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, 2009
22.141
32

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ISBN 978-5-94057-450-7
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, ( 6 11)
.
1998 .

22.141

: ftp://ftp.mccme.ru/users/shen/algebra.pdf
: ftp://ftp.mccme.ru/users/shen/algebra.zip

: .
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26 2008 . 60 90 1/16. .
. 9 . . . 3000 . .

. 119002,
, ., 11. . (499) 241-74-83.

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3 0 = 0; 3 1 = 3; 3 2 = 6; 3 3 = 9; 3 4 = 12;
3 5 = 15; 3 6 = 18; 3 7 = 21; 3 8 = 24; 3 9 = 27
3 7 = 21 1. :
1 7
3
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7. 11


0 0
1 1
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5 101
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7 111
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12 1100
... ...

: ,
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1024 : 10000000000.)
17 , -
45.
18 10101101 -
?
19 , :

1010 + 101 = ?
1111 + 1 = ?
1011 + 1 = ?
1111 + 1111 = ?

, -
.
20 . -
, .

1101 101 = ?
110 1 = ?
1000 1 = ?
12 8.

21 1101 1010
:
1101

1010
?? ? ?
, .
. :

1011 1011

11 101
1011 1011
1011 1011
100001 110111

22 11011 101 ( ) . -
, .
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11001 100
100 110
100
100
01
0
1

23 1=3 0;333...
?
24 , 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
.

8.
-
. :
+ =
= +
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.. + .. = .. + ..
9. 13

,
.. .. | , a b .
:
a +b =b +a

:
a b =b a
, | . -

ab = ba
a + b = b + a ,
ab = ba | .
. : 3 7 21,
37. ,
a b , a b ab a b :
a*b ( ).

9.
, :
3 + 5 + 11 = 8 + 11 = 19:
:
3 + 5 + 11 = 3 + 16 = 19:
:
(3 + 5) + 11
, 3 5,
3 + (5 + 11)
5 11.
.
:
(a + b ) + c = a + (b + c )

-, -
, : ,
14 10.

|
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:
( + ) + = + ( + ):

25 .
26 357 + 17 999 + 1.
. 357 17 999 .
17 999 + 1, 18 000 357 :
357 + (17 999 + 1) = 357 + 18 000 = 18357:

27 357 + 17 999.
.357 + 17 999 = (356 + 1) + 17 999 = 356 + (1 + 17 999) = 356 +
+ 18 000 = 18 356.
28 899 + 1 343 + 101.
. .

:
( b ) c = (b )
, :
(ab )c = a (bc )

29 37 25 4.
30 125 37 8.

10.
| |
2345
, , .
, :
((2 3) 4) 5 = (6 4) 5 = 24 5 = 120;
(2 (3 4)) 5 = (2 12) 5 = 24 5 = 120;
(2 3) (4 5) = 6 20 = 120;
2 ((3 4) 5) = 2 (12 5) = 2 60 = 120;
2 (3 (4 5)) = 2 (3 20) = 2 60 = 120:
11. 15

31
(2 3) (4 5) = ((2 3) 4) 5 = (2 (3 4)) 5 = 2 ((3 4) 5) = 2 (3 (4 5))
a (bc ) = (ab )c . -
, a = 2 3, b = 4, c = 5.
a; b; c , ?
32
2 3 4 5 6;
( -
). , -
. (. 14 .)
33 , -

2 3 4 5 6 ... 99 100 ?

,
, , |
.
, -
.
34 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + ... + 98 + 99 + 100.
. 100 50 : 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + ... + 98 +
+ 99 + 100 = (1 + 100) + (2 + 99) + (3 + 98) + ... + (49 + 52) + (50 + 51).
101, 50, 50 101 = 5050.
, ( -
) , |
, !

11.
, -
. 2 3 7 ,
2 7 = 14 , 3 7 = 21 ,

2 7 + 3 7 = 14 + 21 = 35:
: 2 + 3 = 5
7 ,
(2 + 3) 7 = 5 7 = 35:
16 11.

,
(2 + 3) 7 = 2 7 + 3 7
, ,
(a + b ) c = a c + b c
. ,
:
c (a + b ) = c a + c b

35 1001 20.
.1001 20 = (1000 + 1) 20 = 1000 20 + 1 20 = 20 000 + 20 =
= 20 020.
36 1001 102.
. 1001 102 = (1000 + 1) 102 = 1000 102 + 1 102 = 102 000 +
+ 102 = 102 102.
| .

(a + b )(m + n ):
, (m + n ) | m n , -
, | | .

(a + b ) m +n =a m +n +b m +n
, m + n | m n .
:
... = a (m + n ) + b (m + n ) = am + an + bn + bm:
: ,
.

37
(a + b + c + d + e )(x + y + z )
, ?
38
(a + b + c )(d + e )(x + y + z )
, ?
12. 17

12.

(a , b , c , ... , x , y , z ).
() -
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|
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.
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.
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a b
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. ,
a + b = b + a 1 + 7 =
= 7 + 1, 1028 + 17 = 17 + 1028 |
.
:

39 5 ;
13 .
?
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5 . 2 2
10 (10 = 2 5). , , 2 3 -
13 . ,
10 13 . -
, 13 10 = 3 .
, ,
5 : 5 3 = 2.
. | 2 , | 3 .
,
.., ... -
: ,
.. + .. = 5;
18 12.

2 .. + 2 .. = 10:
,
2 .. + 3 .. = 13:
, , .. = 3, -
, .. = 2.
.. ..
x y , .
.
x , |
y . :
x + y = 5;


2x + 3y = 13:
2, ,
2x + 2y = 10:
, ,
y = 13 10 = 3:

x = 5 y = 5 3 = 2:
. x = 2, y = 3.
, -
.
. . 3. 2.
. 4. -
. 2, ?

40 , .
,
.
( x ).
x
3 x +3
2 2 (x + 3) = 2x + 6
(2x + 6) x = x + 6
4 (x + 6) 4 = x + 2
(x + 2) x = 2
. 2
13. 19

13.
, 3 + 5 = 8, , ,
: , , , , ... ,
, . , (3) + (5) = (8) 3 + (5) =
= (2)? :

3+5=8 3 ,
5
8 .
(3) + 5 = 2 3 , 5
, . . +2 .
3 + (5) = (2) +3 , 5
, . . 2 .
(3) + (5) = (8) 3 , 5
, . . 8 .

3+5=8 + =

(3) + 5 = 2 + =
( -1 )
3 + (5) = (2) + =
( -)
(3) + (5) = (8) + -
=

14.
, , -
, :
5 + 5 + 5 = 15:
1 5,
, -
. 0 5 (3) 5 :
?
1 | ;
, . . , -.
20 14.

, , :
5 0 = 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = 0;
5 (3) = (3) + (3) + (3) + (3) + (3) = 15:
, -
| |
,
0 5 = 0; (3) 5 = 15:
(3) (5). : 15
+15? . , -
|
, . ,

3 5 = +15 3 (5) = 15
(3) 5 = 15 (3) (5) =?
, , (3) (5)
+15. ?
, , : -
, . -
, : ?
| , , -
?
:

3 5 = 15 |

3 (5) = 15 |

(3) 5 = 15 |

(3) (5) = 15 |

.
1; 2; 3; 4; 5; ...
, 3:
3; 6; 9; 12; 15; ...
14. 21

, 3. -
(, , 5 15):
5; 4; 3; 2; 1; ...
15; 12; 9; 6; 3; ...
:
5; 4; 3; 2; 1; 0; 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; ...
15; 12; 9; 6; 3; 0; 3; 6; 9; 12; 15; ...
5 15, 3 (5) = 15:
. , 1,
2, 3, 4, 5, ... 3 ( , ):
1; 2; 3; 4; 5; ...
3; 6; 9; 12; 15; ...
3.

5; 4; 3; 2; 1
15; 12; 9; 6; 3
:
5; 4; 3; 2; 1; 0; 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; ...
15; 12; 9; 6; 3; 0; 3; 6; 9; 12; 15; ...
5 15, (3) (5) = 15.
,
. ,
, (3) (5) = 15?
: , (3) (5)
15, , , -
, -
. .
, 3 (5) = 15. 15? , -
15, . . , 15 0.
,
3 (5) + 15 = 0:
,
3 (5) + 15 = 3 (5) + 3 5 = 3 (5 + 5) = 3 0 = 0:
( 3 ,
ab + ac = a (b + c ) a = 3, b = 5, c = 5 | ,
22 15.

, .) , 3 (5) =
= 15. ( , 3 0 = 0. -
: | ,
| .)
, (3) (5) = 15.
(3) + 3 = 0
5:
((3) + 3) (5) = 0 (5) = 0:
:
(3) (5) + 3 (5) = 0;
. . (3) (5) + (15) = 0. , (3) (5) -
15, . . 15. ( :
, 0 (5) = 0 ,
15.)

15.

3 9
5

15
;
, , , :
9 33 3
15
=
35
=
5
:
:

221 403
?
391 713
,
, :
221 17 13 13 31 13 403
391
=
17 23
=
23
=
31 23
=
713
:
15. 23

, ?
:
221 221 713 403 403 391
= =
391 391 713 713 713 391
:
713 391
221 403
713 1173
1426 1564
1426 157573
157573
, | ,
13=23 !

41 : 1=3 2=7 ?
. 1=3 = 7=21, 2=7 = 6=21, . . 1=3 > 2=7.
( :
?) : |
, , . . 1=3 2=7.
, :
1 2
3
=
6
< 27 :

10001 100001
42 : ? (. 1.
10002 100002
?)
12345 12346
43 : ?
54321 54322

| -
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.

11
1
11=
=
1=
1=
=
==
=33
3
=3
= 3
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
1 =
=
=
=
1=
=
=
=
= 2
2
2
=2
2
22

1=6
24 15.

, , -
:
2 5 2+5 7
3
+
7 3+7
=
10
:
: 7=10 = 0;7
2=3 = 0;666... 5=7 = 0;714285... :
( 2=3 ), -
( 5=7 ),
, 7=10 ).
(a , b , c , d
a c
44 | )
b d
ad bc
, 1,
bd
ad bc = 1.
1. , .
a c a +c
2. , ,
b d b +d
a c
, .
b d
3. ,
e

f
e f,
f < b + d , a

b

c

d
.
45 7 -
13 . 20
. , ( )
| ).
1 1
. , ,
20 7
1
. 18 . ,
13
. ( 18,
k
.) , |
7
l
;
13
k +l k +l
=
7 + 13 20
. , , -
k l
.
7 13
:
46
2 ?
2 | , | / ,/ | : /
? (. . . - --. . .)
16. 25

47 2=3 1=2 , ?
. 1=2 :
3 2 2 1
4

3
= =
4 2
;
( ).

16.

2; 4; 8; 16; ...
:
4=22
8 = 4 2 = 2 2 2 (3 )
16 = 8 2 = 2 2 2 2 (4 )
...
:
2 2 = 22
2 2 2 = 23
2 2 2 2 = 24
...
, , 26 = 2 2 2 2 2 2 = 64.
2, 4, 8, 16, ... : 2, 22 , 23 ,
2 , ... a n a n ( ) n - -
4

a ( ). a
, n | .
a 2 a 3 : a , a .
, a a 2 ,
a a 3 .
48 : () 210 ; () 103 ; () 107 ?
49 101000 ?
10 . ,

300000 / = 3 105 / = 3 108 / = 3 1010 /:
26 16.

50 ,
.
, 4 ?
( '
).

' 3 1022
' 6 106
' 4 108
( ' 1;5 1011
)
' 1026

' 6 1024
' 5 109
' 1;5 1010
' 6 109
' 2 109

.
: , ,
, 0;000015.
, ,
.
, -
. , 210 = 1024 1000 = 103
, 1000 ( 1000 , -
1000 ), 1024: 1 =
= 1024 . ( | .)
51 220 ?
52 2100 .
53 2n
n .
-
0;3:
210 ' 100;310 ; 2n ' 100;3n :
17. 27

( 0;3, 0;30102...,
10.)
, , , -
:
370 000 2 100 000 = 7;77 1011 :
10 (
, ):
7:77 11
,
777 000 000 000
.

17.
2:
2; 4; 8; 16; 32; 64; 128; ...
, - (, 128), -
:
128; 64; 32; 16; 8; 4; 2:
, |
. :
1
128; 64; 32; 16; 8; 4; 2; 1;
2
; 14 ; 18 ; 16
1
; ...

2; 4; 8; 16; 32; 64; 128; ...
:
2; 22 ; 23 ; 24 ; 25 ; 26 ; 27 ; ...
:
128; 64; 32; 16; 8; 4; 2
27 ; 26 ; 25 ; 24 ; 23 ; 22 ; 2
, :
1 1 1 1
128; 64; 32; 16; 8; 4; 2; 1; ; ; ; ; ...
2 4 8 16

27 ; 26 ; 25 ; 24 ; 23 ; 22 ; 21 ; 20 ; 21 ; 22 ; 23 ; 24 ; ...
28 17.

. ,
1 1 1
23 = 8; 21 = 2; 20 = 1; 21 = ; 22 = ; 23 = ; . .
2 4 8

, , 23 2, -
3 , 25 | 2, 5 .
, , , 21 , -
1
, 20 = 1 23 =
8
. , ( -
1
n ) 2n n .
2
, . -
, | -
| .

54 () 101 ; () 102 ; () 103 .

1 = 102
1 = 103
1 = 106
1 = 109
1 = 1010
' 3 1023
' 15{350 109
' 1031
( ,
)
( ) ' 7 107

, , .
:
, ' 6 103 ' 4 105 .

55 ,
? ( .)

, :
18. am an , 29

. n
a = a a ... a (n );
n

a = a1 ; n
n

a 0 = 1:
1
56 a n
=
an
n n = 0?
1
, a n = n ? , a n -
a
, (, ,
) . --
a n - ,
1
a n
= n . | -
a
?! ,
(. ).

2a a a a b b b c c d
| 2a 4 b 3 c 2 d , a
2a a a a c c
|
b b b d
2a 4 b 3 c 2 d 1 .

57 :
2a a a
a a a a a a a a a a b b b b ; ()
(a)
b b
.
. () a b ; () 2a b .
10 4 3 2

58 , :
() ab3 5
; () a 2 b 7 .
3
a 1
. () ; () .
b5 a2b 7

18. am an ,

a m a n , m n . ,
a 5 a 3 = (|a a {z
a a a}) (|a {z
a a}) = a 5+3 = a 8 :
5 3
30 18. am an ,

, a m a n = a m +n . , a m | a , -
m , a n | a , n . ,
n = 1 :
a a1 = a a = a
m m m +1
:
. -
! , m = 5, n = 3 :
a 5 a 3 = a 5+(3) = a 2 :
: a 5 a 3
a 5 a13 = a aa aa aa a = a 2 :

:
a 5 a 3 = a 5+3 = a 2 :
. ,
3
a 5 a 3 = a15 a 3 = aa 5 = a12 = a 2 :

, m n -
,
a 5 a 3 = a (5)+(3) = a 8 :
,
a 5 a 3 = a15 a13 = a18 = a 8 :

, . ,
( ) 0, a 0
. : ,
a a 0 = a +0 = a :
m m m

, a 0 = 1,
a a0 = a 1 = a :
m m m

59 m< 0, m = 0 m> 0?
m

60
a

an
? m n ?
19. 31

19.
-
:
a a
m m
= a m +n
:
, 2 107 3 1011 2 3
7 11:
(2 107 ) (3 1011 ) = (2 3) (107 1011 ) = 6 107+(11) = 6 104 :
(
10 2).
61 21001 2n = 22000 . n ?
1
62 21001 2n = . n ?
4
63 : 103 210 ?
21000
64 = 2501 . n ?
2n
1000
2 1
65 = . n ?
2n 16
66 4100 = 2n . n ?
67 2100 3100 = a 100 . a ?
68 (210 )15 = 2n . n ?
, -
. ,
. ,
- , , -
a m +n = a m a n m n . , .
, n = 0 a m a 0 = a m +0 , . . a m a 0 = a m . -
, a 0 = 1. a n a n = a n +(n ) = a 0 = 1 ,
1
a n = n .
a

, ? ,
(a 2 )3 = |a 2 a{z2 a}2 = (a a ) (a a ) (a a ) = a 6 :
3

,
(a m )n = a m n
32 20. .

m , n . -
: ,
m n . ,
 1 3 1 1 1 1
(a 2 )3 = 2 = 2 2 2 = 6 = a 6 = a (2)3 :
a a a a a

69 ( m> 0,
n < 0; m n ; ).
, , :
(ab )n = a n b n

70
n .
71 (a )775 : a 775 a 775 ?
? n ?
 a n
72
b

-
.
: , .
73 , 41=2 ? 271=3 ? -
?
, .

20. .


(a + b )(m + n ) = am + an + bm + bn
( ,
, ).
:
(a + b )(a + b ) = aa + ab + ba + bb:
, ab = ba aa bb
a 2 b 2 ,
(a + b )(a + b ) = a 2 + 2ab + b 2 ;
21. (a + b )2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2 33

(a + b )2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2

74 : () 1012 ; () 10022 .
75 10 .
?
:
.
,
: | (a + b )2 ,
| a 2 + b 2 .
76 | ?

21.
(a + b )2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2

.
, .
( , , |
.)
- a . a -
| a 2 . , b . -
b | b 2 .
a 2 + b 2 .
a b .
a + b a + b | (a + b )2 . |
|
?
, .
a b ( -
). ab . -
a | ba .
ab + ba = 2ab
. (a + b )2 a 2 + b 2
2ab . , (a + b )2 = a 2 + b 2 + 2ab .
34 22.

77 a + b a,
b a b .
.
a b

a a
2 ab

b ba b
2

22.

(a + b )2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2 -

(5 + 7)2 = 52 + 2 5 7 + 72

1 1
 1 2
;
 
13 + = 132 + 2 13 +
3 3 3

, a b .
. , , a = 7, b = 5:
(7 + (5))2 = 72 + 2 7 (5) + (5)2 :
, , ,

(7 5)2 = 72 2 7 5 + 52
,

(a b )2 = a 2 2ab + b 2
:
.
78 : () 992 ; () 9982 .
79 (a + b )2 = a 2 +2ab + b 2 (a b )2 =
=a 2
2ab + b 2 () a = b ; () a = 2b ?
23. 35

23.

80 a + b a b .
. :
(a + b )(a b ) = a (a b ) + b (a b ) = a 2 ab + ab b 2 = a 2 b 2
(ab ba ).
:

a 2 b 2 = (a + b )(a b )
81 101 99.
82 a b . -

a b a + b .

a b

( , -
) .
83 , 2 , -
1. ,
( ). ,
3 5 + 1 = 16 = 42 ;
13 15 + 1 = 196 = 142:
. n .
n + 2. n (n + 2) = n 2 + 2n . 1,
n 2 + 2n + 1 = (n + 1)2 ( ).
. n . -
n 2. n (n 2) = n 2 2n . 1,
n 2n + 1 = (n 1)2 ( ).
2

.
, n .
36 23.

n 1, n + 1,
(n +1)(n 1)= n 2 1 ( ), . .
.
84 1, 2, 3, ...:
1; 4; 9; 16; 25; 36; 49; ...;
:
1 4 9 16 25 36 49 ...
3 5 7 9 11 13 ...
2. ?
. n n + 1 n (n + 1)2 =
2

= n + 2n + 1. 2n + 1, n 1
2

2.
. , -
( 3, 5, 7, 9, ...),
. .
85 , ,
5: 5, n ; n
n + 1 25. :
352 : 5, 3; 3 4 = 12,
25, 352 = 1225.
115 : 11 12 = 132, 1152 = 13225.
2

.
86 (a + b + c )2 .
. (a + b + c ) = (a + b + c )(a + b + c ) = a + ab + ac + ba +
2 2

+ b + bc + ca + cb + c = a + b + c + 2ab + 2ac + 2bc :


2 2 2 2 2

a b c

a a
2 ab ac

b ba b
2 bc

c ca cb c
2

87 (a + b c )2 .
. .
24. 37

88 (a + b + c )(a + b c ).
. .
89 (a + b + c )(a b c )
. .
90 (a + b c )(a b + c ).
. .
91 (a 2 2ab + b 2 )(a 2 + 2ab + b 2 ).
.

(a b )2 (a + b )2 = ((a b )(a + b ))2 = (a 2 b 2 )2 = a 4 2a 2 b 2 + b 4 :


.

(a 2 2ab + b 2 )(a 2 + 2ab + b 2 ) = ((a 2 + b 2 ) 2ab )((a 2 + b 2 ) + 2ab ) =


= (a 2 + b 2 )2 4a 2 b 2 = a 4 + 2a 2 b 2 + b 4 4a 2 a 2 = a 4 + b 4 2a 2 b 2 :

24.
(a + b )3 .
(a + b )3 = (a + b )(a + b )(a + b );
. ,
,
(a + b )3 = (a + b )2 (a + b ) = (a 2 + 2ab + b 2 )(a + b ):
,
a , b :
(a 2 + 2ab + b 2 )(a + b ) = a 2 a + 2ab a + b 2 a + a 2 b + 2ab b + b 2 b:
x m x n = x m +n
a , b ,
a 3 + 2a 2 b + ab 2 +
+ a 2 b + 2ab 2 + b 3 :
( -
). . ,

(a + b )3 = a 3 + 3a 2 b + 3ab 2 + b 3

92 113 .
38 25.

. 11 = 10 + 1.
93 1013 .
94 (a b )3 ?
. , (a b ) =
3

= (a b ) (a b ) = (a 2ab + b )(a b ) .
2 2 2

(a + b )3 b b :
(a + (b ))3 = a 3 + 3a 2 (b ) + 3a (b )2 + (b )3 ;

(a b )3 = a 3 3a 2 b + 3ab 3 b 3
( , ,
).

25.
(a + b )4 , . ,
:
(a + b )2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2
(a + b )3 = a 3 + 3a 2 b + 3ab 2 + b 3
,

(a + b )1 = a + b:
, :
(a + b )1 = a + b:
(a + b )2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2
(a + b )3 = a 3 + 3a 2 b + 3ab 2 + b 3
(a + b )4 = ???
, . ? ,
. ? , a 4 . ?
. :
(1) a b ?
(2) ?
. ,
(a + b )1 a b,
(a + b )2 a 2 , ab b 2 ,
(a + b )3 a 3 , a 2 b , ab 2 b 3 ,
25. 39

,
(a + b )4 a 4 , a 3 b , a 2 b 2 , ab 3 b 4 .
| -
1 , :
(a + b )1 = 1a + 1b:
(a + b )2 = 1a 2 + 2ab + 1b 2
(a + b )3 = 1a 3 + 3a 2 b + 3ab 2 + 1b 3
:
1 1
1 2 1
1 3 3 1
? ? ? ? ?
, , 1. , ,
4 ( 1, 2, 3)
1 1
1 2 1
1 3 3 1
1 4 ? ? ?
. (a + b )4 b
a , b 4 , a 4 ,
ab 3 , a 3 b :
1 1
1 2 1
1 3 3 1
1 4 ? 4 1
a 2 b 2 , |
. ,
:
(a + b )4 = (a + b )3 (a + b ) = (a 3 + 3a 2 b + 3ab 2 + b 3 )(a + b ) =
= a3 a + 3a 2 b a + 3ab 2 a + b3 a +
+ a 3 b + 3a 2 b b + 3ab 2 b + b 3 b =
= a a +
3
3a 3 b + 3a 2 b 2 + ab 3 +
+ a 3 b + 3a 2 b 2 + 3ab 3 + b 4 :
(, , ) ,
40 26. (a + b )5 , (a + b )6

(a + b )4 = a 4 + 4a 3 b + 6a 2 b 2 + 4ab 3 + b 4

; ,
a 2 b 2 , 6.

26. (a + b )5 , (a + b )6

(a + b )5
a 5 a 4 b a 3 b 2 a 2 b 3 ab 4 b 5

1 5 ? ? 5 1:
| , -
| :
(a + b )5 = (a 4 + 4a 3 b + 6a 2 b 2 + 4ab 3 + b 4 )(a + b ) =

= a4 a + 4a 3 b a + 6 a 2 b 2 a + 4ab 3 a + b4 a +
+ a4 b + 4a 3 b b + 6a 2 b 2 b + 4ab 3 b + b 4 b =
= a 5
+ 5a 4 b + 10a 3
b 2
+ 10a 2
b 3
+ 5ab 4 + b 5 :
, :

1 1
1 2 1
1 3 3 1
1 4 6 4 1
1 5 10 10 5 1
, :
-
| : 1 + 4 = 5, 4 + 6 = 10,
6 + 4 = 10, 4 + 1 = 5.
, (a + b )5
26. (a + b )5 , (a + b )6 41

1... +4... +6... +4... +1... +


+1... +4... +6... +4... +1... =
= 1... +5... +10... +10... +5... +1...


1, (a + b )0 = 1.

1
1 1
1 2 1
1 3 3 1
1 4 6 4 1
1 5 10 10 5 1;

:
( , 1). ,

1 6 15 20 15 6 1;

(a + b )6 = a 6 + 6a 5 b + 15a 4 b 2 + 20a 3 b 3 + 15a 2 b 4 + 6ab 5 + b 6

(
[1623 { 1662] | ).
95 113 , 114 , 115 , 116 ?
96 (a + b )7 .
97 (a b )4 , (a b )5 , (a b )6 .
98 : -
?
99 (a + b )2 , (a + b )3 , (a + b )4 , (a + b )5 , ...
b = a?
100 ?
101 (a + b )2 , (a + b )3 , (a + b )4 , (a + b )5 , ...
b = a ?
42 27.

27.
, -
, .
. :
a 4 + a 3 b + ab 3 + b 4 ;
(5 7x )(x 1)(x 3) + 11;
(a + b )(a 3 + b 3 );
(a + b )(a + 2b ) + ab;
(x + y )(x y ) (y x )(y + x );
0;
(x + y )100 :
, , ,
. ,
(a 4 , , a a a a ). ,
, a 7 x y | .
, -
, . . . :
5 a 7 b a;
127a 15 ;
(2)a 2 b:
( | ,
2).
, -
: 5 a 7 b a 35a 2 b .
, | :
| . (
- ,
.) ,
. ,
(a + b )(a 3 + b 3 ) = aa 3 + ab 3 + ba 3 + bb 3 = a 4 + a 3 b + ab 3 + b 4 ;
(a + b )(a + 2b ) = a 2 + 2ab + ba + 2b 2 :
|
. , -
2ab ba .
:
(a + b )(a + 2b ) = a 2 + 2ab + ba + 2b 2 = a 2 + 3ab + 2b 2 :
27. 43

.
102 (1 + x + y )(12 zx y ) -
.
.

(1 + x y )(12 zx y ) = 12 zx y + 12x xzx xy 12y + yzx + y 2 =


= 12 zx 13y + 12x zx 2 xy + yzx + y 2 :
( ).
, : -
, . ,
12 + (1)zx + (13)y + 12x + (1)zx 2 + (1)xy + 1yzx + 1y 2 :
( 1).

, (-
) , .
, (1 + x + y )(12 zx y )
.
,
. -
:
[1x + (1)y ] + [1y + (2x ) + 1z ] =
= (1 + (2))x + ((1) + 1)y + 1z = (1)x + 0y + 1z = (1)x + 1z:
.
, :
(a 5 b 7 c ) (a 3 bd 4 ) = a 5+3 b 7+1 cd 4 = a 8 b 8 cd 4 :
. ,
(x y )(x 2 + xy + y 2 ) = x 3 + x 2 y + xy 2 yx 2 xy 2 y 3 = x 3 y 3 :
( ; ,
, -
1 1.)

103 (1 + x )(1 + x 2 ).
104 (1 + x )(1 + x 2 )(1 + x 4 )(1 + x 8 ).
105 (1 x )(1 + x )(1 + x 2 )(1 + x 4 )(1 + x 8 ).
106 (1 + x + x 2 + x 3 )2 .
44 28. : ?

107 (1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + ... + x 9 + x 10 )2 .
108 x 30 x 29
1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + ... + x 9 + x 10 :
3

109 (1 x )(1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + ... + x 9 + x 10 ).


110 (a + b )(a 2 ab + b 2 ).
111 (1 x + x 2 x 3 + x 4 x 5 + x 6 x 7 + x 8 x 9 + x 10 )
(1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + x 5 + x 6 + x 7 + x 8 + x 9 + x 10 ).

28. :
?
-. -
: ,
( , -
, . .). :
,
. , -
: , , .
, -
,
. ( -
,
) ,
.
-, , -
: , -
. , -,
, :
, .
112 , ,
(x 1)(x 2)(x 3)(x 4) 6= (x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 3)(x + 4):
. x = 1 ,
.
113
(x 2 1)(x + ...) = (x 1)(x + 3)(x + ...)
29. ? 45

, . ?
. x = 1 x = 3.

, ,
. ? -
, . ,
. , ,
.
114 (x +1)2 (x 1)2 x 2 +4x 1
1 1 x , . ?
. : x = 0.
| ( ,
).
, , -
.
, , , .
, , |
.
, -
, . ,
, a 2 b 2 (a b )(a + b ).

29. ?

115 -
, 4 ?
. -
0:
x 3 + 4 = x 3 + 0x 2 + 0x + 4:
.
. (a + b + c + d ) (x + y + z + u ):

(a + b + c + d )(x + y + z + u ) = ax + ay + az + au +
+ bx + by + bz + bu + cx + cy + cz + cu + dx + dy + dz + du:
16 . , 16 (
).
116 , -
4 , 16 ?
46 30.

. : 16 . ,
(1 + x + x + x 3 )(1 + x + x 2 + x 3 ) = 1 + 2x + 3x 2 + 4x 3 + 3x 4 + 2x 5 + x 6 ;
2

16 7.
117 -
, ?
. .
. , ,
, .
.
118
? (, -
, .)
119 -
, , ?
. :

(x 2 + 2xy + 2y 2 )(x 2 2xy + 2y 2 ) = ((x 2 + 2y 2 ) + 2xy )((x 2 + 2y 2 ) 2xy ) =


= (x 2 + 2y 2 )2 (2xy )2 = x 4 + 4x 2 y 2 + 4y 2 4x 2 y 2 = x 4 + 4y 4 :

30.

1
1 1
1 2 1
1 3 3 1
1 4 6 4 1
(a + b )n :
(a + b )0 = 1
(a + b )1 = 1a + 1b
(a + b )2 = 1a 2 + 2ab + 1b 2
(a + b )3 = 1a + 3a 2 b + 3ab 2 + 1b 3
3

(a + b )4 = 1a + 4a 3 b + 6a 2 b 2 + 4ab 3 + 1b 4
4

.
,
a b .
120 , a = 1, b = 1?
31. 47

(1 + 1)0 = 1
(1 + 1)1 = 1 + 1
(1 + 1)2 = 1 + 2 + 1
(1 + 1)3 = 1 + 3 + 3 + 1
(1 + 1)4 = 1 + 4 + 6 + 4 + 1
...
1 + 1 = 2, , -
.
121
, :
11=0
12+1=0
13+31=0
14+64+1=0
...
?
. a = 1, b = 1.
122 (1 + 2x )200 , -
( x ).
?
. x = 1.
123 , 122, (1 2x )200 .
124 (1 + x y )3 .
?
125 (.) -
, y ?
126 (.) -
, x ?

31.
| , -
, .
48 31.

| -
| ( -
). .
127 ac + ad + bc + bd .
. ac + ad + bc + bd = a (c + d ) + b (c + d ) = (a + b )(c + d ).
128 ac + bc ad bd .
129 1 + a + a 2 + a 3 .
130 1 + a + a 2 + ... + a 13 + a 14 .
131 x 4 x 3 + 2x 2.
,
:
132 a 2 + 3ab + 2b 2 .
. a + 3ab + 2b = a + ab + 2ab + 2b = a (a + b ) + 2b (a + b ) =
2 2 2 2

= (a + 2b )(a + b ).
133 a 2 3ab + 2b 2 .
134 a 2 + 3a + 2.
, -
a 2 + 2ab + b 2 .
:
a 2 + 2ab + b 2 = a 2 + ab + ab + b 2 = a (a + b ) + b (a + b ) = (a + b )(a + b ):
135 a 2 + 4ab + 4b 2 .
136 a 4 + 2a 2 b 2 + b 4 .
137 a 2 2a + 1.
.
a 2 b 2 (
):
a 2 b 2 = a 2 ab + ab b 2 = a (a b ) + b (a b ) = (a + b )(a b ):
138 x 5 + x + 1.
.

x5 + x + 1 = x5 + x4 + x3 x4 x3 x2 + x2 + x + 1 =
= x 3 (x 2 + x + 1) x 2 (x 2 + x + 1) + (x 2 + x + 1) =
= (x 3 x 2 + 1)(x 2 + x + 1):
31. 49

, | , -
. .
a 2 b 2 = (a b )(a + b )
. a = b , a b = 0 (
). , . : a = b ,
a 2 = b 2 . , a + b = 0, a 2 = b 2 ( a = b
a 2 = b 2 : ).
139 , a 2 = b 2 , a = b a = b .
, , -
, | .

140 a 3 b 3 .
. a b , a = b .
3 3

, a b .
:
a 3 b 3 = a 3 a 2 b + a 2 b ab 2 + ab 2 b 3 =
= a 2 (a b ) + ab (a b ) + b 2 (a b ) = (a 2 + ab + b 2 )(a b ):

141 a3 + b 3.
.

a 3 + b 3 = a 3 + a 2 b a 2 b ab 2 + ab 2 + b 3 =
= a 2 (a + b ) ab (a + b ) + b 2 (a + b ) = (a 2 ab + b 2 )(a + b ):
, (b )
b .
142 a 4 b 4 .

a 4 b 4 = a 4 a 3 b + a 3 b a 2 b 2 + a 2 b 2 ab 3 + ab 3 b 4 =
= a 3 (a b ) + a 2 b (a b ) + ab 2 (a b ) + b 3 (a b ) =
= (a b )(a 3 + a 2 b + ab 2 + b 3 ):
, :
a 4 b 4 = (a 2 b 2 )(a 2 + b 2 ):

a 4 b 4 = (a b )(a + b )(a 2 + b 2 )
.
50 31.

143 a5 b 5.
144 a 10 b 10 .
145 a 7 1.
146 a 2 4b 2 .
. , 4 = 22 ,
a 2 4b 2 = a 2 22 b 2 = a 2 (2b )2 = (a 2b )(a + 2b ):
a 2 2b 2 .

, ,
2 1;4142 ::: | ,
2, . . ( 2)2 = 2.
( a

, a . -
a . , ;
.)
2 :

a 2 b 2 = a 2 ( 2b )2 = (a 2b )(a + 2b ):
, a 2 2b
2
, ,
2.
.
 p 
a b = a 2 b 2 = a b a + b :
p  p 

, a b ? , ,

a b | (

| , ).
a 2b ? ?
, | |
, . A 2 |
( ).
.
147 a 2 2.
148 a 2 3b 2 .

149 a 2 + 2ab + b 2 c 2 .

150 a 2 + 4ab + 3b 2 .

151 a 4 + b 4 .
( a b ,
(b ) b , .)
31. 51

. : 2a 2 b 2 :

a 4 + b 4 = a 4 + 2a 2 b 2 + b 4 2a 2 b 2 = (a 2 + b 2 )2 ( 2ab )2 =

= (a 2 + b 2 + 2ab )(a 2 + b 2 2ab ):

. -
a n b n n ( a b ). -
n a n + b n
( b b ; a + b ).
a 2 + b 2 , a 4 + b 4 , a 6 + b 6 . .
.
152 a2n
+ b 2n -
?
. a 6 + b 6 = (a 2 )3 + (b 2 )3 .
, n , 1, 4 |
a + b , n n

a2 + b 2.
a 2 + b 2 :

a 2 + b 2 = a 2 ( 1 b )2 = (a 1 b )(a + 1 b );
| 1 (. . ,
1) , .
, , , .
| , .
.

153 , -

(2 + 3 1) (2 3 1)?
| .
154 x 4 + 1.
155 x (y 2 z 2 ) + y (z 2 x 2 ) + z (x 2 y 2 ).
156 a 10 + a 5 + 1.
157 a 3 + b 3 + c 3 3abc .
158 (a + b + c )3 a 3 b 3 c 3 .
159 (a b )3 + (b c )3 + (c a )3 .
160 , a , b > 1, a + b < 1 + ab .
52 32.

. (1 + ab ) (a + b ).
161 , a 2 + ab + b 2 = 0, a = 0 b = 0.
. a b . ( -
3 3

, .)
162 , a + b + c = 0, a 3 + b 3 + c 3 = 3abc .
163 ,

1 1 1 1
a +b +c
=
a
+
b
+
c
;
a , b , c
(. . a = b , a = c b = c ).

32.

( ,
). , , -
. ( : , ,
0.)
:

ab a=b 1 1
() ; () ; () 1
; () 1
;
c b=c
1+ 1+
x 1
1+
1
1+
x

x y z
+ + 3
y z x x + x2 + x + 1 1
() y z x + 1; () ; () 1 1 
.
+ + x +1
+ 2
x y z a b

2
x x2
, , | ,
x x
0.

, -
| .
33. 53

33.

-
. ,
, . ,
.
.
1. .
P

Q

R

S
, P , Q, R ,
S | .
P

Q

R

S
(
, P Q S , a R S Q ):
+ QR
P

Q
+
R

S
=
PS

QS
+
QR

QS
=
PS

QS
:
2. :
P

Q

R

S
=
PS

QS

QR

QS
=
PS QR
QS
:
3. :
P

Q

R

S
=
PR

QS
:
4. :
P
:
.R PS
=
Q S QR

,
:
PX

QX
=
P

Q
:
164 () { () ()
( () ()
).
.
ac x
() ; () ;
b2 x +1
1 x 1 x 2x + 1
() 1
= ; 1+ 1
=1+ = ;
x +1 x +1 x +1
1+ 1+
x x

1 x +1 1 3x + 2
1
= ; 1+ 1
= ;
2x + 1 2x + 1
1+ 1+
1 1
1+ 1+
x x
54 33.

1 2x + 1
3x +2
= .
3x + 2
2x +1

x y z
+ + (x 2 z + y 2 x + x 2 y )=xyz (x 2 z + y 2 x + x 2 y ) xyz
() y
y
z x
+1= +1= +1=
x
+ z
y
+ x
z
(y 2 z + z 2x + x 2 y )=xyz (y 2 z + z 2 x + x 2 y ) xyz

(x 2 z + y 2 x + x 2 y ) 2
x z + y 2x + x 2y + y 2z + z 2x + x 2y
= +1= ;
(y 2 z + z 2x + x 2y ) y 2z + z 2x + x 2y

2ab
() .
a +b

,
. ,
3
x + x2 + x + 1
x2 1

,
:
3
+ x2 + x + 1 (x + 1)(x 2 + 1) 2
+1
x

(x + 1)(x 1)
=
(x + 1)(x 1)
=
x

x 1
:

. , | ,

3
+ x2 + x + 1
. ,
x

x2 1
x = 1,
2
x +1
. ,
x 1
.

, -
| . |
, , .
165

(x a )(x b ) (x a )(x c ) (x b )(x c )


(c a )(c b )
+
(b a )(b c )
+
(a b )(a c )
:

. ,
(c a )(c b )(b a ) (
b a , | c a ; ,
33. 55

b c = (c b )):
(x a )(x b ) (x a )(x c )
+ =
(c a )(c b ) (b a )(b c )
(x a )(x b )(b a ) (x a )(x c )(c a )
= =
(c a )(c b )(b a )
(x a )[(x b )(b a ) (x c )(c a )]
= =
(c a )(c b )(b a )
(x a )[xb xa b 2 + ab xc + xa + c 2 ac ]
= =
(c a )(c b )(b a )
(x a )[x (b c ) + a (b c ) (b c )(b + c )]
= =
(c a )(c b )(b a )
(x a )(b c )(x + a b c )
=
(c a )(c b )(b a )
:
(c b ) = (b c ),
(x a )(b + c a x )
(c a )(b a )
:
( ):
(x a )(b + c a x ) (x b )(x c )
+ =
(c a )(b a ) (a b )(a c )
2 2 2
xb + xc xa x ab ac + a + ax + x xb xc + bc
= =
(c a )(b a )
2
a + bc ab ac a (a b ) c (a b ) (a c )(a b )
= = = = 1:
(c a )(b a ) (c a )(b a ) (c a )(b a )
,
(x a )(x b ) (x a )(x c ) (x b )(x c )
+ + = 1:
(c a )(c b ) (b a )(b c ) (a b )(a c )

166 x = a , x = b x = c .
, ,
.
, .
| ,
.
1
1 1
.
+ 2
a b

( , a b )
a b .
.
56 34.

167 , -
| a , b .
, , ?
168 , a ,
( ) | b .
, ? (
).
169 v1 , |
v2 . ?
170 , x + x1 = 7. () x 2 + x12 ; () x 3 + x13 .
1 1
171 x + | . , x + n
n

n = 1, 2, 3, ... .
x x

172 () 53, ,

1 1 +1 1 2x + 1
1
=
x
x

+1
; 1
=
x

2x + 1
; 3x + 2
=
3x + 2
:
1+ 1+
x 1 2x + 1
1+
x


1 1
1
; 1
; ...
1+ 1+
1 1
1+ 1+
1 1
1+ 1+
1 1
1+ 1+
x 1
1+
x

, -
. (
; -
, . . 78.)

34.

,

.
, | . ( -
35. 57

. , ,
.) , 7x 2 + 3x + 1 7x 2 ,
2.
0 , 0.
173 (2x + 1)5 ?
174 m , n .
?
. -
m + n ( x m x n = x m +n ),
x m x n . -
,
.
175 () 7
9? () 7?
. () 9; () , 7.

176 10 x
x y 7 + 5y 2 y 4.
( y )?

35.
, | -
, . |
3 1
, . , |
7 15
7 11 37
, , | .
5 11 7
, -
; :

7=15+2 7 2
7 5
=1+ 5 1
( 1, 2) 5 5
2

37 = 5 7 + 2 37 2
37 7
=5+ 35 5
( 5, 2) 7 7
2

11 = 1 11 + 0 11
11 11
=1 11 1
( 1, 0) 11
0
58 35.

-
, | .
,
4
10x 1 x x +1
. , , | , a , ,
x2 x3 1 x 2 x +2
3 3
x x +1
, | .
5x x +1

() + ( ):
:
x +3 (x + 1) + 2 2
() = =1+ .
x +1 x +1 x +1
x (x + 2) 2 2
() = =1 .
x +2 x +2 x +2
x x + (1=2) 1=2 1 1=2
() = = .
2x + 1 2x + 1 2x + 1 2 2x + 1
( , ,
, | ,
. , , 1=2 |
0.)
2
(x 2 4) + 4 (x + 2)(x 2) + 4 4
= (x + 2) +
x
() = = .
x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2
4
x (x 4 16) + 16 (x 2 + 4)(x + 2)(x 2) + 16
() = = =
x 2 x 2 x 2
16
= (x 2 + 4)(x + 2) + .
x 2

, . -
:
4
x
. :
x 2
x4 x 2
x 4 2x 3 x 3 + 2x 2 + 4x + 8
2x 3

2x 3 4x 2
4x 2
4x 2 8x
8x
8x 16
16
35. 59

4 4
2x 3 2x 3 2x 3 2x 3 4x 2 4x 2
= x3 + = x3 +
x x
= + + =
x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2

4x 2 4x 2 8x 8x
= x 3 + 2x 2 + = x 3 + 2x 2 + + =
x 2 x 2 x 2
8x 8x 16 16
= x 3 + 2x 2 + 4x + = x 3 + 2x 2 + 4x + + =
x 2 x 2 x 2
16
= x 3 + 2x 2 + 4x + 8 + :
x 2

, :

x 4 = (x 3 + 2x 2 + 4x + 8)(x 2) + 16:
3
x + 2x
. :
x2 x +1

x3 + 2x x2 x + 1
x x +x
3 2
x +1
x2 + x
x2 x + 1
2x 1

3 3
+ 2x x2 + x 2
+x 2
+x
=x +
x x x x
= + =
x2 x +1 x2 x +1 x2
x +1 x +1 x2
2
x x +1 2x 1 2x 1
=x + 2 + 2 = (x + 1) + :
x x +1 x x +1 x2 x +1

,
x 3 + 2x = (x + 1)(x 2 x + 1) + (2x 1):
3
x
(). :
2x 3

x3 2x 3
x 3 (3=2)x 2 (1=2)x 2 + (3=4)x + (9=8)
(3=2)x 2

(3=2)x 2 (9=4)x
(9=4)x
(9=4)x (27=8)
(27=8)
60 35.

:
3 3
(3=2)x 2 (3=2)x 2 1 (3=2)x 2 (9=4)x (9=4)x
= x2 +
x x
= + + =
2x 3 2x 3 2x 3 2 2x 3 2x 3
1 3 (9=4)x (27=8) 27=8 1 3 9 27=8
= x2 + x + = x2 + x + :
 
+ +
2 4 2x 3 2x 3 2 4 8 2x 3
,
1
x3 = x 2 + 34 x + 89 27
(2x 3) + :

2 8

:
() = ( ) () + ()
( 0).

177 -
7 3?
. 4,
0, 1, 2 3; , (. .
0).
178 , ( -
) .
. -
. -
, P S
Q1 Q2 R1 R2 .
P = Q1 S + R1 ;
P = Q2 S + R2 ;
R1 R2 , S .
Q1 S + R1 = Q2 S + R2
, ,
R1 R2 = Q2 S Q1 S = (Q2 Q1 )S:
R1 R2 , -
, S ( R1 R2 , S ).
R1 R2 = (Q2 Q1 )S -
: Q2 Q1 = 0, R1 R2 = 0, . . Q1 = Q2 , R1 = R2 .
,
? , 0,
.
35. 61

:
1234 11 x 3 + 2x 2 + 3x + 4 x + 1
11 112 x3 + x2 x2 + x + 2
13 x + 3x
2

11 x2 + x
24 2x + 4
22 2x + 2
2 2
1234 = 112 11 + 2 x 3 + 2x 2 + 3x = (x 2 + x + 2)(x + 1) + 2:
; ,
10 x . , ,
x 3 + 2x 2 + 3x + 4 x 1
x3 x2 x 2 + 3x + 6
3x + 3x
2

3x 2 x
6x + 4
6x 6
10
x 3 + 2x 2 + 3x + 4 = (x 2 + 3x + 6)(x 1) + 10
: x = 10, -
1234 = 136 9 + 10, , , ,
1234 9 136, 10 (
137, 1).
179 x 3 1 x 1.
180 x 4 1 x 1.
181 x 10 1 x 1.
182 x 3 + 1 x + 1.
183 x 4 + 1 x + 1.


n
1
= x n 1 + x n 2 + ... + x 2 + x + 1;
x

x 1
x 1
xn 1
+ x n 2 + ... + x 2 + x + 1.
x :
n
1
1 + x + x 2 + ... + x n 1 =
x

x 1
62 36. x a

( x , 1). . -
.
184
1; 2; 4; 8; 16; 32; 64; ...
: -
:
1 + 2 = 3 = 4 1;
1 + 2 + 4 = 7 = 8 1;
1 + 2 + 4 + 8 = 15 = 16 1
. . .
.

n
1
1 + x + x 2 + ... + x n 1 =
x

x 1
x = 2.
2n 1
1 + 2 + 22 + ... + 2n 1 = = 2n 1:
21

. 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16,
1:
1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 = (1 + 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16) 1 =
= (2 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16) 1 =
= (4 + 4 + 8 + 16) 1 =
= (8 + 8 + 16) 1 =
= (16 + 16) 1 =
= 32 1:
.

36. x a

x a ( a | ), .
, , x 4 x 2.
, | (
x 2). ,
x 4 = ( )(x 2) + ()
36. x a 63

x = 2.
24 = (...) 0 + ();
. . 24 = 16.
, P | ,
x a ( a | ).
P = ( )(x a ) + ()
x = a . :

x x a ,
a x .
.
( ), .
:
,
x a , ,
a x .
, , -
. , P
x a , a | P .
185 n x n
1 x 1 ?
186 n x n
+ 1 x + 1 ?
,
, x a (a | ).
,
.
187
() x 4 + 5x 6; () x 4 + 3x 2 + 5x + 1; ()x 3 3x 2.
188 , 1 2 | P . , P
(x 1)(x 2).
. 1 P , P -
(x 1), P = (x 1) Q . x = 2, ,
2 Q , Q x 2, Q = (x 2) R .
P = (x 1)(x 2)R .
. : P x 1 (
1 | ) x 2 ( 2 | ), , P
64 36. x a

(x 1)(x 2). : . ,
12 6 4, : , 12
6 4 = 24.
,
a1 , a2 , ... , an
P , P (x a1 )(x a2 )...(x an ).

189 5?
. 5 . ,
(x 1)(x 2)(x 3)(x 4)(x 5)
1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 5 . ,
P 5 6 a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 , a5 , a6 ,

(x a1 )(x a2 )...(x a6 )
. .
P = (x a1 )(x a2 )...(x a6 )Q;
, 6.
n n
.
. ,
-. ,
x 2 2x + 1? , x 2 2x + 1 = (x 1)2 ,
x = 1 , x 6= 1 | .
, , -
. ,
a b
c (x a )(x b )

x 2 2x + 1 = (x 1)2 = (x 1)(x 1)
a = b =1 ( c =1),
, .
,
, , ,
, n n
.
190 , P x 2 1?
37. , , 65

. , 1 1 -
P.
191 n x n
1 x 2 1?

(x a )(x b ) (x a )(x c ) (x b )(x c )
+ + 1 = 0;
(c a )(c b ) (b a )(b c ) (a b )(a c )

. 54 ( 1 ). a ,
b , c | .
x . 2.
( 0 ). a , b
c . , !
,
(
, : a = b , ) -
.
, | .
192 P ( x )
x 2 1 1, . .
ax + b . a b , P x = 1 x = 1?
.

P = (x 2 1)( ) + (ax + b )
x = 1 x = 1.
193 x 2 1 P 5x 7.
P x 1?
194 P = x 3 + x 2 10x + 1 (
), x1 ; x2 ; x3 .
, :
1 1 1
(a) x1 + 1, x2 + 1, x3 + 1; () 2x1 , 2x2 , 2x3 ; ()
x1
,
x2
,
x3
.

195 () a b , , -
x 3
+ ax 2 + x + b x 2 3x + 2.

37. , ,
P | , () x .
, P (x ) ( ).
x - , , 6, -
66 37. , ,

. P (x ) x = 6
P (6) ( ).
, P (x ) = x 2 x 4, P (0) = 02 0 4 = 4.
: P (1) = 4, P (2) = 2, P (3) = 2, P (4) = 8, P (5) = 16, P (6) = 26
. .
196 P (0); ...; P (6)
P (x ) = x 3 2.
197 P (0), P (1), P (2), ...
P (x ) = x 2 x 4:
4; 4; 2; 2; 8; 16; 26; ...
:
4 4 2 2 8 16 26 ...
0 2 4 6 8 10 ...
-
:
4 4 2 2 8 16 26 ...
0 2 4 6 8 10 ...
2 2 2 2 2 ...
. , ,
| .
198 , 2 -
.
199 -
.
200 P (x ) = x 2 + x + 41 (
. ) x = 1, 2, 3, ... , 10. , |
( , ).
, P (1), P (2), P (3), ... ?
, ,
- .
n ( )
, 0, 1, 2, ... , n .
, 1 ax + b . a 6= 0
1. a = 0, b 6= 0 0. a = b = 0
( ).
2 ax 2 + bx + c . .
37. , , 67

201 , P (x ) | 1, P (1) = 7,
P (2) = 5. P (x ).
. P (x ) = ax + b , a b | .
x = 1 x = 2.
P (1) = a + b = 7;
P (2) = 2a + b = 5:
, , a 7 -
5, a = 2, b = 9. : P (x ) = 2x + 9.
1,
x . , ,
y = ax + b | , :
, .
202 P (x ) 1
P (1) = 0 P (2) = 0. , P (x ) = 0 x .
2.
, ? , -
.
203 P (x ) = 0 2 , P (1) = 0
P (2) = 0. , P (x ) = 0?
. :

P (x ) = (x 1)(x 2) = x 2 3x + 2:
, P (x ), P (1) = P (2) = 0,
P (x ) = (x 1)(x 2)Q (x ), Q (x ) | .
P (x ) 2, Q (x ) .
204 P (x ) 2 , P (1) = 0, P (2) = 0,
P (3) = 4. P (x ).
. , P (x ) = a (x 1)(x 2)
a | . , x = 3:
P (3) = a (3 1)(3 2) = 2a = 4;
a = 2. : P (x ) = 2(x 1)(x 2) = 2x 2 6x + 4.
. 2 ax + bx + c .
2

x = 1, 2, 3, :
P (1) = a + b + c = 0;
P (2) = 4a + 2b + c = 0;
P (3) = 9a + 3b + c = 0:
68 37. , ,

3a + b = 0;
5a + b = 4:
2a 0 4, a = 2. b = 6, c = 4.
: 2x 2 6x + 4.
205 , 2 -
. , P (x ) Q (x ) | -
2 P (x1 ) = Q (x1 ), P (x2 ) = Q (x2 ), P (x3 ) = Q (x3 )
x1 , x2 , x3 , P (x ) Q (x ) .
. P Q , R (x ) =
= P (x ) Q (x ). R (x1 ) = R (x2 ) = R (x3 ) = 0.
, x1 , x2 , x3 | R (x ). -
2, , (
).

206 ,
16a + 4b + c = 0;
49a + 7b + c = 0;
100a + 10b + c = 0:
, a = b = c = 0.
207 , n
n + 1 . ( n = 2 .)
208 P (x ) 2, :
() P (1) = 0, P (2) = 0, P (3) = 4;
() P (1) = 0, P (2) = 2, P (3) = 0;
() P (1) = 6, P (2) = 0, P (3) = 0;
() P (1) = 6, P (2) = 2, P (3) = 4.
. () : 2(x 1)(x 2).
() (). : () 2(x 1)(x 3), () 3(x 2)(x 3).
(), .
:

2(x 1)(x 2) 2(x 1)(x 3) + 3(x 2)(x 3) =


= 2x 2 6x + 4 2x 2 + 8x 6 + 3x 2 15x + 18 = 3x 2 13x + 16:
( ()). - -
Q 2, Q (1) = 6, Q (2) = 2. ,
Q (x ) = 10 4x ( 1). Q -
Q (1) Q (2) , Q (3) = 2 | .
38. 69

,
P (x ) = Q (x ) + a (x 1)(x 2):
a , P (1) P (2) .
a P (3) :
P (3) = Q (3) + 2a = 2 + 2a:
P (3) 4, a = 3.
:
P (x ) = 10 4x + 3(x 1)(x 2) = 10 4x + 3x 2 9x + 6 = 3x 2 13x + 16:
209 P (x ) 3, -
:P (1) = 2, P (0) = 1, P (1) = 2, P (2) = 7.
210 x1 , ... , x10 | , y1 , ... , y10 |
. , 9,
P (x1 ) = y1 , P (x2 ) = y2 , ... , P (x10 ) = y10 .
211 , ,
a , b c ,
100a + 10b + c = 18;37
36a + 6b + c = 0;05
4a + 2b + c = 3
( a , bc , .)
212 P 1, P (1) = 0, P (2) = 0,
P (3) = 0,
... , P (9) = 0, P (10) = 0.
P ? P (11)?
. 10; P (11) = 3628800.

38.

3; 5; 7; 9; 11; ...
2 ;
10; 9; 8; 7; 6; ...
1 .
.
. ,
, -
, .
70 38.

213 ?
. 2 1.
214
5; 2; ...
. 9.
215 1000-
2; 3; 4; 5; 6; ...
.
1; 2; 3; 4; 5; ...
1, 2, ... , 1000- 1000.
.
. 1001.

216 1000-

2; 4; 6; 8; ...

217 1000-
1; 3; 5; 7; ...

218 a , d.
1000- ? n - ?
.
1- a
2- a +d
3- a + 2d
4- a + 3d
5- a + 4d
... ...
1000- a + 999d
... ...
n - a + (n 1)d
219 d
. ? , -
?
220 d
. ?
?
39. 71

221 , .
222 5,
8. ?
. 6;5.

223 a, a b.
?
. (a + b )=2.

224 a , b .
?
225
1; 3; 5; 7; ...; 993; 995; 997; 999:
. n - 2n 1. ( |
2, 4, 6, ... , 1000.)

39.

226
1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + ... + 999:
. (. ).
n 1+(n 1) 2=2n 2+1=2n 1. 999 n =500.
500 . 250
(1 + 999) + (3 + 997) + ... + (499 + 501):
1000.
. 250000.

227 n a , (n -)
b . .
. , ,
n=2 , a + b .
n (a + b)
. .
2
228 . -
.
. n . n
, () . -
n , ,
72 39.


S = 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 11:
:
S = 11 + 9 + 7 + 5 + 3

S = 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 11+
+11 + 9 + 7 + 5 + 3:
2 , 14:
3 + 11 = 5 + 9 = 7 + 7 = 9 + 5 = 11 + 3 = 14:
5 14
2S = 5 14 = 70, S = = 35.
2
n ,
, . . a + b .

S = n (a 2+ b ) :
: , -
3 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 11, 5 14.

229 , n -
:
1 = 12 ;
1 + 3 = 22 ;
1 + 3 + 5 = 32 . .
. :

1 3 5 7 9
40. 73

40.

3; 6; 12; 24; ...
2 .
2
6; 2;
3
; 92 ; 272 ; ...
3 . -
.
. ,
, -
, | .

230 ?
. 2 1=3.
231
2; 3; ...
. 9=2.
232 1000- 3, 6, 12, ...
.

1- 3 = 3 20
2- 6 = 3 21
3- 12 = 3 22
... ...
1000- = 3 2999

233 n - , a ,
q ?
.

1- a = a q 0
2- a q = a q 1
3- a q 2
4- a q 3
... ...
n - a q n 1
234 1,
4. ? ( .)
. 2, 2.
74 41.

235 30 , -
. 2 ?

1; 0; 0; 0; ...
? -
, :
, .
, (
, 0).
236 q 6= 0
. ?
. 1=q .

237 q -
. ?
?
238 , .

239 a ,
b . ?
. x , x=a -
b=x . x=a = b=x , ax , x 2 = ab .
ab < 0, ( );
ab = 0, x = 0; ab > 0, x = ab (.
).
. , x = 0 a = 0.
, |
, , a = 1 b = 0,
.
: x = 1 0 = 0.
240 1, 4- a> 0.
2- 3- ?
. . n - .

.
3
a 3 a2.

41.

241 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + ... + 512 + 1024 (


).
41. 75

. 1:
1 + 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + ... + 1024 =
= 2 + 2 + 4 + 8 + ... + 1024 =
= 4 + 4 + 8 + ... + 1024 =
= 8 + 8 + ... + 1024 =
= 16 + ... + 1024 =
...
= 256 + 256 + 512 + 1024 =
= 512 + 512 + 1024 =
= 1024 + 1024 =
= 2048

. 2048 1 = 2047.
. S :
S = 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + ... + 512 + 1024:

2S = 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + ... + 1024 + 2048:


( ) 2048
1. :
2S S = 2048 1; S = 2048 1 = 2047:
1 1 1 1 1 1
242 1 + , 1 + + , 1 + + + , ... ,
2 2 4 2 4 8
1 1 1
1 + + + ... + .
2 4 1024
243 a,
q . n .
.

a + aq + aq 2 + ... + aq n 1
= a (1 + q + q 2 + ... + q n 1 ):

q n
1 = (q 1)(q n 1 + q n 2 + ... + q + 1);
,
n
1
1 + q + ... + q n 1 = :
q

q 1
76 42.

,
n

a qq 11 :
. S :
S = a + aq + ... + aq n 2
+ aq n 1 :
q :
qS = aq + aq 2 + ... + aq 1 + aq : n n

aq , a ,
n

qS S = aq a; n

(q 1)S = a (q 1); n

S = a qq 11 :

244 .
?
. q = 1 :

1n 1
11
. a
na . ,
n
1
= n; q = 1:
q

q 1
( , ; ,
f (x ) = x n
!)

42.

245 1=2, 1=3, 1=5 ( -


) ?
. ; 1=30.

246 2, 3, 5 ( )
?
. , . ,
q .
3 = 2q n ; 5 = 3q m
42. 77

m n .
3 5
q n
=
2
; q m
=
3
:

 3 m  5 n
= q mn = ;
2 3

3m +n = 2m 5n . , | ,
m 6= 0. m = 0. ,

5 = 3q m = 3 1 = 3:
, 3 = 2q n 5 = 3q m
. , 2, 3 5
.
247 ,
3 2, 5 3 (
m n ). ?
248 2 -
, | ?
. : , -
| , | .
249 10 -
, | ?
. :

1
512; 256; 128; 64; 32; 16; 8; 4; 2; 1;
2
; 14 ; ...
250
?
. :
.
251 .
. : 1, 1, 1.
252
, | ?
. 2 -

2 (. ).
253
2 ?
78 43.

. .
254
1; 3; 7; 15; 31; ...
2 -
1. 1000- ?
. 2 1.
1000

255 , -
.
. . .
.

1+ 5 1 5
2

2
:
256
1; 1; 2; 3; 5; 8; 13; 21; ...
: 1,
. A B , n -

 1 + 5 n  1 5 n
A 2
+B
2
:

43.
, -
. ? ,
: ? , |
. ?
, | .
, . . .
, 440 ( 440 ;
),
.
. -
. ,
20 20 (
;
).
, , ,
| .
.
43. 79

| 50 , . . 50 (
, | 60 ). - -
, .
257 , .
, ?
.
258 (, ) , -
, . ,
?
259 33 45;
?
260 | ? -
?
261 . -
?
262 , | -
?
,
, .
( )
. -
{ (,
: = 2 : 3) { (, : = 3 : 4).
263 ,
.
, (
) | , .
264 { { () -
440, 330 220. , (
) , ( 330)?
. , ,

440 : 330 : 220 = 330 : x : y:

440 : 330 : 220 = 4 : 3 : 2;


y = 330 (1=2) = 165, x = 330 (3=4) = 247;5.
{ { .
, , :
80 43.

| -
, . ( )
2 . ,

...; 55; 110; 220; 440; 880; 1760; ...
2.
265 ,
? (, 20 20000 .)
, -
:
( 2), | , .

266 , ,
( ).
. 12 (7 5 ).
:
, | , . (
, | .) -
] [ . , :
] = [.

267 , -
?
. .

,
( ) :
] = flat ] = [ ] =

= [ ] = [ ] = [ ...
43. 81

|
.

, , .
268 , -
, .
. c , |
q . ] = [ c q , c q 2 :
] ] ] ] ]
c cq cq 2 cq 3 cq 4 cq 5 cq 6 cq 7 cq 8 cq 9 cq 10 cq 11 cq 12

, cq 12 = 2c .
q = 2, q = 2.
12 12

. -
, ,
12 , -
12 2 .
269 ( ,
).
2
.
12
. ( 2) = 6 2.

, -
. , -
, .
: . , : { . -
, ,
:
]
=
]

.
270 x x x
( ) ?
.
, .
271 -
;
, .
82 43.

. ] [ -
;
, . :

, -
.
272 ,

12 2, ( -
).
. ,

(12 2)7 . : (12 2)7 = 1;498...
3 : 2, ,
.
273 { -

5 4 : 3, .
. (
12
2) = 1;3348...; 4=3 = 1;3333...

| (12 2)7 3 : 2 ? -
. ,
.
, , -
. ,
43. 83

, , . ,
( -
), :
, ,
() .
? -
, ,
. , |
.
:

2:1
3:2
4:3
5:4

274 , -
| .
?
. 3 : 1.

275 , -
.

, . -
,

q = 12 2. :


6 : 5 = 1;2 1;1892... q3
5 : 4 = 1;25 1;2599... q4
4 : 3 = 1;333... 1;3348... q5
3 : 2 = 1;5 1;4983... q7
8 : 5 = 1;6 1;5874... q8
5 : 3 = 1;666... 1;6817... q9
2:1=2 2 q 12
, | ,
.
, ,
.
18- (, |
) ,
84 44.

. , ( -
, ) | ,
, ,
.

, -
| .
. | 24 , -
. ,
| ,
, -
. -
, (
) | .
276 -
.
: , ,
12 ()? 13 7 -

?
13 2 7 2. , (3 : 2, 4 : 3
) .
277 , 7 () .
- 3=2 4=3?
12 .

, , 12 |
( ) .
, 12- ,
|
,
, , .

44.
( )
( , . 3, . 3):
... , -
, :
,
44. 85

, -
; , -
. . .
.

, ,
, -

1 1 1
1; ; 100 ; 1000 ; ...
10
1=10 ( -
). ,
,
1 1 1
1+ + + + ...
10 100 1000
,
( ) : -
, . .
, .
1. S :

S = 1 + 101 + 100
1
+
1
1000
+ ...

1 1
10S = 10 + 1 + + + ... = 10 + S
10 100

9S = 10; S = 109 :
2. :
1
1+ = 1;1
10
1 1
1+ + = 1;11
10 100
1 1 1
1+ + + = 1;111
10 100 1000
...

1;111...
, , 1 ( 1=9 = 0;111...).
1
9
86 45.

3.
n
1
1 + q + q 2 + q 3 + ... + q n 1 = :
q

q 1

q = 1=10, a n ( ).
q n ( n (1=10)n )
.
1
1 + q + q 2 + q 3 + ... =
1q

( ). , q = 1=10,
1 10
= .
0;9 9
4. , , .
, , -
S . , 10 ,
9
S=10, S = S.
S

10 10
1, ,
(9=10)S = 1 S = 10=9.
10 .
, -
. ,
, , . .
1 + 10 + 100 + ...
, . -

1
1 + q + q 2 + q 3 + ... =
1q

q = 10
1 1
1 + 10 + 100 + 1000 + ... =
1 10
=
9
:
278
, 1=9 - ?
. .

45.
, ,
(a + b )2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2 ;
45. 87

, a b .
. (-
, ) -
( , ).
, , , -
, : , . . ,
.
.
,
5x + 3 = 2 x + 7
: 2x + 3 ,

3x = 4
( , -
x , ). 3,

x = 43 :
: 5x + 3 = 2x + 7 : x = 4=3.
.
x +1
=1
x +2
+1
=1, x +1= x +2, -
x
. (:
x +2
.) , .
, , , ,
. , |
, .
:

,
,

,

,

.
88 46.

46.

ax 2 + bx + c = 0
a , b , c | , x | .
279 x 2 3x + 2 = 0.
. x 3x + 2 = (x 1)(x 2). ,
2

(x 1)(x 2)=0; : x 1=0


(. . x = 1) x 2 = 0 (. . x = 2). :
x = 1 x = 2.
280 x 2 4 = 0.

281 x 2 + 2 = 0.

282 x 2 2x + 1 = 0.

283 x 2 2x + 1 = 9.

284 x 2 2x 8 = 0.

285 x 2 2x 3 = 0.

286 x 2 5x + 6 = 0.

287 x 2 x 2 = 0.


ax 2 + bx + c = 0
a 0,
bx + c = 0

x = bc :
288 , : b =0 c=b
. ?
a 6= 0, a -

x 2 + ba x + ac = 0:
,
x 2 1.
47. p = 0. 89


x 2 + px + q = 0:

47. p = 0.

x 2 + q = 0:

() q = 0: x 2 = 0 x = 0.
() q > 0: , x 2 -
q 0.
() q < 0: x 2 = q ,
() q .
. c
, c .
. ,

c > 0,
c c.
, 0 0.

2 :

x 2 2 = (x 2)(x + 2):

c 2.
x 2 = c:
x 2 c = 0;

x 2 ( c )2 = 0;

(x c )(x + c ) = 0;

x = c x = c , -
.
? x = c , x = c
: 2

( x = c | ). , .

, ( , x 6= c ,
).
c
. , x 2 , x , -
. x , x 2 , x 2 .
x 2 = 0, . . x 2 c . x , x 2
90 47. p = 0.

, x 2 > c x . , x 2 c ,
c . , -
c .
-
, -
.
, -
, ,
, ,
, -
| . (
).
289 ,
m
2 6=
n

m n . ( , 2 ;
, -
| , .)
m
. 2 = . :
() m n ;
n

() m , n ;
() m , n .
( | m n | ,
m n 2,
() { ().)
.
:
2k , k | ;
2k + 1.
2k + 1
() 2 = ,
2l + 1
 2k + 1 2
= 2;
2l + 1
(2k + 1)2
= 2;
(2l + 1)2
(2k + 1)2 = 2 (2l + 1)2 ;
4k 2 + 4k + 1 = 2 (2l + 1)2 :
: ( ) + 1 = ( ).
48. 91
2k
() 2= ,
2l + 1
2k
2
= 2;

2l + 1
(2k )2 = 2 (2l + 1)2 ;
4k 2 = 2 (4l 2 + 4l + 1);
2k 2 = 4l 2 + 4l + 1:
: ( ) = ( ) + 1.
2k + 1
() 2 = ,
2l

(2k + 1)2 = 2 (2l )2 ;


4k 2 + 4k + 1 = 2 (2l )2 :
: ( ) + 1 = ( ).
, .

290 , 3 .
. 3k , 3k + 1 3k + 2.

x 2 = 0 x = 2
, 2

x = 2, , , .

, 2,
| 2 ,
2, . . x 2 2 = 0.

48.

291 ,

ab = a b
p p

a , b > 0.
. , a b
ab , | | , ab :
p 2  p 
a b = a 2 b 2 = a b:
292 ,
r
a a
=
b b

a > 0, b > 0.
92 49. x 2 + px + q = 0


:

293 , a 2 = a ?

. , : a a 2 a .
: a 2 = |a |,

a; a > 0;
(
|a | =
a; a < 0:

1 1 7+ 5
294 , () = 2 3; () = .
2+ 3 7 5 2

295 : 1001 1000 1=10?
p
296 3 + 2 2.
2 2
. 3 + 2 2 = 1 + 2 + 2 2 = 1 + ( 2) + 2 2 = (1 + 2) .

. 1 + 2.
297 :


q q
32 2= 1+22 2=
q q
= 1 + ( 2) 2 2 = (1 2)2 = 1 2:
2

?
. 1 2 < 0, 2 1.

49. x 2 + px + q = 0
298

x 2 + 2x 6 = 0:
.

x 2 + 2x 6 = 0;
(x 2 + 2x + 1) 7 = 0;
(x + 1)2 7 = 0;
(x + 1)2 = 7;

x + 1 = 7 x + 1 = 7;

x = 1 + 7 x = 1 7:
49. x 2 + px + q = 0 93

.
299
x 2 + 2x 8 = 0:
300
x 2 + 3x + 1 = 0:
.
 2  2
x 2 + 3x + 1 = x 2 + 2 32 x + 32 23 + 1 =
3 2 9 3 2 5
= x+ +1= x + :
   
2 4 2 4
:
2
x + 32 5
;

=
4

r r
3 5 3 5
x+2= 4
; x + 2 = 4
;

r r
3 5 3 5
x = 2 + 4
x = 2 4
:
.
r
x = 32 5
4

301 x 2 2x + 2 = 0.
. x 2x + 2 = (x 2x + 1) + 1 = (x 1) + 1. ,
2 2 2

(x 1) + 1 = 0 ,
2

1.
.
:
x 2 + px + q = 0;
 2   2
x + 2 p2 x + p2 p2 + q = 0;


2  p 2 2
x + p2 q =
p
q:

=
2 4
2
q -
p
,
4
, .
94 50.

2
q > 0,
p

4
r
2
x + p2 = p

4
q;
r
2
x = p2 p

4
q:

2
q = 0,
p

4

x = p2 :
2
q < 0, .
p

4


r
2
x1 2 = p2
;
p

4
q;
2
q = 0 x1 x2 (
p
,
4
2
q < 0 . (
p
0),
4
,
, .)
2
D = q , ,
p

4
, .

50.
. x 2 + px + q = 0
() ,
+ = p;
= q:
: x 2 + px + q = 0
,
x 2 + px + q = (x )(x ):
| ,
(x )(x ) = x 2 ( + )x + ;
50. 95

x 2 + px + q (x )(x ) ,
.
. ( )


= p D; = p + D;
2 2
2
D = p4 q . :

= p2 + D; = p2 D;
.

+ = p2 D p2 + D = p

 p  p   p 2 2
= D + D =
2 2
D =
2
2 2 2
D = + q = q:
p p p
=
4 4 4
.
( ) -
. , P (x )
, :
P (x ) = (x )(x )R (x )
, P 2, R
( ),
1, x 2 x 2 + px + q
(x )(x ) . ,
x 2 + px + q = (x )(x );
.
302 , -
? ?
303 ( )
x 3 + px 2 + qx + r = 0
() , , . ,
+ + = p;
+ + = q;
= r:
96 50.

x 2 + px + q = 0 x1 x2 . x12 + x22
304
p q .
. x1 + x2 = x1 + 2x1 x2 + x2 2x1 x2 = (x1 + x2 ) 2x1 x2 = p 2q .
2 2 2 2 2 2

x 2 + px + q = 0 x1 x2 . (x1 x2 )2
305
p q .
. (x1 x2 ) = x1 2x1 x2 + x2 = x1 + 2x1 x2 + x2 4x1 x2 =
2 2 2 2 2

= (x1 + x2 ) 4x1 x2 = p 4q .
2 2

. x1 x2 | ; ,
 p2
, 2 D , (x1 x2 )2 = 4D = 4 q = p 2 4q .

4

306 x 3 + px 2 + qx + r = 0 ; ; .
( ) 2 ( ) 2 ( ) 2
p , q , r . ( p , q , r
. , ,
.)
307 x 2 + px + q = 0 x1 x2 ,
y 2
+ ry + s = 0 y1 y2 .
(y1 x1 )(y2 x1 )(y1 x2 )(y2 x2 )
p , q , r , s . (
; , .)

. , , : .
, . | ,
p = ( + ), q = , x 2 + px + q = 0 .
. (x )(x ) = 0, ,
. , , x 2 + px + q = 0.
, -
308

4 7 .
. 4 + 7.
p , q x 2 + px + q = 0, -
309
, . ,
() | ;
() | ;
() n - n |
.
51. 97

310 , a + b 2 (a , b | )

k + l 2 k , l .

311 (a + b 2)n
n > 1.

312 (a + b 2)n k + l 2.

(a b 2)n ?
313 , a , b ,
a 2 2b 2 = 1.
. a 2b = 1 a = 3, b = 2,
2 2

3 2 2 =1.
2 2
n :(3+2 2)(3 2 2)=1.

n - : (3 + 2 2) (3 2 2) n
= 1.
n (3 + 2 2)n

k + l 2 k l , (3 2 2) k l 2. ,

(k + l 2)(k l 2) = k 2 2l 2 = 1;
. . k , l | .
, (3 + 2 2)2 = 9 + 8 + 12 2 = 17 + 12 2. :
172 2 122 = 289 2 144 = 289 288 = 1:

314 , x 2 + px + q = 0
, q < 0.
. , -
q , , 0. ,
0, | -
. , , ,
2
D = q : q < 0, D > 0.
p

4
: q < 0, x 2 + px + q
x = 0 . x
(x 2 px + q ) | , -
, . (
.)

51.

315 2x 2 + 5x 3.
.

2x 2 + 5x 3 = 2 x 2 + 52 x 32 :
 
98 52. ax 2 + bx + c = 0 (a 6= 0)

x 2 + 52 x 23 = 0:
r r
5 25 3 5 49 5 7
x1 2 = 4
;
16
+ =
2 4 16
= ;
4 4

: x1 = 3, x2 = 12 . ( , . 94)
x 2 + 52 x 32 = (x (3)) x 12 = (x + 3) x
1
   
2

2x 2 + 5x 3 = (x + 3)(2x 1):
1
316 2x 2 + 2x + .
2
317 2a + 5ab 3b 2 . 2

.
 a2
2a 2 + 5ab 3b 2 = b 2 2 2 + 5 3 :
a

b b

x 2x 2 + 5x 3 =
a

b
= (x + 3)(2x 1), b
,

... = b 2 + 3 2 1 = (a + 3b )(2a b ):
a  a 
b b

318 , a 2 + ab + b 2 = 0, a = b = 0.
. a + ab + b = 0, a 6= 0. ( b 6= 0 .)
2 2

a , 1 + (b=a ) + (b=a )2 = 0. ,
2

x = ba 1 + x + x 2 ,
( 1 4 = 3 < 0).

52.
ax 2 + bx + c = 0 (a 6= 0)
ax 2 + bx + c = 0 a ,
x 2 + ba x + ac = 0:
,
x 2 + px + q = 0
53. 99

p = ba , q = ac .
r r
2 2
4ac
x1 2 = 2a
;
b b

2a
c
4 =
a
b

2a

b

4a 2
=

b2 4ac b2 4ac
=
2a
b

2a
=
b
2a
:

D = b 2 4ac

ax 2 + bx + c = 0:
, . D = 0,
. D < 0, .
319
r
2
b 4ac b2 4ac
=
4a 2 4a 2

b2 4ac
2a
;

, , 4a 2 2a , |2a |.
?
320 , ax 2 + bx + c = 0 x1 x2 .
cx 2 + bx + a = 0?
. ax + bx + c = 0 x ;
2 2

 2
a + b + c2 = 0 c 1 + b 1 + a = 0;
 
x x x x

1 1
. .
x1

x2
cx 2 + bx + a = 0.

. , x1 6= 0, x2 6= 0. x1
x2 , ( ) c cx 2 + bx + a
.

53.



b2 4ac
x1 2 =
;
b
2a
100 54.

. -
, , : c 6= 0,
2c
x1 2 =
;
b b2 4ac
: x | ax 2 + bx + c = 0 c 6= 0, x 6= 0
y = 1=x cy 2 + by + a = 0,

b2 4ac
y1 2 = b
;
2c
;

x1 2 = y 1
; =
2c
:
1;2 b b2 4ac

321 ,

b b2 4ac 2c
=
2a b b2 4ac
( ,
).

54.
ax 2 x + 1 = 0.
, D =1 4a> 0, . . a< 1=4.
?
322
, a = 0 x + 1 = 0,
.
x = 1.
, a = 0 ,
. . -
: - ax 2 x + 1 = 0,
, a , , a
. ?
,
:
x1 2 = 1 21 4a :
;


a , 1 4a 1,

x1 = 1 + 21 4a 1 +2 1 = 1;
55. 101

2
x2 = 1 21 4a = ,
;
. . . , a x1 -
1, x2 |
.
, .
a

a = 1=4

2 x

hx; a i, ax 2 x + 1 = 0, ,
, a = (x 1)=x 2 . ( -
; .)
ax 2 x + 1 = 0 a , -
, a , . -
, ,
. ( a > 1=4) | -
. ( a = 1=4) (x = 2),
( a 1=4).
, a
0, ,
.
323 x 2 x a = 0
a?
324 x 2 ax +1=0
a?

55.
y = x 2 ,
, .
102 55.

= 2x 2
y y

2 x

2
=

x
2
y
y

1=
=
1 1

y
1 x 1 x

y = x 2 ( ) . y = ax 2 (
a | ) y = x 2 ( a > 1)
( 0 <a< 1) : a ,
; a , .
y = 2x 2 (
y = x 2 ) y = (1=2)x 2 ( ).
y
2

y
x
=

1
2
2
y

x
=

=
y
1
x
1 y

1
y

1 x
=
x

1
2

a < 0 (
y = x 2 , y = x 2 ).

y = x 2 + c y = x 2 c (, c > 0,
|c |, c < 0).
( c = 1).
y = ax 2 + c y = ax 2 .

, -.
1 1
y = x 2 y = (x + 1)2
2 2
(. ). x = 3. -
1 1 1 2
(x + 1)2 (2)2 , . . , x x = 2.
2 2 2
1
(x + 1)2
2
55. 103

1 2
2
x , x .

y=

y
1=

=
2

1=
(x

2
1

x
2
1)
2
3 2 1 1 x

: y = 21 (x + 1)2
y = 12 x 2 1. , y =
1 1
= x 2 , y = (x + 1)2 1.
2 2
1 1
: y = (x + 1) , y = x 2
2
2 2
1.
, y = a (x + m )2 y = ax 2
m ( m > 0; m < 0 |m |).
,
y = a (x + m ) 2 + n
y = x 2 :
() a | y = ax 2 ;
() m | y = a (x + m )2 ;
() n | y = a (x + m )2 + n .
325 ( ) -
y = a (x + m )2 + n .
. (m; n ).

326 (), () ()?


, y = x 2 ,
, , ( (), (), ())?
. . x + n (), -
2

(x + m ) + n () , , a (x + m ) + an ().
2 2

an n .
327 (), () () .
,
?
104 56.

, -
a (x + m )2 + n
:

ax 2 + bx + c = a x 2 + ba x +c =
 

 b 2  2  2 2
=a x 2 + 2 2ba x + +c =a x + 2ba + c:
b b
 

2a 2a 4a

2a
m , 4ba + c n , .
a , b c , y =
328
ax + bx + c ?
2

. a> 0 , a< 0 | (. -
).
y

a > 0
x
a < 0

b=a (
). b , a -
. c ,
( ax 2 + bx + c c x = 0).
. b : -
-, b ;
-, b .
:
f (x ) = ax 2 + bx + c x , 0, -
f 0 (x ) = 2ax + b ( b x = 0) .

56.

329 x 2 3x + 2 < 0.
57. 105

: ,
.
. :

x 2 3x + 2 = (x 1)(x 2):
0 x = 1 x = 2; x > 2
; 2 (1; 2) -
, ;
1 :
+ +

1 2 x

. 1 < x < 2.
y

)
2
)( x
1 x1
=(
y

1 2 x

,
y = (x 1)(x 2). x = 1 x = 2 ;
.

57.

330 1. -
?
. x ,
1 x , x (1 x ) = x x 2 . x 2 + x
( x 2 ), x = 0 x = 1,
, , x = 21 ,
1 1
  1
1 = .
2 2 4
1
. .
4
106 57.

1
. + x ,
2
1
x ,
2
1  1  1
+x x = x 2;
2 2 4
, x =0 (
1
).
2
331 ,
.
332 ,
.
. .
2
x +
333
x ?
x

. , c > 0 c -

x + x2 . , ,

x + x2 = c
. x ,
c
x 2 + 2 = cx
. ( , 02 + 2 6= c 0,
x ).
x 2 + 2 = cx , , x 2 cx + 2 = 0 ,

 2
D = c2 2
 c 2
, . . > 2, . .
2

6 2:
c c
> 2
2 2
2
, x+x = c c >2 2 c 6 2 2. -

x + x2 x 2 2.
2
. x
x
| 2,
2
x + x. , |
58. 107

2
(. ), . . x = , x 2 = 2, x = 2.
x
2
x x + 2 2.
x

58.

334 x 4 3x 2 + 2 = 0.
. x | , y = x -
2

y 3y +2=0 | . ( y )
2



y1 2 = 3
;
98
2
=
31
2
;
. . y1 = 1, y2 = 2.
x , x 2 = 1
x 2 = 2, 4 :

x = 1; x = 1; x = 2; x = 2:
(
ax 4 + bx 2 + c = 0).
335 ( -
): () ; () 1 ; ()
2 ; () 3 ; () 4 ; ()
5 .
(. .)
336

ax 6 + bx 3 + c = 0?
. , a , b c .
. 0, 1, 2 .
337

ax 8 + bx 4 + c = 0:

59.

338

2x 4 + 7x 2 + 4x 2 + 7x + 2 = 0:
108 59.

. , x = 0 .
, x 2 :
7 2
2x 2 + 7x + 4 + + = 0:
x x2

-
x :
1 1
2 x2 + 2 + 7 x + + 4 = 0:
   
x x

, x 2 + x12 x + x1 :
2  1 2
x + x1 = x2 + 2 x
1
= x2 +
1
+ 2;

+
x x x2

2
x 2 + x12 = x + x1 2:


1
, x , y = x +
x

2(y 2 2) + 7y + 4 = 0;
:
2y 2 4 + 7 y + 4 = 0 ;
2y 2 + 7y = 0;
y (2y + 7) = 0;
y = 0 y = 7=2.
x ,

x + x1 = 0 x + x1 = 72 :
:

x + x1 = 0 x 2 + 1 = 0 x 2 = 1 ( );

x + x1 = 72 ( , x 6= 0)
x 2 + 1 = 72 x; x 2 + 72 x + 1 = 0;
:
r
7 49 7 33
4
x1 2 =
;
2
2
4
= 2
2
2
:
60. . 109

.

x1 = 7 4 33
; x2 = 7 +4 33
:

60. .

. .
1. | ,
,
3x 2 + 2x 10 = 0

2 4 + 120 2 124 1 31
( x1;2 = = = ).
6 6 3
2. x - , -
, x = y 2 + y 1:
x 2 = (y 2 + y 1)(y 2 + y 1) = y 4 + 2y 3 y 2 2y + 1;
3x 2 + 2x 10 = (3y 4 + 6y 3 3y 2 6y + 3) + (2y 2 + 2y 2) 10 =
= 3y 4 + 6y 3 y 2 4y 9:
3.
3y 4 + 6y 3 y 2 4y 9 = 0:
4. 10 { 15 .
5. , , .
6. ,
, ,
:
3y 4 + 6y 3 y 2 4y 9 =
= (3y 4 + 3y 3 3y 2 ) + (3y 3 + 3y 2 3y ) (y 2 + y 1) 10 =
= 3y 2 (y 2 + y 1) + 3y (y 2 + y 1) (y 2 + y 1) 10 =
= 3(y 2 + y )(y 2 + y 1) (y 2 + y 1) 10:
y 2 + y 1 x ,
3(x + 1)x x 10 = 0;
3x 2 + 3x x 10 = 0;

1 31
x1 2 =
;
3
110 61.



1 + 31 1 31
y 2
+y 1=
3
y 2
+y 1=
3
:
, , !
| | : -
, ,
x2 + x 3 = 0 x 2 + 2x 1 = 0
:
(x 2 + x 3)(x 2 + 2x 1) = x 4 + 3x 3 2x 2 7x + 3 = 0:
(x 4 + 3x 3 2x 2 7x + 3 = 0)
. ,
.

61.
a | ,
a . ( : a
| .) , a > 0 |
x , x 3 = a .

. n - a n a .
. n - a -
x , x n = a . ( ,
n | ).
.
. , ?

. . x , -
n - x n ( n -
, ).
n - .
. , x , x n = a , ?

. -
. .

. n , a n - a .
n

?
. .
61. 111

. n , a -
x , x n = a . , (2)3 = 8. ,
8 2?
. ,
.

339 :
10
2 1;2?

340 7 0;999 .

3
341 : 2 3?

3

4
342 : 3 4?
p
343 : 2 4 2?

344 1 a ?

.
1
a = a ( a > 0).
.
345 ,

ab = a b
p
n n
p
n

a > 0, b > 0.
. , ,
p
(n a n b )n = ab:

(xy )n = x n y n

( x = n a , y = n b )
p
(n a n b )n = (n a )n (n b )n = ab:
p

346 ,
r
n
a a
n
= n
b b

a > 0, b > 0.
.
 x n x n
= n
y y

.
112 61.

347 ,
r
1 1
= n
n

a a

a > 0.
348 ,

abc = a b c
n
p n
p
n n

a , b , c > 0.
.
p
abc = (ab )c = n ab n c = n a n b n c:
n
p n
p p

. ,
, . .
349 ,

n
a m
= (n a )m
a > 0.
.

a = n |a a {z
... a} = n a n a ... n a = (n a )m :
q
n m

| {z }
m m

.
350 349 . -
.
. , m> 2. m = 0 1 -
. m . , ,
m = 3.

r

n
a = 13 = n1 3 = n1 3 = (n a )3 :
3 n

a ( a)
a

351 ,

q
a= a mn m n

m n a .
. , ,
 q mn
m n
a = a:
62. 113

,
 q mn  q m n
m n
a =
m n
a = (n a )n = a:

352 ,

mn
a n
=m a
(m , n > 1, a > 0).
353 ,

a b =a b n
n
n

(n | , a > 0, b > 0).

62.

: ( 345 { 353) ,
,

a = a1 2;
= 3
a = a1 3; = 4
a = a1 4
=

. .
, ( )

(n a )n = a

a1 =a
=n
n


(a p )q = a pq
p = 1=n , q = n .

q
n m
a= a mn


a1 = a 1=mn
=m
1=n

p = 1=m , q = 1=n .
354 345 { 353 -
( ).
114 62.

,
-
1=n (
).
. n > 1 a > 0

a 1=n = n a:
, . , -
,
a 1 3 a 1 3 = a 1 3+1 3 = a 2 3
= = = = =

( a a = a + m = n = 1=3). ,
m n m n

a 2 3 . ,
=
a
2 3
(a 1 3 )2
= =

a m=n
(a ) , , ( a ) .
1=n m n m

. m n a
m=n

:

a m=n
= (n a )m :
.
,

a 10=15 (15 a )10


a 2 3 (3 a )2
=

10=15 = 2=3 a 10 15 a 2 3 .
= =

, ,

(15 a )10 = (3 a )2 :

355 .
.
 q 5 2
(35 a )25 = a = (3 a )2 :
5 3

356 , m=n
a m=n .
. . , 10=15
5.
, , -
, (-
).
62. 115

357 ,
a a
p q
= a p +q
p q .
. , , p = 2=5, q = 3=7 ( -
). ,
a 2 5 a 3 7 = a 2 5+3 7 :
= = = =

2=5 3=7 :
2 14 3 15
5
=
35
; 7
=
35
:
,
a 2 5 = a 14 35 ; a 3 7 = a 15 35 ;
= = = =


a 2 5 a 3 7 = a 14 35 a 15 35 = (35 a )14 (35 a )15 =
= = = =


= (35 a )14+15 = a (14+15) 35 = a 14 35+15 35 = a 2 5+3 7 :
= = = = =

358 ,
(ab )m=n = a m=n b m=n :

359 ,
(a p )q = a pq
p q .
. q | , p = m=n .

(a p )q = (a m=n )q = ((n a )m )q = (n a )mq = a mq=n = a pq :
q = 1=k k , p = m=n .
q

(a p )q = (a m=n )1=k = a m=n = (n a )m :
k k


n a b , :
 q m
... = b m = ( b )m = a = (kn a )m = a m=kn = a (m=n )(1=k ) = a pq :
k k k n

, q = l=k

(a p )q = (a p )l=k = (k a p )l = ((a p )1=k )l = (a p=k )l = a pl=k = a pq :
,
(a p )1=k = a p 1=k ;
116 63.

,
(a p=k )l = a p=k l :
( -
.)
360 , a > 1 a p p ,
0 < a < 1 a p p .
. -
. , p (
).
a x x,
. ,

2
2
, 2
p=q

p=q< 2 2 p=q> 2. (,
p=q

, .)

361 1=2 a 1=2 a ?

. ,
1=2
a = a 2 , 1=2 a = a 2 .

63.

, . , ,
.
362 ,
1 1 1 1
2
< 101 +
102
+ ... +
200
< 1:
1 1
. 100 .
200 100
1 1
, ;
200 2
1
, 1.
100
363 ,
1
2
< 1 12 + 31 41 + ... + 199
1

1
200
< 1:
. ,
1
  1 1  1 1

1 + + ... +
2 3 4 199 200
63. 117

( 1=2, ).
,

1 1
1 1 1 1 1
:
   
1 ...
2 3 4 5 198 199 200

.
,

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + ... + = 1 + + ... +
101 102 200 2 3 4 199 200

364 .

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
   
+ ... + = 1 + + + ... + 1 + + + ... + =
101 200 2 3 200 2 3 100
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
   
= 1 + + + ... + 2 + + + ... + =
2 3 200 2 4 6 200
1 1 1 1 1
= 1 + + ... +
2 3 4 199

200
:

365 , (1;01)100 > 2.

(1;01)100 = (1 + 0;01)(1 + 0;01)...(1 + 0;01)


| {z }
100

, ? 1 (-
). , ,
0;01, | . 100, -
0;01. ( 0;012 , 0;013 . .),

1 + 100 0;01 = 2:
118 63.

1;012 = 1;0201 > 1;02;


1;013 = 1;012 1;01 > 1;02 1;01 = (1 + 0;02)(1 + 0;01) =
= 1 + 0;02 + 0;01 + 0;02 0;01 > 1;03;
1;014 = 1;013 1;01 > 1;03 1;01 = (1 + 0;03)(1 + 0;01) =
= 1 + 0;03 + 0;01 + 0;03 0;01 > 1;04;
1;015 > 1;05;
1;016 > 1;06;
...
1;0199 > 1;99;
1;01100 > 2:

366 ,
1 1 1 1
1+ + +
4 9 16
+ ... +
1002
< 2:
.
1 1
4
=
22
< 1 1 2 = 11 21 ;
1 1
9
=
32
< 2 1 3 = 12 31 ;
1 1
16
=
42
< 3 1 4 = 31 14 ;
...
1
1002
< 99 1100 = 991 100
1
:
( )
1 1 1 1
1+ + +
4 9 16
+ ... +
1002
<
< 1 + 1 1 + 1 1 + 1 1 + ... + 1 1
:
       

2 2 3 3 4 99 100
(1=2 1=2, 1=3 1=3) ,
1
1 + 1 , 2.
100
367 : 10002000 20001000 ?
368 ,
1 1 1
1 + + + ... +
2 3 1 000 000
< 20:
64. 119

, n
1 1 1
1 + + + ... +
2 3 n
> 20:
.
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

+ + + + + + + + + ... + + ...
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 16

1=2 1 (. ).

64.

+b
a b
a
.
2
,
a b :

a (a + b )=2 b
x

(b a )=2

369 .
. , , a<b , . . a b .
b a ; a ,

a + b 2 a = 2a +2b a = a +2 b :
370 a 7. a ?
1
a b -

: ab . ( -
a b , a b ab

. -
,
ab ,
ab a b .)
371 1 a 7. a ?
372 ,
a b ? ,
a b ?
120 65.

373 ,
. -
?
.

a; [ a b ]; b
,
a; [ a b ]; b
.
:
a , b ; -
a , b .

65.

374 ab

ab 6 a +2 b :
+b

. ab a

2
,
,
2 2
ab 6 a + b = (a + b ) :

2 4

, , 4ab 6 (a + b )2 ,
4ab 6 a 2 + 2ab + b 2 ;
0 6 a 2 2ab + b 2 :
-
(a b )2 , ( ).
375 -
?
. , -
a b
, (a b )2 = 0, . . a = b .
66. 121

66.

376 ()
, c ? ()
?
. () c=2,
c=2, (. . )
c 2 =4. , -
.
() 0. ,
0, c .

377
, c > 0?
.
c , -
c , 2 c . ,
.
| -
, , .
. , ,

.
378 ,
120 ?
379
, , 120 ? (
!)

. :

240, -
, 60, 3600. -
1800,
30, 60 30.
122 67.

380 ab , a
b | , a + 2b = 3?
. a b ,
a 2b | , ,
. . a = 2b = 3=2. , ab
3 3 9
2

4
=
8
:

67.
. -
.
.

ab 6 a +2 b


2 ab 6 a + b
, ,
4ab 6 (a + b )2 :
, a b
a + b
, a 6= b (. ).

a b

b
a

a
b

b a

381 ?
-
.
.
a b .
67. 123

b
b
b 22222
=2
=
= 22
22
b
b
b
b
b
bb
b==
=
=
=
=
= 2
2
a =2
2

a 2 =2 b 2 =2.
a b ,
2
+ b2
ab 6 a 2
:

, c
d a b :

c d 6 c +d : 2

. ,
- :
2
=
x
y

b



22222bbbbbbbbb


33333 b bbbbbbbbbb 3
a =3

|
. , y = x 2 -
( )
3
a 3 =3 b b ,
2

3
2
ab 6 a3 +
3
b b;
a b.
124 68.

68.
+b +c
a , b , c
a
;
3
| abc ( -
3

, a , b , c > 0).
: n
a1 , ... , an
+ ... + an
a1

n
;
a1 , ... , a
n

n
a1 a2 ... an :

:

n
a1 a2 ... an 6 a1 + ... + an : n

, ,
.

, .
382 , , a1 , ... , a
n | -
,
a1 + a2 + ... + a n 6 n;

a1 a2 ... an 6 1:
.

+ ... + an
a1 + ... + a n 6n
a1

n
61
a + ... + an
n a1 a2 ... an 6 1 6 1 a1 a2 ... an 6 1:
n


( ).
383 , n
, .
384 , n -
, .
68. 125

-
, -
( ). |
.
385 -
n = 4.
. 4 a , b , c , d .
, (, , -
). |
, . .
+b
1. ab ,
a

2
:

a; b; c; d a +2 b ; a +2 b ; c; d:
. ( , -
a = b ): c d ,
(a + b ) , .
2. c d :
+b
a

2
; a +2 b ; c; d a +2 b ; a +2 b ; c +2 d ; c +2 d :
, ( -
, c = d ).
3. ,
:
+b
a

2
; a +2 b ; c +2 d ; c +2 d
a +b +c +d
4
; a +2 b ; a + b +4 c + d ; c +2 d :
4. :
+b +c +d
a

4
; a +2 b ; a + b +4 c + d ; c +2 d
+b +c +d

a

4
; a + b +4 c + d ; a + b +4 c + d ; a + b +4 c + d :

a; b; c; d

S; S; S; S;
S = (a + b + c + d )=4 | ,
( ):
a b c d 6S S S S
126 68.


4
abcd 6 S:
.
386 , -
,
.
. , -
, -
.
387 -
n = 8?
. : ,
| ,
.
388 -
n = 3.
. a , b , c , -
:

a; b; c; abc;
3

:

3
q
a +b +c +
abc abc 6 :
4 3 abc

4
,
, ,
3
abc

. , ()

4
abc abc 3 abc ,
p
3

:
4q 4
abc 3 abc = abc 3 abc


(
3
abc )4 = (3 abc )3 3 abc = abc 3 abc:
,

+b +c +
3
3
abc 6 a

4
abc
;

4 abc 6 a + b + c + abc;
3 3


3 abc 6 a + b + c;
3


3
abc 6 a + b3 + c :
68. 127

.
389 n = 8, -
n = 7.
390 n = 6.
. .
391 n > 2.
n = 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, ... , -
.
.
392 , -
, .
-
-.
, a1 , ... , an
| , | ,
.
. , -
,
, 1.
:
a1 ; ...; a
n > 0; a1 + ... + a n =n a1 ...a
n 6 1:
n .
1. n = 2 : 2,
(1+ h ) (1 h ) (1+ h )(1 h )=
= 1 h 2 6 1.
2. n =3. a; b; c
3. 1, , 1,
, 1. , a < 1, b > 1. a 1 < 0,
b 1 > 0
(a 1)(b 1) = ab a b + 1
, . .
ab + 1 < a + b:

(a + b ) + c = 3;

ab + 1 + c < (a + b ) + c = 3
128 68.

ab + c < 2:
-: ab c , 2, ,
1. .
: ,
2, 1.
2. : ,
2 | .
n = 4: ,
3.
a; b; c; d > 0; a + b + c + d = 4; abcd 6 1:
(, a ) 1,
(, b ) 1.
ab + 1 < a + b; (a + b ) + c + d = 4;

ab + 1 + c + d < 4; ab + c + d < 3:
, ()
3, 1 |
. .
-
, , |
.

a 3 + b 3 + c 3 3abc = 12 (a + b + c )((a b )2 + (b c )2 + (a c )2 );
, , ,
a , b , c ,
3
+ b3 + c3
abc 6 a 3
:

a , bc 3 p , 3q , 3 r :

3 pqr 6 p + q3 + r :

.
, n -
, .
68. 129

a1 , a2 , ... , a
n , ,

. , , a1 6= a2 . a1 a2 , -
a3 , ... , an , , a1 + a2
. a1 a2 , a1 a2 ...an -
. a1 a2 , ,
-
, . a1 ...an |
, !
393 .
. , a1 ... an ( -
) , a1 , ... , an .
, .
,
. , ,
a1 a2 , ,
a1 , ... , an . (
a1 a2 |
, -
.)
.
394 a1 , ... , a n ; ,

> n:
a1 a2 an 1 an
+ + ... + +
a2 a3 an a1

395 ,

3
ab 2 6 a +3 2b
a , b > 0.
396 a + b , ab 2 = 1 a , b > 0?
397

6
a 3 b c 6 a + 2b6 + 3c
p

a , b c.
398

3
abc 6 a + 23b + 3c :
3 6
130 69.

399 ,
1
10 1
11
< :
 
1+ 1+
10 11
 1
10
. 1 + 11 -
10
1
 
, 1, 1 + .
10
 1
11
1 + , ,
11
, . ,
.
400 ,
1
11 1
12
> :
 
1+ 1+
10 11

. 11 -
,
1 2 2 1
= 1+ + 2 ;
   
1+
11 11 11

1
 
1 + . 11
11
. ,

.
401
.

69.
a , b -
,
a b , . .
r
2
+ b2
a

2
:

402 . -
, ?
403 , a , b> 0
69. 131

:
r
2
+ b2 +b
a

2
>
a

2
:

(, 0 a a= 2, -
a=2.)
. ,
2
+ b2 (a + b )2
a

2
>
4
:
4
2(a 2 + b 2 ) > a 2 + b 2 + 2ab;
a 2 + b 2 > 2ab; a 2 + b 2 2ab > 0:
(a b )2 , , .
404 a b -
?
405 ,
.

.

b
2

a 2 +b 2
2
( a+b 2
2 )

a
a
a
a
aa
22222
a
a
a
a
a a +b b
2
y = x 2 . ha; a 2 i hb; b 2 i,
, . ,
, . .
D a + b a2 + b 2 E
2
; 2
:

D a + b  a + b 2 E
2
; 2
:
132 69.


2
+ b2
 a + b 2
2
6
a

2
;
r
2
+b + b2
a

2
6
a

a
:
, -
, y = x 2 (
).


(a + b )=2

( a + b )=2

a a +b b
2

406 x y , y = x 2 -

y = x , .
?
.
r
+b +
a

2
>
a

2
b
:

, ab
r
a +b
2
a +b
2
ab 6 6
2
: 2

ha; b i,
1:

h1; 1i h1; 1i h1; 1i


70. 133

, , ,
:

h1; 1i

407 -
:
r
2
+b +c + b2 + c2
a

3
6
a

3
:
408 () 2. -
?
() , -
3.

70.
a , b ,
1=a 1=b ,
. .
1
1 1
 :
+ =2
a b

409 ,
.
.
1=a 1=b ;
1=a 1=b |
.
410 a1 , ... , a. ,
n

1 1
(a1 + ... + an ) > n 2:

+ ... +
a1 an

.
+ ... + an 1
a1

n
> 1 1
 ;
+ ... + =n
a1 an
134 71. :

. . , n
. ,
:
a1 + ... + an 1 1
> n a1 ...an = r >1 1
 ;
n 1 1
n
... + ... + =n
a1 an a1 an


1 1
, ... , .
a1 an
.
( { )
(p1 q1 + ... + pn qn )2 6 (p12 + ... + pn2 )(q12 + ... + qn2 )
1
( p
i = a,q i i = , ).
ai
{ , -

(p1 + q1 x )2 + (p2 + q2 x )2 + ... + (pn + qn x )2 :


x -
Ax 2 + Bx + C;
A = q12 + q22 + ... + q 2 ; n

B = 2(p1 q1 + p2 q2 + ... + p q ); n n

C = p12 + p22 + ... + p 2 : n

x |
. , B 2 4AC , . .
 2
B 2 6 4AC; B 6 AC; 2

(p1 q1 + ... + pn qn )2 6 (p12 + ... + pn2 )(q12 + ... + qn2 ):


?

71. :

(, |
, ).
| ,
71. : 135

.
.
. 2
, 2k ( k | ). 2
. ,
: 2k + 1 ( k | ).
-
( ,
). :
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
:
=
=
=
=
, ,
2k + (2l + 1) = 2k + 2l + 1 = 2(k + l ) + 1;
,
(2k + 1)(2l + 1) = 4kl + 2k + 2l + 1 = 2(2kl + k + l ) + 1;
.
411
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + ... + 998 + 999 + 1000;
, .
-
: , -
:
+


0 1 (
)
2:
136 72.

+ 0 1 0 1
0 0 1 0 0 0
1 1 0 1 0 1
( , 1 + 1 = 0.)

72.

, , , 3?
: , 3, ,
3 (, 5 + 7 = 12), , (,
5 + 8 = 13). ( ), :
3 ( 0), 1 2.
:
+ 0 1 2 0 1 2
0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0
1 1 2 0 1 0 1 2
2 2 0 1 2 0 2 1
, () 1 2,
3k + 1 3l + 2, 3k + 3l + 3 = 3(k + l + 1),
1+2=0. : 3k +2
3l +2, (3k +2)(3l +2)=9kl +6k +6l +4=3(3kl +2k +2l +1)+1,
2 2 = 1.

412 8999 3?
3 , , 10.
10 | ,
10 ,
: | []
, | [] .
413 37589 ?
414
5. 0; 1; 2; 3; 4
?
415 , 3 + x = 2 3x = 2
5.
: 5
x , 3 + x 2? x ,
72. 137

3x 2?

416 x 2 = 2 x 2 = 3 7.
417 x 2 = x 100.
: ,
. ? ( .)
418 (-
, ) ?
, ,
a d :
a; a + d; a + d + d; a + d + d + d; ...
, 10, 1 -
3:
1; 4; 7; 0; 3; 6; 9; 2; 5; ...
( , 3 7, 10, 10
, 0.) , -
, , |
.
. 0; 1; 2;...; 9 ,
10-. , 1
( ).
:

3 2

4 1

5 0

6 9

7 8

, .
. , 3, 4, :
138 72.

3 2

4 1

5 0

6 9

7 8

, 4 -
10 ( ).
.
419 n ( n --
) k , -. -
, n k , ,
.
n = 10 k = 4 2.
. k n d . k
n , |
d .
( , d ), .
420 , n k
( , ),
, .
. , . ,
, ? ,
( n k ). , -
. (
), -
. d | (
, d = 1, , d = 2 ).
, n d ( -
). , -
, k d . , d
n k , d = 1 n
k.
421 , p | , -
p ( )
73. 139

.
. ax = b p ,
a , b .
422 ,
n , n .
423 ,
p , p 1.

73.

| .
, , -
.
, (-
) . ,

1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + x 5 + ... + x n + ...

1 + 2x + 3x 2 + 4x 3 + 5x 4 + 6x 5 + ... + (n + 1)x n + ...

, , ,
: x 2 1, x x 1 x 2 ,
3x 2 .
, x -
: , , .
x = 0;1 1 + 0;1 + 0;01 + 0;001 + ...
1
1;111... = 1 , , , x = 2
9
1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + 32 + ...,
. ,

.
,
, , . ,
1 x

1 x + 0x 2 + 0x 3 + 0x 4 + ... + 0x n + ...

424 1 x 1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + ...
140 74. p -

(1 x )(1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + ...) =
= (1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + ...) x (1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + ...) =
= (1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + ...) (x + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + x 5 + ...) = 1
( , , ).
, -
. ,
1 x 1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + ..., -

1
= 1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + ...
1x

-
, .
425 , 1 + x .
426 , 1 2x .
427 , 2 x .
428 1 + 2x + 3x 2 + 4x 3 + ...
429 1+2x +3x 2 +4x 3 +... 1 x
.
430

(1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + x 5 + ...)(1 x + x 2 x 3 + x 4 x 5 + ...)
.

74. p -
,
.
, .
, , -
( , ,
). , ,
...2731 ...5184 (, -
):
75. 141

... 2731 ... 2731


... 5184 ... 5184
... 7915 ... 0924
... 1848
... 2731
... 3655
...
... 7504
,
() () -
. -
: ()
10000, ().
, ,
, . -
10- (
). p -
p .
10-,
( ) .
.
431 x + 1 = 0 10- .
( , 10- x , -
...000001 ...000000.)
. , , x = ...9999999
( ).
, a , -
a , x + a = 0, :
1 = ...9999999:

432 3x = 1 10- .
433 , x 2 = x 10-
( x = 0 x = 1,
).
. ...25 ...76.

75.
, ,
, -
142 75.

.
(, www.math.ru).
, :
. , . . ?
. 2- . .: , 1967. -
: M.: , 2001.
. , . . . .: , 1962. -
: , 2007.
. . , . . . . .-.: ,
1952. : .: , 2004.
:
. . , . . , . . (.) -
. 2. . . { .: , 1961.
424 c.
. . . . .: , 1976.
: .: , 2001. 192 .
. . . .
. .: , 1978.
. . . , . .:,
2005. 545 .
( ):
. . . . .: , 1976.
. . . . .: , 1966. -
: .: , 1999.
. . . . .: , 1994.
143


1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
18. a m a n , . . . 29
19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
21. (a + b )2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
26. (a + b )5 , (a + b )6 . . . . . . . . . . 40
27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
28. : ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
29. ?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
33. -
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
34. . . . . . . . . . . 56
35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
36. x a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
37. , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
144

39. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
40. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
41. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
42. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
43. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
45. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
46. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
47. p = 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
48. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
49. x 2 + px + q = 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
50. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
51. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
52. ax 2 + bx + c = 0 (a 6= 0). . . . . . . . . . 98
53. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
54. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
55. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
56. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
57. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
58. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
59. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
60. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
61. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
62. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
63. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
64. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
65. . . . . 120
66. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
67. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
68. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
69. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
70. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
71. : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
72. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
73. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
74. p - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
75. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

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