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IS 9565 (1995): Acceptance standards for ultrasonic


inspection of steel castings [MTD 14: Foundry]

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Satyanarayan Gangaram Pitroda
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IS 9565 : 1995
(Reaffirmed 2000)
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Indian Standard

ACCEPTANCESTANDARDS FORULTRASONIC
INSPECTIONOF STEELCASTINGS-
SPECIFICATION
(Second Revision)

First Reprint AUGUST 1998

ICS 77~140*80~19~lOQ

Q BIS 1995

BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS


MANAK BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG
NEW DELHI 110002

December 1995 Price Gmp 3


Steel Castings Sectional Committee, MTD 17

FOREWORD

This Indian Standard ( Second Revision ) was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards, after the
draft finalized by the Steel Castings Sectional Committee had been approved by the Metallurgical
Engineering Division Council.
This standard was first published in 1980 and was revised in 1986. The present revision is to bring it in
line with the current practices being followed in the field and the modifications are in the requirements
of acceptance criteria in some of the parameters laid down for defects for different quality levels.
A new clause as record of results of ultrasonic inspection of steel castings has been added.
ln the formulation of this standard, assistance has been derived from the following publications:
BS 6208 : 1990 Methods for ultraspnic testing of ferritic steel castings including quality levels.
British Standards Institution.
ASTM A - 609/A-609 M - 1990 Standard practice for casting, carbon, low alloy, martensitic
stainless steel, ultrasonic examination thereof. American Society for Testing and Materials.
DIN 1724.5 : 1987 Ferritic steel castings, with elevated temperature properties - Technical
delivery conditions. Deutsches lnstitut fiir Normung ( DIN ).
For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with, the
final value, observed or calculated, expressing the result of a test or analysis, shall be rounded
off in accordance with IS 2 : 1960 Rules for rounding off numerical values ( revised ). The number
of significant places retained in the rounded off value should be the same as that of the specified value
in this standard.
IS 9565 : 1999

Indian Standard
ACCEPTANCESTANDARDS FORULTRASONIC
INSPECTIONOF STEELCASTINGS-
SPECIFICATION
( Second Revision/
1 SCOPE 4.3 Linearity of Amplification
This standard deals with the acceptance The amplifier shall be linear within I, 2dB up
standards for ultrasonic testing for steel cas- to at least 75 percent of full screen height and
tings. However, ultrasonic testing of austenitic any deviation above this should be known to
steel castings may not ordinarily be feasible. the operator. Suppression over the full range
The procedure covers the use of pulse echo shall be recorded.
ultrasonic flaw detection equipment, under sur- 4.4 Linearity of Time Base
face contact conditions :
The time base, shall as far as possible, be linear
2 REFERENCES and for critical examination any deviation shall
The following Indian Standards are necessary not exceed 1 percent of the full scale graticule
adjuncts to this standard: reading.
4.5 Resolution
IS No. Title
Glossary of terms relating to The resolution of the equipment shall be check-
2417: 1977 ed employing the reference block and method
ultrasonic testing (first revision )
given in IS 4904 : 1990.
4904 : 1990 Specification for calibration
block for evaluation of ultrasonic 4.6 Sensitivity
flaw detection equipment ( third
The sensitivity of the equipment shall be
revision )
checked with the longitudinal wave probe on
7666 : 1988 Recommended procedure for the metallized surface of the plastic insert of
ultrasonic examination of ferritic test block as specified in IS 4904 : 1990. The
castings of carbon and low alloy minimum number of multiple echoes from the
steel (firsl revision ) plastic insert shall be as given below:
8780 : 1978 Code of practice for non-destruc- Frequency Range No. of the Multiple
tive testing of steel castings (MHz) Echoes
9346 : 1979 Recommended practice for 1 5
certification of NDT personnel 2 4
for ultrasonic examination 4-6 2
3 TERMINOLOGY 4.7 Probe
For the purpose of this standard. the definitions 4.7.1 A probe consists of ultrasonic transducer
given in IS 2417 : 1977 shall apply. ( a piezoelectric material ) with a sturdy cover
4 EQUIPMENF to protect the device. Transducer diameters
( or widths, if rectangular ) are determined by
4.1 Frequency Range frequency, acceptable beam spread and by
power requirements.
The equipment shall be capable of operating
over a frequency range of at least 0.5 to 5 MHz. 4.7.2 Three types of probes are recommended.
4.2 CRT Screen Presentation 4.7.2.1 Longitudinal probes
An A-scope (that is A-Scan) presentation shall These consists of one transducer which transmits
be used. The trace shall be well defined, easy to as well as receives longitudinal waves. Probes
read and associated with permanent graticule fitted with a thin protective cover may be
scale marking for both range and amplitude. used for working on rough surfaces.

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IS 9565 : 1995

4.7.2.2 Shear wave probes


Wall Thick- Diameter of Circular Attenuation
A transverse or angle or shear wave probe ness of Disc Shaped of Back
consists of transducer mounted on a wedge of Scanned Reflector WaN Echo
perspex or similar material. Place T----h-_--~ ( Using 2MHz
mm Point Indication P. obe )
4.7.2.3 Double probes Type with
Indica- Measur-
These are combined double longitudinal or tion, able
transverse wave probes which consist of two mm Extension,
independent transducers, one transmitting and mm
one receiving the ultrasonic wave. The trans-
ducers are mounted on perspex blocks and are Less than or 4 3 12dB
acoustically separated. These may be usefully equal to 150
employed for investigating the surface layer and Over 150 up 6 3 12 dB
thin sections of the castings. to 500
In Zone 4 3 3 6 dB
4.7.3 It is not advisable to place ultrasonic and when
probes on hot castings above 45C, unless the quality level
probe is protected by a water cooling device. 1 is speci-
The effect of heat, particularly on a transverse fied [see 7.1
wave probe may both damage the probe and and
(d)
give rise to misleading results. Table 1 ]
5 EQUIPMENT CALIBRATION NOTES

prior to inspection, the apparatus shall be 1 Where the wafl thickness exceeds 500 mm. the
recording limits shall be subject to agreement bet-
adjusted and calibrated with reference to specific ween the supplier and the purthaser,, in view of the
test or reference blocks. likely severe problems of attenuation that may be
encountered at such thickness.
6 TESTING PROCEDURE 2 For the purpose of this standard any indications
falling below the above recording limits are to be
6.1 Code of Practice treated as not significant and need not be recorded
in the test documentation. However, for certain
General practice for ultrasonic testing shall be special applications like creep resisting castings, if so
according to 1s 8780 : 1978 and IS 7666 : 1988. specified in the enquiry and order, indications with
an equivalent flow size of 15 mm and above may
also be recorded if their extent exceeds the parame-
6.2 GGS ( Distance, Gain, Size of the defect ) ters D, E and F shown in Table 1. Such a recording
scales may be used for setting scanning sensiti- would be for the purpose of possible future failure
vity and evaluation of indications in relation to analysis.
the acceptance standard.
NOTE - Because of the irregular shape and un- 6.5 Surface Finish
known orientarion of most defects there is in general
no direct relatIonshIp between the size of the defect The surface finish for the purpose of testing
and lhe amplitude of the echo It produces. Hence under this standard shall be equal to or better
lesting at high sensitivity with suitable shear wave than 12 5 pm.
probes also IS desirable for evaluation.
6.3 Equivalent Flaw Size 6.6 Operating Personnel
The equivalent flaw size is the size of the flaw The testing shall be carried out by personnel
determined assuming a circular reflector, per- qualified in accordance with 1s 9346 : 1979 or
pendicular to and concentric with the sound as may be mutually agreed to.
beam and having a 100 percent raflectivity, 6.7 General
which would produce the same echo apmlitude
as the flaw at the same location. The diameter For best results, it is necessary that the castings
of the circular reflector is then a measure of the are heat-treated before conducting the ultra-
area of the reflecting surface and is termed as sonic examination so that the as cast grain
equivalent flaw size. structure is broken up and refined. The ultra-
sonic examination of austenitic steel castings
6.4 Recording Limits ( like high manganese steel castings, certain
grades of stainless steel and heat resistant steel
For ultrasonic testing of castings from heat- castings, etc ) is not ordinarily feasible in view
treated non-austenitic steels, the following shall of the exceptionally high attenuation of the
be the applicable recording limits: beam encountered in such a material and may

2
IS 9565 : 1995

become possible only with special equipment 7.4 Ultrasonic indications exceeding those
and probes. shown in Table 1, as well as cracks, hot-tears
and cold-shuts are unacceptable.
7 ACCEPTANCE STANDARD
7.5 In the cast of an isolated ( point-like ) indi-
7.1 The casting wall is divided into the follow- cation, 100 percent loss of back echo within the
ing four zones as shown in Fig. 1 and 2. flaw area will be permissible.
a) Zone 1 -- Middle one-third of the wall However, loss in back echo, more than that
thickness, WT. specified but without indication of flaw or with
b) Zone 2 - Outer and inner one-third of a flaw indication below recordable size should
wall thickness, WT, but not less than 12 be investigated by either using shear wave
mm. probes or by scannmg from the other side or by
radiography or by any other mutually agreed
c) Zone 3 - 12 mm from the surface of method.
Zone 2.
7.6 If a defect is spreading across two adjoining
d) Zone 4 - Fabrication weld zone; the zones, then the requirements of the nearer to
region representing weld preparation plus the surface shall apply. However, if the depth
25 mm adjoining length of the casting as of encroachment of a defect from an inner zone
shown in Fig. 2. into the outer zone is less than 10 percent of
the wall thickness ( subject to 12 mm, MUX )
NOTES
then the foregoing stipulation shall not be
1 Zone 4 is applicable to castings only when they applicable.
are used for creep resisting applications, that is.
exposure to high temperatures and fluid pressures, 8 RECORD OF RESULTS
In other cases, the fabrication weld zone shall be
treated as Zone 3.
If so specified at the time of enquiry and order,
2 In case of wall thickness less than 35 mm, the the manufacturer shall, furnish to the purchaser
detiniti.on of diirrrel:r zones shall be as may be agreed the results of Ultrasonic Inspection carried out
to between the purchaser and the manufacturer.
However, iT there is no such prior agreemsnt :ind if showing, for each casting or part thereof, the
nothing has been specified in the enquiry ?nd the following:
order, the following shall apply, where the wall-
thickness is less than 35 mm:
4 identification of the casting tested, refe-
a) The stipulation of the minimum of 12 mm for rence drawing, metallurgical and surface
Zone 2 shall not apply. condition of the casting;
b) The Zone 3 shall be deemed to be equal to half
the thickness of Zone 2, subject to tl;e practical b) instrument make, model. frequency, size
fsasibility of separate evaluation of such a limited and type of probes used and control sett-
thickness.
ings;
7.2 UltrasonIc indications exceeding those
given in 6.4 are deemed to be significant. Such cl reference block used;
indications are to be evaluated in terms of the d) record of other confirmatory tests, if any,
different parameters and the permissible limite made to more
shown in Table 1. . _ closely. identify
_ any indica-
,tions, and the results thereof;
7.3 The castings are categorized into 5 levels of e) operators name and date of test; and
quality according to the size, distribution,
length and area of different indications, as per f) any unusual occurrences encountered
the parameters shown in Table 1. during test.

ZONE-3 -

ZONE-3 _I)

IIG. 1 ZOWS CF CASTING WALL FIG. 2 FABRICATION WELD ZONE

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IS 9565 : 1995

Table 1 Classification of Castings into Different Quality Levels


( Clauses 7.2 to 7.4 )

Ref Description Zone Defects Parameter


No. ___------- - _I__- A~-.----_-_._ _-----_
m Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5

A Maximum equiva- 1 :o,, I+ 1/51y;m& + l/4 WT & > 1/4yv; * 14 WT & I+


lent flaw size ( see 12 mm 16mm
6.3 ) 2 l/S WT& > l/S WT& >
6zf b 1s6w,Tms 168wmTm& 10 mm 12 mm
3mm 4mm 4mm Smm 5mm
;: 3mm 3mm 3mm 4mm 4mm
B Maximum dec- 1 90 percent 90 nercent 90 percent 90 percent 90 percent
rease of back echo 2 75 percent 75@ent 75 percent 75 percent 75 percent
NA NA NA NA
4 6dB 6dB 8dB 1OdB 12dB
C Maximum thick- 1 15% of WT 15% of WT 20% of WT 25% of WT 25% of WT
ness of defect 10% of WT 15% of WT 20% of WT 20% of WT
3 NA lzz Of WT NA NA NA
4 3mm 3 mm 4 mm Smm 6mm
D Maximum length 1 100 120 200 250
of defect, mm 100 ::: 150 175
3 :2 50 75 100 125
4 3 4 5 6 7
E* Maximum indivi- 1 120 150 200 250 300
dual area of 2 10 30 40
defect, cm* 025 O? 1s ::
: Nil Nil r&? Nil Nil
F Maximum accumu- 1 200 300 400 500 600
lated area of 2 10 40 60 80 100
defects, in cm* in 3
a 1 000 cm area 4 Ii: NI Nj40
WT = Wall thicknesses shown in Fig. 1.
NA - Not applicable.
*Example for defect parameters E and F is given in Annex A.
IS 9565 : 1995

ANNEX A
( JVote in Tuble 1 )

EXPLANATION FOR DEFECT PARAMETER

A-O Individual area rf defect and accumulated of the defects. The mdividual area of defect
area of defects is illustrated in Fig. 3. refers to the area of such an individual defect as
delineated on the surface of the casting ( see
A-3 ).
A-2 In Fig. 3, F,, Fa and Fs are the individua!
areas of defect and the accumulated area of
defects would be the total of the individual
areas of defect, that is, the sum of F, + F, +
Fs, if the distance between the defects were
< LI, < L, and < LI.
A-3 The dimensions L and B refer to the length
and breadth of the defective area delineated on
the surface of the casting. This is obtained by
connecting the marks made during the scanning
on locations where the reference level was
exceeded. Marks are coincident with the mid-
points of the transducers.
A-4 While testing large cross-sections, a realis-
tic evaluation of the discontinuity shall be
achieved by considering the beam spread and
82 geometry.
FIG. 3 AREAS OF DEPBCTS A-5 In the case of an isolated ( point-like )
indication, the area of defect is taken as the
~-1 An &individual defect is one which is sepa- area of the transducer. However, smaller
rated from an adjoining defect by a distance diameter probes may be used for determining
not less than the maximum dimension of either the actual size of the defect.
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Review of Indian Standards

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should ascertain that they are in possession of the latest amendments or edition by referring to the latest issue
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This Indian Standard has been developed from Dot : No. MTD 17 ( 3978 ).

Amendments Issued Since Publication

Amend No. Date of Issue Text Affected

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