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Improvement of Power Saving

in R134a Air-Conditioning System

Masahide Ishikawa, Takayoshi Matsuno,
TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION
Kazuhito Miyagawa, DENSO CORPORATION

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Presentation Outline

¾Impact of A/C on Fuel Consumption

¾Approaches to A/C Power Saving
- A/C Cycle & System Efficiency Improvement
- A/C Control Efficiency Improvement
- Coordination With Powertrain
- Vehicle Thermal Management Improvement

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Condenser. Acceleration/Deceleration 5 Evaporator Outlet Air Idling. A/C Off A/C on o 10 (yearly) Temperature ( C) Compressor (39) Clutch (3) Yearly (9%) Electric load is also a major item. etc 10 •Influence of Vehicle Sun Load (W/m2) 0 Thermal Management Fresh / Recirculated Air Fresh •Running Condition Blower Speed Low Constant Speed. Influence of A/C on Fuel Consumption Impact on Fuel Consumption (km/L) 15 9% Actual Running Mode: Compact Car LA4: Stop Ratio 17% Fuel Consumption Yearly o Temperature ( C) 25 •Components Humidity (%) 50 Compressor. Cooling Fan (9) Blower (38) Idle up (11) Fuel Consumption Increase Ratio (%) 3 .

Impact on Fuel Consumption Compressor (39) Yearly 9 38 3 11 (9%) Increase Evaporator Inlet Air Temperature (5-10 ooC) (4)oo Assumption by Thermal Data at Re-Entry of Heated Air (10-15 C) (4) Idling and 40 km/h Running Fuel Consumption Increase Ratio (%) Thermal Management Improvement: •Evaporator Air Inlet Temperature Reduction ・Preventing Hot Air Recirculation Constant Speed Accelerating Decelerating Idling 22 22 38 18 LA4 Yearly (9%) 0 25 50 75 100 Fuel Consumption Increase Ratio (%) Large Effect When Idling and Decelerating (Accelerating In Summer) A/C Control Considering Running Condition Coordination Control with Powertrain 4 .

System & Components Running Condition Vehicle Heat Personal Preference A/C Cycle & System Efficiency Thermal Improvement Management (including Improvement components) A/C Control Coordination Efficiency with Powertrain Improvement 5 . Approach to A/C Power Saving Impact on A/C Fuel Consumption A/C Cycle .

•A/C Cycle & System Efficiency Improvement ¾Subcool Cycle & Improvement of Subcool condenser ¾Improvement of Compressor’s Efficiency & Variable Displacement Compressor System •A/C Control improvement •Coordination with Powertrain •Vehicle Thermal Management Improvement 6 .

Condenser Efficiency Improvement Q/F = Performance/(core width x core height) 180 High-performance Subcool 160 Subcool type 140 Multi-Flow 120 Q/F 100 Serpentine 80 60 40 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 7 .

Operating Principle of Subcool Cycle Reciever Pressure Subcooling Subcool Condenser Increase In Effective Refrigerant GAS Exp.Valve Compressor Evaporator Liquid Enthalpy Improved Cooling Performance 8 .

5 600 700 800 Compressor Speed (rpm) 9 .0 10% Power Consumption (PS) 780 1.8% 2.7% Cooling 4500 Performance Multi-Flow Condenser (kcal/h) 4250 11. Effect of Subcool Condenser 10% Power Saving For Equivalent Performance Subcool Condenser 5.

Enhance Heat Transfer Subcool (Improved Tube & Fin Efficiency) Conventional Newest 1. Condenser Performance Improvement Mollier Diagram – Subcool Effect 1. Increased Core Effective Area Conventional Newest 100 Compressor Side Plate Height Load Ratio Tank Height 11% Down 90 80 Old Current 10 .7 mm 1.8 mm 5.0 mm 7.4 mm ∆Q Q Q +∆Q 16 mm Subcool Effect Gives ∆Q Extra Cooling 16 mm (approximate dimensions) Effect 2.

Compressor Efficiency Improvement 0.4 HFC134a 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Year 11 .5 70%.6 Latest Compressor Exceeds 0. 0.7 Compressor Efficiency (%) 0.

Continuously Variable Displacement Compressor Max Displacement Piston Piston Stroke:Max Pd Pc Control Valve Ps Pc = Ps Piston Stroke Partial Displacement Piston Stroke:Max~Min Pd Pc Control Valve Shaft Swash-Plate Control  Ps Valve Pc > Ps Piston Stroke 12 .

6 0 .2 Lpractice enthalpy h 0 .4 0 . Characteristics of Variable Displacement Compressor < C ondition> <Analysis Method > V a ria b le D is p la c e m e n t C o m p . Cycle 16 efficiency 14 COP COP 12 ηad Cycle COP 10 8 Pd,Td 6 4 Isentropic 2 Process Pressure P 0 .4 Q L Ltheory ηad 0 .0 Q/Q0 Variable Displacement Comp System is improved.6 Comp.0 0 .2 0 . Efficiency Ps, Ts 0 .8 1 .5m /s S peed=1600rpm Divide into Compressor Efficiency V a=300m 3/h(M 1) and Cycle Performance 5 4 System COP Qpractice Ltheory Qpractice 3 = × Lpractice Lpractice Ltheory = = 2 1 System Comp. eva:25℃ , 50% F ix e d D is p la c e m e n t C o m p (O N . 13 .O F F ) con:25℃ , 2.

6 compressor system L/Lo shows a better 0.4 0.8 1.8 In the performance controlled region.0 0.5m/s 1.4 performance than the Better fixed compressor system Variable Displacement 0.2 Comp. Torque 0. the 0‐100%/ON-OFF variable displacement Torque 0.0 Q/Qo 14 .0 0.Effect of Variable Displacement Compressor System <Condition> eva:25℃,50% con:25℃,2.2 0.6 0.0 Speed=1600rpm Va=300m3/h(M1) 0.

•A/C Cycle & System efficiency improvement •A/C Control improvement ¾Power saving control ¾Humidity control •Coordination with Powertrain •Vehicle Thermal Management Improvement 15 .

15deg. Te Temp. 12deg. 0 Economy Conventional 16 . 15deg. H/C TEO ( C) o Demist Power Comfort Tout Saving Humidity Target of Air Temp. H/C 1 Tout Tin Te Tin Tout 20deg. External after Evaporator Tin 15 Variable Te 10 Current: 5 Internal Tin Tout Temp. 20deg. Variable Te 0 3deg. Power saving Control using external variable compressor Conventional Control (Internal Variable Compressor) Economy Control Logic Evap. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 o Ambient Temperature TAM ( C) Power saving Control (External Variable Compressor) Effect Power Consumption ratio -30% Evap.

Humidity Control (1) Absolute Humidity(g/kg’) adopted by PRIUS Relative Humidity 100% 25 80% 20 60% 15 10 40% Dehumidify 20% 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Temp. & humidity by changing the evaporator temperature (TEO) 17 .(℃) Cowl Blower Heater core Evaporator Compressor Condenser -Control the outlet air temp.

n control Control um atio i m ic Evaporator Valve 12 Min idif hum w/o Thermistor de Humidity control Evap out 0 Air temp Te 0 5 15 25 35 Ambient temperature (℃) High pressure Ph A/C ECU Ambient temp Ta Calculate: Effect Conditions: 25°C-50% Blower: M1 •Duty ratio A/C Switch w/o Humidity Control •Comp power -20% Cabin With Humidity Control temperature and Humidity 0 1 Power Consumption Ratio 18 . Humidity Exp. (℃) sensor Demist Line With Comp. Humidity Control (2) Configuration Cabin humidity Windshield humidity Target: 60% Ambient sensor target: 90% Humidity No High-side Condenser Demist Comfort Zone Reheat Pressure Evap out air temp.

•A/C Cycle & System efficiency improvement •A/C Control improvement •Coordination with Powertrain •Vehicle Thermal Management Improvement 19 .

Power Comp. Coordination with Powertrain Approach Driving condition (Driving) Engine Output Driver’s request Comp. Air-condition Compressor management Cooperative control E/G-A/C with Displacement Control external compressor due to Cooling performance Displacement control due to Compressor power 20 .

consumption. 21 . Control Pattern for Compressor Power Control Acceleration Control Deceleration Control Store the cool air during Reduce comp displacement Deceleration during Acceleration (Displacement: Maximum) consumption consumption consumption Performance Comp power Current Store cold air Comp power Cooling (Ps control) Discharge the cold air Much Power New control saving with minimum performance Improve fuel Fuel cut consumption A/C fuel reduction Time Time Cruising Dec Vehicle speed ion el e l erat rat ion ce Stop(Idle) Ac Time Compressor is run for required Idle speed is suitably controlled cooldown performance with based on compressor power minimum power consumption.

•A/C Cycle & System efficiency improvement •A/C Control improvement •Coordination with Powertrain •Vehicle Thermal Management Improvement ¾Reduction of Vehicle Heat ¾Prevention of Heated Air Re-entry into Condenser 22 .

6% Solar Radiation Absorption Glass (Rear. Side) .3% 23 . Pillar) . Reduction of Vehicle Heat Load Heat Insulation (Roof) Heat Insulation (Pillar) Solar Radiation Absorption Glass (Rear) Solar radiation Absorption Glass (Side) Effect Item Effect of Heat load reduction Heat Insulation (Roof. Vehicle Thermal Management Improvement 1.

Vehicle Thermal Management Improvement 2. Prevention of Heated Air Re-entry into Condenser Shutter Stops Heated Air Re-Entry Shutter Engine Heated Air Lower Cover Shutter Lower Cover Effect o Condenser Inlet Air Temperature Reduced by 6 C 24 .

68 0.5 1993 2001 Model *Power Consumption of Compressor After 30minutes at Idling 25 .8 Compressor Improvement 0.6 ηad=0. Example of Application to Vehicle Toyota COROLLA 1 Power Consumption Ratio Nearly 20% Subcool System 0.62 0.9 Serpentine Condenser Subcool Condenser 0.7 ηad=0.

Summary ‹Many A/C Power Saving Technologies Have Been Developed. 26 . ¾ A/C Cycle & System Efficiency Improvement ¾ A/C Control Efficiency Improvement ¾ Coordination With Powertrain ¾ Vehicle Thermal Management Improvement ‹Some Already Adopted in Mass-production Vehicles Technologies Will Be Further Expanded in the Future.