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VORGESCHICHTE HALLE

LANDESMUSEUMS FR
TAGUNGEN DES
fr den Zerfall der Alten Welt?
22oo BC Ein Klimasturz als Ursache
22oo BC Ein Klimasturz als Ursache
fr den Zerfall der Alten Welt?
22oo BC A climatic breakdown as a cause
for the collapse of the old world?
7. Mitteldeutscher Archologentag
vom 23. bis 26.Oktober 2o14 in Halle (Saale)

Herausgeber Harald Meller, Helge Wolfgang Arz,


Reinhard Jung und Roberto Risch

I S B N 978 - 3 - 9 4 4 5 07-2 9 - 3
I S S N 18 6 7- 4 4 0 2
12/II 12/II 2015 TAGUNGEN DES L ANDESMUSEUMS FR VORGESCHICHTE HALLE
Tagungen des
Landesmuseums fr Vorgeschichte Halle
Band 12/II|2015

22oo BC Ein Klimasturz als Ursache


fr den Zerfall der Alten Welt?
22oo BC A climatic breakdown as a
cause for the collapse of the old world?
7. Mitteldeutscher Archologentag
vom 23. bis 26. Oktober 2o14 in Halle (Saale)
7th Archaeological Conference of Central Germany
October 2326, 2o14 in Halle (Saale)
Tagungen des
Landesmuseums fr Vorgeschichte Halle
Band 12/II|2015

22oo BC Ein Klimasturz als Ursache


fr den Zerfall der Alten Welt?
22oo BC A climatic breakdown as a
cause for the collapse of the old world?
7. Mitteldeutscher Archologentag
vom 23. bis 26. Oktober 2o14 in Halle (Saale)
7th Archaeological Conference of Central Germany
October 2326, 2o14 in Halle (Saale)

Landesamt fr Denkmalpflege und Archologie Sachsen-Anhalt


landesmuseum fr vorgeschichte

herausgegeben von
Harald Meller,
Helge Wolfgang Arz,
Reinhard Jung und
Roberto Risch

Halle (Saale)
2o15
Dieser Tagungsband entstand mit freundlicher Untersttzung von:
The conference proceedings were supported by:

Die Beitrge dieses Bandes wurden einem Peer-Review-Verfahren unterzogen.


Die Gutachterttigkeit bernahmen folgende Fachkollegen: Prof. Dr. Helge Wolfgang Arz,
Prof. Dr. Robert Chapman, Prof. Dr. Janusz Czebreszuk, Dr. Stefan Dreibrodt,
Prof. Jos Sebastin Carrin Garca, Prof. Dr. Albert Hafner, Prof. Dr. Svend Hansen,
Dr. Karl-Uwe Heuner, Dr. Barbara Horejs, PD Dr. Reinhard Jung, Dr. Flemming Kaul,
Prof. Dr. Ourania Kouka, Dr. Alexander Land, Dr. Jos Lull Garca, Prof. Dr. Rafael
Mic, Prof. Dr. Pierre de Miroschedji, Prof. Dr. Louis D. Nebelsick, Prof. Dr. Marco
Pacciarelli, Prof. Dr. Ernst Pernicka, Prof. Dr. Lorenz Rahmstorf, Prof. Dr. Roberto Risch,
Prof. Dr. Jeremy Rutter, Prof. Dr. Gerhard Schmiedl, Anja Stadelbacher, Dr. Ralf Schwarz,
Prof. Dr. Gerhard Trnka, Prof. Dr. Jordi Voltas, Dr. Bernhard Weninger.

Bibliografische Information der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek


Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek verzeichnet diese Publikation in der Deutschen
Nationalbibliografie; detaillierte bibliografische Daten sind im Internet
ber http://portal.dnb.de abrufbar.
isbn 978-3-9445o7-29-3
issn 1867-44o2
isbn (universitat autnoma 978-84-49o-5585-o
de barcelona)

Redaktion Markus C. Blaich, Konstanze Geppert, Kathrin Legler, Anne Reinholdt, Manuela Schwarz,
Anna Swieder, David Tucker, Melina Wieler
Redaktion und bersetzung Sandy Hmmerle Galway (Irland), Isabel Aitken Peebles (Schottland), David Tucker
der englischen Texte
Organisation und Korrespondenz Konstanze Geppert, Anne Reinholdt
Technische Bearbeitung Thomas Blankenburg, Anne Reinholdt, Nora Seelnder
Sektionstrenner Gestaltung: Thomas Blankenburg, Nora Seelnder;
S.33 Photograph Brooklyn Museum, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund, 39.1. Creative
Commens-BY; S.95 Eberhard-Karls-Universitt Tbingen; S.333 UAB-ASOME;
S.481 R.Kolev (National Museum of History, Sofia), Dr. M.Hristov (National Museum
of History, Sofia); S.669 J.Liptk, Mnchen; S.8o3 Aberdeen University Museum,
National Museums of Scotland, Dr. A.Sheridan (National Museums of Scotland)
Umschlag Malte Westphalen, Nora Seelnder

Fr den Inhalt der Arbeiten sind die Autoren eigenverantwortlich.

by Landesamt fr Denkmalpflege und Archologie Sachsen-Anhalt Landesmuseum fr


Vorgeschichte Halle(Saale). Das Werk einschlielich aller seiner Teile ist urheberrechtlich
geschtzt. Jede Verwertung auerhalb der engen Grenzen des Urheberrechtsgesetzes ist
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unzulssig. Dies gilt insbesondere fr Vervielfltigungen, bersetzungen, Mikroverfil-
mungen sowie die Einspeicherung und Verarbeitung in elektronischen Systemen.

Papier alterungsbestndig nach din/iso 97o6


Satzschrift FF Celeste, News Gothic
Konzept und Gestaltung Carolyn Steinbeck Berlin
Layout, Satz und Produktion Anne Reinholdt, Nora Seelnder
Druck und Bindung LHNERT-DRUCK
Inhalt/Contents

Band I
9 Vorwort der Herausgeber/Preface of the editors

25 Vicente Lull, Rafael Mic, Cristina Rihuete Herrada, and Roberto Risch
What is an event?

Sektion Orient und gypten/


Section Middle East and Egypt

35 Harvey Weiss
Megadrought, collapse, and resilience in late 3rd millennium BC Mesopotamia

53 Helge Wolfgang Arz, Jrme Kaiser, and Dominik Fleitmann


Paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic changes around 22ooBC recorded in sediment cores
from the northern Red Sea

61 Michele Massa and Vasf Sahoglu


The 4.2ka BP climatic event in west and central Anatolia: combining palaeo-climatic proxies
and archaeological data

79 Juan Carlos Moreno Garca


Climatic change or sociopolitical transformation? Reassessing late 3rd millennium BC in Egypt

Sektion stlicher und Zentraler Mittelmeerraum/


Section Eastern and Central Mediterranean

97 Hermann Genz
Beware of environmental determinism: the transition from the Early to the Middle Bronze Age
on the Lebanese coast and the 4.2ka BP event

113 Felix Hflmayer


The southern Levant, Egypt, and the 4.2ka BP event

131 Lindy Crewe


Expanding and shrinking networks of interaction: Cyprus c. 22oo BC

149 Lorenz Rahmstorf


The Aegean before and after c. 22ooBC between Europe and Asia: trade as a prime mover
of cultural change

181 Stephan W.E.Blum and Simone Riehl


Troy in the 23rd century BC environmental dynamics and cultural change

205 Reinhard Jung and Bernhard Weninger


Archaeological and environmental impact of the 4.2 ka cal BP event in the central and eastern
Mediterranean
235 Bernhard Friedrich Steinmann
Gestrzte Idole Das Ende der frhkykladischen Elite

253 Marco Pacciarelli, Teodoro Scarano, and Anita Crispino


The transition between the Copper and Bronze Ages in southern Italy and Sicily

283 Giovanni Leonardi, Michele Cupit, Marco Baioni, Cristina Longhi, and Nicoletta Martinelli
Northern Italy around 22oocal BC. From Copper to Early Bronze Age: Continuity and/or
discontinuity?

305 Giulia Recchia and Girolamo Fiorentino


Archipelagos adjacent to Sicily around 22ooBC: attractive environments or suitable
geo-economic locations?

321 Walter Drfler


The late 3rd millenium BC in pollen diagrams along a south-north transect from the Near East
to northern Central Europe

Sektion Westlicher Mittelmeerraum/


Section Western Mediterranean

335 Laurent Carozza, Jean-Franois Berger, Cyril Marcigny, and Albane Burens
Society and environment in Southern France from the 3rd millennium BC to the beginning of
the 2nd millennium BC: 22ooBC as a tipping point?

365 Vicente Lull, Rafael Mic, Cristina Rihuete Herrada, and Roberto Risch
Transition and conflict at the end of the 3rd millennium BC in south Iberia

409 Antnio Carlos Valera


Social change in the late 3rd millennium BC in Portugal: the twilight of enclosures

429 Germn Delibes de Castro, Francisco Javier Abarquero Moras, Manuel Crespo Dez,
Marcos Garca Garca, Elisa Guerra Doce, Jos Antonio Lpez Sez, Sebastin Prez Daz,
and Jos Antonio Rodrguez Marcos
The archaeological and palynological record of the Northern Plateau of Spain during the
second half of the 3rd millennium BC

449 Martin Klling, Vicente Lull, Rafael Mic, Cristina Rihuete Herrada, and Roberto Risch
No indication of increased temperatures around 22oo BC in the south-west Mediterranean
derived from oxygen isotope ratios in marine clams (Glycimeris sp.) from the El Argar settle-
ment of Gatas, south-east Iberia

461 Mara Weinelt, Christian Schwab, Jutta Kneisel, and Martin Hinz
Climate and societal change in the western Mediterranean area around 4.2ka BP

Band II
Sektion Mittel- und Osteuropa/
Section Central and Eastern Europe

483 Martin Hristov


New evidence for funeral and ritual activity in the northern part of the Balkan Peninsula:
a case study from Southern Bulgaria in the second half of the 3rd millennium BC to the first
half of the 2nd millennium BC
503 Klra Pusztain Fischl, Viktria Kiss, Gabriella Kulcsr, and Vajk Szevernyi
Old and new narratives for Hungary around 22ooBC

525 Mirosaw Furmanek, Agata Hauszko, Maksym Mackiewicz, and Bartosz Myslecki
New data for research on the Bell Beaker Culture in Upper Silesia, Poland

539 Janusz Czebreszuk and Marzena Szmyt


Living on the North European Plain around 22ooBC: between continuity and change

561 Franois Bertemes and Volker Heyd


22ooBC Innovation or Evolution? The genesis of the Danubian Early Bronze Age

579 Frank Sirocko


Winter climate and weather conditions during the Little-Ice-Age-like cooling events of the
Holocene: implications for the spread of Neolithisation?

595 Alexander Land, Johannes Schnbein, and Michael Friedrich


Extreme climate events identified by wood-anatomical features for the Main Valley (Southern
Germany) A case study for 3ooo2oooBC

603 Matthias B. Merkl and Jutta Lechterbeck


Settlement dynamics and land use between the Hegau and the western Lake Constance region,
Germany, during the second half of the 3rd millennium BC

617 Philipp W. Stockhammer, Ken Massy, Corina Knipper, Ronny Friedrich, Bernd Kromer,
Susanne Lindauer, Jelena Radosavljevic, Ernst Pernicka und Johannes Krause
Kontinuitt und Wandel vom Endneolithikum zur frhen Bronzezeit in der Region Augsburg

643 Andreas Bauerochse, Inke Achterberg, and Hanns Hubert Leuschner


Evidence for climate change between 22ooBC and 216oBC derived from subfossil bog and
riverine trees from Germany

651 Johannes Mller


Crisis what crisis? Innovation: different approaches to climatic change around 22ooBC

Sektion Mitteldeutschland/
Section Central Germany

671 Ralf Schwarz


Kultureller Bruch oder Kontinuitt? Mitteldeutschland im 23.Jh. v.Chr.

715 Matthias Becker, Madeleine Frhlich, Kathrin Balfanz, Bernd Kromer und Ronny Friedrich
Das 3.Jt. v.Chr. zwischen Saale und Unstrut Kulturelle Vernderungen im Spiegel
der Radiokohlenstoffdatierung

747 Kathrin Balfanz, Madeleine Frhlich und Torsten Schunke


Ein Siedlungsareal der Glockenbecherkultur mit Hausgrundrissen bei Klobikau,
Sachsen-Anhalt, Deutschland

765 Madeleine Frhlich und Matthias Becker


Typochronologische berlegungen zu den Kulturen des Endneolithikums und der
frhen Bronzezeit zwischen Saale und Unstrut im 3.Jt. v.Chr.

783 Frauke Jacobi


Size matters! Die endneolithischen Grberfelder von Profen, Burgenlandkreis,
Sachsen-Anhalt
793 Andr Spatzier
Pmmelte-Zackmnde Polykultureller Sakralort oder Ortskonstanz im Heiligtum whrend
einer kulturellen Transformation?
Ein Beitrag zur Kulturentwicklung des spten 3.Jts. v.Chr. in Mitteldeutschland

Sektion Nord- und Westeuropa/


Section Northern and Western Europe

805 Andrew P. Fitzpatrick


Great Britain and Ireland in 22ooBC

833 Mike Baillie and Jonny McAneney


Why we should not ignore the mid-24th century BC when discussing the 22oo2oooBC climate
anomaly

Anhang/Appendix
845 Autorenkollektiv/Collective contribution
Ergebnistabelle/Table of results
Old and new narratives for Hungary around 2200 BC
Klra Pusztain Fischl, Viktria Kiss, Gabriella Kulcsr, and Vajk Szevernyi

Zusammenfassung Summary

Alte und neue Interpretationen der Situation in Ungarn 22ooBC represents a time of change in many areas of the Old
um 2200 v.Chr. World, and this is also true for the Carpathian Basin, and for
Hungary in particular. Among the most salient features of
In der Zeit um 22oo v.Chr. fanden in vielen Teilen der Alten this change are the disappearance of Bell Beaker-type mate-
Welt Vernderungen statt; dies trifft auch auf das Karpaten- rial in central Hungary, the reappearance of tell settlements
becken und insbesondere auf Ungarn zu. Eine der heraus (after their first period in the Late Neolithic) in large portions
ragendsten Vernderungen ist das Verschwinden der of the Carpathian Basin particularly in the east and the
Glockenbecherformen aus Zentralungarn sowie das Wieder- formation of smaller, increasingly distinct ceramic styles that
aufkommen von Tellsiedlungen (nach einer ersten Phase im indicate the formation of smaller networks within Hungary.
spten Neolithikum) in weiten Teilen des Karpatenbeckens Many scholars have tried to provide an account of this trans-
vor allem aber in den stlichen Gebieten sowie die Ent- formation, but previous explanations have mainly invoked
wicklung kleinrumiger und immer ausgeprgterer Kera- migrations, usually from the south-east, that brought with
mikstile, die auf die Entstehung kleiner Netzwerke innerhalb them a Balkan-Anatolian economy. The aim of the paper is
Ungarns hinweisen. to provide a new narrative for this major transformation in
Viele Interpretationsmglichkeiten fr diesen Wandel wur- Hungarys Bronze Age, focusing on new cultural and techno
den schon vorgeschlagen. Diese beriefen sich jedoch meist auf logical processes that start at this point. It will be demon
Migrationen, in der Regel aus dem Sdosten, die eine Balka- strated that, as opposed to a crisis, 22ooBC in the Carpathian
nisch-Anatolische Wirtschaftsform mitgebracht htten. Basin represents the starting point for a continuous, uninter-
Ziel des Beitrages ist es, neue Interpretationsmglichkei- rupted development of societies lasting until the final phase
ten fr diesen bedeutenden Wandel der ungarischen Bronze- of the Middle Bronze Age in the area (c.16oo15oo/145oBC).
zeit, durch das Konzentrieren auf kulturelle und technische As prime movers of change we identify climatic melioration,
Prozesse, zu prsentieren, die in dieser Phase aufkamen. Es surplus production, demographic growth, increasing social
wird aufgezeigt, dass es sich hier keinesfalls um eine Krise differentiation, and new forms of cultural memory and of
handelte, sondern, dass in der Zeit um 22oo v.Chr. im Karpa- relationship with the past.
tenbecken eine kontinuierliche gesellschaftliche Entwicklung
ihren Anfang nahm, die bis zum Ende der Mittelbronzezeit
(ca. 16oo15oo/145o v.Chr.) anhielt. Die Hauptfaktoren, die
zu dieser Vernderung fhrten, waren eine Klimaverbesse-
rung, ein landwirtschaftlicher Produktionsberschuss, ein
Bevlkerungswachstum, eine verstrkte soziale Differenzie-
rung sowie neue Formen der kulturellen Erinnerung und des
Vergangenheitsbezugs.

Introduction book of the Early and Middle Bronze Age (MBA) periods in
Hungary, not only because of the nice colour photos of sig
The period between 23ooBC and 21ooBC represents a time nificant finds, but also because of the very important collec
of change in many areas of the Old World, and this is also tion of absolute chronological data (Raczky etal. 1992). These
true for the Carpathian Basin, and for Hungary in partic early explanations, mainly invoking migrations, represented
ular. This crucial transition has been described in a number an old fashioned approach to archaeology and the explana
of different ways. tion of cultural change. As shown on traditional maps of the
It was an important turning point of Hungarian Bronze distribution of assumed cultures, the physical movement
Age archaeology when, in connection with an international and resettlement of whole populations or ethnic groups
travelling exhibition of the material of Bronze Age tell settle was suggested, usually from the south-east, bringing with
ments in the Great Hungarian Plain, a summary of the new them a Balkan-Anatolian economy.
research results was attempted (Meier-Arendt 1992). Though Among the most significant changes of the period be-
the exhibition catalogue showed only glimpses of the rich tween 23ooBC and 21ooBC are the disappearance of Bell
material of Bronze Age tell settlements, it became a hand Beaker-type material in central Hungary, the reappearance

TA G U N G E N D E S L A N D E S M U S E U M S F R V O R G E S C H I C H T E H A L L E B A N D 12 2 015
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Fig.1ab a The beginning of the Bronze Age in


Absolute Central south-eastern and central Europe; b overview of
Bulgaria Hungary Late Copper Age, Early and Middle Bronze Age
dates (BC) Europe
chronology, and cultures/groups in Hungary.
Reinecke Bz
Abb.1ab a Der Anfang der Bronzezeit in Sd-
2200/2100 A1 ost- und Mitteleuropa; b bersicht der spten
kupferzeitlichen, frh- und mittelbronzezeit
Reinecke Bz
EBA III EBA 2 lichen Chronologie sowie der Kulturen/
2300 A0 Gruppen in Ungarn.

2600/2500
EBA 1 Eneolithic

EBA II
Transitional
period

2900/2800
Late
Late Copper Neolithic
EBA I
Age

3500/3400 a

Central
cal BC Hungary Western Hungary Danube River region Eastern Hungary
Europe

1500/1450 RB B MBA 3
Fzesabony-
Gyulavarsnd/
MBA 2 Encrusted Pottery
Vatya Otomani
RB A2 Gta-Wieselburg II
Hatvan
MBA 1 Maros
2000/1900
Late Nagyrv
Hatvan
EBA 3 Kisapostag Late Nagyrv
Nyrsg/Szaniszl
RB A1 Gta-Wieselburg I Kisapostag
Otomani I
2200/2100 Maros
Late Somogyvr/Proto Bell Beaker Late Mak
Kisapostag Late Mak Nyrsg
2300/2200 RB A0 EBA 2
Proto and Early Early Nagyrv
Somogyvr-Vinkovci Nagyrv Early Maros

Eneolithic Late Vuedol/Early Mak


2500/2400 EBA 1 Mak
Somogyvr-Vinkovci Yamnaya

Vuedol Late Baden,


Vuedol, Kostolac
Late Baden, Yamnaya, Early
Late Late Baden
Kostolac Mak
Copper Late
2900/2800
Age Copper
Age Baden
Baden Baden
Pre-Yamnaya
3500/3400 b

of tell settlements (after their first period in the Late Neo aim of the paper is to provide a new narrative for this major
lithic) in large portions of the Carpathian Basin, mainly in transformation in Hungarys Bronze Age, focusing on
the east and along the Danube River, and the formation of new cultural and technological processes that start at this
smaller, increasingly distinct ceramic styles that indicate point.
the formation of new social networks and identities. The

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O L D A N D N E W N A R R AT I V E S F O R H U N G A R Y A R O U N D 2 2 0 0 B C 505

Chronological and cultural framework while most of the Great Hungarian Plain, northern Trans
danubia, and southwest Slovakia are characterised by
We are all aware that there is still some controversy regard Mak-type finds, occasionally with Late Yamnaya connec
ing the onset of the Bronze Age in terms of its relative chro tions from the East European steppe5.
nology. In the Carpathian Basin, for example, Hungarian In the light of radiocarbon dates6, however, this picture
and Romanian prehistorians emphasise the regions media is in need of some re-evaluation. Some Mak style assem
ting role and tend to take an intermediate position compared blages, usually assigned to EBA12a (c.26oo 23ooBC),
to Bulgarian research, which dates the beginning of the have been radiocarbon dated to after 23ooBC, indicating
Bronze Age to the mid-4th millenniumBC, when multi-layered that they belong instead to the EBA phases2b3 and are
settlements appeared and Central European research, which thus relevant for the question regarding the changes
assigns the onset of the Bronze Age to around 22ooBC, when around 22ooBC (e.g. ll, Site5, co. Pest (Hungary): 234o
the first tin bronzes were made (Fig.1ab)1. 213ocalBC; Domony, co. Pest (Hungary): 234o 2o5o calBC;
The chronological system currently used in Hungary for see Kulcsr/Szevernyi 2o13, 71).
the Bronze Age was developed by the early 198os by a num In the following the processes of change will be presen
ber of Hungarian scholars and concerns mostly the Copper ted in three separate regions: 1. the Danube River region,
Age and the Early and Middle Bronze Ages2 . According to 2. eastern Hungary the Tisza River and Maros River re-
this system the Bronze Age was divided into three main gions, and 3. western Hungary/Transdanubia (Fig.25).
phases: Early, Middle, and Late. All these phases are in turn
divided into three subphases (13), which in certain areas
and at certain times can be divided into even smaller units The Danube River region
(ab). This system has since been elaborated and refined in
certain issues3, but has remained unchanged in its funda The greatest changes can be noted in the Budapest area
mental aspects. According to this Hungarian relative chro (Hungary), where several intensively occupied settlements
nological scheme, the period under study here, between appear, together with large cemeteries, often containing
23ooBC and 21ooBC, falls to the Early Bronze Age phases2b hundreds or even a thousand or more burials: this is the Bell
and 3. While this classic, tripartite chronological framework Beaker period7. The section of the Danube River in the Buda
for the Early Bronze Age in Hungary generally seems to pest area had always been suited to a settlement concentra
serve its purpose fairly well, there are nevertheless certain tion of this type, acting as a gateway between the west and
problems. An important one is that sometimes there is a the eastern plains. The appearance of the Bell Beaker popu
poor fit between the relative chronological scheme and the lation brought new cultural impulses (Heyd 2oo7; Heyd
absolute dates obtained through radiocarbon dating. Besides 2oo7a). The assessment of the settlements and the ceme
the traditional typological approach and the older radiocar teries in the Budapest area yielded evidence that the region
bon dates (Raczky etal. 1992; Forenbaher 1993), the num was an important meeting point between the north-west,
ber of modern accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dates the east, and the south. A cultural syncretism can be noted
for the area has been continuously increasing. This means in both the burial rite and the grave goods in the EBA2
around 3o new dates for the period between 25oo/24ooBC cemeteries, and a few stable isotope analyses indicate some
and 22oo/21ooBC, although there are usually only one or degree of mobility in the period (Price etal. 2oo4; Kulcsr
two dates per site and larger series suitable for Bayesian sta 2o11). This complexity formed the basis of the groups iden
tistical analysis are rare. In the following we will briefly tity. Marked differences can be discerned between the two
sketch the chronological and cultural framework of the area banks of the Danube River. The eastern bank shows contacts
between c. 25ooBC and 22oo/21ooBC. with the Tisza River and Maros River regions, while the con
According to the most recent model, there was a short, tacts of the western bank were more oriented to the north-
approximately 2oo -year-long transitional period between west and the south (Kulcsr 2o11; Endrdi 2o13). Through
28oo/27ooBC and 26oo/25ooBC, when Late Copper Age the mediation of this area, the network of interaction at this
material was used contemporaneously with Early Bronze period thus spanned the vast territory between Moravia
Age material culture4. The beginning of the Bronze Age and Serbia, and the Tisza/Maros Rivers region and Lower
(EBA1) in the Carpathian Basin can be traced along two Austria. The stimulus behind the interaction network was
lines. If we simplify a rather complicated situation, we may no doubt the exchange of raw materials and possibly horses.
say that in southern Transdanubia (Hungary), Slavonia The first tin bronzes, although with a very low tin content,
(Croatia) and Syrmia (Serbia/Croatia), material of the Late are also known from this area (Endrdi etal. 2oo3; Rem
Vuedol and then Somogyvr-Vinkovci types can be found, nyi etal. 2oo6).

1 E .g. Maran 1998; Gogltan 1999; Bertemes/ 5 E .g. Dani 2oo1; Dani 2oo5; Kulcsr 2oo9; 7 Kalicz-Schreiber 2oo1; Endrdi/Psztor
Heyd 2oo2; Kulcsr 2oo9; Remnyi 2oo9; Remnyi 2oo9. 2oo6; Czene 2oo8; Endrdi etal. 2oo8; Patay
Heyd 2o13; Kulcsr/Szevernyi 2o13. 6 A ll radiocarbon dates in the text have been 2oo8; Kulcsr 2o11; Endrdi 2o12; Endrdi
2 Bna 1975, 222; Bndi 1982; Kalicz 1982; recalibrated using OxCal v4.2.4 (Bronk Ram 2o13; Endrdi 2o13a; Patay 2o13.
Kalicz-Schreiber 1982; Kovcs 1982. sey 2oo9), using the IntCal13 atmospheric 8 R aczky etal. 1992; Forenbaher 1993;
3 E .g. Kalicz-Schreiber/Kalicz 1997, Abb.1; 2; calibration curve (Reimer etal. 2o13). Endrdi/Psztor 2oo6; Kulcsr 2o11;
most recently Remnyi 2oo9. Calibrated dates are given with 1 proba Horvth 2o13; Kulcsr 2o13a; Patay 2o13.
4 Gl/Kulcsr 2o12; Horvth 2o12; Kulcsr bility, unless otherwise stated.
2o12; Kulcsr 2o13; Kulcsr/Szevernyi
2o13; Horvth/Kulcsr 2o14.

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ns
arp athia No N
rth
st er n C ea
hwe
N or t ste
rn
Ukraine
Ca
rp
at

aj
hia

k
To
za ns
kk Tis
Slovakia B
Austria Mtra
Gu
n tin
ai
Pl
n
ia
e ar
Danub
bia 1 g

East
anu un 2 Srrt
d
ns tH
Tra a

er n C
e
Hungary Gr Krs

arpa
Slovenia Apuseni
Mountains

thian
Maros

s
Romania
Drava
Croatia
Serbia
hians
r n C arpat
e
South

Sava

Bosnia and Herzegovina


100 km
a

Fig.2ab a 1 The Danube River region; 2 eastern Hungary the Tisza and Maros River regions; 3 western Hungary/Transdanubia; b Bronze Age sites
ment ioned in the text: : settlement, burial, hoard; n tell settlement.

Abb.2ab a 1 Die Donauregion; 2 Ostungarn Theiss- und Marosgebiet; 3 Westungarn/Transdanubien. b Die im Text erwhnten bronzezeitlichen Fund-
stellen. Siedlung, Bestattung, Hortfund; n Tellsiedlung.

Based on the radiocarbon dates, Bell Beaker-type mate Proto-Nagyrv group, appearing on the right bank of the
rial can be placed between 25ooBC and 22oo/21ooBC 8 . A Danube River, can be regarded as an independent branch,
blend of local Mak, SomogyvrVinkovci, and proto/early differing slightly from the SomogyvrVinkovci in Trans
Nagyrv elements can be noted. This overlap in the second danubia (Bna 1965; cf. Szab 1992; Kulcsr 2oo9). The
half of the 3rd millenniumBC is also supported by the radio groups distribution in the Danube River valley virtually con
carbon dates presented here. A series of five AMS radiocar forms to the earlier Vuedol pattern in Syrmia and along
bon dates from the cemetery of Szigetszentmikls-Fels the Hungarian Danube section up to Dunafldvr-Klvria
rge-hegyi dl, co. Pest (Hungary) can be subjected to hegy, co. Tolna (Hungary). This settlement network enabled
Bayesian analysis (Patay 2o13). Assuming that the graves the southward spread of the finely decorated Bell Beak-
represent a single phase, the time span of the use of the er wares from the easternmost intensive settlement concen
cemetery can be dated to c.242o 219ocalBC (Fig.6a). A tration in the Budapest area to the southernmost site at
similar analysis of the three AMS dates from the cemetery Ostrikovac, co. Pomoravlje (Serbia), in the Morava River
of Budapest-Bksmegyer dates its use to c. 241o valley. The Proto-Nagyrv settlements formed the basis of
222ocalBC (Fig 6b; Kulcsr 2o13a). One of the most interes the later Bronze Age tell settlements in the Carpathian
ting questions concerns when and how Bell Beaker material Basin. The early phases of the Nagyrv tells can be dated
disappeared from the vicinity of Budapest and what fol similarly, slightly earlier than 22ooBC (cf. Gogltan 2oo5).
lowed it. We have one published radiocarbon date from Older, non-AMS radiocarbon dates with high standard devi
Dunakeszi-Szkesdl, co. Pest (Hungary), where a burial ation (e.g. from Baracs, co. Fejr [Hungary] and Blcske-
with Nagyrv style material is dated to 2o3o 19oo calBC Vrsgyr, co. Tolna [Hungary]; Raczky etal. 1992) indicate
(Endrdi/Psztor 2oo6). even earlier dates, but these have to be confirmed by new
From this perspective, the processes of the emergence of measurements.
tell settlements (discussed below) and the associated Nagy
rv-type material along the Danube River are crucial. The

TA G U N G E N D E S L A N D E S M U S E U M S F R V O R G E S C H I C H T E H A L L E B A N D 12 2 015
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N
28
45

21

10 16
25 12 14
11 43 40
34 13 7 20
18 3538 42 6
17 41 1
2 5 15
4 27
46 9 44
29
3
22 24
19 23 32
8 39
33
26

31

30
100 km
b

1 Bakonszeg-Kdrdomb 8 Bonyhd 16 Dunakeszi-Szkesdl 25 Mnfcsanak-Szles- 34 Szzhalombatta-Fldvr 40 Tiszafred-


2 Balatonakali 9 Blcske-Vrsgyr 17 Dunajvros-Duna-dl fldek 35 Szigetszentmikls- Majoroshalom
3 Balatonkeresztr-Rti 10 Budakalsz-Csajerszke 18 Ercsi-Sina-telep 26 Mokrin Felstag 41 Tszeg-Laposhalom
dl 11 Budapest-Albertfalva 19 Fajsz 27 Nagyrv-Zsidhalom 36 Szigetszentmikls-Fels 42 Trkeve-Terehalom
4 Balatonszd-Temeti- 12 Budapest-Bksmegyer 20 Gborjn-Csapszkpart 28 Nin Myla rge-hegyi dl 43 ll Site 5
dl 13 Budapest-Csepel- 21 Herndkak 29 Ordacsehi-Cserefld 37 Szigetszentmikls- 44 Vlcele/Bnyabkk
5 Baracs-Bottynsnc Hollandi t 22 Kiskundorozsma- 30 Ostrikovac dlsor 45 Velince
6 Berettyjfalu-Herply 14 Domony Hosszht-halom 31 Patulele 38 Szigetszentmikls- 46 Vrs-
7 Berettyjfalu-Nagy- 15 Dunafldvr- 23 Kiszombor 32 Pecica/Pcska Vzmvek Mriaasszonysziget
Bcs-dl Klvriahegy 24 Klrafalva-Hajdova 33 Pcs-Nagyrpd 39 Szreg

Eastern Hungary the Tisza River and Maros River regions chronologically early, single-phase cemetery of Kiskundo
rozsma is dated to 225o 2o5ocalBC, while in the case of
In the areas east of the Danube River, fundamental changes Mokrin, co. North Banat (Serbia), the second and third
can be observed after the Mak/Yamnaya period in several phases of the cemetery are dated to 217o2o2o calBC
different regions. One such region is the confluence of the (Fig.7ab). Currently it seems uncertain whether the tell set
Tisza and Maros Rivers. Here, around 23ooBC to 21oo/ tlements of the Maros started before 22ooBC: the new exca
2oooBC, the first Early Maros (bba-Pitvaros) groups, of vation material from Klrafalva and Kiszombor (both co.
supposedly southern origin but with significant north- Csongrd, Hungary) has not yet been published, and at least
western contacts, made their appearance (Bna 1965; Fischl/ some of the old radiocarbon dates from Kiszombor (OShea
Kulcsr 2o11). From 21ooBC this process led to the forma 1992; OShea 1996) seem too early to come even from an Early
tion of tell settlements, open, flat sites, large cemeteries, and Bronze Age context. Here the possibility of contamination
a cultural unit with wide connections (OShea 1996; Fischl with Late Copper Age material may have to be considered.
1998). So far we do not have modern published radiocarbon Another important region is in the northern/north-east
dates from the settlements9. The Bayesian analysis of the six ern part of the Carpathian Basin. Here the changes after the
dates from Mokrin, co. North Banat (Serbia) and four dates Mak/Nyrsg period strong settlement nucleation and the
from Kiskundorozsma-Hosszht-halom near Szeged, co. formation of tell settlements can be connected to the Hat
Csongrd (Hungary), shows that the two cemeteries were van period and the locally developed Ottomny/Otomani
contemporary (OShea 1992; Fischl/Kulcsr 2o11). The typo- period10. Most recently, four dates for the Mak period have

9 Only the older dates from Klrafalva-Haj 1o Kalicz 1968; Mth 1988; Bna 1992; Dani 2oo7; Dani/Fischl 2oo9; Gogltan 2o12;
dova and Kiszombor: OShea 1992; Raczky 2oo1; Gogltan 2oo2; Nmeti/Molnr 2oo2; Nmeti/Molnr 2o12; Duffy 2o14.
etal. 1992; Forenbaher 1993; Fischl/Kulcsr Dani 2oo5; Gogltan 2oo5; Nmeti/Molnr
2o11.

TA G U N G E N D E S L A N D E S M U S E U M S F R V O R G E S C H I C H T E H A L L E B A N D 12 2 015
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Proto Aunjetitz

Bell Beaker N
Nitra

Late Mak
Bell Beaker Nyirsg

Late Mak
Bell Beaker Late Mak

Somogyvr-Vinkovci
Early Nagyrv
Early Nagyrv

Somogyvr-Vinkovci
Early Maros

Somogyvr-Vinkovci

100 km

Fig.3 Carpathian Basin/Hungary around 23oo/22ooBC.

Abb.3 Das Karpatenbecken/Ungarn um 23oo/22oo v.Chr.

been published from the site of Berettyjfalu-Nagy-Bcs- gary is dated between 21ooBC and 19ooBC on typological
dl, co. Hajd-Bihar (Hungary; Dani/Kisjuhsz 2o13), two grounds, were traditionally traced to the Middle Dnieper
from cremation graves and two from settlement features. River region, based on the pottery decoration (Bna 1961).
Their combined date is 255o 246o calBC (Kulcsr/Szever Recently found inhumation graves in which the deceased
nyi 2o13). The earliest AMS radiocarbon date for Hatvan- were laid to rest in a supine position with flexed legs point
type material is known from Velince, okr. Rimavsk toward a possible origin in Northern and Eastern Europe
Sobota (Slovakia), in the northern Carpathian Basin, and (perhaps with the Corded Ware Culture, based on both pot
dates its formation to 219o 2o4o calBC (Grsdorf etal. tery decoration and burial practice; Szab 2oo9). However,
2oo4). The early Hatvan phase can be dated in the light of the role of local traditions is also shown by Late Somogyvr
its connections, for example with the Late Nyrsg, Sza (Proto-Kisapostag) features, and western contacts are also
niszl (Dani 2oo5), and Late Nagyrv groups, and a few new indicated around 21ooBC by the start of fundamental
radiocarbon dates, to c. 22oo 19ooBC at the earliest. changes in metallurgy. One radiocarbon date indicates a
surprisingly late period for Late Somogyvr (Proto-Kisapos
tag) material, c.188o 169ocalBC; its proper interpretation
Western Hungary/Transdanubia requires further research (Balatonszd-Temeti-dl, co.
Somogy [Hungary]; Horvth/Kulcsr 2o14). Currently only
West of the Danube River, Somogyvr-Vinkovci style one radiocarbon date from the Bonyhd cemetery, co. Tolna
material, which followed Late Vuedol, is dated between (Hungary), indicates the appearance of the Kisapostag style
25oo/24ooBC and 23oo/22ooBC (Kulcsr 2o13; Kulcsr/ around 21ooBC (213o 197ocalBC; Kiss etal. forthcoming).
Szevernyi 2o13). It is followed by the Kisapostag style and All other dates for the type fall into the period after
by the Gta-Wieselburg style in the north-west. The origins 2ooo calBC11. Based on the currently available data, there is
of the Kisapostag style, whose appearance in western Hun considerable discrepancy between the relative and absolute

11 Mnfcsanak-Szlesfldek, co. Gyr-Moson- 2oo9, 24 Tab.1; Balatonkeresztr-Rti-dl,


Sopron (Hungary): 196o 183o calBC; Melis co. Somogy (Hungary): 187o 169o calBC;
2o13, 45 Fig.9; Vrs-Mriaasszonysziget, Fbin 2oo6; Kiss etal. forthcoming.
co. Somogy (Hungary): Medzihradszky etal.

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netice

Nitra

Late Nyirsg
Gta-Wieselburg
Hatvan
Stanislau

Kisapostag Nagyrv

Early Otomani
Nagyrv
Nagyrv
Kisapostag
Maros

Early Vatin

100 km

Fig.4 Carpathian Basin/Hungary around 22oo/21ooBC.

Abb.4 Das Karpatenbecken/Ungarn um 22oo/21oo v.Chr.

chronological data in Transdanubia. The reason for this is today (Jrai-Komldi 2oo3; for a 53ooBP [33ooBC] start to
still unknown; one suggestion is that it is caused by some the Sub-Boreal period see Juhsz 2oo2). In the Carpathian
outliers which have not been recognised due to the small Basin, the beginning of the Sub-Boreal phase still falls into
number of measurements. the Late Copper Age, and the Early Bronze Age phase under
study here can be dated to the beginning of its middle phase.
After the Holocene Climatic Optimum, it is characterised
Climate and environment by cooler and wetter weather. Besides the average tempera
ture fluctuations, the mean summer temperature decreased
The Carpathian Basin is an important transitional zone in and the mean winter temperature rose (Smegi/Bodor 2oo5,
Central Europe, connecting the Balkan Peninsula and the 214; 22o). As a general feature of the period, deciduous forest
western, eastern, and northern parts of Europe. It has a vegetation closed over, and the Carpathian Basin became
very complex geology, topography, and vegetation. Climatic covered by forests dominated by oak (Quercus L.) and beech
conditions are determined here by geographical position (Fagus sylvatica L.). Based on Scandinavian pollen data, the
and topography. Four major climatic regions can be ob- Sub-Boreal is divided into three subphases. The border be-
served: oceanic in the west, sub-Mediterranean in the south, tween the Early and Middle Sub-Boreal is around 2ooo calBC,
continental in the east and centre, and highland in the which coincides with the transition between the Early and
mountains. Altitudinal variations complicate the picture Middle Bronze Ages in Hungary (Fischl/Remnyi 2o13, 727
even more, causing differences in precipitation and temper Fig.1). The latter sees the widest distribution of the tell set
ature, which, combined with geomorphology, soil, and tlement type (Fischl etal. 2o13). However, oceanic climate,
anthropogenic impact, determine vegetation. The latter is from which the Scandinavian data come, characterises only
zonal at all scales, due to the combined effect of these fac the western fringe of the Carpathian Basin, thus the climatic
tors (Fig.8; Smegi/Bodor 2ooo, 84; Smegi etal. 2oo4, zones based on Nordic pollen data cannot be generalised to
26f.; Smegi etal. 2o12, 49f. Fig.2.23). the whole area of the basin.
The period under study (4.2kaBP/2.2kaBC) falls into As a consequence, there is no up-to-date climatic recon
the Sub-Boreal climatic phase, which starts around 5oooBP struction for the Sub-Boreal phase in the Carpathian Basin.
(3ooocalBC), and is succeeded by the Sub-Atlantic phase In any case, a general climatic model could not be sketched
around 29oo/26ooBP (9oo/6oocalBC), which still continues for the whole area due to its mosaic-like character. During

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510 K L R A P U S Z TA I N F I S C H L , V I K T R I A K I S S , G A B R I E L L A K U L C S R , A N D V A J K S Z E V E R N Y I

2200/2100 BC

Gta/ L. Nyrsg/
Kisapostag Wieselburg Nagyrv Hatvan Maros
Sanislau
2300/2200 BC

Somogyvr Bell Beaker Early Nagyrv Late Mak Early Maros Nyrsg

Fig.5 Selected typical ceramic finds from the Carpathian Basin/Hungary around 23oo/22ooBC and 22oo/21ooBC.

Abb.5 Eine Auswahl typischer Keramikfunde aus dem Karpatenbecken/Ungarn um 23oo/22oo v.Chr. und 22oo/21oo v.Chr.

the past 2o years, however, a series of detailed environmen (2o5861, 186661, 181851BC), but even these data can
tal studies have been published12 . Through the complex anal only be understood at a regional level, and concern only the
ysis of geoarchaeological samples from smaller pollen catch development of the western end of Lake Balaton (Smegi
ment areas, these indicate mixed oak-beech-hornbeam etal. 2o11).
(Quercus L.-Fagus L.-Capinus L.) deciduous forests within The analysis of water voles (Arvicola) remains from caves
the Sub-Boreal phase, with a gradual decrease of oak. The as indicators of wetness shows a gradually wetter climate
Holocene wood cover of the Great Hungarian Plain was during the whole Sub-Boreal phase, without significant
determined by the regional continental climate: harsh win breaks (Kordos 1987; Ndor etal. 2oo7, Fig.9; Darczi 2o12,
ters, very warm summers, and strong winds (Gardner 2oo5, Fig.6). At the same time P.Smegi etal. (2o12) suggested
1o3). On the other hand, local observations indicate a drier that anthropogenic impact, especially through the emer
period in the second half of the Middle Bronze Age along the gence of tell settlements, may have modified the already
Maros River (Sherwood etal. 2o13), and grape from the Early mosaic-like environmental factors of the Carpathian Basin
and Middle Bronze Age layers of the core samples from at a micro-regional or regional level, and the extremely
Keszthely-sztatmajor, co. Zala; and Mezlak, co. Vesz focused exploitation of the landscape during the establish
prm, in western Hungary also indicates a dry, warmer cli ment of the tell settlements brought about a complete disap
mate, probably due to Mediterranean climatic influence pearance of the boundaries between closed woodlands and
(Juhsz 2oo7, 49; Smegi 2oo7, 33o). More detailed proxy adjacent forest-steppe areas contributing to the expansion of
data have been published from Keszthely-Fenkpuszta, co. the ecotonal elements to the former areas of gallery forests
Zala (Hungary), where anthropogenic impact during this and the closed woodlands of the hills and foothills as well
period was analysed according to 5o 8o -year-long phases as midmountains of the basin. Based on the above we can

12 Smegi etal. 1998; Smegi/Bodor 2ooo;


Smegi/Gulys 2oo4; Bcsmegi/Smegi
2oo5; Gl etal. 2oo5; Smegi/Bodor 2oo5;
Zatyk etal. 2oo7; Smegi 2o13.

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OxCal v4.2.4 Bronk Ramsey (2013); r:5 IntCal13 atmospheric curve (Reimer et al. 2013)

Sequence Szigetszentmikls

Boundary start

Phase Bell Beaker

R_Date Grave 10

R_Date Grave 49

R_Date Grave 50

R_Date Grave 367

R_Date Grave 626

Boundary end

4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000

Modelled date (BC)


a

OxCal v4.2.4 Bronk Ramsey (2013); r:5 IntCal13 atmospheric curve (Reimer et al. 2013)

Sequence Bksmegyer

Boundary start

Phase Bell Beaker

R_Date Grave 193

R_Date Grave 432a

R_Date Grave 445

Boundary end

3500 3000 2500 2000 1500

Modelled date (BC)


b

Fig.6ab Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates from Bell Beaker cemeteries in Hungary: a Szigetszentmikls-Fels rge-hegyi dl; b Budapest-
Bksmegyer (see Appendix 1 for data).

Abb.6ab Bayessche Statistik von 14 C-Daten aus glockenbecherzeitlichen Grberfeldern in Ungarn: a Szigetszentmikls-Fels rge-hegyi dl; b Buda-
pest-Bksmegyer (Daten siehe Appendix 1).

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512 K L R A P U S Z TA I N F I S C H L , V I K T R I A K I S S , G A B R I E L L A K U L C S R , A N D V A J K S Z E V E R N Y I

OxCal v4.2.4 Bronk Ramsey (2013); r:5 IntCal13 atmospheric curve (Reimer et al. 2013)

Sequence Mokrin

Boundary start

Phase Mokrin 2

R_Date Grave 208

R_Date Grave 110

R_Date Grave 52

R_Date Grave 237

Phase Mokrin 3

R_Date Grave 227

R_Date Grave 259

Boundary end

4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500

Modelled date (BC)


a

OxCal v4.2.4 Bronk Ramsey (2013); r:5 IntCal13 atmospheric curve (Reimer et al. 2013)

Sequence Kiskundorozsma-Hosszht-halom

Boundary start

Phase Early Maros

R_Date Grave 56

R_Date Grave 55

R_Date Grave 66

R_Date Grave 15

Boundary end

4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500

Modelled date (BC) b

Fig.7ab Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates from EBA 3 cemeteries in Hungary: a Mokrin; b Kiskundorozsma-Hosszht-halom (see Appendix 1
for data).

Abb.7ab Bayessche Statistik von 14 C-Daten aus Grberfeldern der Frhbronzezeit 3 in Ungarn: a Mokrin; b Kiskundorozsma-Hosszht-halom (Daten
siehe Appendix 1).

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a b

Fig.8ab a Climatic zones of the Carpathian Basin: 1 oceanic climatic effect; 2 forest-steppe climatic zone; 3 sub-Carpathian climatic zone; 4 transi
tional climatic zone; 5 relative frequency of sub-Mediterranean climatic effect. b Vegetation zones of the Carpathian Basin: 1 Pannonian forest steppe
region; 2 sub-Mediterranean oak forest region; 3 mixed zone between the sub-Mediterranean and central European forest regions; 4 Balkan oak forest
region; 5 Central European oak forest region; 6 beech and coniferous forest; 7 distribution of silver lime (Tilia tomentosa).

Abb.8ab a Klimazonen des Karpatenbeckens: 1 Meeresklimaeffekt; 2 Wald-Steppen-Klimazone; 3 subkarpatische Klimazone; 4 klimat ische bergangs-
zone; 5 relativ hufiges Auftreten des submediterranen Klimaeffekts. b Vegetationszonen des Karpatenbeckens: 1 pannonische Wald-Steppenlandschaft;
2 submediterraner Eichenwald; 3 gemischte Zone mit submediterranen und mitteleuropischen Waldregionen; 4 balkanischer Eichenwald; 5 mitteleuro-
pischer Eichenwald; 6 Buchen- und Nadelwald; 7 Verbreitung der Silber-Linde (Tilia tomentosa).

establish that, according to the currently available data, Zsidhalom [both co. Jsz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Hungary]),
there is no significant climatic change that would have then the Maros River region (e.g. Kiszombor, co. Csongrd
determined or changed the life of the Early Bronze Age [Hungary]; Pecica/Pcska, co. Arad [Romania]), the Beretty
communities of the Carpathian Basin. On the basis of the River and Krs River valleys (Bakonszeg-Kdrdomb, co.
continuously growing palaeoenvironmental data, we can Hajd-Bihar [Hungary]; Berettyjfalu-Herply, co. Hajd-
reconstruct an increasingly cooler and wetter climate that Bihar [Hungary]; Gborjn-Csapszkpart, co. Hajd-Bihar
varies in a mosaic-like fashion according to geographical [Hungary]; Trkeve-Terehalom, co. Jsz-Nagykun-Szolnok
position. [Hungary]), the rmellk/Eriu Valley, co. Bihor (Romania)
and the northern Great Hungarian Plain (Fig.2b; 8).
The formation of tells has many aspects. On the one hand,
Settlement and society they appear only in zones with fairly well-definable ecolog
ical and pedological characteristics, and where a particular
The mosaic-like character of the Carpathian Basin is also architectural technique was practised (Smegi etal. 2oo3;
reflected in the variability of the observed settlement pat Gogltan 2oo6; Rosenstock 2oo9). From a socio-economic
terns, since environmental factors have a significant role in point of view, their basis is formed by settlement or popula
shaping the structure of settlement in all regions. Research tion concentration and demographic growth. The latter went
has also been somewhat patchy with regard to the whole hand in hand with increased agricultural production and
study area. specialisation, the separation of craftspeople and traders
An examination of the settlements of the whole basin and the formation of an elite (Szevernyi/Kulcsr 2o12;
would be an enormous task, so here we would like to single Fischl etal. 2o13; Fischl etal. 2o13a). In the Carpathian Basin
out one of the most important features of the period. The the peak of this process coincides with the beginning of the
most important change observed is the reappearance of tell Middle Bronze Age, around 2oooBC, but the process starts
settlements after a hiatus of more than 2ooo years since the around 23oo/22ooBC. Surplus production and the signif
Late Neolithic13. This happens first along the Danube River, icance of the exchange route along the Danube River both
then slightly later along the Middle Tisza River, with Early support this view of the social structure of the communities
Nagyrv style material (Szab 1992; Kulcsr 2oo9; Remnyi living on these tell sites. Tells and fortified sites probably
2oo9). As mentioned before, the absolute dates we have for played the role of central settlements. They may have been
determining the timeframe of the establishment of tell set the centres of given regional networks of settlements, with
tlements are old, non-AMS dates (Raczky etal. 1992). Based outstanding socio-political rank; they may have been the
on these and typo-chronological analyses we may say that locations of specialised craft production or centres of ex-
tells first appeared along the Danube River (Dunafldvr- change. All these functions would have made them special
Klvria and Blcske-Vrsgyr [both co. Tolna, Hungary]) and separated them from the rest of the settlement network.
around 23oo/22ooBC, followed shortly afterwards by the This, however, was not the case everywhere in Hungary, and
Middle Tisza River region (Tszeg-Laposhalom, Nagyrv- there are some marked regional differences, even within the

13 Bna 1975; Meier-Arendt 1992; Gogltan


2oo2; Gogltan 2oo5; Kienlin 2o12.

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Fig.9 Chronology of metal finds from the Late


LCA EBA I EBA II EBA III MBA I Copper Age until the beginning of the Middle
2200 BC Bronze Age.

Abb.9 Chronologische Abfolge der Metallfunde


von der spten Kupferzeit bis zum Beginn der
Mittelbronzezeit.

? ?

distribution area of tells. While such a hierarchical arrange stroyed, after the ruins are levelled a new house is built
ment is possible in the central part of the country, along the exactly in its place, and so the dwelling place of the
Danube and the Middle Tisza Rivers (e.g. Earle/Kristiansen ancestors remains continuous (Chapman 1997; Chapman
2o1o; Szevernyi/Kulcsr 2o12), it does not seem to be valid 1999; Szevernyi 2o13). This metaphorical relationship with
for the Upper Tisza River region or the Hernd River valley, the past, which the tells represent and which becomes
where tells are not surrounded by less special sites (Fischl/ important in the ideology of the communities of the region
Kienlin 2o13). In Transdanubia, west of the distribution of at the period under discussion, is as important to the study
tells, similar socio-economic processes can perhaps be ob- of tell formation as their role in the development of social
served, starting from the EBA phase3 characterised by processes.
Kisapostag style material. We can observe some settlement
concentration and the fortification of certain sites, but
perhaps because of the different environmental circum Economy
stances tells are not formed (Kiss 2o12).
The formation of tells, however, is also the result of the Metallurgy
conscious decisions of their communities. The rebuilding of
the settlements, one above the other, was regulated by social Early Bronze Age copper shaft-hole axes are characteristic
rules and rituals connected to them. The dwelling mounds for the period between the Final Copper Age and the Early
created this way may have been the three-dimensional Bronze Age, shortly after 25ooBC14. This axe type is evi
manifestations of the identity of the communities that lived dence not only for the spread of a new type of metal weapon
there, significant places of cultural and collective memory or tool, but also of a technological innovation. The relative
(Raczky etal. 2o11; Raczky/Sebk 2o14). A similar type of abundance of Early Bronze Age moulds in the region is cer
settlement signalisation was the circular ditch, which also tainly noteworthy and reflects a flourishing local metal
appeared in Transdanubia. lurgy. One of the regions most interesting find assemblages
With regard to the formation of tell settlements, experi was unearthed at ll, co. Pest (Hungary), where a cache of
ments indicate that the most convincing explanation for moulds for casting flat chisels and shaft-hole axes came to
the burning of the houses is that they were burnt inten light (Kvri/Patay 2oo5). The radiocarbon date from here is
tionally, probably for ritual reasons (Bankoff/Winter 1979; fairly late (234o 213ocalBC) in comparison with the typo
Gheorghiu 2oo7; Gheorghiu 2oo8). The suggestion is that logical dating (Mak style, EBA2a). This indicates that such
this intentional burning may have connected to the life typologically early (Kozarac/Dunakmld) axes were proba
cycle of those living in the house. During intentional house bly produced even in the last third of the 3rd millenniumBC
burning, through the transformative medium of fire, the (Fig.9).
house is transformed into an ancestral place. It becomes a From around 25ooBC until somewhere between 23ooBC
source of social and ideological value, which can be ex- and 22ooBC, in the formative Early Bronze Age or Reinecke
ploited later on. This act at the same time ensures the clo Ao phase, the artefacts (e.g. daggers; see Fig.8) of a new type
sure of a cycle, causing discontinuity, and the opening of a of metallurgy started to spread, possibly mostly through the
new cycle, creating continuity. Although the house is de- Bell Beaker network (Bertemes/Heyd 2oo2; EBA phase2 in

14 Hansen 2oo9; Hansen 2o1o; Dani 2o13;


Szevernyi 2o13a.

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Hungary: Meier-Arendt 1992, 4o; Kalicz-Schreiber 1994, copied imported artefacts developed their own repertoire,
Abb.15). Arsenic bronzes continued (one fifth of the 65 Bell known from the objects of the Tolnanmedi- and Hajdsm
Beaker bronzes analysed belong to this category; Merkl son-type hoards, and contemporary graves (Kiss 2oo9).
2o1o; Merkl 2o11), but more characteristic are copper objects
with high silver and antimony content (as a result of the
increasing use of fahlores). It is an important observation Subsistence economy
that we find artefacts with a tin content higher than 1.oo%
before true tin bronzes become widespread. Based on the Despite recent advances, our knowledge of Early Bronze
recent analysis of objects from Budapest-Albertfalva (Hun Age subsistence practices and their changes through time
gary), these were manufactured using a primitive techno remains rather sketchy. With regard to plant cultivation, we
logy involving the co-smelting of copper ore and cassiterite have few analyses from EBA23 sites. At Pcs-Nagyrpd,
(Endrdi etal. 2oo3). Interestingly, the halberd from the Bell co. Baranya (Hungary), einkorn (Triticum monococcum),
Beaker cemetery of Szigetszentmikls, co. Pest (Hungary; emmer (Triticum dicoccum), and compact wheat (Triticum
Fig.9), also indicates the participation of these communities spp.) dominated, complemented by six-rowed barley (Hor
in a western network (Patay 2oo8; Patay 2o13, Fig.21). We deum vulgare), lentil (Lens culinaris) and pea (Pisum sati-
do not have an exact date for this specific grave, but it is vum; Hartynyi etal. 1968, 18; Gyulai 2o1o, 93). Slightly
possible that it belongs to a later phase within the lifespan more data is available from Bell Beaker settlements. Buda
of the cemetery (c. 242o 219o calBC). pest-Csepel-Hollandi t (Hungary) yielded mostly six-
From 22ooBC, in the EBA phase3 in Hungary (corres rowed barley and emmer, while at Szigetszentmikls-
ponding to Reinecke BzA1), most of the metal artefacts Vzmvek, co. Pest (Hungary) six-rowed barley, emmer, and
were made of copper without tin, and fahlores (Singen [Ger millet (Panicum miliaceum) were attested. The settlement of
many] and classical senring copper) seem to dominate Budapest-Albertfalva was sampled more systematically.
among the analysed finds (Junghans etal. 1974, Anr.1382o; Here einkorn dominated, followed by emmer and barley,
13825; Krause 2oo3, Datenbank Cl.34/1, 8; Kiss 2o12). For and some pulses: pea and horse beans (Macrotyloma uni
example, in the Ordacsehi-Cserefld, co. Somogy (Hungary), florum; Gyulai 2o1o, 93f.).
bi-ritual cemetery, small metal tubes and hair-rings were Very few EBA3 sites have analysed botanical remains,
found with high antimony, arsenic and silver content (Fig.9). and in many cases these are tell settlements, where material
Among these last mentioned artefacts only one of the metal from Early Bronze Age and Middle Bronze Age layers was
finds seems to have been intentionally alloyed with tin not always treated separately, and the archaeological con
(3.49%); the others did not contain any tin (Somogyi 2oo4; texts also remain largely unpublished. At Baracs-Bottyn
Klt 2oo4; Kiss 2o12). snc, co. Fejr (Hungary; also known as Dunafldvr-
The early metallurgical products of the Maros River Macskalyuk; see Szevernyi/Kulcsr 2o12, 3o8f.), the
region (wire and plate ornaments, torques, Cypriot pins, botanical remains from layers radiocarbon-dated to the
and early triangular daggers; Fig.9) show strong connec Early Bronze Age are dominated by barley (approximately
tions with Nitra-type material and the metal objects of the 8o.oo%), followed by einkorn and lentil (Hartynyi etal.
Singen cemetery in terms of both typology and raw materi 1968, 13; Hartynyi/Novki 1975, 26). At Tszeg-Laposha
als (Liversage 1994). This metallurgical circle can be dated lom, co. Jsz-Nagykun-Szolnok (Hungary), emmer, einkorn,
between 22ooBC and 19ooBC. The primary raw materials and barley were attested among cereals, and a fairly large
were arsenic bronze with high silver content and the so- amount of fine-leaf vetch (Vicia tenuifolia Roth.) was also
called Eastern Alpine copper. Intentional alloying with tin found (Hartynyi etal. 1968, 22f.). This seems to indicate
is encountered only sporadically (Fischl/Kulcsr 2o11). that there was no major difference in the most important
Tin bronzes become widespread in the period between domestic plants exploited during EBA2 and 3.
21ooBC and 18ooBC (Pare 2ooo), during the transition from With regard to animal husbandry, the most interesting
the Early to the Middle Bronze Age in Hungary. Imported or feature of the EBA2 period is the significant number of
finished objects from the area of the communities using horse bones on sites in the Budapest area, which is perhaps
Straubing-, Singen-, and Rhne-type materials can be seen an indication that the Great Hungarian Plain was a second
in varying numbers. Here we can mention the solid-hilted ary centre of horse domestication during this period. The
dagger from Szentgl, co. Veszprm (Hungary) with 1o.oo% proportion of horses in animal bone samples from other
tin in the blade and 6.3o% tin in the hilt (see Fig.9; Mozso areas is much lower (Bknyi 1978; Bknyi 1992).
lics 1967, 51 Abb.17; Junghans etal. 1974, 1435314354). The bone material from tell settlements poses the same
Due to its formal and technical features, it can be associated chronological problems as the botanical remains. A notable
with the similarly dated Alpine-type daggers and be inter exception is the material from Szzhalombatta-Fldvr, co.
preted as an import. However, the different metallurgical Pest (Hungary), where systematic sampling took place and
composition of the hilt (senring type) and the great dis preliminary results are available. Between 24ooBC (or pos
tance from the Alpine region suggests a different place of sibly 23ooBC) and 2oooBC, cattle dominate, followed by
production; probably it was manufactured in areas charac sheep/goats and pigs. By 2oooBC, however, animal exploi
terised by ntice style material (Schwenzer 2oo2, 323f. tation strategies seem to have changed: both the animal
Abb.9; 1o; Krause 2oo3, 183f.). ratios and the kill-off patterns change, indicating the in-
After 2oooBC, during the Middle Bronze Age (2ooo creasing use of secondary products. Sheep dominate and
16ooBC), the local metallurgical workshops that previously are slaughtered at a later age, showing the importance of

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516 K L R A P U S Z TA I N F I S C H L , V I K T R I A K I S S , G A B R I E L L A K U L C S R , A N D V A J K S Z E V E R N Y I

wool collecting. Among cattle, adult animals also dominate Fels rge-hegyi-dl, co. Pest (Hungary), some of the
and the ratio of males is higher. This is indicative of their graves contained rare copper weapons (e.g. a halberd), per
use for traction (for both ploughing and transport; Vrete forated silver plaques with repouss decoration, gold hair-
mark 2o1o). It is quite possible that the change towards this rings, and gold plaques (Patay 2o13). Another grave from
new exploitation strategy had already started in the last Szigetszentmikls-dlsor, co. Pest (Hungary) yielded an
centuries of the 3rd millenniumBC, and culminated in the exceptional headdress made up of gold and silver plates
stable pattern of the Middle Bronze Age. (Endrdi 2o12). Similar gold discs can also be found in
some early Maros burials (Bna 1965; Fischl/Kulcsr 2o11).
After 22ooBC, exceptionally rich burials become rarer.
Ritual and ideology One example is the grave of Balatonakali with its massive
tools and weapons (flanged axe, shaft-hole axe, triangular
Burial rites dagger, socketed chisel, and arm spiral; Torma 1978).
Together with the gold hair-ring, these can be compared to
In EBA phases1 and 2, burial is characterised by isolated the grave-goods of the ntice chiefly graves, providing a
graves, or groups of a few graves; they are mostly crema similar self-representation of the elite of the period. In the
tions, but inhumation, even under barrows, is also attested Middle Bronze Age, rich graves (often of male warriors with
(Kulcsr 2oo9; Dani/Kisjuhsz 2o13). In the Budapest area, bronze axes as grave goods) become more frequently at-
the recent discovery of large Bell Beaker cemeteries has tested again.
changed our perception of funerary behaviour here. Ceme
teries in Budakalsz and Szigetszentmikls (both co. Pest
[Hungary]) and the one already known in Budapest- Hoarding
Bksmegyer contained hundreds of graves, indicating
that a change to large communal cemeteries had already There seem to be significant changes in hoarding practices
taken place before 22ooBC15. throughout the Early Bronze Age. Reaching back to the end
After 22ooBC, the custom of creating such large burial of the Copper Age, the deposition of single copper shaft-hole
grounds spread all around the territory of Hungary. Well- axes dominates, with exceptions like the large hoard of Vl
known cemeteries, like Tiszafred, co. Jsz-Nagykun- cele/Bnyabkk (Romania; Szevernyi 2o13a) or the small
Szolnok (Hungary; Kovcs 1992), Herndkak, co. Borsod- hoard of Fajsz, co. Bcs-Kiskun (Hungary; see e.g. Hansen
Abaj-Zempln (Hungary; Schalk 1992), or Nin Mya, 2o1o). The manufacture, use, and deposition of various
okr. Koiceokolie (Slovakia; Olexa/Novek 2o13) in the types of such axes (Bnyabkk, Fajsz, Kozarac/Dunakmld,
north-east, or Dunajvros-Duna-dl, co. Fejr (Hungary; Dumbravioara types) continued during the EBA phases1
Vicze 2o11), Ercsi-Sina-telep, co. Fejr (Hungary; Bndi and 2 (Dani 2o13), as also evidenced, for example, by the
1966) and Szigetszentmikls-Felstag, co. Pest (Hungary; above-mentioned moulds from ll.
Kalicz-Schreiber 1995) start in the last phase of the Early In the EBA phase 3, however, such depositions disappear
Bronze Age and continue into the Middle Bronze Age, some in most of the Carpathian Basin, to be continued only in the
times remaining in use until its very end. deposition of e.g. Patulele-type axes in Romania and the
There is great variability in burial rites: after the crema Balkans (Ailincai 2oo9). In Hungary the deposition of metal
tions of the Mak and SomogyvrVinkovci period, bi- objects occurs almost exclusively in the context of grave
ritual burial practice is attested in the Nagyrv- and Kisapo goods, where jewellery dominates, and weapons are rather
stag-style burials. After the inhumations of the Kisapostag rare. The deposition of bronze objects in hoards reappears
phase1 (EBA3), cremation began to be employed again in again in the Middle Bronze Age in the classic Tolnanmedi-
phase2 and became the dominant burial tradition in the and Hajdsmson-type hoards, dated to MBA12. The
later phases of the population until the end of the Middle above indicates that there was certainly a major change of
Bronze Age. It is interesting to note that in the Kisapostag ritual behaviour in the deposition of wealth around
cemetery at Bonyhd (and also among the Nagyrv burials 22ooBC, but its causes so far remain unknown.
at Szreg, co. Csongrd [Hungary]), the deceased were
cremated in the burial pit. Reddish discolouration could be
observed on the walls and floor of the graves, and the Conclusions
cremated bones remained in anatomical order, indicating a
person lying supine with legs flexed to the left, in the same Based on the above, we may conclude that there seems to be
position as remains in the inhumation burials in the same no crisis, no abrupt change climatic, economic, or social
cemetery, suggesting an experimental phase or the intro around 22ooBC in Hungary and the Carpathian Basin.
duction of cremation (Szab 2oo4; Szab/Hajdu 2o11). Changes do occur, but the period between 23ooBC and
Some degree of inequality can be observed in all phases. 21ooBC is the starting point of a continuous, autochthonous
Although Bell Beaker graves in Hungary are usually fairly development with wide ranging interregional connections.
richly endowed, certain burials can be singled out as more Climatic changes seem to be gradual, without any cata
wealthy than others. In the cemetery of Szigetszentmikls- strophic consequences. Transformations in material culture

15 Czene 2oo8; Kulcsr 2o11; Endrdi 2o13a;


Patay 2o13.

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are evident, like the disappearance of Bell Beaker material, tinuous, uninterrupted development of societies in the area,
but continuity can indeed be observed between EBA2 and lasting until the end of the Middle Bronze Age. As prime
3 materials. Settlement patterns do seem to change, as evi movers of change we identify a certain degree of climatic
denced by the appearance of tells, but the earliest tells may melioration, surplus production, demographic growth,
actually predate 22ooBC by a century. Tin bronzes start to increasing social differentiation, and new forms of cultural
appear sporadically before 22ooBC, but their number in- memory and of relationship with the past. The processes
creases after that date and they become widespread after that started here laid the foundations for Middle Bronze
2oooBC this also appears to be a fairly continuous devel Age developments, in which even greater population con
opment. With regard to subsistence, plant cultivation does centration and a hierarchy observed in settlements and
not show any clear break, but there are changes in animal cemeteries culminated in the flourishing material culture
husbandry: the significance of horse breeding decreases in of the Koszider period around 16ooBC.
EBA3, but the use of secondary products really seems to
take off. Large communal cemeteries start with the Bell
Beaker period and some even continue into the EBA3, Acknowledgements
while others are newly founded in this phase. Rich burials
become rarer during EBA3, and the deposition of metal This paper was supported by the Hungarian Scientific Re-
work in hoards also shows a hiatus. search Fund (OTKA Project 1o8597) and by the J.Bolyai
To sum up, the transition from Early Bronze Age2 to 3 in Research Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
the Carpathian Basin represents the starting point of a con

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ben (Entwicklung der Tellsiedlungen und C.S.M.Turney/J.van der Plicht, IntCal13 and batta 2oo5) 2o9235.
deren Ende in der Ebene von Nagykrolyi und Marine13 radiocarbon age calibration curves Smegi/Gulys 2oo4
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Nmeti/Molnr 2o12 18691887. Btorliget Marshland: An Example for the
J.Nmeti/Zs.Molnr, Bronzkori hatalmi kz Remnyi 2oo 9 Reconstruction of Late Quaternary Environ
pontok szaknyugat Erdlyben. A Nagykroly- L.Remnyi, A nagyrvi kultra kulturlis s mental Changes and Past Human Impact from
Bobld-tell (Bronzezeitliche Machtzentren in kronolgiai krdsei (Cultural and chronolog the Northeastern Part of the Carpathian Basin.
Nordwest-Siebenbrgen: der Tell von Carei- ical questions of Nagyrv culture). Tisicum 19, Archaeolingua 16 (Budapest 2oo4).
Bobld). Monogr. Szegedi Tudomnyegyetem 2oo9, 229254. Smegi etal. 1998
Rgszeti Tanszkrl 1 (Szeged 2o12). Remnyi etal. 2oo 6 P.Smegi/J.Kozk/E.Magyari/Cs.Tth, A
Olexa/Novek 2o13 L.Remnyi/A.Endrdi/E.Baradcs/ Szakld-Testhalom bronzkori tell geoarcheo
L.Olexa/T.Novek, Pohrebisko zo starej .Z.Kiss/I.Uzonyi/I.Montero/S.Rovira, lgiai vizsglata (Geoarchaeological investiga
doby bronzovej v Ninej Myli. Katalg I Possible links between Hungarian and tion of the Bronze Age tell of Szakld-Testha

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(1998) 1812o2. 35182. G.V.Szab (eds.), Moments in Time. Papers
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P.Smegi/R.Kertsz/E.Rudner, Palaeo G.Szab, Wosinsky Mr s Mra Ferenc sa srgszeti Tanulmnyok. Prehist. Stud. 1
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Klvria zur frhen Bronzezeit). Wosinsky Chronology and Transformations of Meaning.

Source of figures

15 authors 8 after Smegi/Bodor 2ooo, 93


6 based on Patay 2o13, 3o 9 Fig.19 Fig.34
7 a based on OShea 1992, 1oo; 9 based on Dani 2o13, 216 Fig.1o
Forenbaher 1993, 244; b based on (with modifications)
Bende/Lrinczy 2oo2, 87 Tab.1;
Fischl/Kulcsr 2o11, Fig.8 Tab.3 Appendix 1 authors

Addresses

Dr. Klra Pusztain Fischl Dr. Gabriella Kulcsr Vajk Szevernyi


University of Miskolc Institute of Archaeology Institute of Archaeology
3515 Miskolc-Egyetemvros Research Centre for the Humanities, Hungarian Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Hungary Academy of Sciences Research Centre for the Humanities
fklari@gmail.com ri u. 49 ri u. 49
1o14 Budapest 1o14 Budapest
Dr. Viktria Kiss Hungary Hungary
Institute of Archaeology kulcsar.gabriella@btk.mta.hu szeverenyi.vajk@btk.mta.hu
Research Centre for the Humanities, Hungarian
Academy of Sciences
ri u. 49
1o14 Budapest
Hungary
kiss.viktoria@btk.mta.hu

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Appendix

Period Site/feature Sample Conven- Labcode BP date 13 C (VPDB)

type tional/AMS []
Bell Beaker/Hungary
Bell Beaker Szigetszentmikls-Felso- Human AMS VERA-4748 392040 -17.60.7
rge-hegyi dulo, grave 10 bone
Bell Beaker Szigetszentmikls-Felso- Human AMS VERA-4749 383040 -20.11.2
rge-hegyi dulo, grave 49 bone
Bell Beaker Szigetszentmikls-Felso- Human AMS VERA-4750 377535 -20.30.6
rge-hegyi dulo, grave 50 bone
Bell Beaker Szigetszentmikls-Felso- Human AMS VERA-4755 387540 -19.71.1
rge-hegyi dulo, grave 367 bone
Bell Beaker Szigetszentmikls-Felso- Human AMS VERA-4757 384535 -21.41.4
rge-hegyi dulo, grave 626 bone
Bell Beaker Bksmegyer, grave 193 Human AMS DeA-2875 384536
bone
Bell Beaker Bksmegyer, grave 432a Human AMS DeA-2876 383135
bone
Bell Beaker Bksmegyer, grave 445 Human AMS DeA-2877 387433
bone
Maros/Hungary
Early Maros Kiskundorozsma-Hosszht- Human deb-8073 375532
halom, grave 56 bone
Early Maros Kiskundorozsma-Hosszht- Human deb-8055 367847
halom, grave 55 bone
Early Maros Kiskundorozsma-Hosszht- Human deb-8095 362344
halom, grave 66 bone
Early Maros Kiskundorozsma-Hosszht- Human deb-8071 357451
halom, grave 15 bone
Maros/Serbia
Maros Mokrin-grave 208 (phase 2, Human GrN-14179 369030
Wagner 2005) bone
Maros Mokrin-grave 110 (phase 2, Human GrN-14178 365530
Wagner 2005) bone
Maros Mokrin-grave 52 (phase 2, Human GrN-7977 365050
Wagner 2005) bone
Maros Mokrin-grave 227 (phase 3, Human GrN-14180 365035
Wagner 2005) bone
Maros Mokrin-grave 237 (phase 2, Human GrN-14181 359535
Wagner 2005) bone
Maros Mokrin-grave 259 (phase 3, Human GrN-8809 350035
Wagner 2005) bone

Appendix 1 Individual radiocarbon dates for the Early Bronze Age from Hungary and Serbia.

Appendix 1 Einzelne 14 C-Daten der frhen Bronzezeit in Ungarn und Serbien.

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Cal BC References

24722346 (68.2%) Patay 2013, Fig.19


25612290 (95.4%)
23892202 (68.2%) Patay 2013, Fig.19
24592148 (95.4%)
22782141 (68.2%) Patay 2013, Fig.19
23322043 (95.4%)
24552297 (68.2%) Patay 2013, Fig.19
24692209 (95.4%)
24292209 (68.2%) Patay 2013, Fig.19
24582204 (95.4%)
24302208 (68.2%) Kulcsr 2013a
24582204 (95.4%)
23392205 (68.2%) Kulcsr 2013a
24582151 (95.4%)
24542296 (68.2%) Kulcsr 2013a
24672211 (95.4%)

22702062 (68.2%) Bende-Lorinczy 2002, 87, Tab.1;


22862040 (95.4%) Fischl-Kulcsr 2011, Tab.3
21371981 (68.2%) Bende-Lorinczy 2002, 87, Tab.1;
22011937 (95.4%) Fischl-Kulcsr 2011, Tab.3
20351919 (68.2%) Bende-Lorinczy 2002, 87, Tab.1;
21341886 (95.4%) Fischl-Kulcsr 2011, Tab.3
20211830 (68.2%) Bende-Lorinczy 2002, 87, Tab.1;
21161758 (95.4%) Fischl-Kulcsr 2011, Tab.3

21342033 (68.2%) OShea 1992, 100; Forenbaher


21961977 (95.4%) 1993, 244
21231972 (68.2%) OShea 1992, 100; Forenbaher
21361944 (95.4%) 1993, 244
21301946 (68.2%) OShea 1992, 100; Forenbaher
21921894 (95.4%) 1993, 244
21201956 (68.2%) OShea 1992, 100; Forenbaher
21371930 (95.4%) 1993, 244
20131902 (68.2%) OShea 1992, 100; Forenbaher
21131831 (95.4%) 1993, 244
18831771 (68.2%) OShea 1992, 100; Forenbaher
19191700 (95.4%) 1993, 244

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