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PROBLEM 4.

Knowing that the couple shown acts in a vertical plane, determine the
stress at (a) point A, (b) point B.

SOLUTION

1 3
For rectangle: I= bh
12
For cross sectional area:
1 1 1
I = I1 + I 2 + I 3 = (2)(1.5)3 + (2)(5.5)3 + (2)(1.5)3 = 28.854 in 4
12 12 12
My A (25)(2.75)
(a) y A = 2.75 in. A = = A = 2.38 ksi
I 28.854
MyB (25)(0.75)
(b) yB = 0.75 in. B = = B = 0.650 ksi
I 28.854

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PROBLEM 4.7

Two W4 13 rolled sections are welded together as shown. Knowing that for the steel
alloy used Y = 36 ksi and U = 58 ksi and using a factor of safety of 3.0, determine
the largest couple that can be applied when the assembly is bent about the z axis.

SOLUTION

Properties of W4 13 rolled section.


(See Appendix C.)
Area = 3.83 in 2
Depth = 4.16 in.
I x = 11.3 in 4
For one rolled section, moment of inertia about axis a-a is

I a = I x + Ad 2 = 11.3 + (3.83)(2.08) 2 = 27.87 in 4

For both sections, I z = 2 I a = 55.74 in 4


c = depth = 4.16 in.

U 58 Mc
all = = = 19.333 ksi =
F .S . 3.0 I
I (19.333) (55.74)
M all = all = M all = 259 kip in
c 4.16

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PROBLEM 4.9

Two vertical forces are applied to a beam of the cross section shown. Determine
the maximum tensile and compressive stresses in portion BC of the beam.

SOLUTION

4r (4)(25)
A1 = r2 = (25) 2 = 981.7 mm 2 y1 = = = 10.610 mm
2 2 3 3
h 25
A2 = bh = (50)(25) = 1250 mm 2 y2 = = = 12.5 mm
2 2

A1 y1 + A2 y2 (981.7)(10.610) + (1250)(12.5)
y = = = 2.334 mm
A1 + A2 981.7 + 1250


I1 = I x1 A1 y12 = r 4 A1 y12 =
(25) 4 (981.7)(10.610) 2 = 42.886 106 mm 4
8 8
d1 = y1 y = 10.610 ( 2.334) = 12.944 mm
I1 = I1 + A1d12 = 42.866 103 + (981.7)(12.944)2 = 207.35 103 mm 4
1 3 1
I2 = bh = (50)(25)3 = 65.104 103 mm 4
12 12
d 2 = y2 y = 12.5 (2.334) = 10.166 mm
I 2 = I 2 + A2 d 22 = 65.104 103 + (1250)(10.166)2 = 194.288 103 mm 4
I = I1 + I 2 = 401.16 103 mm 4 = 401.16 109 m 4
ytop = 25 + 2.334 = 27.334 mm = 0.027334 m
ybot = 25 + 2.334 = 22.666 mm = 0.022666 m

M Pa = 0 : M = Pa = (4 103 )(300 103 ) = 1200 N m

Mytop (1200)(0.027334)
top = = = 81.76 106 Pa top = 81.8 MPa
I 401.16 109
Mybot (1200)(0.022666)
bot = = = 67.80 106 Pa bot = 67.8 MPa
I 401.16 109

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PROBLEM 4.14

Knowing that a beam of the cross section shown is bent about a horizontal axis
and that the bending moment is 50 kip in., determine the total force acting
(a) on the top flange, (b) on the shaded portion of the web.

SOLUTION

My
The stress distribution over the entire cross-section is given by the bending stress formula: x =
I
where y is a coordinate with its origin on the neutral axis and I is the moment of
inertia of the entire cross sectional area. The force on the shaded portion is
calculated from this stress distribution. Over an area element dA, the force is
My
dF = x dA = dA
I

The total force on the shaded area is then


My M M * *
F = dF = dA = ydA = y A
I I I

where y * is the centroidal coordinate of the shaded portion and A* is its area.
Calculate the moment of inertia.

1 1
I = (6 in.)(7 in.)3 (4 in.)(4 in.)3 = 150.17 in 4
12 12
M = 50 kip in

(a) Top flange: A* = (6 in.)(1.5 in.) = 9 in 2 y * = 2 in. + 0.75 in. = 2.75 in.

50 kip in
F = (9 in 2 )(2.75 in.) = 8.24 kips F = 8.24 kips
150.17 in 4

(b) Half web: A* = (2 in.)(2 in.) = 4 in 2 y * = 1 in.

50 kip in
F = (4 in 2 )(1 in.) = 1.332 kips F = 1.332 kips
150.17 in 4

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PROBLEM 4.24

A 60 N m couple is applied to the steel bar shown. (a) Assuming that


the couple is applied about the z axis as shown, determine the maximum
stress and the radius of curvature of the bar. (b) Solve part a, assuming
that the couple is applied about the y axis. Use E = 200 GPa.

SOLUTION
(a) Bending about z-axis.
1 3 1
I= bh = (12)(20)3 = 8 103 mm4 = 8 109 m 4
12 12
20
c= = 10 mm = 0.010 m
2
Mc (60)(0.010)
= = = 75.0 106 Pa = 75.0 MPa
I 8 109
1 M 60
= = = 37.5 103 m 1 = 26.7 m
EI (200 109 )(8 10 9 )

(b) Bending about y-axis.


1 3 1
I= bh = (20)(12)3 = 2.88 103 mm4 = 2.88 109 m4
12 12
12
c= = 6 mm = 0.006 m
2
Mc (60)(0.006)
= = = 125.0 106 Pa = 125.0 MPa
I 2.88 109
1 M 60
= = = 104.17 103 m 1 = 9.60 m
9 9
EI (200 10 )(2.88 10 )

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PROBLEM 4.34

A bar having the cross section shown has been formed by securely
bonding brass and aluminum stock. Using the data given below,
determine the largest permissible bending moment when the
composite bar is bent about a horizontal axis.

Aluminum Brass
Modulus of elasticity 70 GPa 105 GPa
Allowable stress 100 MPa 160 MPa

SOLUTION
Use aluminum as the reference material.
For aluminum, n = 1.0
For brass, n = Eb /Ea = 105/70 = 1.5
Values of n are shown on the sketch.
For the transformed section,
n1 1.5
I1 = b1h13 = (8)(32)3 = 32.768 103 mm 4
12 12
n
(
I 2 = 2 b2 H 23 h23 =
12
)
1.0
12
(32)(323 163 ) = 76.459 103 mm 4

I 3 = I1 = 32.768 103 mm 4
I = I1 + I 2 + I 3 = 141.995 103 mm 4 = 141.995 109 m 4

nMy I
| | = M=
I ny

Aluminum: n = 1.0, | y | = 16 mm = 0.016 m, = 100 106 Pa


(100 106 )(141.995 109 )
M= = 887.47 N m
(1.0)(0.016)

Brass: n = 1.5, | y | = 16 mm = 0.016 m, = 160 106 Pa


(160 106 )(141.995 109 )
M= = 946.63 N m
(1.5)(0.016)
Choose the smaller value. M = 887 N m

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PROBLEM 4.41

The 6 12-in. timber beam has been strengthened by bolting to it the steel
reinforcement shown. The modulus of elasticity for wood is 1.8 106 psi and for
steel, 29 106 psi. Knowing that the beam is bent about a horizontal axis by a
couple of moment M = 450 kip in., determine the maximum stress in (a) the
wood, (b) the steel.

SOLUTION
Use wood as the reference material.
For wood, n =1
For steel, n = Es / Ew = 29 /1.8 = 16.1111

Transformed section: = wood = steel

421.931 A, in 2 nA, in 2 yo nA yo , in 3
Yo =
112.278 72 72 6 432
= 3.758 in.
2.5 40.278 0.25 10.069
112.278 421.931

The neutral axis lies 3.758 in. above the wood-steel interface.
n1 1
I1 = b1h13 + n1 A1d12 = (6)(12)3 + (72)(6 3.758)2 = 1225.91 in 4
12 12
n2 16.1111
I 2 = b2 h23 + n2 A2 d 22 = (5) (0.5)3 + (40.278)(3.578 + 0.25)2 = 647.87 in 4
12 12
I = I1 + I 2 = 1873.77 in 4
nMy
M = 450 kip in =
I
(a) Wood: n = 1, y = 12 3.758 = 8.242 in

(1) (450) (8.242)


w = = 1.979 ksi w = 1.979 ksi
1873.77
(b) Steel: n = 16.1111, y = 3.758 0.5 = 4.258 in

(16.1111) (450) (4.258)


s = = 16.48 ksi s = 16.48 ksi
1873.77

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PROBLEM 4.42

The 6 12-in. timber beam has been strengthened by bolting to it the steel
reinforcement shown. The modulus of elasticity for wood is 1.8 106 psi
and for steel, 29 106 psi. Knowing that the beam is bent about a
horizontal axis by a couple of moment M = 450 kip in., determine the
maximum stress in (a) the wood, (b) the steel.

SOLUTION
Use wood as the reference material. For wood, n =1
Es 29 106
For steel, n= = = 16.1111
Ew 1.8 106
For C8 11.5 channel section,
A = 3.38 in 2 , t w = 0.220 in., x = 0.571 in., I y = 1.32 in 4
For the composite section, the centroid of the channel (part 1) lies 0.571 in. above the bottom of the section.
The centroid of the wood (part 2) lies 0.220 + 6.00 = 6.22 in. above the bottom.
Transformed section:
Part A, in2 nA, in2 y , in. nAy , in 3 d, in.
1 3.38 54.456 0.571 31.091 3.216
2 72 72 6.22 447.84 2.433
126.456 478.93

478.93 in 3
Y0 = = 3.787 in. d = y0 Y0
126.456 in 2

The neutral axis lies 3.787 in. above the bottom of the section.
I1 = n1 I1 + n1 A1d12 = (16.1111)(1.32) + (54.456)(3.216)2 = 584.49 in 4
n2 1
I2 = b2 h23 + n2 A2 d 22 = (6)(12)3 + (72)(2.433)2 = 1290.20 in 4
12 12
4
I = I1 + I 2 = 1874.69 in
n My
M = 450 kip in =
I
(a) Wood: n = 1, y = 12 + 0.220 3.787 = 8.433 in.
(1)(450)(8.433)
w = = 2.02 ksi w = 2.02 ksi
1874.69
(b) Steel: n = 16.1111, y = 3.787 in.
(16.1111) (450) (3.787)
s = = 14.65 ksi s = 14.65 ksi
1874.67

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PROBLEM 4.51

A concrete beam is reinforced by three steel rods placed as shown. The


modulus of elasticity is 3 106 psi for the concrete and 29 106 psi for the
steel. Using an allowable stress of 1350 psi for the concrete and 20 ksi for the
steel, determine the largest allowable positive bending moment in the beam.

SOLUTION

Es 29 10 6
n= = = 9.67
Ec 3 106
2
7
As = 3 d 2 = (3) = 1.8040 in 2 nAs = 17.438 in 2
4 4 8

x
Locate the neutral axis: 8x (17.438)(14 x) = 0
2
4 x 2 + 17.438 x 244.14 = 0

17.438 + 17.4382 + (4)(4)(244.14)


Solve for x. x= = 5.6326 in.
(2)(4)
14 x = 8.3674 in.
1 3 1
I = 8x + nAs (14 x)2 = (8)(5.6326)3 + (17.438)(8.3674) 2 = 1697.45 in 4
3 3
nMy I
= M=
I ny

Concrete: n = 1.0, y = 5.6326 in., = 1350 psi

(1350)(1697.45)
M = = 406.835 103 lb in = 407 kip in
(1.0)(5.6326)

Steel: n = 9.67, y = 8.3674 in., = 20 103 psi

(20 103 )(1697.45)


M = = 419.72 lb in = 420 kip in
(9.67)(8.3674)
Choose the smaller value. M = 407 kip in M = 33.9 kip ft

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PROBLEM 4.52

Knowing that the bending moment in the reinforced concrete beam is


+100 kip ft and that the modulus of elasticity is 3.625 106 psi for the
concrete and 29 106 psi for the steel, determine (a) the stress in the
steel, (b) the maximum stress in the concrete.

SOLUTION

Es 29 106
n= = = 8.0
Ec 3.625 106

As = (4) (1) 2 = 3.1416 in 2 nAs = 25.133 in 2
4
Locate the neutral axis.
x
(24)(4)( x + 2) + (12 x) (25.133)(17.5 4 x) = 0
2

96 x + 192 + 6 x 2 339.3 + 25.133x = 0 or 6 x 2 + 121.133x 147.3 = 0

121.133 + (121.133) 2 + (4)(6)(147.3)


Solve for x. x= = 1.150 in.
(2)(6)

d3 = 17.5 4 x = 12.350 in.

1 1
I1 = b1h13 + A1d12 = (24)(4)3 + (24)(4)(3.150) 2 = 1080.6 in 4
12 12
1 1
I 2 = b2 x3 = (12)(1.150)3 = 6.1 in 4
3 3
I 3 = nA3d32 = (25.133)(12.350) 2 = 3833.3 in 4
I = I1 + I 2 + I 3 = 4920 in 4

nMy
= where M = 100 kip ft = 1200 kip in.
I
(a) Steel: n = 8.0 y = 12.350 in.

(8.0)(1200)(12.350)
s = s = 24.1 ksi
4920
(b) Concrete: n = 1.0, y = 4 + 1.150 = 5.150 in.

(1.0)(1200)(5.150)
c = c = 1.256 ksi
4920

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed,
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PROBLEM 4.55

Five metal strips, each 40 mm wide, are bonded together to form the
composite beam shown. The modulus of elasticity is 210 GPa for the
steel, 105 GPa for the brass, and 70 GPa for the aluminum. Knowing that
the beam is bent about a horizontal axis by a couple of moment 1800 N
m, determine (a) the maximum stress in each of the three metals,
(b) the radius of curvature of the composite beam.

SOLUTION
Use aluminum as the reference material.
n = 1 in aluminum.
n = Es / Ea = 210 / 70 = 3 in steel.
n = Eb / Ea = 105 / 70 = 1.5 in brass.
Due to symmetry of both the material arrangement and the geometry, the
neutral axis passes through the center of the steel portion.
For the transformed section,
n1 1
I1 = b1h13 + n1 A1d12 = (40)(10)3 + (40)(10)(25) 2 = 253.33 103 mm 4
12 12
n2 3 2 1.5
I 2 = b2 h2 + n2 A2 d 2 = (40)(10)3 + (1.5)(40)(10)(15) 2 = 140 103 mm 4
12 12
n 3.0
I 3 = 3 b3 h33 = (40)(20)3 = 80 103 mm 4
12 12
I 4 = I 2 = 140 103 mm 4 I 5 = I1 = 253.33 103 mm 4
I= I = 866.66 103 mm 4 = 866.66 109 m 4
nMy
(a) = where M = 1800 N m
I
Aluminum: n = 1.0 y = 30 mm = 0.030 m
(1.0)(1800)(0.030)
a = 9
= 62.3 106 Pa a = 62.3 MPa
866.66 10
Brass: n = 1.5 y = 20 mm = 0.020 m

(1.5)(1800)(0.020)
b = 9
= 62.3 106 Pa b = 62.3 MPa
866.66 10
Steel: n = 3.0 y = 10 mm = 0.010 m

(3.0)(1800)(0.010)
s = 9
= 62.3 106 Pa s = 62.3 MPa
866.66 10
1 M 1800
(b) Radius of curvature. = = = 0.02967 m 1 = 33.7 m
Ea I (70 10 )(866.66 109 )
9

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PROBLEM 4.57

The composite beam shown is formed by bonding together a brass rod and an
aluminum rod of semicircular cross sections. The modulus of elasticity is
15 106 psi for the brass and 10 106 psi for the aluminum. Knowing that the
composite beam is bent about a horizontal axis by couples of moment
8 kip in., determine the maximum stress (a) in the brass, (b) in the aluminum.

SOLUTION


For each semicircle, r = 0.8 in. A= r 2 = 1.00531 in 2 ,
2
4r (4)(0.8)
yo = = = 0.33953 in. I base = r 4 = 0.160850 in 4
3 3 8

I = I base Ayo2 = 0.160850 (1.00531)(0.33953)2 = 0.044953 in 4


Use aluminum as the reference material.
n = 1.0 in aluminum
Eb 15 106
n= = = 1.5 in brass
Ea 10 106
Locate the neutral axis.

A, in2 nA, in2 yo , in. nAyo , in 3 0.17067


Yo = = 0.06791 in.
2.51327
1.00531 1.50796 0.33953 0.51200
The neutral axis lies 0.06791 in.
1.00531 1.00531 0.33953 0.34133 above the material interface.
2.51327 0.17067

d1 = 0.33953 0.06791 = 0.27162 in., d 2 = 0.33953 + 0.06791 = 0.40744 in.


I1 = n1I + n1 Ad12 = (1.5)(0.044957) + (1.5)(1.00531)(0.27162)2 = 0.17869 in 4
I 2 = n2 I + n2 Ad 22 = (1.0)(0.044957) + (1.0)(1.00531)(0.40744)2 = 0.21185 in 4
I = I1 + I 2 = 0.39054 in 4

(a) Brass: n = 1.5, y = 0.8 0.06791 = 0.73209 in.

nMy (1.5)(8)(0.73209)
= = = 22.5 ksi
I 0.39054
(b) Aluminium: n = 1.0, y = 0.8 0.06791 = 0.86791 in.

nMy (1.0)(8)(0.86791)
= = = 17.78 ksi
I 0.39054

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