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6.

Progressivism dominated by the technological


PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION experimental advancement which have so powerfully
shaped our modern culture.
What is Philosophy?
Is the science that seeks to organize and (DECS order No. 57 s 1998 Clarification on the
systemize all fields of knowledge as a means of changes in the Social Studies Program, WH for 3rd year
understanding and interpreting the totality of (2)and Economics for 4th year)
reality. (DECS order No 91 s. 1998 Changes in the program of
Systematic and logical explanation of the the NSEC)
nature, existence, purpose and relationships of
things, including human beings in the universe. Some important features of Progressivism
1. The child as the centre of the educational process.
Main Branches of Philosophy 2. It emphasizes learning by doing.
1. Metaphysics deals with the first principles, the Advocates of Progressivism =John Dewey and William
origin an essence of things, the causes and end of thing. Kilpatrick
- It is the science of existence. 7. Existentialism
2. Epistemology deals with knowledge and with ways - Puts emphasis on the uniqueness of the individual.
of knowing. - Existence precedes, that is, essence is created by
- Conceptua existence.
- Perceptual - Human nature is a product of existence.
Intuitive - Holds the view that human existence, or the human
3. Axiology deals with purposes and values. situation is the starting point of thinking.
- Ethics It emphasizes concreteness of the individual.
4. Logic deals with the correct way of thinking. - It values the freedom of choice, individual dignity,
personal love, and creative effort.
Major Philosophies of Education
1. Idealism (Platonic) Reality consists of (DECS order no. 65 s. 1998 revised Guidelines on the
transcendental universal, form, or ideals which are the selection of honor students in secondary level)
object of true knowledge. (DECS order no. 10 s. 1998 Revised system of rating
(DECS order No. 13 s 1998 Revised rules and and reporting of student performance for secondary
regulation on the teaching of religion in public schools)
elementary and secondary schools)
2. Naturalism This opposed to idealism. This is the Freedom of choice is an important value of
view that the whole of reality is nature. existentialism and is determined or affected to a large
3. Pragmatism a tendency, movement, or more extent several factors among which are the following:
definite system of thought in which stress is place upon 1. Influence of the family especially the parents.
critical consequence and values as standard for 2. Influence of peers and associates.
explicating philosophic concept, and as a test of truth 3. Religious orientation
lies in its practical consequence and that the purpose of 4. Social approval
conduct. 5. Cultural patterns
- James 6. Financial status
- Chiller 7. Psychological traits
- Dewey 8. Sex
4. Supernaturalism has a purpose to educate the 9. Health and physical fitness
individual for his life here on earth and to prepare for 10. Education
the life beyond. 8. Positivism- a philosophical movement characterized
Humanism places human being over in above worldly by an emphasis upon science and scientific method as
things. the only source of knowledge.
5. Realism universals are independent of antecedent 9. Relativism- a doctrine of relationism or relativity a
to and more real than the specific individual instances in theory that knowledge is relative to the limited nature
which they manifest. of the mind and the condition of knowing.
10. Materialism- it maintains that all events are not d. Intellectual aristocracy (The rule of the intellectual
true to the nature of independent reality and that holds elite)
that absolutely true knowledge is impossible.
11. Empiricism- it spouses that legitimate human 3. ARISTOTLE
knowledge arises from what is provided to the mind by a. Virtue is not possession of knowledge but state of
the senses or by introspective awareness through the will.
experience. b. The end of education is knowledge alone, but the
-hence it believes on education through union of the intellect and the will or knowledge
12. Romanticism- it questioned the notions of the express in action.
enlightenment that had dominated Europe in the early c. Reality, not ideas but the performance, is the highest
18th century. function.
13. Epicureanism d. Adaptation of education to the form of government.
- Philosophical teaching about nature and ethics that e. Objective and scientific not introspective method of
was derived from the writing of Epicurus. education
- This philosophy base its knowledge on sense
perception, asserting that sensations are invariably 4. Comenius
good. a. Development of the whole life.
(3) b. Follow the order of nature.
14. Hedonism c. Training for character.
- it centers on pleasure d. Both sexes should be included in education.
- learning is pleasurable
15. Utilitarianism 5. LOCKE
- it believes that any moral theory that value of human a. Tabula rasa or blank paper theory
actions, policies, and institutions by their a child is born with a blank mind (neither good or
consequences in mens experience or by general bad)
welfare of all person affected by them. b. Education can shape the pupil according to the will
16. Communism of the teacher.
- disregard basic human rights and educates the young c. Formal discipline
for subservience to the state. Training gained in one area can be applied in another
17. Fascism area.
conceives that the state is an absolute.
18. Progressivism 6. Rousseau
- It emphasizes that educational concern must be on the a. Development of the child according to his nature.
child interest, desires, and the learners freedom as an b. Man should live a simple life.
individual rather than the subject matter. c. The child, the important
19. Essentialism d. Use of instinctive tendencies as the starting point of
- It ascribes ultimate reality to immense embodied in a education
thing perceptible to the senses.
7. Peztalozzi
The Educational Philosophies of Frontier Thinkers of a. Education as the process of organized growth.
Education b. All education should be founded upon laws of
1. SOCRATES natural development of the child.
a. The end of life is knowledge. c. Use of object in teaching.
b. Knowledge is virtues d. Emphasis on method and technique of teaching.
c. Know thyself
8. HERBART
2. PLATO a. Doctrine of apperception
a. Each person should devote his life to that which he is b. Education should be specific.
best fitted to do. c. Mind is a unity, possessing but one power, that of
b. The function of education is to determine what each entering into relation with its environment.
individual is by nature fitted to do.
c. Social justice (Give what is due to whom it is due) 9. FROEBEL
a. Self-activity as the means of development.
b. Play, spontaneous activity, manual and industrial 4. Philosophy of education saves time, money and
development are utilized to promote self-realization. effort
c. Process of education determined by the nature of the
child. Philosophical Foundation of Education
A. Hinduism
10. Spencer (Dharma), characterized by honesty courage, service,
Knowledge that is best for use in life is also best for the faith, self-control, purity, and non-violence
development of power. Dharma can be achieved through Yoga
Emphasis on physical education. Believes that one should be able to control and regulate
Importance of science in the curriculum. his desires, not to devote life to sensual pleasure
success.
11. WILLIAM JAMES Religion should be practical.
Mental activity is functional. God is truth and the best way to seek the truth is by
Knowledge is instrumental. practicing non-violence (Ahimsa)
It is consequences that make the choice good or bad. B. Buddhism
Believes that personal gratification is the root of
12. JOHN DEWEY suffering in the world.
Education is life The teaching of Buddha centered on four noble truths:
Education is growth 1. All life is suffering, pain, and misery
Education is a social process 2. Selfish craving and personal desire.
Education is a continuous reconstruction of 3. Suffering can cease.
experiences. 4. Way to overcome this misery is through following the
Eight Fold Paths
13. JESUS CHRIST 2. Chinese Philosophies
Right relationship with God should precede all kinds Confucianism,
and types of education. - an essentially optimistic system of belief, argued that
But seek ye first the kingdom of God, and His those who were naturally virtuous should, while
righteousness, and everything shall be added unto you behaving with loyalty and respect, help to govern their
(Matthew 6:33) country by maintaining their independence and
Education should be used for service. criticizing their rulers if necessary: The government
Give thyself is the philosophy of service of Jesus. served its citizens, rather than the reverse.
Taoism,
- by contrast, taught that humans should withdraw from
culture and society, devoting themselves to
FUNCTION OF PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION meditation and, like water, adapt themselves to natural
1. Provide guidelines in the formulation of the forces.
educational policies and programs and in the 3. Japanese Philosophy
construction of curricula. Zen Buddhism
2. Provide direction toward which all educational effort - No savior/s paradise, faith on God, no scriptures.
should be exerted. -The third eye helps one to see things in addition to
3. Provide theories and hypothesis which may be tested what our two eyes show us, and should be attuned
for their effectiveness and efficiency. to the things around us.
4. Provide norms or standards for evaluation purposes. Emphasizes silent meditation, aiming to awaken the
Importance of Philosophy of Education to the Teacher mind in each person.
(5) 4. Muslim Philosophy
1. Provides the teacher with basis for making his Islam
decision concerning his work. - Emphasized a total commitment in faith obedience,
2. Help the teacher develop a wide range of interest, and trust to one and only God.
attitudes, and values concomitant to his professional Koran, its sacred book is the word of God.
life as teacher. Each person will be tried on the judgment when Allah
3. Makes a teacher more aware of his own life and will judge all souls.
work, and makes him more dynamic, discriminating, Believes in paradise, an oasis of flowing water, pleasant
critical and mentally alert. drinks, food and sensual delights.
Five Pillars of Islam:
1. Belief in one God
2. Prayer
3. Fasting
4. Alms giving
5. Pilgrimage to Mecca
5. Christian Philosophy
God is the Creator of all things
Jesus is the Messiah, Christ, Son of God
Human being is a sinner who requires redemption
Jesus came down to earth to redeem mankind
Baptism is necessary for salvation
There is life after death

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