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68. Q- What are the factors affecting the stability?

A- a) Gradation of aggregate
b) Hardness
c) Shape and surface texture of aggregate
d) Quantity of asphalt
e) Degree of compaction : at least 95% compacted
69. Q- What are the factors affecting durability?
A- a) Density of the compacted pavement
b) Properties of the aggregate
c) Quality of the asphalt
70. Q- What are the factors affecting flexibility?
A- a) Quality of the asphalt
b) Quality of the mineral filler
* The more viscose the asphalt the more flexible.
71. Q- What are the factors affecting skid resistance?
A- a) Quality of asphalt
b) Surface texture of the aggregate
72. Q- What are the factors affecting workability?
A- a) Graduation of aggregate
b) Consistency of the asphalt
c) Temperature of the mix
73. Q- What is the effect of hydrated lime on asphalt?
A- Hydrated Lime which is highly alkaline starts a chemical
reaction to change the character of the aggregate surface and
neutralized any acidic properties present in asphalt. It
improves the coatability and bonding process of asphalt
without raveling or bleeding with durable surface. It is usually
added to aggregate at the pug mill.
74. Q- What is the chemical composition of asphalt?
A- 1. Carbon : 70% - 85%
2. Hydrogen : 7% - 12%
3. Nitrogen : 0% - 1%
4. Sulphur : 1% - 7%
5. Oxygen : 0% - 5%

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75. Q- What are the test recommended on fillers?
A- 1. Particle size analysis by hydrometer (Mineral Filler)
2. Plasticity Index (Mineral Filler)
3. Immersion Compression test (Joint Filler)
76. Q- What will be you recommendation to minimize rutting?
A- 1. Gravel should be scalped on at least 1.5" screen before feed
to the crusher.
2. Natural sand limited to 15% from fine aggregate and should
not contain more than 50% dune sand.
3. Trial section should be made to determine the maximum
density in the field and air voids in the mix at that density.
4. Filler to asphalt cement ratio should be between 1.3 to 1.5
to get softening point of 85'C to 95'C maximum.
5. Use asphalt 40/50 instead of 60/70 penetration in the desert
6. Follow the M.O.C Circular 2401 & 2403.
7. The total thickness of the asphalt layers shall not exceed 15
cm. Or as shown on the drawings not more than 20 cm.`
77. Q- What are the types of asphalt cracks?
A- 1. Alligator Cracks: These are inter-connected cracks
forming a series of small blocks
resembling an alligators skin or
chicken wire.
Causes: Excessive deflection of the surface over unstable
subgrade or lower course of the pavement. The
unstable support usually is the result of saturated
granular bases of subgrade.
Repair: Deep patch, skin patch, agg. seal coat patch,
slurry seal patch.
2. Edge Cracks: Longitudinal cracks, 1/3 meter from the
edge of pavement with or without
transverse cracks branching towards the
Causes: 1. Due to lack of lateral (shoulder) support.
2. Settlement or yielding of the material underlying
the cracked area due to result of poor drainage,
frost heave or shrinkage from drying out of the
surrounding earth.

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Repair: 1. Fill as for reflection cracks.
2. Fill with asphalt emulsion slurry or emulsified
or cutback asphalt mixed with sand.
3. Edge Joint Cracks: Is really a Seam; It is the separation of
the Joint between the pavement and
the shoulder.
Causes: Alternate wetting and drying beneath the shoulder
Shoulder settlement, mix shrinkage, and trucks
straddling the joint.
Repair: Improve the drainage by getting rid of the
condition that traps water.
Same as reflection cracks.
4. Lane Joint Cracks: Are longitudinal separations along the
seam between two paving lanes.
Causes: A weak seam between adjoining spreads in the
courses of the pavement.
Repair: See reflection cracks.
5. Reflection Cracks: In asphalt overlays which reflect the
crack pattern in the pavement structure
Causes: 1. Vertical or horizontal movements in the
pavement beneath the overlay, brought on by
expansion and contraction with temperature or
moisture changes.
2. Traffic or earth movement.
3. Loss of moisture in subgrades with high clay
Repair: Fill with asphalt emulsion slurry or light grade of
emulsified asphalt mixed with fine sand. Also,
special asphalt compounds or heavier bodied
asphalt material may be used to fill large cracks.
6. Shrinkage Cracks: Are interconnected crack forming a
series of large blocks usually with
sharp corners or angles.
Causes: 1. Volume change in the asphalt mix or in the base
of subgrade.
2. Volume change of fine aggregate asphalt mix that

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has a high content of low penetration asphalt.
Repair: Fill cracks with asphalt emulsion slurry followed by
a surface treatment or a slurry seal over the entire
7. Slippage Cracks: Crescent-shape cracks that point in the
direction of the thrust of wheels on the
pavement surface.
Causes: 1. Lack of a good bond between the surface layer
beneath, may be due to dust, oil, rubber, dirt,
water, or other non-adhesive material between the
two courses.
2. Mixture having a high sand content.
3. Can occur whether the sand is sharp or rounded.
4. Improper compaction during construction causes
the bond layers to be broken.
Repair: Remove the surface layer from around the crack to
the point where good bond between the layers is
found, then fill the area with plant mixed asphalt
8. Widening Cracks: Are longitudinal reflection cracks that
show up in the asphalt overlay above
the joint between the old and new
sections of a pavement widening.
Causes: See reflection cracks
Repair: See reflection cracks
78. Q- What are the causes of distortion in asphalt?
A- 1. Too little compaction of the pavement courses.
2. Too many fines in surface mixture.
3. Too much asphalt
4. Swelling of underlying courses or settlement.
79. Q- What are the different forms of distortion?
A- 1. Grooves or ruts
2. Shoving
3. Corrugations
4. Depressions
5. Upheaval

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Rutting: These are channelized depressions which may
develop in the wheel tracks of an asphalt pavement.
Causes: (Mentioned before)
Repair: Level the pavement by filling the channels
with hot plant mixed asphalt material,
followed with a thin asphalt plant-mix
Corrugations & Shoving: Is a form of plastic movement
typified by ripples across the
asphalt pavement surface.
SHOVING is a form of plastic
movement resulting in localized
bulging of the pavement surface.
These occur usually at points
where traffic starts and stops, on
hills where vehicles brake on the
downgrade, on sharp curves, or
where vehicles hit a bump and
bounce up and down.
Causes: Lack of stability which is caused by:
1. Too much asphalt in the mix
2. Too high a proportion of fine aggregate.
3. Too smooth texture or too round soft coarse or
fine agg.
4. Too soft asphalt cement.
5. Excessive moisture.

Repair: Shoved areas must be removed and patched. (Thick

asphalt surface)
To repair corrugations in a thin surface treatment;
1. Scarify and break up the surface with a rotary
2. Mix the broken-up surface material with the base
material to a depth of 10 cm (4 in.)
3. Compact and reshape the base.
4. Prime the base.
5. Apply a new surface treatment.

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Grade They dip several centimeters or more below
Depressions: grade and water will collect in them. These
birdbaths make deterioration in pavement
and give hazards to motorists.
Causes: 1. Poor construction method
2. Settlement of lower pavement
Repair: Depressions should be filled with hot
plant-mixed asphalt material and
compacted to bring them up to the
same grade as the surrounding
Upheaval: Is the localized upward displacement of a
pavement due to swelling of the subgrade or
some portion of the pavement structure.
Causes: 1. Expansion of ice in the lower
courses of the pavement or the
2. Swelling effect of moisture on
expansive soils.
Repair: See alligator cracks Deep patched.
80. Q- What is disintegration in asphalt pavement?
A- Disintegration is the breaking up of a pavement into small
loose fragments.
Two (2) common types are;
1. Potholes
2. Raveling
Potholes: These are bowl-shaped holes of various sizes in the
pavement resulting from localized disintegration.
Causes: Weakness in the pavement resulting
1. Little asphalt
2. Too thin an asphalt surface
3. Too much fines
4. Too few fines
5. Poor drainage

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Repair: (Temporary) Filling with a pre-mixed
asphalt patching material.
(Permanent) By cutting out the hole to
solid material on both sides and bottom
and filling it with new base and surface
Raveling: This is the progressive separation of aggregate
particles in the pavement from the surface
downward or from the edges inward. Usually fine
aggregate comes off first and leaves little pock
marks on the pavement surface. As the erosion
continues, large and large particles are broken
free and the pavement soon has the rough and
jagged appearance typical of surface erosion.
Causes: 1. Lack of compaction during
2. Construction during wet or cold
3. Dirty or disintegrating aggregate.
4. Too little asphalt in the mix.
5. Overheating of the asphalt mix.
Repair: Surface treatment (Slurry seal, Sand
seal, Aggregate seal, Plant-mixed
surface treatment).
81. Q- What are the causes of skid hazard or slipping?
A- 1. A thin film of water on a smooth or slipping?
2. A thick film of water which at high speeds causes the
vehicle to leave the pavement surface and skim over the
water like an aquaplane.
3. May also develop from surface contamination, such as from
oil spillage or certain types of clay.
Treatment: Cleaning the surface of contamination to
removal of excess asphalt and resurfacing to
improve surface drainage.
82. Q- What is bleeding in asphalt?
A- Bleeding or flushing is the upward movement of asphalt in an
asphalt pavement resulting in the formation of a film of
asphalt on the surface.

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Causes: 1. Too much asphalt in one or more of the pavement
2. Too heavy a prime or tack coat
3. Overweight traffic.
Repair: 1. Repeated applications of hot sand
2. Hot slag screening
3. Hot rock screening to blot up the excess asphalt.
83. Q- What is polished aggregate?
A- These are aggregate particles in the surface of a pavement that
have been polished smooth. This includes both naturally
smooth uncrushed gravels and crushed rock that wears down
quickly under the action of traffic.
Causes: 1. Some aggregates, particularly some types of
limestone will become polished rather quickly
under traffic.
2. Some types of gravel are naturally polished and if
they are used in a pavement surface without
crushing they will be a skid hazard. These
polished aggregate are quite slippery when wet.
Repair: 1. Cover the surface with a skid resistance
2. Application of a hot plant mixed surface
treatment and sand seal.
84. Q- What is Loss of cover aggregate?
A- The whipping-off of aggregate under traffic from a surface-
treatment pavement, leaving the asphalt.
Causes: 1. Cold mix
2. Too dusty aggregate
3. too wet aggregate
4. Poor compaction
5. When steel-wheeled roller alone is used for
compaction, aggregate may be lost from low
spots that are bridged over by the roller.
6. Too cool the weather
7. Too soon of fast traffic
8. Surface which absorbs part of the asphalt leaving
too little to hold the aggregate.
Repair: Hot coarse sand, spread over the affected areas.

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85. Q- What is a longitudinal streaking in asphalt?
A- Alternating lean and heavy lines of asphalt running parallel to
the centerline of the road.
Causes: 1. Spray bar on the asphalt distributor not set at the
correct height for the spray fans to overlap
2. Spray bar rising as load in distributor lightens.
86. Q- What are the classification of asphalt treatment?
A- 1) Sprayed asphalt treatment:
a. Dust laying
b. Road oiling
c. Prime coating
d. Tack coating
e. Fog sealing.
2) Sprayed asphalt and cover aggregate treatment:
a. Single surface treatment
b. Multiple surface treatment
c. Sand seal.
3) Asphalt aggregate mixtures:
a. Emulsion slurry seal
b. Road mix
c. Plant mix
87. Q- What are the advantages of pneumatic roller in asphalt paving?
A- 1. They provide a more uniform degree of compaction than
steel wheel roller.
2. They improve the seal near the surface thus decrease the
permeability of layer.
3. They orient the aggregate particles for greatest stability, as
high pressure truck tires do after using the asphalt surface
for some time.
4. Pneumatic rollers not increase density but increase stability
which assures minimum distortion under heavy traffic.
88. Q- What is the case or appearance of subgrade before applying
prime coat?
A- Clean surface shall be given a light application of water and
allowed to dry to a surface-dry condition.

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89. Q- How will you determine the deficiencies of asphalt mixtures?
A- 1. Too Hot: Blue smoke rising from the mix indicates an
overheated batch.
2. Too Cold: a) Stiff appearance
b) Improper coating of the larger aggregate
3. Too much asphalt: Mix in truck appears lying flat.
4. Too little asphalt: a) It has a lean
b) Granular appearance
c) Improper coating
d) Brown appearance.
5. Non-uniform mixing : a) Spots of lean
b) Brown dull appearance.
6. Excessive Coarse Agg.: a) Poor workability
b) Coarse appearance
7. Excessive fine Agg. : a) Different texture from a properly
graded mix after it has been
8. Excessive moisture : a) The mix may also foam so that it
appears to have too much
9. Segregation: a) Improper handling
b) Loads have become contaminated.
90. Q- What are the rolling procedures?
A- 1. Transverse joints rolling
2. Longitudinal joints rolling
3. Outside edge rolling
4. Initial or breaking rolling
5. Second or intermediate rolling
6. Finish rolling.
91. Q- Why the contractors start the rolling operation on the low side
of spread?
A- The reason for these is that the asphalt mixture when hot, tend
to migrate towards the low side of the spread under the action
of the roller.

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92. Q- What are the stops in rolling paving mixtures?
A- 1. Rolling shall begin as soon as the mixture will bear the
roller without undue displacement.
2. Rolling shall be longitudinally, beginning at the low side of
the spread of material and proceeding toward the high side.
3. Slow and uniform speed, 3 mph for steel rollers and 5mph
for pneumatic rollers.
4. Roller wheels should keep moist with only enough water to
avoid picking-up the material.
93. Q- What are the types of roller required for compacting hot mix
A- Function Types Weight Number of
In tons passes
Breakdown Steel 10 12 4
Intermediate Pneumatic 10 8- 12
Finishing Steel 58 4

94. Q- What are the reasons for drainage in asphalt pavement?

A- 1. To collect and drain surface and sub-surface water.
2. To prevent or retard embankment erosion.
3. To intercept water from surrounding area and carry it out
from the area.
4. To lower the ground water table.
95. Q- Which requires more prime coat, A-1-a or A- 2-4 material?
A- A2-4 material because it absorbs more prime coat due to more
surface area.
96. Q- If while performing the test of coating and stripping of
bitumen aggregate mixture, it is observed that the estimated
coated area is below 95%. What to do?
A- Antistripping agent to be used to promote coating and
adhesion. Additives are used to aid the coating of aggregates,
particularly when in a damp or wet condition. They are also
used to increase the resistance of asphalt film to stripping by
the action of water.

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97. Q- What is the use of silicones in hot mix?
A- Silicones are added to asphalt under certain conditions to
reduce the effects of moisture or other conditions. For
example, silicones may be added to hot asphalt to prevent
foaming while in storage. Silicones in asphalt mixes have
been used to prevent hardening of asphalt concrete in storage,
to prevent slumping and segregation of the mixture during
transportation, and tearing of the mix during lay down.
98. Q- What is the use of hydrated lime in hot mix?
A- Hydrated lime is added to some low grade aggregates to
render them suitable for use in asphalt mixture in highway
construction. Sometimes it is difficult to coat certain
aggregates with asphalt because of their siliceous or acidic
surfaces. Hydrated lime, which is highly alkaline, starts a
chemical reaction that changes the character of aggregate
surfaces and neutralizes any acidic properties present in
asphalt. Adding hydrated lime often improves the coatability
and bonding properties of asphalt to these aggregates.
Hydrated lime may serve as filler in the aggregate material.
With the addition of hydrated lime, up to (1) percent
additional asphalt over the normal asphalt content can be
used in the mix without raveling or bleeding of the finished
pavement. This produces a firmer, denser pavement with a
more durable surface.
99. Q- What is the use of rubber in asphalt?
A- Natural synthetic and reclaimed rubber in the form of
powder, crumbs, pellets and latex has been used in asphalt to
alter certain properties. Studies have shown that adding
rubber in amounts as little as 0.1 percent but usually in
amounts ranging from 1 to 5 percent, materially changes the
properties of asphalt.
The purpose of using rubberized asphalt has been to obtain a
material possessing improved elasticity, increased adhesion
and greater resistance to fracture at low temperature.
100. Q- Where you add anti-stripping material?
A- At Bug mill, Asphalt storage.
101. Q- How you get softening point of asphalt after paving?
A- By ABESON method. (A.A.S.H.T.O T-170-82).

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102. Q- What are the forms of filler Bit. Ratio?
A- (Filler/Bit.) for getting highest softening point are zero:1, 1:1,
1.5.1, 2.3:1
(Zero/100%, 50/50%, 60/40%, 70/30%)
103. Q- What is the initial compaction acting by paver?
A- 80% of required compaction.
104. Q- What is the Asphalt macadam?
A- Asphalt macadam is compacted crushed rock affect as base
105. Q- How you express penetration and ductility?
A- Penetration by mm/10
Ductility by cm.
106. Q- What do you mean by dense graded mix in asphalting work?
How it differs from open graded mix? When it is used ?
A- Open graded asphalt mix differ from dense graded ones in
that they (1) Contain much little no fine aggregates/dust (2)
Asphalt content of open graded mixes generally is set as high
as possible. (3) Open graded mixes are often applied in a thin
inch. Overlay over old pavements (4) Open graded mixes
better resist the reflection of cracks from the old pavement
upward to the surface.
a) Open Graded Mix A well graded asphalt mix
containing little or no fines with a
high percentage of aggregate voids.
b) Dense Graded Mix: Continuously graded mix from a
specified max. size of aggregate to
dust, so as to have a low aggregate
107. Q- What is value Engineering?
A- Value Engineering: An organized effort directed at analyzing
the function or highway components with the purpose of
achieving the required function at the lowest possible cost.

108. Q- What precautionary measures are adopted in case of high loss

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of stability?
A- Stripping value lest of asphalt should be rechecked.
Less coating of asphalt (below 95%) can give the more
Checking of asphalt batching plant and proportion of
natural and crushed sand is necessary, as the higher
quantity of natural sand gives the more loss.
It is necessary to check the plasticity index of fine
aggregates as more plasticity in premix reflects the
swelling properties of clay.
Check the bitumen content % of hot mix as little
asphalt content % gives more loss. Therefore it is
necessary to determine the optimum asphalt content of
asphalt with care.
Rechecking of Sand Equivalent test is also necessary
as less value of Sand Equivalent also gives the indication
of more plasticity in material.
It is also necessary to recheck the compaction
temperature of Marshall Molds.
The temperature of the hot water in which the Marshall
molds are being kept to know the stability and loss of
stability may be carefully checked.
109. Q- What is the precautionary measure taken if a hot mix results
in excessive voids?
A- The percentage of air voids can be decreased by increasing
asphalt content. Voids can also be reduced by increasing the
mineral filler contents. Care should be taken that asphalt
content may be increased up to a certain limit to avoid further
problems of rutting and bleeding.
110. Q- What is the meaning of open Graded and Gap Graded?
A- The same meaning, Gap Graded means some sizes are
deleted we have only more fine and more coarse, it will be
harsh mix.
111. Q- What are the types of protections in road construction?
A- Slope protection.
Irish crossing.

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Grouted and loss rip rap.
Borrow ditch.
Culverts and Bridges.
Guard rails.
New Jersey barrier.
112. Q- What is the difference between sand equivalent and material
passing No 200 sieve?
A- Sand equivalent gives the proportion of clay and dust
percentage by volume, while gradation determines the same
percentage by weight.
113. Q- Who gives more sand equivalent and fineness modules
natural sand or crushed sand? Why?
A- Natural sand gives more sand equivalent and fineness
modulus because less filler and clay.
114. Q- What is the function of loss of stability?
A- To know the durability of asphalt.
115. Q- What is the relation between Gmm and asphalt content?
A- As asphalt content increase Gmm decrease.
116. Q- What is the relation between (V.M.A) and Asphalt content?
A- (V.M.A) increase as asphalt content increase.
117. Q- What is the relation between air voids and Asphalt content?
A- Voids are more at low asphalt content.
118. Q- What is the relation between Asphalt content and stability?
A- As per curve.
119. Q- What is the relation between ac and loss of stability?
A- More Ac the low the loss of stability.
120. Q- Can bitumen absorption be higher than the water absorption
in asphalt mix design?
A- Bitumen absorption cannot be higher or even equal to
water absorption in any case. As Bitumen is more viscous

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and has high molecular volume as compared to water.
Bitumen penetrates less in agg. compared to water.
121. Q- In case bitumen absorption is higher than the water
absorption in your asphalt mix design?
What does it mean?
A- It means either Gse is abnormally higher or Gsb Is lower in
case Gse is higher value of Gmm is also.
So both G.s.e. and G.s.b need to be rechecked. This is all due
to the experimental error.
( G.s.a > G.s.e. > G.s.b >
apparent effective Bulk.
122. Q- what is the rigidity or stiffness how it is caused in asphalt
mix and what does it harm?
A- Rigidity or stiffness is caused in hot mixes where low
penetration asphalt is used. Cause the volume changes
making the pavement ridge and give higher value of marshal
stability and low flow values.
Pavement of such hot mix is cracked under heavy volume of
Rigidity (kg/m m )
123. Q- What causes of high loss of stability?
A- Stripping more than 5%.
Natural sand is more.
Plasticity index is more. (more clay)
More asphalt content.
Less value of Sand equivalent. (more clay)
Temperature of marshal mold and water temperature.
& of filler asphalt ratio.
124. Q- How to clean Trucks during Asphalt production?
A- By thin film of paraffin oil or calcium hydroxide solution.
125. Q- What is the tolerance of marshal stability?
A- + 200 from the design value.

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126. Q- thin
What are the limits of ( ) and elongated pieces?
A- t w1
The flat = 1/3, the elongated = 1/3
w L
Where w 2 w1 (width)
L (Length)
T (thickness)
127. Q- What is the riding quality?
A- Special equipment to measure the tolerance of surface.
128. Q- What is the difference in temperature allowed bet. aggregate
and asphalt cement.
A- Asphalt temperature not less than 14oc from the aggregate
temperature at Time of entrance to bug mill.
129. Q- What is asphalt plank?
A- Asphalt plank consists of asphalt, finder and mineral
aggregate to produce uniformly dense mass.
130. Q- What is the plasticity index for mineral filler?
A- Not more than 4 except hydrated lime and hydraulic cement.

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