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Appendix 2 Superpave Volumetric Mix Design Example 491


1. General 491
2. Project Conditions 491
3. Material Selection 491
3.1 Adjusting Binder Grade Selection For Traffic Speed And Loading 492
4. Aggregate Selection 493
5. Selection Of Design Aggregate Structure 494
5.1 Aggregates Preparation 496
5.2 Selections Of Initial Asphalt Contents 496
5.3 Evaluation Of Trial Blends Data 503
6. Select Design Asphalt Binder Content 505
7. Verification % Gmm At The Maximum Number Of Gyrations 509
8. Evaluate Moisture Sensitivity 511
General Specifications of Urban Roads Construction Appendix 2- Superpave Volumetric Mix Design Example

APEENDIX 2 Back

SUPERPAVE VOLUMETRIC MIX DESIGN EXAMPLE

1. General:
This supplementary section explain with an example Superpave Volumetric mix
design method
The volumetric mix design consists of the following four major steps:
Selection of materials (aggregates, binders).
Selection of a design aggregate structure.
Selection of a design asphalt binder content.
Evaluation of moisture sensitivity of the design mixture.
The data presented in this example basically were taken from Asphalt institute
reference "Superpave Mix design SP-2" dated 2001; the same method is also approved by
AASHTO specification under the designation TP-4 and T-PP2.
Selection of materials in superpave system depends upon traffic and
environmental factors, i.e., the binder selection is influenced by both traffic and
environment conditions, while the requirements of aggregate are selected according to
traffic and location of the considered layer with respect to pavement surface.
Selection of design aggregate structure is according to these factors by comparing
the properties of a series of trial mixtures having different parentages using samples from
cold bins, hot bins and/or stockpiles. This step consists of blending available aggregate
stockpiles at different percentages to arrive at aggregate gradations that meet Superpave
requirements.
The determination of the design binder content is achieved by mixing the asphalt
binder with design aggregate structure to obtain the required volumetric and compaction
properties which are based on traffic and environmental conditions. This step also allows
the designer to observe the sensitivity of volumetric and compaction properties of the
design aggregate structure to asphalt content. The gradation that conform to volumetric
properties should be approved as a job-mix formula, then moisture sensitivity should be
evaluated by testing the designed mixture by AASHTO T-238 to determine if the mix will
be susceptible to moisture damage.

2. Project conditions:
The following Table reveals the design factors and project conditions in this
example
Project location Riyadh
Standard equivalent axle load 18 ESAL
Nominal maximum size of the aggregate 19 mm
Within the upper 100 mm of
location of the layer relative to pavement surface
pavement surface

3. Material Selection:
According to temperature zones for the Kingdom shown in the Figure (12.3.1) in
these specifications and the location of the project the required asphalt binder grade shall
be PG 70-10.

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General Specifications of Urban Roads Construction Appendix 2- Superpave Volumetric Mix Design Example

3.1 Adjusting Binder Grade Selection for Traffic Speed and Loading: Back
The asphalt binder selection procedure described is the basic procedure for typical
highway loading conditions when assumed that the pavement is subjected to a design
number of traffic loads. For up normal design conditions when the speed is low or the
volume of traffic exceeds certain limits the selected high temperature binder grade shall
be increased by one or two performance degree according to traffic load and speed, and as
indicated in Table (12.3.2) of these specifications. As an example PG 70 should be
selected to replace PG64 if the traffic speed is low, but if the traffic is standing PG 76
should be selected to replace PG 64 by increasing the original grade by 2 performance
degrees (one performance degree equal to six temperature degrees). In case the traffic
speed in the proposed project is more than 20Km/hr and less than 70 Km/hr the adjusted
performance grade for this project will be PG76-16.

The next step is the selection testing of the binder that conforms to specification
requirements and the selected grade. Binder test results are summarized in Table (A.2.1).

In order to determine the mixing and compaction temperature ranges the rotational
viscometer test was carried out in temperature 135C and165C respectively, and the test
results were plotted in Figure (A.2.1) which shows that the suitable mixing range is 162C
to 168C and the suitable compaction range is between 148C to 154C.

Table A.2.1: Asphalt Binder Test Results


Original RTFOT
Flash Pt:(230 oC)
RTFOT + PAV residue
Vis@135:837.5 Loss: 0.02 %
(3000 CP)
Grade Dynamic Shear Dynamic Shear Dynamic Shear Flexural Creep DT*
10 rad/s (1.6Hz) 10 rad/s (1.6Hz) 10 rad/s (1.6Hz) (at 60 sec) (1mm/min)
G*/sin (kPa) G*/sin (kPa) G*sin Temp Stiffness, S Slope, (m) F. Strain
TempoC o
1 kPa 2.2 kPa 5 MPa C 300 MPa 0.30 1.0%
28 -6
25 -12
PG 64 22 -18
19 -24
16 -30
34 0
31 -6
PG 70 28 -12
4.019 25 -18
22 -24
37 3.404 0
34 4.788 -6 50.7 0.307
PG 76
31 5.128 -12 92.9 0.281
1.801 3.282
28 -18
40 0
1.80 37 -6
PG 82
34 -12
0.711
31 -18
* Required only if Creep Stiffness (S) is between 300 and 600 MPa, and m 0.30.

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General Specifications of Urban Roads Construction Appendix 2- Superpave Volumetric Mix Design Example

As shown by the test result carried that the selected asphalt binder is conforms to the Back
required grade specifications PG 76-16 and it can be used in this project.
Viscosit y, Pa s

1 00

Viscosity
Pa. sec

11

Temperature, C
. 55

Compaction range
.. 33

.2
.2
Mixing
range

.. 11
11 0000 11 1100 11 2200 11 3300 11 4400 11 5500 11 6600 11 7700 11 8800 11 9900

Temperature c

Figure A.2.1: Mixing and Compaction Temperature Ranges

4. Aggregate Selection:
Next, the designer selects the aggregates to be used in the mixture for this project.
For this example, there are five stockpiles of materials consisting of three coarse materials
and two fine materials. Representative samples were taken, washed and the bulk, apparent
specific gravity and sieve analysis is performed for each aggregate for each aggregate.
Aggregate specific gravity values for this example listed in Table (A.2.2).

Table A.2.2: Aggregate Specific Gravity

Bulk Specific gravity Apparent Specific gravity


Aggregate Size (mm)
(Gsb.) (Gsa)
19 2.703 2.785
12.5 2.689 2.776
9.5 2.723 2.797
Manufactured Sand 2.694 2.744
Screen Sand 2.679 2.731

The consensus aggregate tests were performed to assure that the aggregates
selected for the mix design are acceptable also the source properties tests indicated in
Table (4.3.12) were performed.
The result of the coarse aggregates angularity test performed on the aggregate
larger than 4.75 mm according to ASTM D 5821 Designation is shown in Table (A.2.3)
below.

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Table A.2.3: Coarse Aggregate Angularity Test Results Back

One Fractured Two Fractured


Aggregate Size (mm)
Face Faces (at least)
19 92 88
12.5 97 94
9.5 99 95

Comparison between these tests results and the requirement stated in Table
(12.3.3) shows that the 19 mm aggregate size does not meet either of the fractured faces
criteria. However, this material can be used as long as selected blend of aggregate meets
the design criteria.

Table (A.2.4) lists the results for fine aggregate angularity test which is performed
according to AASHTO T 304 method.

Table A.2.4: Fine Aggregate Angularity Test Results

Aggregate type % Air Voids ( Loose )


Crushed Sand 52
Screen Sand 40

Based on traffic and depth of the layer from the surface, even though the screen
sand test result is below the minimum criteria showed in Table (12.3.3), it can be used as
long as the selected blend of aggregates meet the requirement.

Flat and Elongated Particles test is performed on the coarse aggregates shows that
it is equal to zero. Also the Clay Content (Sand Equivalent) test results performed on fine
aggregate samples is 47 % and 72 for crushed and natural fine aggregate respectively,
which are within the required limits based on traffic volume in this project.

Table (A.2.5) shows the Test results of source property tests performed on coarse
aggregate samples which are conform to the specifications.

Table A.2.5: Clay Content (Sand Equivalent) Test Results

Nominal Maximum Size


Test
19 12.5 9.5
Los Angeles Abrasion % 40 35 30
Sodium Sulphate Soundness% 16 12 10
Deleterious materials and friable particles % 0.2 0.15 0.25

5. Selection of Design Aggregate Structure:


Prior selection of the design aggregate structure, the asphalt and aggregate
materials shall be selected according to requirement indicated in Division 12 from these
general specifications. The aggregate source properties tests shall be carried out for every
individual source while the specific gravity and absorption and consensus properties tests
shall be carried on samples taken from the combined trail blends.

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General Specifications of Urban Roads Construction Appendix 2- Superpave Volumetric Mix Design Example

The blend gradation shall be compared with the specification requirements for the Back
appropriate sieves according to design requirements selected based on nominal maximum
size of aggregate as indicated in section 12.4 and Table (12.3.7) from these general
specifications.

Trial blending consists of varying the materials percentages or the available


aggregates to obtain blended gradations meeting the requirements for that particular
mixture. Any number of trial blends may be evaluated, but a minimum of three trial
blends is required. It is recommended for trial gradation to pass below the restricted zone
and it is possible to pass over the restricted zone but not through it. During preparations of
aggregate blends the consensus properties, specific gravities and source properties shall
be evaluated through carrying actual tests on samples of combined gradation for final
approval.

For this example, three trial blends are used: an intermediate blend (Blend 1), a
coarse blend (Blend 2), and a fine blend (Blend 3). The intermediate blend is combined to
produce a gradation that is not close to any of the control point limits. The coarse blend is
combined to produce a gradation that is near the minimum allowable percent passing the
nominal maximum sieve, the 2.36 mm sieve, and the 0.075 mm sieve. The fine blend is
combined to produce a gradation that is close to the maximum percent passing the
nominal maximum size and is just below the restricted zone.

All three of trial blends are shown graphically in Figure (A.2.2) which is plotted
using the data shown in Table (A.2.6) shows the gradations of the three trial blends.

Once the trial blends are selected, a preliminary mathematical determination of the
blended aggregate properties is necessary.

Table A.2.6: Trial Gradations


Crushed Screened
19 mm 12.5 mm 9.5 mm
Sand Sand
Blend 1 25% 15% 22% 18% 20%
Blend 2 30% 25% 13% 17% 15%
Blend 3 10% 15% 30.0% 31% 14%
Blend 1 Blend 2 Blend 3
Sieve Gradation Gradation Gradation
25.0 mm 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
19.0 mm 76.1 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 94.0 92.8 97.6
12.5 mm 14.3 78.1 100.0 100.0 100.0 76.6 71.1 89.5
9.5 mm 3.8 26.0 49.9 100.0 99.8 63.7 51.9 77.7
4.75 mm 2.1 3.1 4.8 95.5 89.5 31.7 31.7 44.3
2.36 mm 1.9 2.6 3.0 63.5 76.7 28.3 23.9 31.9
1.18 mm 1.9 2.4 2.8 38.6 63.5 21.1 17.6 22.2
0.600 mm 1.8 2.3 2.6 21.9 45.6 14.4 12.0 14.5
0.300 mm 1.8 2.2 2.5 11.0 23.1 7.9 6.8 7.9
0.150 mm 1.7 2.1 2.4 5.7 8.4 4.0 3.6 4.1
0.075 mm 1.6 1.9 2.2 5.7 4.7 3.1 2.9 3.5

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General Specifications of Urban Roads Construction Appendix 2- Superpave Volumetric Mix Design Example

Based on the estimates, all three trial blends are acceptable and when the design Back
aggregate structure is selected, the blend aggregate properties will need to be verified by
testing.

100

90

80

70
percent passing

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
0 1 2 3 4 5

Sieve size raised to 0.45

Blend1 Blend2 Blend3 Restricted Zone R e s t r i c t e d Z o n e1 Control Points

Figure A.2.2: Trial Blends of the Aggregate

5.1 Aggregates Preparation:


Three samples shall be prepared depending on their final using; the sample that
used for compacted specimens requires about 4600 grams; however the maximum
theoretical specific gravity sample requires about 2000 grams according to AASHTO T-
209 or ASTM D-2041.

The third sample shall be prepared for moisture sensitivity test using AASHTO T-
283 method, which requires specimen height of 95 mm and approximately 3700 grams of
total aggregate.

5.2 Selections of Initial Asphalt Contents:


After the evaluation of aggregate properties the next step is to compact the
specimens and determining the volumetric properties of each trial blend and the initial
asphalt binder content shall be estimated using the method detailed in AASHTO PP-28 or
taken from Superpave Gyratory Compactor records if it is equipped by this property, also

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General Specifications of Urban Roads Construction Appendix 2- Superpave Volumetric Mix Design Example

it is possible to estimate the initial asphalt content using mathematical formula or it can be Back
taken from Table (A.2.7) assuming the total specific gravity for the aggregate is 2.65.

Table A.2.7: Estimated asphalt content

Primary asphalt ratio % Nominal Aggregate Size mm


3.5 37.5
4.0 25.0
4.5 19.0
5.0 12.5
5.5 9.5

The method of calculating the initial binder content is consists of the following
steps:

1. Effective specific gravity calculation (Gse):

Gse = Gsb + A ((Gsa Gsb)

The factor A shall be taken 0.8 or within the range 0.6 or 0.5 according to
absorption of the aggregates. Using the above equation, the blend calculations are shown
below:

Blend 1: Gse = 2.699 + 0.8 ((2.768 2.699) = 2.754


Blend 2: Gse = 2.697 + 0.8 ((2.769 2.697) = 2.755
Blend 3: Gse = 2.701 + 0.8 ((2.767 2.701) = 2.754

2. The volume of asphalt binder (Vba) absorbed into the aggregate is estimated using this
equation:
= P (1 V ) 1
s a

1

V ba
P + P G
b s sb G se



G G
b se

Where:
Vba = volume of absorbed binder, cm3 / cm3 of mix
Pb = percent of binder (assumed 0.05).
Ps = percent of aggregate (assumed 0.95).
Gb = volume of air voids (assumed 1.02).
Va = volume of air voids (assumed 0.04 cm3 / cm3 of mix).

Blend No. Gsa Gsb


Blend 1 2.768 2.699
Blend 2 2..769 2.697
Blend 3 2.767 2.701

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General Specifications of Urban Roads Construction Appendix 2- Superpave Volumetric Mix Design Example

Using the above equation, bulk and apparent specific gravity values for the Back
combined aggregates in different blends as determined by test, the absorbed asphalt
binder in each blend (Vba) calculation result are shown below:

Blend 1: 0.0171cm3/cm3 of mix


Blend 2: 0.0181cm3/cm3 of mix
Blend 3: 0.0165cm3/cm3 of mix

3. The volume of the effective binder (Vbe) shall be determined from this equation:

Vbe = 0.176-0.0675(log (Sn))

Where:
Sn = the nominal maximum sieve size of the aggregate blend (mm )

Using the above equation, Vbe for the three blends is = 0.089 cm3/cm3 of mix

4. Finally, the initial trial asphalt binder (Pbi) content is calculated is from the following
equation:

G h (V be + V ba ) 100
Pbi =
(G h (V be + V ba )) + W s
Where:
Pbi = percent (by weight of mix) of binder
Ws = weight of aggregate, gram and calculated from the following equation:

P s (1 V a )
Ws =
Pb P s
+

G b G se

Using the above equations the initial binder content is calculated and shown in
Table (A.2.8 below:

Table (A.2.8) Initial Binder content for the three Blends

blend Ws (grams) Initial binder content (Pbi) %


1 2.315 4.46%
2 2.315 4.46%
3 2.315 4.46%

A minimum of two specimens for each trial blend shall be compacted using the
Superpave Gyratory Compacter and the initial binder content, an aggregate weight of
4700 grams is usually sufficient for the each specimen. Two samples are also prepared for

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General Specifications of Urban Roads Construction Appendix 2- Superpave Volumetric Mix Design Example

determination of the mixtures maximum theoretical specific gravity (Gmm) each sample Back
of a weight of 2000 grams is usually sufficient for the specimens used to determine
maximum theoretical specific gravity (Gmm).

The asphalt mixture samples is aged in an oven its temperature not exceeding the
predetermined mixing temperature by more than 15C for two hours if the aggregate
absorption not exceeding 2 % and for four hours if the absorption exceeds that percent,
also all devices and equipments used in mixing such as spatula, mixing pans, mixing
bowel and asphalt material shall be heated to the required mixing temperature, the
required time to complete these actions is depending on the asphalt quantity and method
of heating.

Specimens in this example are mixed at the appropriate mixing temperature,


which is ranged from 162C to 168C for the selected PG 76-16 binder. The specimens
are then short-term aged by placing the loose mix in a flat pan in a forced draft oven at the
compaction temperature (148C to 154C), for 2 hours. Finally, the specimens are then
removed and either compacted or allowed to cool loose (for Gmm determination).

The number of gyration used for compaction is determined based on the expected
traffic level for twenty years in the road, the number of equivalent standard axle load in
this project is 18 EASL so the following compaction levels is selected:

Nini = 8 gyrations
Ndes = 100 gyrations
Nmax = 160 gyrations

Each specimen will be compacted to the design number of gyration, with


specimen height data collected during the compaction process and tabulated for each Trial
Blend. After compaction is complete, the specimen is extruded from the mold and
allowed to cool and the bulk specific gravity (Gmb) of the specimens were determined
using AASHTO T 166. The Gmm of each blend is determined using AASHTO T 209. Gmb
is then divided by Gmm to determine the %Gmm @ Ndes. The %Gmm at any number of
gyrations (Nx) is then calculated using the following equations:

%Gmm @ Nx = (%Gmm @ Ndes ) x (H @ Ndes)


(H @ N X)

Tables (A.2.9) to Table (A.2.11) shows compaction data for the three trial blends
and Figures (A.2.3) through (A.2.4) illustrate the compaction plots and show %Gmm
versus the logarithm of the number of gyrations.

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General Specifications of Urban Roads Construction Appendix 2- Superpave Volumetric Mix Design Example

Back

Tables (A.2.9) Densification Data for Trial Blend 1

Specimen 1 Specimen 2 Average


Gyrations
Ht, mm %Gmm Gyrations Ht, mm %Gmm
5 129.0 85.2 130.3 86.2 85.7
8 127.0 86.5 128.1 87.6 87.1
10 125.7 87.3 126.7 88.6 88.0
15 123.5 88.9 124.7 90.1 89.5
20 122.2 89.9 123.4 91.0 90.4
30 120.1 91.4 121.5 92.4 91.9
40 119.0 92.3 120.2 93.4 92.8
50 118.0 93.0 119.3 94.2 93.6
60 117.2 93.7 118.5 94.8 94.3
80 116.0 94.7 117.3 95.8 95.2
100 115.2 95.4 116.4 96.5 95.9
Gmb 2.445 2.473
Gmm 2.563 2.563

100

95

average
% G mm

90
sample 1
sample 2 85

80

75
1 10 100
umber of Gyrations

Figure A.2.3: Densification Data for Trial Blend 1 at asphalt content 4.4 %

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General Specifications of Urban Roads Construction Appendix 2- Superpave Volumetric Mix Design Example

Back

Tables A.2.10: Densification Data for Trial Blend 2

Specimen 1 Specimen 2 Average


Gyrations
Ht, mm %Gmm Gyrations Ht, mm %Gmm
5 131.7 84.2 132.3 84.2 84.2
8 129.5 85.6 130.1 85.6 85.6
10 128.0 86.6 128.7 86.6 86.6
15 125.8 88.1 126.5 88.1 88.1
20 124.3 89.2 124.9 89.2 89.2
30 122.2 90.7 122.7 90.8 90.7
40 120.1 91.4 121.5 92.4 91.9
50 119.6 92.7 120.1 92.8 92.7
60 118.7 93.4 119.2 93.5 93.4
80 117.3 94.5 117.8 94.6 94.5
100 116.3 95.3 116.8 95.4 95.4
Gmb 2.444 2.447
Gmm 2.565 2.565

100

95

90
% G mm

Average
sample 1
sample 2 85

80

75
1 10 100

nuumber of Gyrations

Figure A.2.4: Densification Data for Trial Blend 2 at asphalt content 4.4 %

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General Specifications of Urban Roads Construction Appendix 2- Superpave Volumetric Mix Design Example

Back

Tables A.2.11: Densification Data for Trial Blend 3

Specimen 1 Specimen 2 Average


Gyrations
Ht, mm %Gmm Gyrations Ht, mm %Gmm
5 130.9 84.4 129.5 85.2 84.8
8 127.2 85.9 127.3 86.6 86.3
10 127.2 86.9 125.9 87.6 87.3
15 125.1 88.3 124.1 89.0 88.7
20 123.7 89.3 122.8 89.9 89.6
30 121.8 90.7 121.0 91.2 91.0
40 120.5 91.7 119.7 92.2 91.9
50 119.6 92.5 118.7 93.0 92.7
60 118.8 93.1 118.1 93.5 93.3
80 117.6 94.0 116.9 94.4 94.2
100 116.7 94.7 116.1 95.1 94.9
Gmb 2.432 2.442
Gmm 2.568 2.568

100

95
average
% Gmm

90
sample 1
85
sample 2
80

75
1 10 100

Number of Gyrations

Figure A.2.5: Densification Data for Trial Blend 3 at asphalt content 4.4 %

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General Specifications of Urban Roads Construction Appendix 2- Superpave Volumetric Mix Design Example

5.3 Evaluation of Trial Blends Data: Back


The average % Gmm is determined for initial and design number of gyration for
each trial blend is calculated and summarized in Table (A.2.12) below:

Table A.2.12: Maximum Theoretical Specific Gravity for Trial Blends

Trial Bland %Gmm @ Nini %Gmm @ Ndes


1 87.1 95.9
2 85.6 95.4
3 86.3 94.9

The % Gmm at the maximum number of Gyrations (Nmax) must also be evaluated
by preparation of two additional specimens compacted to Nmax for each of the trial blends
as discussed later in this example.
The percent of air voids (Va), percent of voids filled with asphalt (VFA), voids in
the mineral aggregate (VMA) binder to dust ratio are determined at Ndes.

The percent air voids is calculated using this equation:

% Va = 100 - %Gmm @ Ndes

The percent voids in mineral aggregate are calculated using this equation:

% G mm @ N des G mm Ps
% VMA estimated = 100 (
G mm
)

Where:
Va = percent of air voids at Ndes
%Gmm @ Ndes = percent of maximum theoretical specific gravity at Ndes
VMA = percent by volume of voids in mineral aggregate.
Gmm = maximum theoretical specific gravity.
Gsb = total specific gravity of aggregate.
Ps =percent of aggregate by weight of the mix.

Table (A.2.13) shows the calculated results for the volumetric properties for the
three bends.

Table A.2.13: Compaction Summary of Trial Blends

Blend AC% Gmm% @ Ndes Gmm% @Nini Air Voids% VMA%


1 4.4 87.1 95.9 4.1 12.9
2 4.4 85.6 95.4 4.6 13.3
3 4.4 86.3 94.9 5.1 13.7

If the estimated air voids is equal to 4% then the volumetric properties of the mix
shall be compared with the design criteria and the first phase of the mix design process is
completed. Otherwise as in this example the design asphalt content shall be estimated to
adjust the air voids to 4 %, then the volumetric properties shall be calculated with the
estimated design asphalt content.

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General Specifications of Urban Roads Construction Appendix 2- Superpave Volumetric Mix Design Example

The estimated design asphalt content shall be calculated at the design number of Back
gyration for each trial blend using the following formula:

Pb estimated = Pbi (0.4((4-Va))

The volumetric ( VMA and VFA ) and mixture compaction properties are then
estimated at this asphalt binder content using the equations below:

%VMA estimated = %VMA initial + C(4-Va)

(%VMAestimated 4.0)
%VFA estimated = 100 %VMAestimated

%Gmm estimated @ Nini = %Gmm trial @ Nini (4.0 Va)

Where:
Pb estimated = estimated Percent binder content %
Pbi = initial (trial) Percent binder
Va = percent air voids at Ndes
%VMA initial = %VMA from trial asphalt binder content
C = constant (either 0.1 or 0.2).

Note: C = 0.1 if Va is less than 4.0 %


C = 0.2 if Va is greater than 4.0%

Finally, the dust to binder ratio shall be calculated as the percent by mass of the
material passing the 0.075 mm sieve (by wet sieve analysis) divided by the effective
asphalt binder content (expressed as percent by mass of mix).The effective asphalt binder
content is calculated using:

G se G sb

Pbe= - (Ps Gb) ( G se G sb ) + Pb ,estimated

Where:
Pbe =effective asphalt binder content % of total mix.
Ps = percent of total aggregate of total mix.
Gb =specific gravity of asphalt binder.
Gse =effective specific gravity of aggregate.
Gsb =total specific gravity of aggregate.
Pb =content of asphalt binder % of total mix.

Dust Proportion is calculated using:

DP = P 0.075

P be

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General Specifications of Urban Roads Construction Appendix 2- Superpave Volumetric Mix Design Example

Back
Where:
P0.075 = Percent passing 0.075 mm sieve of aggregate.
Pbe = the effective asphalt content % by total mix.

Using all above equations and based on the estimated asphalt content which will
give 4 % air voids the following data shown in Table (A.2.14) for the three trial blends is
expected for the designed mix:

Table A.2.14: Expected Volumetric Properties for The Three Trial Blends

Estimated
initial Asphalt Dust Air Gmm %@
Blend Asphalt VMA% VFA%
Content % Proportion% Voids% Nini = 8
Content %
1 4.4 4.4 0.84 4.0 12.9 69.0 87.1
2 4.4 4.6 0.76 4.0 13.3 69.7 85.6
3 4.4 4.8 0.85 4.0 13.7 70.4 86.3

Tables (12.4.2) of these specifications show the volumetric properties


requirements for the nominal maximum size 19 mm.

The dust binder ratio range can be taken as 0.8 1.6 when the total combined
aggregate gradation is passing below the restricted zone.
After establishing all the estimated mixture properties, the designer can evaluate
the values for the trial blends and decide if one or more are acceptable, or if further trial
blends need to be evaluated.

Blend 1 is unacceptable based on a failure to meet the minimum VMA criteria.


Both Blends 2 and 3 are acceptable. The VMA, VFA, DP, and Nini criteria are met. For
this example, Trial Blend 3 is selected as the design aggregate structure.

What could be done at this point if none of the blends were acceptable Additional
combinations of the current aggregates could be tested, or additional materials from
different sources could be obtained and included in the trial blend analysis.

6. Select Design Asphalt Binder Content:


Once the design aggregate structure is selected, specimens are compacted at
varying asphalt binder contents. The mixture properties are then evaluated to determine
design asphalt binder content.
A minimum of tow specimens are compacted at each of the following asphalt contents:
-estimated Binder content 0.5, and
-estimated Binder content +1.0 %.

A minimum of two specimens is also prepared for determination of maximum


theoretical specific gravity at the estimated binder content. Specimens are prepared and
tested in the same manner as the specimens from the Selected Design Aggregate
Structure section.

Mixture properties are evaluated for the selected blend at the different asphalt binder
contents, by using the densification data at the different asphalt binder contents, by using
the densification data at Nini (8 gyrations) and Ndes (100 gyrations). The volumetric

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properties are calculated at the design number of gyrations (Ndes) for each trial asphalt Back
binder content. The designer can generate graphs of air voids, VMA, and VFA versus
asphalt binder content the design asphalt binder content is established at 4.0% air voids.

Two samples should be compacted to the maximum compaction level Nmax using
the optimum asphalt binder content to insure that the Gmm% at Nmax is not greater than 98
%.
Table (A.2.15) shows the test results for compacted specimens of trail blend 3 using
different asphalt content greater or less than the estimated asphalt content, while Tables
from (A.2.17) to Table (A.2.20) show the densification data in the same blends and
asphalt content.

Figures (A.2.6) to Figure (A.2.9) show the volumetric properties of the compacted
specimens, while Table (A.2.16) shows the properties of blend 3 when compacted at the
optimum asphalt content (4.9 %).

Table A.2.15: Mix Compaction Properties Blend 3

Asphalt Gmm at Gmm at


Air Dust
binder VFA% VMA% initial design
Voids% Proportion
Content% gyration% gyration%
4.3 58.4 13.7 5.7 1.13 85.8 94.3
4.8 69.9 13.5 4.2 0.97 87.1 95.8
5.3 76.6 13.7 3.2 0.85 87.4 96.8
5.8 84.2 13.9 2.2 0.76 88.6 97.8

6
5
percent air voids

4
3
2
1
0
3.8 4.3 4.8 5.3 5.8 6.3
Asphalt Binder Content %

Figure A.2.6: Asphalt Binder Percent Voids Relations

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14.5

14.1

13.7
%VMA

13.3

12.9

12.5
3.8 4.3 4.8 5.3 5.8 6.3
asphalt binder content %

Figure A.2.7: Asphalt Binder VMA Relationships

100

90

80
% VFA

70

60

50
3.8 4.3 4.8 5.3 5.8 6.3
Aspha;t Bindre Content %

Figure (A.2.8) Asphalt Binder VFA Relationships

Table A.2.16: Design Mixture Properties at 4.9 % Binder content

Mix property Result Criteria


Air Voids % 4.0 4.0
VMA % 13.5 13.0 min.
VFA % 71.0 65 75
Dust Proportion % 0.9 0.6 1.2
% Gmm at Nini (8 gyrations) 87.2 Less than 89

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Table A.2.17: Densification Data for Trial Blend 3, 4.3 % Asphalt Binder

Specimen 1 Specimen 2 Average


Gyrations
Ht. mm % Gmm Ht. mm % Gmm % Gmm
5 131.3 83.9 131.0 84.7 84.3
8 129.0 85.4 128.8 86.1 85.7
10 127.5 86.4 127.4 87.1 86.7
15 125.4 87.8 125.5 88.4 88.1
20 124.0 88.8 124.2 89.3 89.1
30 122.1 90.2 122.4 90.6 90.4
40 120.9 91.1 121.1 91.6 91.4
50 119.9 91.9 120.1 92.4 92.1
60 119.1 92.5 119.4 92.9 92.7
80 117.9 93.4 118.3 93.8 93.6
100 117.0 94.1 117.4 94.5 94.3
Gmb 2.430 2.440
Gmm 2.582 2.582

Table A.2.18: Densification Data for Trial Blend 3, 4.8 % Asphalt Binder

Specimen 1 Specimen 2 Average


Gyrations
Ht. mm % Gmm Ht. mm % Gmm % Gmm
5 130.4 85.8 130.8 85.5 85.7
8 128.2 87.2 128.8 86.9 87.1
10 126.8 88.2 127.4 87.8 88.0
15 124.8 89.6 125.5 89.1 89.4
20 123.5 90.6 124.1 90.1 90.3
30 121.5 92.1 122.1 91.5 91.8
40 120.3 93.0 120.8 92.6 92.8
50 119.3 93.7 119.9 93.3 93.5
60 118.5 94.4 119.0 94.0 94.2
80 117.2 95.4 117.9 94.9 95.1
100 116.4 96.1 117.0 95.6 95.8
Gmb 2.462 2.449
Gmm 2.562 2.562

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Table A.2.19: Densification Data for Trial Blend 3, 5.3 % Asphalt Binder

Specimen 1 Specimen 2 Average


Gyrations
Ht. mm % Gmm Ht. mm % Gmm % Gmm
5 132.0 86.0 132.6 85.8 85.9
8 129.8 87.5 130.4 87.4 87.9
10 128.3 88.5 128.9 88.4 88.4
15 126.2 90.0 126.7 89.8 89.9
20 124.8 91.0 125.2 90.9 91.0
30 122.8 92.5 123.2 92.4 92.4
40 121.4 93.5 121.7 93.5 93.5
50 120.3 94.4 120.7 94.3 94.3
60 119.5 95.1 119.0 95.0 95.0
80 118.2 96.1 118.3 96.0 96.0
100 117.4 96.8 117.7 96.7 96.8
Gmb 2.461 2.458
Gmm 2.542 2.542

Table A.2.20: Densification Data for Trial Blend 3, 5.8 % Asphalt Binder

Specimen 1 Specimen 2 Average


Gyrations
Ht. mm % Gmm Ht. mm % Gmm % Gmm
5 130.4 87.4 131.5 87.2 87.3
8 128.6 88.7 129.4 88.6 88.6
10 127.4 89.5 128.0 89.6 89.5
15 125.4 90.8 126.2 90.8 90.8
20 124.0 91.9 124.9 91.8 91.8
30 122.4 93.1 123.1 93.1 93.1
40 120.5 94.6 121.3 94.5 94.5
50 119.4 95.5 120.2 95.4 95.4
60 118.9 95.9 119.5 96.0 95.9
80 117.6 96.9 118.2 97.0 96.9
100 116.7 97.7 117.2 97.8 97.8
Gmb 2.464 2.467
Gmm 2.523 2.523

7. Verification % Gmm at the maximum number of gyrations :


Superpave specifies a maximum density of 98 % at Nmax. This will protect the mix
from the excessively compaction under traffic, which may lead to plastic mix, and
produce permanent deformation. After the selection of blend 3 as design blend at 4.9 %
asphalt binder content two additional samples were compacted to Nmax (160 gyrations) for
mix verification. Table (A.2.21) shows the compaction data for blend 3 using the
optimum binder content and at Nmax. The % Gmm is found to be 97.5 % which is comply
with the requirements.

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Table A.2.21: Nmax Densification Data for Trial Blend 3, 4.9 % Asphalt Binder

Specimen 1 Specimen 2 Average


Gyrations
Ht. mm % Gmm Ht. mm % Gmm % Gmm
5 130.4 85.8 130.8 85.5 85.7
8 128.2 87.2 128.8 86.9 87.1
10 126.8 88.2 127.4 87.8 88.0
15 124.8 89.6 125.5 89.1 89.4
20 123.5 90.6 124.1 90.1 90.3
30 121.5 92.1 122.1 91.5 91.8
40 120.3 93.0 120.8 92.6 92.8
50 119.3 93.7 119.9 93.3 93.5
60 118.5 94.4 119.0 94.0 94.2
80 117.2 95.4 117.9 94.9 95.1
100 116.4 96.1 117.0 95.6 95.8
125 115.6 96.8 116.2 96.2 96.5
150 115.0 97.3 115.5 96.8 97.0
160 114.5 97.7 115.0 97.2 97.5
Gmb 2.495 2.490
Gmm 2.554 2.554

(Nominal Max. Size 19 mm (Blend 3)

100

95
% AC 4.3
90
Gmm%

AC4.8 %
% AC5.3 85
% AC5.8
80

75
1 10 100
Number of Gyrations

Figure A.2.9: Densification Data for Blend 3

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8. Evaluate Moisture Sensitivity: Back


The final step in the Superpave mix design is the evaluation of moisture sensitivity
of the design mixture. This step is accomplished by performing AASHTO T 283 test on
the design aggregate blend at the design asphalt binder content. Specimens are compacted
to approximately 7 % air voids. One subset of three specimens is considered control
specimens. The other subset of three specimens is the conditioned subset. The conditioned
subset is subjected to partial vacuum saturation followed by an optional freeze cycle,
followed by a 24-hour thaw cycle at 60C. All specimens are tested to determine their
indirect tensile strengths. The moisture sensitivity is determined as a ratio of the tensile
strengths of the conditioned subset divided by the tensile strengths of the control subset.
Table (A.2.22) shows the moisture sensitivity data for the mixture at the design asphalt
binder content. The criterion for tensile strength ratio is 80 %, minimum. Trial blend 3
(82.6 %) exceeded the minimum requirement.
The Superpave volumetric mix design is now complete.

Table A.2.22: Moisture Sensitivity Data for Blend 3


Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6
Diameter, mm D 150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0
Thickness, mm t 99.2 99.4 99.4 99.3 99.2 99.3
Dry mass, g A 3986.2 3981.3 3984.6 3990.6 3987.8 3984.4
SSD mass, g B 4009.4 4000.6 4008.3 4017.1 4013.9 4008.6
Mass in Water, g C 2329.3 2321.2 2329.0 2336.0 2331.5 2329.0
Volume, cc (B-C) E 1680.1 1679.4 1679.3 1681.7 1682.4 1679.6
Bulk Sp. Gravity (A/E) F 2.373 2.371 2.373 2.373 2.370 2.372
Max Sp. Gravity G 2.558 2.558 2.558 2.558 2.558 2.558
% Air Voids (100(G-F)/G) H 7.2 7.3 7.2 7.2 7.3 7.3
Volume of Air Voids (HE/100) I 121.8 123.0 121.6 121.7 123.4 122.0
Load, N P 20803 20065 20354
Saturated
SSD mass, g K 4060.9 4058.7 4059.1
Mass in water L 2369.4 2373.9 2372.8
Volume, cc (K-L) M 1691.5 1684.8 1686.3
Vol Abs Water, cc (K-A) N 74.7 77.4 74.5
% Saturation (100N/1) 61.3 62.9 61.3
% Swell (100(M-E)/E) 0.7 0.3 0.4
Conditioned
Thickness, mm Q 99.5 99.4 99.4
SSD mass, g R 4070.8 4076.9 4074.8
Mass in water, g S 2373.7 2080.3 2379.0
Volume, cc (R-S) T 1697.1 1694.6 1695.8
Volume of Abs Water, cc (R-A) Y 84.6 93.6 90.2
% Saturation (100Y/I) 69.5 76.1 74.2
% Swell (100(T-E)/E) 1.0 0.9 1.0
Load, N Z 16720 16484 17441
Dry Str. (2000P/(t DP)) Std 889 858 870
Wet Str. (2000Z/Q DP)) Stm 713 704 745
Average Dry Strength (K. pa) 872
Average Wet Strength (K. pa) 721
% TSR 82.6%

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