.0 1,750 1,745 1,740 1,735 1,725

ct e - 2
Maximum 2,000 0.0 1.0 2,000 1,990 1,975 1,950 1,925 1,900 1,865
1) Wet refrigerant coil and standard filter in place when the blower was tested.
2) Includes an allowance for supplemental electric heater (add 0.10 IWC to blower table values if there is no supplemental heater, or subtract
the portion of the supplemental heater pressure drop that exceeds 0.10 IWC).

O R D
Figure 8-29

)
- 3 bli al
and the total system resistance for the components, duct Airway Size for Alternative Equipment
g u nu
fittings and straight runs will drop form 1.01 to about
0.72, which is acceptable.
Figure 8-30 (next page) shows the airways sizes for the
Figure 8-18 duct system and the Figure 8-29 blower. This
solution is almost identical to the Figure 8-24 solution for

c
Total System Resistance for Alternative Equipment
Au I Ma
the operating point blower because there is not much dif-
If Figure 8-29 is the blower table for alternative equip- ference in the friction rate design values (0.08 for Fig-
ment, the component pressure drop for the Friction Rate ure 8-24 vs. 0.11 for Figure 8-30). The shaded cells on
Worksheet is 0.21 IWC, based on Figure 8-28 pressure Figure 8-30 mark the difference between the two duct siz-
drops for an electric coil and an electronic filter (0.10 IWC ing worksheets.
(1 N 1

is assumed to apply to a standard filter).


P

8-6 Scrutinize Blower Data Footnotes


ft y A CA

Cfm = 1,750
Refrigerant coil in place for blower test = 0 .0 IWC The Section 8-5 example for an operating range blower
demonstrates the importance of blower table footnotes. If
S

Electric coil at 0.18 IWC = 0.18 0.10 = 0.08 IWC


Electronic vs. standard filter = 0.14 0.10 = 0.04 IWC the Figure 8-27 blower is used for the Figure 8-18 duct sys-
tem, the blower will have to operate very near to its exter-
D -D /AC

Total pressure drop for cabinet items = 0.12 IWC


Supply air outlet = 0.03 IWC nal static pressure limit, with the airways sized for an 0.06
Return Grille = 0.03 IWC friction rate. If the Figure 8-29 blower is used for the Fig-
Hand damper = 0.03 IWC ure 8-18 duct system, the blower will operate at about
Total pressure drop for all components = 0.21 IWC 70% of its external static pressure limit, with the airways
R

sized for an 0.11 friction rate. The Figure 8-29 blower is


Design Friction Rate for Alternative Equipment clearly the preferred solution for the Figure 8-18 duct
ra a
9
BS

system.
The default for external static pressure is 0.70 IWC and
the total component pressure drop is 0.21 IWC, so the The blower table footnote issue is not peculiar to any par-
pressure for moving air through the critical circulation ticular type of blower motor technology. Each equipment
path is 0.49 IWC. manufacturer has their own format for presenting blower
45

data. Some publish pressure values that have not been


Per Figure 8-23, Step 4, the TEL of the critical circulation
discounted for standard cabinet components, and some
path is 446 Feet. Per the equation provided by Step 5 on
publish discounted pressure values. Figure 8-29 provides
the Friction Rate Worksheet, the friction rate value for air-
an exhibit of discounted blower data. This blower is con-
way sizing is 0.11 IWC.
siderably more powerful than the Figure 8-27 blower.
FR = 0.49 100 / 446 = 0.11 IWC n The Figure 8-29 blower produces about 1.5 IWC of
blower pressure (0.5 IWC for cabinet components
and 1.0 IWC of external static pressure for air dis-
tribution system).

76
Section 8

Duct Sizing Worksheet for the Primary-Secondary Example Operating Range Blower
HF = Blower Cfm / Manual J Heat Loss = 1,500 / 49,420 = 0.0304 FR Value
CF = Blower Cfm / Manual J Sensible Heat Gain = 1,500 / 32,670 = 0.0459 0.11
Supply-Side Runouts
Supply - Trunk Heating Cooling Heating Cooling Design Round Velocity Final Normed
Btuh Btuh Cfm Cfm Cfm Size Fpm Size Cfm

16 w x
S1 ST-4 4,250 2,750 129 126 129 7 ok 7 121

20 vie 01
S2 ST-4 3,860 3,010 117 138 138 7 ok 7 121
S3 ST-4 3,970 3,200 120 147 147 7 ok 7 127
S4 ST-4 2,780 2,130 84 98 98 6 ok 6 86

ct e - 2
S5 ST-3 3,800 2,380 115 109 115 6 ok 6 106
S6 ST-3 4,440 3,420 135 157 157 7 ok 7 138
S7 ST-3 4,590 3,500 139 161 161 7 ok 7 142

O R D
S8 ST-3 4,620 3,510 140 161 161 7 ok 7 143
S9 ST-1 2,350 1,690 71 78 78 5 ok 5 71
S10 ST-1 3,020 2,590 92 119 119 6 ok 6 100

)
- 3 bli al
S11 ST-2 3,810 3,110 116 143 143 7 ok 7 123
S12 ST-2 3,430 2,400 104 110 110 6 ok 6 101
S13 ST-2
g u nu 4,500 2,610 137 120
Supply-Side Trunks
137 7 ok 7 122

c
Au I Ma
Run numbers: S9, S10 S-Trunk 1 163 197 197 8 570 8 171
Run numbers: S12, S13 S-Trunk 2 357 373 373 10 690 10 346
Run numbers: S5 to S13 S-Trunk 3 1,049 1,157 1,157 16 825 16 1,046
Run numbers: Primary trunk S-Trunk 4 1,500 1,500 1,500 18 850 18 1,500
(1 N 1

Return-Side Runouts
P

Return - Trunk Associated Supply Runs Heating Cooling Design Round Velocity Final Normed
Cfm Cfm Cfm Size Fpm Size Cfm
ft y A CA

R1 RT-1 S9, S10 163 197 197 8 462 8 171


S5, S6, S7, S8 529 588 588 12 775 14 std 529
S

R2 RT-1
R3 RT-2 S1, S2, S3, S4 450 509 509 11 800 12 455
D -D /AC

R4 RT-2 S11, S12, S13 357 373 373 10 680 10 346


Return-Side Trunks
Run numbers: R1 and R2 R-Trunk 1 692 785 785 14 750 16 700
Run numbers: R3 and R4 R-Trunk 2 807 882 882 14 840 16 801
R

1) Room heating and cooling Btuh obtained per Section 6.


2) Heating Cfm for runouts = HF Heating Btuh; Cooling Cfm for runouts = CF Sensible Cooling Btuh.
ra a
9
BS

3) For trunks, sum heating Cfm values for branches served by the trunk, and sum the cooling Cfm values for branches served by the trunk.
The design Cfm for branches and trunks is equal to the larger of the heating Cfm or cooling Cfm values for the run.
4) Round size is based on FR value. Final size is based on FR value if air velocity is acceptable, or the maximum allowable velocity value.
Final size may be a standard round size, or a standard equivalent rectangular size.
5) Normed Cfm = Normalized Cfm for air balancing single-zone systems (see Section 6-23). For zoned systems, see Section 7-11.
45

6) Per Manual Zr, Sections 7-9 and 8-11, a bypass airway is sized for 900 Fpm and the bypass Cfm from the Bypass Cfm Worksheet.

Figure 8-30

n The Figure 8-27 blower produces 1.00 IWC of Also note that some manufactures test the blower to only
external static pressure for all cabinet components 0.50 IWC, then use fan laws to extend the blower data
and the air distribution system, which means that beyond the 0.50 IWC. However, fan laws do not work
there is about 0.50 IWC for the pressure drop very well if turbulence is produced by items in the air
through the critical circulation path. stream. In addition, some designs operate right next to the

77
Section 8

fan surge limit at 0.50 IWC, so a pressure above 0.50 IWC


may cause fan surge. Therefore, have the OEM verify that
the blower table is accurate for high pressure operation.

16 w x
20 vie 01
ct e - 2
O R D

)
- 3 bli al
g u nu
c
Au I Ma
(1 N 1
P
ft y A CA
S
D -D /AC
R
ra a
9
BS
45

78
This Section is not part of the Standard. It is merely informative and does not contain requirements necessary for conformance to the Standard. It has not been pro-
cessed according to the ANSI requirements for a Standard, and may contain material that has not been subject to public review or a consensus process. Unresolved
objections on informative material are not offered the right to appeal at ACCA or ANSI.

Section 9 Illustrative Examples


Sizing Flexible Constant Cfm Duct Systems
This Section provides examples of airway sizing calcula- The following examples are for an extended plenum sys-

16 w x
tions for constant Cfm duct systems fabricated from flexi- tem that has a rigid trunk and flexible runouts, and for a
ble materials. These examples are for systems that comply flexible wire helix system that has junction boxes. These

20 vie 01
with the required standard of care for installing flexible examples are for single-zone systems, so the standard
wire helix duct (see Section 4-3). Manual J procedure provides cooling load values for
supply Cfm calculations (see Section 6-8, this Manual).

ct e - 2
n Non compliant installations may have longer
effective lengths than the measured point-to-point
9-1 Duct Board Trunk with Flex Runouts
distance of the duct run, which causes larger pres-
sure drops for duct runs. Figure 9-1 shows a duct board, reducing-trunk plenum

O R D
with flexible runouts. The flexible runouts have no signif-
n Appendix 16 provides tools for adjusting the effec-
icant excess length or significant sag. Heating and cooling
tive length of installations that do not comply with
is provided by a furnace equipped with an evaporator

)
the required standard of care for installing flexible

- 3 bli al
coil. The furnace has a standard throw-away filter.
wire helix duct.

g u nu
c
Au I Ma
(1 N 1
P
ft y A CA
S
D -D /AC
R
ra a
9
BS

Supply trunk and return runs are duct board.


Flexible runout ducts are installed to the required
standard of care (see Section 4-3).

Block Loads (BTUH)


45

Heating Sensible
Cooling
36,000 23,920

Furnace Blower
1,000 CFM; ESP = 0.57 IWC
Includes filter

Figure 9-1

79
Section 9

Duct Lengths and Manual J Loads for the Blower Data for the Duct Board Trunk
Duct Board Trunk Flex Runout Example Flex Runout Example
Run Length Ft Heat Btuh Cool Btuh Discharge External Resistance (IWC) vs. Speed
CFM High Medium Low
S1 22 3,810 3,110
800 0.53
S2 15 3,800 2,380
900 0.65 0.45
12 3,970 3,200

16 w x
S3
1,000 0.63 0.57 0.37
S4 15 4,250 2,750

20 vie 01
1,100 0.48 0.49 0.29
S5 12 3,860 3,010
1,200 0.33 0.41
S6 15 4,500 2,610
1,250 0.17

ct e - 2
S7 22 4,590 3,500
1) Furnace blower tested with low efficiency filter in place.
S8 16 4,870 3,750 2) If a cooling coil is required, subtract 0.18 IWC (wet coil) from the
external resistance values that are listed in this table.
S9 15 2,350 1,690
Figure 9-3

O R D
R1 For supply runs 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5
R2 For supply runs 6 and 9

)
- 3 bli al
R3 For supply runs 7 and 8
Effective Length Calculation
1) Block loads (Btuh): Heat = 36,000; Sensible cooling = 23,920.
g u nu
2) For cooling, fenestration excursion loads cause the sum of the
room cooling loads to be more than the block cooling load (see
Sections 6-8 through 6-12).
Considering system geometry and fitting types, runs 1, 7
and 9 are candidates for the longest supply run. Also note
that the circulation path lengths are for supply run 1 and

c
return R1, for supply run 9 and return R2, and for supply
Au I Ma
Figure 9-2
run 7 and return R3.

Figure 9-4 provides equivalent length calculations for


Figure 9-2 lists the heating and cooling loads for duct air-
these paths. Note that there is no effective length adjust-
way sizing, and Figure 9-3 provides the manufacturer's
ment for flexible runs that comply with the required
(1 N 1

blower performance data.


P
ft y A CA

Effective Length Worksheet for the Duct Board Trunk Flex Runout Example
S

Element Supply Run ID Number Element Return Run ID Number


S1 S7 S9 R1 R2 R3 Notes
D -D /AC

Trunk Length 6 43 66 Trunk Length 29 54 54

Trunk Length Trunk Length


Trunk Length Trunk Length
22 22 15 12 12 8
R

Runout Length Runout Length


Group 1 (L) 40 40 40 Group 5 (I) 30 30 30 (H/W = 2)
ra a
9
BS

Group 2 (B) 45 40 20 Group 6 (H) 15 15 15

Group 3 Group 7
Group 4 (J) 30 30 30 Group 8 (D) 65 65 65 (ez bend)
45

Group 8 Group 10
Group 9 Group 11
Group 11 Group 12 Cfm1/Cfm2
0.55 (R1)
Group 12 (O) 5 5 Other (6A br) 33 10 40 0.39 (R2)
Other Other (6A m) 25 25 25 0.61 (R3)

Other Other (8E) 10 10 10

Total Length 143 180 176 Total Length 219 221 247

Figure 9-4

80
Section 9

standard of care (excess length 4% or less and negligible


Summary of Figure 9-4 Calculations
sag), so Figure 9-2 lengths are used for TEL calculations.
Run S1 S7 S9
The Figure 9-5 summary shows the effective length of the
critical circulation path is 427 feet. This path flows through Supply TEL 143 180 176
the #7 supply (180 feet) and the R3 return (247 feet). Run R1 R3 R2

Design Friction Rate Calculation Return TEL 219 247 221

16 w x
Friction Rate Worksheet calculations determine the value Figure 9-5

20 vie 01
for the design friction rate. For this example, airway sizes
are based on 1,000 Cfm. Figure 9-3 shows that blower will
deliver 1,000 Cfm when it operates against 0.57 IWC of n All supply trunk sizes and the return duct sizes

ct e - 2
external resistance and Figure 9-5 shows 247 feet for the were read from the duct board scale on the ACCA
critical circulation path. Duct Sizing Slide Rule.

Figure 9-6 (next page) shows that the total resistance for
n Final airway sizes for supply runouts are based on
the friction rate design value (0.07 IWC/100 Ft)

O R D
the evaporator coil (0.18 IWC), a supply outlet (0.03 IWC),
a return (0.03 IWC), and a hand damper (0.03 IWC) is 0.27 because air velocities are less than 900 Fpm limit.
IWC. Therefore, the available static pressure is 0.30 IWC, n Figure 9-3 shows that blower will deliver 1,000 Cfm

)
- 3 bli al
so the design friction rate is based on 0.30 IWC of pressure when it operates against 0.57 IWC of external
and 427 feet of effective length. Figure 9-6 shows the fric- resistance. Final airway sizes for supply trunks
g u nu
tion rate value for airway sizing is 0.07 IWC/100 Ft.

Duct Sizing Calculations


ST-1 and ST-2 are based on the design friction rate
(0.07 IWC/100 Ft) because air velocities are less
than 900 Fpm limit.

c
Au I Ma
Figure 9-7 (ahead two pages) summarizes the duct sizing n Final airway sizes for return branch ducts R1, R2
calculations for this example. Additional detail is pro- and R3 are based on the design friction rate value
vided here: (0.07 IWC/100 Ft) because air velocities are less
than the 700 Fpm limit.
n Supply runs 1 through 5 are for supply trunk ST-2
n Final airway size for return trunk RT-1 is based on
(1 N 1

and supply runs 6 through 9 are for supply


the friction rate design value (0.07 IWC/100 Ft)
P

trunk ST-1.
because air velocities is less than 700 Fpm.
ft y A CA

n Return runs R2 and R3 feed secondary return


trunk RT-1. n Final airway size for return trunk RT-2 is based on
the maximum allowable velocity (700 Fpm) because
S

n Return run R1 and return trunk RT-1 feed primary


the air velocity for the design friction rate slightly
return trunk RT-2.
exceeds the limit.
D -D /AC

n The sum of the branch cooling Cfm values is greater n The R3 return run is longer than the R2 return run
than the blower Cfm value. (See Sections 6-8, 6-09,
because the group 6A (branch) equivalent length
and 6-10.)
value for the R3 run is 26 feet more than the equiv-
n Supply trunk ST-1 is a secondary trunk and sup- alent length value for the R2 run.
R

ply trunk ST-2 is a primary trunk. Return trunk n The ACCA Duct Slide Rule converts round sizes
RT-1 is a secondary trunk and return trunk RT-2 is
ra a
9

to equivalent rectangular sizes.


BS

a primary trunk. (See Section 6-14.)


n The entering Cfm value for ST-1 equals the sum of Comments and Observations
the downstream branch Cfm values. The entering This example is characterized by the absence of accessory
Cfm value for ST-2 equals the blower Cfm value. components, which makes a viable design possible. If a
45

The entering Cfm value for RT-1 equals the sum of simple device, such as an electronic filter was included in
the upstream branch Cfm values. The entering the original design, medium speed blower operation has
Cfm value for RT-2 equals the blower Cfm values. marginal ability to deliver design airflow.
(See Section 6-15.)
n All supply branch sizes were read from the Wire Therefore, if accessories were installed, the duct sizing
Helix Flexible Duct scale on the ACCA Duct Siz- calculations would have been based on a high blower
ing Slide Rule. wheel speed blower. Also note that the effective length of
the duct system can be reduced by 55 feet if the 8D elbow
fittings for the return branches (EL = 65) are replaced with
elbow fittings that have turning vanes (EL = 10).

81
Section 9

Friction Rate Worksheet for the Duct Board Trunk Flex Runout Example

Step 1) Manufacturers Blower Data


External static pressure (ESP) = 0.57 IWC Cfm = 1,000

16 w x
Step 2) Component Pressure Losses (CPL)

20 vie 01
Direct expansion refrigerant coil 0.18
Electric resistance heating coil ______
Hot water coil ______

ct e - 2
Heat exchanger ______
Low efficiency filter ______
High or mid-efficiency filter ______
Electronic filter ______

O R D
Other items that impede airflow ______
Supply outlet 0.03

)
Return grille 0.03

- 3 bli al
Balancing damper 0.03
Zone damper, full open ______
g u nu
Total component losses (CPL) 0.27 IWC

c
Au I Ma
Step 3) Available Static Pressure (ASP)
ASP = (ESP CPL) = ( 0.57 0.27 ) = 0.30 IWC

Step 4) Total Effective Length (TEL)


(1 N 1
P

Supply-side TEL + Return-side TEL = ( 180 + 247 ) = 427 Feet


ft y A CA

Step 5) Friction Rate Design Value (FR)


S

FR value from friction rate chart = 0.07 IWC/100 Ft


D -D /AC

ASP x 100
FR =
R

TEL
ra a
9
BS
45

Figure 9-6

82
Section 9

Duct Sizing Worksheet for the Duct Board Trunk Flex Runout Example
HF = Blower Cfm / Manual J Heat Loss = 1,000 / 36,00 = 0.0278 FR Value
CF = Blower Cfm / Manual J Sensible Heat Gain = 1,000 / 23,920 = 0.0418 0.07
Supply-Side Runouts
Supply - Trunk Heating Cooling Heating Cooling Design Round Velocity Final Normed
Btuh Btuh Cfm Cfm Cfm Size Fpm Size Cfm

16 w x
S1 ST-2 3,810 3,110 106 130 130 8 ok 8 113

20 vie 01
S2 ST-2 3,800 2,380 106 99 106 7 ok 7 98
S3 ST-2 3,970 3,200 110 134 134 8 ok 8 117
S4 ST-2 4,250 2,750 118 115 118 7 ok 7 112

ct e - 2
S5 ST-2 3,860 3,010 107 126 126 8 ok 8 112
S6 ST-1 4,500 2,610 125 109 125 8 ok 8 112
S7 ST-1 4,590 3,500 128 146 146 8 ok 8 131

O R D
S8 ST-1 4,870 3,750 135 157 157 8 ok 8 140
S9 ST-1 2,350 1,690 65 71 71 6 ok 6 65

)
Supply-Side Trunks

- 3 bli al
Run numbers: S6, S7, S8, S9 S-Trunk 1 453 483 483 11 720 11 448
Run numbers: Primary trunk S-Trunk 2 1,000 1,000 1,000 15 830 15 1,000
g u nu
Return - Trunk Associated Supply Runs Heating
Return-Side Runouts
Cooling Design Round Velocity Final Normed

c
Cfm Cfm Cfm Size Fpm Size Cfm
Au I Ma
R1 RT-2 S1 through S5 547 604 604 12 760 12 552
R2 RT-1 S6 and S9 190 180 190 8 570 8 205
R3 RT-1 S7 and S8 263 303 303 10 580 10 243
(1 N 1

Return-Side Trunks
P

Run numbers: S6 through S9 R-Trunk 1 453 483 483 11 740 11 448


Run numbers: Primary trunk R-Trunk 2 1,000 1,000 1,000 15 830 16 1,000
ft y A CA

1) Room heating and cooling Btuh obtained per Section 6.


2) Heating Cfm for runouts = HF Heating Btuh; Cooling Cfm for runouts = CF Sensible Cooling Btuh.
S

3) For trunks, sum heating Cfm values for branches served by the trunk, and sum the cooling Cfm values for branches served by the trunk.
The design Cfm for branches and trunks is equal to the larger of the heating Cfm or cooling Cfm values for the run.
D -D /AC

4) Round size is based on FR value. Final size is based on FR value if air velocity is acceptable, or the maximum allowable velocity value.
Final size may be a standard round size, or a standard equivalent rectangular size.
5) Normed Cfm = Normalized Cfm for air balancing single-zone systems (see Section 6-23). For zoned systems, see Section 7-11.
6) Per Manual Zr, Sections 7-9 and 8-11, a bypass airway is sized for 900 Fpm and the bypass Cfm from the Bypass Cfm Worksheet.

Figure 9-7
R

9-2 Flexible Wire Helix Duct System Effective Length Calculation


ra a
9
BS

On the next page, sketches and tables provide an example Considering system geometry and fitting types, supply
of a 900 Cfm flexible wire helix duct system (supply and runs 7 and 8 are candidates for the longest supply run.
return) with duct board junction boxes. Heating and cool- Return R3 identifies the longest return path.
ing is provided by a heat pump equipped with a supple-
45

The there is no effective length adjustment for systems


mental electric resistance heating coil and a standard
that comply with the required standard of care (excess
throw-away filter.
length 4% or less, and negligible sag), so Figure 9-8 lengths
n Figure 9-8 (next page) shows the geometry of the are used for TEL calculations.
duct system.
Note that junction box equivalent length depends on a
n Figure 9-9 (next page) lists heating and cooling reference velocity (see Section N4, Group 11). Before pro-
loads for duct airway sizing. ceeding with effective length calculations, the practitio-
n Figure 9-10 (next page) provides the manufac- ner selects a maximum air velocity for the duct system
turers blower performance data and a pressure (600 Fpm for this example). Therefore, the Group 11
drop for the electric heating coil. equivalent length for a junction box is 40 feet.

83
Section 9

16 w x
20 vie 01
ct e - 2
O R D

)
- 3 bli al
g u nu
c
Au I Ma
(1 N 1
P
ft y A CA

Figure 9-8
S

n The maximum recommended velocity for flexible


D -D /AC

Duct Lengths and Manual J Loads for the duct is 900 Fpm (see Table N3-1), but this adds
Flexible Wire Helix System Example 55 feet to the equivalent length of a junction box
Run Length Ft Heat Btuh Cool Btuh (95 feet at 900 Fpm vs. 40 feet at 600 Fpm).
S1 16 3,800 2,380
16 3,970 3,200
R

S2
S3 14 4,250 2,750 Blower Data for the Flexible
ra a
9

Wire Helix System Example


BS

S4 14 3,860 3,010
Discharge External Resistance (IWC) vs. Speed
S5 14 4,500 2,610 Cfm
High Medium Low
S6 14 4,590 3,500
750 0.49
45

S7 14 4,870 3,750
800 0.58 0.41
S8 14 2,350 1,690
850 0.65 0.50 0.33
R1 For supply runs 1 and 2
900 0.60 0.42 0.25
R2 For supply runs 3, 4 and 5
950 0.45 0.34
R3 For supply runs 6, 7 and 8
1,000 0.29
1) Block loads (Btuh): Heat = 32,190; Sensible cooling = 20,830
2) For cooling, fenestration excursion loads cause the sum of the 1) Unit tested with low efficiency filter in place.
room cooling loads to be more than the block cooling load (see 2) If resistance heating coils are required, subtract 0.12 IWC from
Sections 6-8 through 6-12). the values that are listed in this table.

Figure 9-10
Figure 9-9

84
Section 9

Effective Length Worksheet for the Flexible Wire Helix Example


Element Supply Run: S7 or S8 Element Return Run: R3
Cut to Fit Cut to Fit
Trunk Length 30 Trunk Length 14
Trunk Length 20 Trunk Length
Trunk Length Trunk Length

16 w x
Runout Length 14 Runout Length 30

20 vie 01
Group 1 (A) 35 Group 5 (B) 40
Group 2 Group 6 (L) 20
Group 3 Group 7

ct e - 2
Group 4 (AE) 55 Group 8
Group 8 Group 10
Group 9 Group 11 Box 600 40

O R D
Group 11 Box 600 2 40 = 80 Group 12
Group 12 Other

)
Other Other Grp-11, 45 5

- 3 bli al
Other Grp-11, 45 3 5 = 15 Other Grp-11, 90 10
Other Grp-11, 90 10 Other
g u nu
Total Length 259 Total Length 159

Figure 9-11

c
Au I Ma

n Equivalent lengths for velocities that exceed 600 If maximum air velocity is reduced to 500 Fpm, the equiv-
Fpm may used to size flexible duct airways, pro- alent length for a single junction box is reduced by 10 feet
viding the blower can provide adequate external (from 40 feet to 30 feet). This reduces the total effective
(1 N 1

static pressure. length of the critical circulation path by 30 feet (for three
P

boxes).
Figure 9-11 shows the equivalent length calculations for
ft y A CA

ducts that are cut to length (with an allowance for bends Unfortunately, this option does not provide the desired
that function as fittings). The effective length of the lon- result. As indicated by Figure 9-12, the design friction rate
S

gest supply run is 259 feet and the effective length of the is still less than 0.06 IWC/100 Ft when the total effective
length is 388 feet. The next option is to use a 600 Fpm
D -D /AC

longest return run is 159 feet. Therefore, the total effective


length of the critical circulation path is 418 feet. velocity limit and increase blower wheel speed.
At high speed, the blower delivers 900 Cfm when it oper-
Design Friction Rate Calculation
ates against 0.60 IWC of external resistance. When exter-
At medium speed, the blower delivers 900 Cfm when it nal resistance (0.21 IWC) is subtracted from the new blower
R

operates against 0.42 IWC of external resistance. Since the pressure, the design friction rate is based on 0.39 IWC of
resistance produced by the electric resistance coil
ra a
9

available pressure and 418 feet of effective length. These


BS

(0.12 IWC), a supply outlet (0.03 IWC), a return changes are made on Figure 9-12, which shows the design
(0.03 IWC), and a hand damper (0.03 IWC) is 0.21 IWC, friction rate is 0.09 IWC/100 Ft (rounded from 0.93) for
the available static pressure is 0.21 IWC. Therefore, the the recommended standard of installation care.
design friction rate for the recommended standard of
45

instillation care is based on 0.21 IWC of pressure and 418 Duct Sizing Calculations
feet of effective length. Figure 9-12 (next page) shows the Figure 9-13 (ahead two pages) shows the airway sizes for
design friction rate is less than 0.05 IWC/100 Ft, so the recommended standard of installation care (duct runs
medium blower wheel speed does not produce enough cut to fit the span). Additional detail is provided here:
pressure.
n Supply runs 3 and 4 are for secondary trunk ST-2;
There are two ways to deal with inadequate blower per- supply runs 5 and 6 are for secondary trunk ST-3;
formance, increase wheel speed, or reduce total effective and supply runs 7 and 8 are for secondary trunk
length. For this example, the second option is investi- ST-4.
gated because junction boxes account for 120 feet of effec-
tive length.

85
Section 9

Friction Rate Worksheet for the Flexible Wire Helix Example

Step 1) Manufacturers Blower Data 0.60


External static pressure (ESP) = 0.42 IWC Cfm = 900

16 w x
Step 2) Component Pressure Losses (CPL)

20 vie 01
Direct expansion refrigerant coil ______
Electric resistance heating coil 0.12
Hot water coil ______

ct e - 2
Heat exchanger ______
Low efficiency filter ______
High or mid-efficiency filter ______
Electronic filter ______

O R D
Other items that impede airflow ______
Supply outlet 0.03
Return grille 0.03

)
- 3 bli al
Balancing damper 0.03
Zone damper (full open) ______
g u nu
Total component losses (CPL) 0.21 IWC

c
Au I Ma
Step 3) Available Static Pressure (ASP) 0.39
0.60
ASP = (ESP CPL) = ( 0.42 0.21 ) = 0.21 IWC

Step 4) Total Effective Length (TEL)


(1 N 1
P

Supply-side TEL + Return-side TEL = ( 259 + 159 ) = 418 Feet (600 Fpm velocity for boxes)
ft y A CA

Step 5) Friction Rate Design Value (FR) 0.093 rounded to 0.09


S

FR value from friction rate chart = 0.05 IWC/100 Ft


D -D /AC

ASP x 100
FR =
R

TEL
ra a
9
BS
45

Figure 9-12

86
Section 9

Duct Sizing Worksheet for the Flexible Wire Helix System Example
HF = Blower Cfm / Manual J Heat Loss = 900 / 32,190 = 0.0280 FR Value
CF = Blower Cfm / Manual J Sensible Heat Gain = 900 / 20,830 = 0.0432 0.09
Supply-Side Runouts
Supply - Trunk Heating Cooling Heating Cooling Design Round Velocity Final Normed
Btuh Btuh Cfm Cfm Cfm Size Fpm Size Cfm

16 w x
S1 ST-1 3,800 2,380 106 103 106 7 7 100

20 vie 01
S2 ST-1 3,970 3,200 111 138 138 8 8 119
S3 ST-2 4,250 2,750 119 119 119 7 7 113
S4 ST-2 3,860 3,010 108 130 130 8 About 8 113

ct e - 2
S5 ST-3 4,500 2,610 126 113 126 7 600 7 114
S6 ST-3 4,590 3,500 128 151 151 8 8 133
S7 ST-4 4,870 3,750 136 162 162 8 8 142

O R D
S8 ST-4 2,350 1,690 66 73 73 6 6 66
Supply-Side Trunks

)
Run numbers: S1, S2 S-Trunk 1 217 241 241 10 10 219

- 3 bli al
Run numbers: S3, S4 S-Trunk 2 227 249 249 10 10 226
About
Run numbers: S5, S6 S-Trunk 3 254 264 264 10 10 247
g u nu
Run numbers: S7, S8
Run numbers: S3 to S8
S-Trunk 4
S-Trunk 5
202
683
235
748
235
748
9
15
600
9
16
208
681

c
Au I Ma
Return-Side Runouts
Return - Trunk Associated Supply Runs Heating Cooling Design Round Velocity Final Normed
Cfm Cfm Cfm Size Fpm Size Cfm
R1 RT-1 S1, S2 217 241 241 See RT1 See RT1 See RT1 219
R2 RT-2 S3, S4, S5 353 362 362 11 Below 12 std 340
(1 N 1

R3 RT-3 S6, S7, S8 330 386 386 11 600 12 341


P

Return-Side Trunks
ft y A CA

Run numbers: R1 R-Trunk 1 217 241 241 9 Below 600 9 219


S

Run numbers: R2, R3 R-Trunk 2 683 748 748 15 About 600 16 681
1) Room heating and cooling Btuh obtained per Section 6.
D -D /AC

2) Heating Cfm for runouts = HF Heating Btuh; Cooling Cfm for runouts = CF Sensible Cooling Btuh.
3) For trunks, sum heating Cfm values for branches served by the trunk, and sum the cooling Cfm values for branches served by the trunk.
The design Cfm for branches and trunks is equal to the larger of the heating Cfm or cooling Cfm values for the run.
4) Round size is based on FR value. Final size is based on FR value if air velocity is acceptable, or the maximum allowable velocity value.
Final size may be a standard round size, or a standard equivalent rectangular size.
5) Normed Cfm = Normalized Cfm for air balancing single-zone systems (see Section 6-23). For zoned systems, see Section 7-11.
R

6) Per Manual Zr, Sections 7-9 and 8-11, a bypass airway is sized for 900 Fpm and the bypass Cfm from the Bypass Cfm Worksheet.
ra a
9
BS

Figure 9-13

n Supply runs 1 and 2 are for primary supply trunk n Supply trunks ST-1 through ST-5 are secondary
ST-1; supply runs 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 are for primary trunks. Return trunks RT-1 and RT-2 are second-
supply trunk ST-5. ary trunks. (See Section 6-14.)
45

n Return branches R2 and R3 feed return trunk RT-2 n The entering Cfm value for ST-1 through ST-5
and return R1 feeds return trunk RT-1. All duct equals the sum of the downstream branch Cfm
sizes were read from the wire helix scale on the values. The entering Cfm value for RT-1 and RT-2
ACCA Duct Sizing Slide Rule. equals the sum of the upstream branch Cfm val-
n The sum of the branch cooling Cfm values is ues. (See Section 6-15.)
greater than the blower Cfm value. (See Sections n A 600 Fpm velocity limit was imposed because a
6-8, 6-9, and 6-10.) higher value produced a significant increase in the
combined equivalent length of the junction box
fittings.

87
Section 9

n Final sizes of supply runouts are based on the fric- possible. If a simple device, such as an electronic filter (at
tion rate design value (0.09 IWC/100 Ft) because 0.10 IWC), is added to the list of external components, the
air velocities are about 600 Fpm. blower will be marginally compatible with the duct system
n The final sizes of the supply trunks (ST-1, ST-2, (the design friction rate will be 0.07 IWC/100 Ft).
ST-3, ST-4 and ST-5) are based on the friction rate If the blower was less powerful and an accessory device
design value (0.09 IWC/100 Ft) because air veloci- was desired, the length of the critical path would have to
ties are about 600 Fpm. be reduced. This could be accomplished by modifying

16 w x
n The final sizes of the return branch ducts (R2 and routing geometry and by reducing maximum allowable

20 vie 01
R3) are based on the friction rate design value (0.09 velocity for the junction box fittings.
IWC/100 Ft) because air velocities are about
600 Fpm. n The geometry could be revised so that the critical

ct e - 2
path does not pass through more than one junc-
n The final sizes of the return trunks (RT-1 and RT-2) tion box.
are based on the friction rate design value
(0.09 IWC/100 Ft) because air velocities are about n The equivalent length for a junction box is reduced
600 Fpm or less. to 30 feet if the velocity limit is lowered to 500 Fpm.

O R D
n The final size of some duct runs were increased by n The pressure drop across all external components
1-inch to conform with the standard sizes for the decreases with the square of the velocity ratio.

)
- 3 bli al
flex-duct product. 2
Px = P 1x [ Cfmx / Cfm1]
Comments and Observations
g u nu
This duct system has a long effective length, but a rela-
tively powerful blower (when operating at high speed),
n To minimize duct run pressure drop, flexible wire
helix duct shall not have more than 4% excess
length.
and the absence of accessory components make the design

c
Au I Ma
(1 N 1
P
ft y A CA
S
D -D /AC
R
ra a
9
BS
45

88
This Section is not part of the Standard. It is merely informative and does not contain requirements necessary for conformance to the Standard. It has not been pro-
cessed according to the ANSI requirements for a Standard, and may contain material that has not been subject to public review or a consensus process. Unresolved
objections on informative material are not offered the right to appeal at ACCA or ANSI.

Section 10 Illustrative Examples


Sizing Rigid Air-Zoned Duct Systems
This Section demonstrates the Manual D procedure for n Figure 10-2 (next page) shows the geometry and

16 w x
two air-zoned systems. The first one has an operating details of the return system. There are four return
point blower (PSC motor) and a bypass duct. The second grilles and two secondary return trunks.

20 vie 01
one is for an OEM turn-key system that has a vari- n Figure 10-3 (next page) shows the local heating
able-speed compressor and an operating range blower and cooling loads for duct airway sizing, and Fig-
(ECM motor). This system uses selective throttling for ure 10-4 (next page) provides the heat pump man-

ct e - 2
excess air control, and has no bypass duct. ufacturer's blower data with conditional footnotes.

10-1 Air-Zoned System with an Operating Effective Length Calculation


Point Blower and a Bypass Duct Considering system geometry and fitting types, the zone

O R D
Figure 10-1 provides a sketch of a 1,300 Cfm sheet metal 2, 3, and 4 loops are candidates for the longest circulation
zone damper system that has a heat pump that operates at path. Figure 10-5 (ahead two pages) shows the result of

)
- 3 bli al
a constant blower wheel speed. The supply-side of the air the effective length calculations for the supply paths and
distribution system has four zones, a primary supply return paths. Figure 10-6 (ahead two pages) shows that the
g u nu
trunk, secondary supply trunks, and branch runouts. effective length of the critical circulation path is 355 feet.

c
Au I Ma
(1 N 1
P
ft y A CA
S
D -D /AC
R
ra a
9
BS
45

Figure 10-1

89
Section 10

R2 for Zone-2 supplies #3, #4, #5, #6


R4 for Zone-4 supplies #10, #11, #12

16 w x
Hand Damper

20 vie 01
Bypass (BP)
Duct and Damper

ct e - 2
O R D

)
- 3 bli al
g u nu R1 for Zone-1 supplies #1, #2
R3 for Zone-3 supplies #7, #8, #9

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