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Overall scheme of activities in which scientists engage to produce knowledge;

the paradigm of scientific inquiry

1. A good title adequately describes the contents of the paper. Captures the
fundamental nature of the study and findings
2. basic background information showing the current state of the problem or issue, and
data gaps based on existing literature provides the reason or justification of the study,
and the structure to be followed in conducting a study
3. emphasis on the existence of the problem and describing gaps in existing body of
4. emphasizes questions which require a definite answer (Kerlinger, 1986)
5. m is an interrogative statement that asks what relation exists between two or more
variables (Kerlinger, 1986
6. the statements of purpose of the investigation. summarize what is to be achieved by
the study
7. broad statement of purpose
8. explicit statements of purpose. logically flows from and formulated based on the
general objective. uses well-defined and measurable concepts.
9. a set of statements about the possible contributions of the study to theory or knowledge
of a phenomenon describe the value of specific applications of knowledge to be
gained and potential importance of these applications
10. Identifies the focus, coverage or boundaries of the study;
11. discuss weaknesses of the study in terms of sample size, sampling design, locale of the
research, methodology, and other factors, that affect the generalizability of the results;
12. provide the vehicles by which concepts become clear, precise and agreed upon; join
concepts and variables together.
13. describes concepts by using other concepts (Nachmias, 1996); also called constitutive,
theoretical, nominal, or a rational definition (Fawcett, 1990).
14. assigns meaning to a construct or variable by specifying the activities or operations
necessary to measure it.
15. describes how a variable will be measured.
16. spells out the details of the investigators manipulations of a variable
17. describes the operations that must be performed to cause the phenomena or state
being defined to occur.
18. describe how the particular object or thing being defined operates, that is what it does
or what constitutes its dynamic properties
19. describe what the phenomenon being described looks like, that is what constitute its
state properties (age, sex, educational attainment, sustainability, etc.)
20. Going back to the existing written materials that have bearing to the problem under
21. Presents the THEORY from which the research problem was derived or to which it is
linked (Librero, 1986);