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Chapter 5 Equilibrium of a Rigid Body

Objectives
Develop the equations of equilibrium for a rigid body
Concept of the free-body diagram for a rigid body
Solve rigid-body equilibrium problems using the equations
of equilibrium
Chapter 5 Outline
Conditions for Rigid Equilibrium
Free-Body Diagrams
Equations of Equilibrium
Two and Three-Force Members
Free Body Diagrams
Equations of Equilibrium
Constraints and Statical Determinacy 43
5.1 Conditions for Rigid-Body Equilibrium

The equilibrium of a body is expressed as

FR F 0
MR O MO 0

Consider summing moments about some other point, such


as point A, we require

M A r FR MR O 0

44
5.2 Free Body Diagrams

Support Reactions
If a support prevents the translation of a body in a given direction, then
a force is developed on the body in that direction.
If rotation is prevented, a couple moment is exerted on the body.

45
5.2 Free Body Diagrams

46
5.2 Free Body Diagrams

47
5.2 Free Body Diagram

Weight and Center of Gravity


Each particle has a specified weight
System can be represented by a single resultant force,
known as weight W of the body
Location of the force application is known as the center of
gravity

48
Example 5.1

Draw the free-body diagram of the uniform beam. The beam has a mass of
100kg.

Solution
Free-Body Diagram
Support at A is a fixed wall
Two forces acting on the beam at A denoted as Ax, Ay, with moment MA
Unknown magnitudes of these vectors
For uniform beam,
Weight, W = 100(9.81) = 981N
49
acting through beams center of gravity, 3m from A
5.4 Two- and Three-Force Members

Two-Force Members
When forces are applied at only two points on a member, the member is
called a two-force member
Only force magnitude must be determined

Three-Force Members
When subjected to three forces, the forces are concurrent or parallel

50
5.5 3D Free-Body Diagrams

51
5.5 Free-Body Diagrams

52
5.7 Constraints for a Rigid Body
Redundant Constraints
More support than needed for equilibrium
Statically indeterminate: more unknown
loadings than equations of equilibrium

53
5.7 Constraints for a Rigid Body
Improper Constraints
Instability caused by the improper constraining by the supports
When all reactive forces are concurrent at this point, the body is
improperly constrained

54
Chapter 6 Structural Analysis
Objectives
Determine the forces in the members of a truss using the
method of joints and the method of sections
Analyze forces acting on the members of frames and
machines composed of pin-connected members

Outline
Simple Trusses
The Method of Joints
Zero-Force Members
The Method of Sections
Space Trusses
Frames and Machines 55
6.1 Simple Truss
A truss composed of slender members joined together at their
end points
Planar Trusses
The analysis of the forces developed in the truss members is 2D
Similar to roof truss, the bridge truss loading is also coplanar

Assumptions for Design


All loadings are applied at the joint
- Weight of the members neglected
The members are joined together by smooth pins
- Assume connections provided the center lines of the
joining members are concurrent

56
6.1 Simple Truss
Simple Truss
Form of a truss must be rigid to prevent collapse
The simplest form that is rigid or stable is a triangle

Method of Joints
For truss, we need to know the force in each members
Forces in the members are internal forces
For external force members, equations of equilibrium can be applied
Force system acting at each joint is coplanar and concurrent
Fx = 0 and Fy = 0 must be satisfied for equilibrium

57
Example 6.1
Determine the force in each member of the truss and indicate whether the
members are in tension or compression.
Solution
2 unknown member forces at joint B
1 unknown reaction force at joint C
2 unknown member forces and 2 unknown
reaction forces at point A
For Joint B,
Fx 0;
500N FBC sin 45 N 0 FBC 707.1N (C )
Fy 0;
FBC cos 45 N FBA 0 FBA 500N (T )
58
Solution

For Joint C,
Fx 0;
FCA 707.1 cos 45 N 0 FCA 500 N (T )
Fy 0;
C y 707.1sin 45 N 0 C y 500 N

For Joint A,
Fx 0;
500N Ax 0 Ax 500N
Fy 0;
500N Ay 0 Ay 500N
59
6.3 Zero-Force Members

Method of joints is simplified using zero-force members


Zero-force members is supports with no loading
In general, when 3 members form a truss joint, the 3rd
member is a zero-force member provided no external force
or support reaction is applied to the joint

60
Example 6.4

Using the method of joints, determine all the zero-force


members of the roof truss. Assume all joints are pin connected.

Solution
For Joint G,
Fy 0 FGC 0

GC is a zero-force member.

For Joint D,
Fx 0 FDF 0
61
Solution

For Joint F,
Fy 0 FFC cos 0
90 , FFC 0

For Joint B,
FBH 2kN

FHC satisfy Fy = 0 and therefore


HC is not a zero-force member.

62
6.4 Method of Sections
Used to determine the loadings within a body
If a body is in equilibrium, any part of the body is in equilibrium
To find forces within members, an imaginary section is used to
cut each member into 2 and expose each internal force as
external
Consider the truss and section a-a as shown
Member forces are equal and opposite to those acting on
the other part Newtons Law

63
Example 6.5

Determine the force in members GE, GC, and BC of the truss.


Indicate whether the members are in tension or compression.

Solution
Draw FBD of the entire truss

Fx 0; 400 N Ax 0 Ax 400 N
M A 0; 1200 N (8m) 400 N (3m) D y (12m) 0 D y 900 N
Fy 0; Ay 1200 N 900 N 0 Ay 300 N

64
Solution

Draw FBD for the section portion


M G 0; 300N (4m) 400N (3m) FBC (3m) 0 FBC 800N (T )
M C 0; 300N (8m) FGE (3m) 0 FGE 800N (C )
3
Fy 0; 300N FGC 0 FGC 500N (T )
5

65
Example 6.5
Reaction force
Ax 400N
Ay 300N
Dy 900N

C
D 1500N E 500N
900N
400N
1200N
800N
1200N 900N 800N
900N 1500N
1200N

A 500N
B G
0N
800N
800N 500N
400N
800N 800N 500N
300N 0N 66
6.6 Frames
Composed of pin-connected multi-force members
Frames are stationary
Apply equations of equilibrium to each member to determine
the unknown forces
Example 6.9
For the frame, draw the free-body diagram of (a) each
member, (b) the pin at B and (c) the two members
connected together.
Solution
Part (a)
BA and BC are not two-force
AB is subjected to the resultant forces from the pins

67
Ax 6kN Ay 12kN Bx 0 By 4kN Cy 4kN M A 32kN m 68
Chapter 7 Internal Force
Objectives
Method of sections for determining the internal loadings in a
member
Develop procedure by formulating equations that describe
the internal shear and moment throughout a member
Analyze the forces and study the geometry of cables
supporting a load
Outline
Internal Forces Developed in Structural Members
Shear and Moment Equations and Diagrams
Relations between Distributed Load, Shear and
Moment
Cables 69
7.1 Internal Forces in Structural Members

The design of any structural or mechanical member requires the


material to be used to be able to resist the loading acting on the member
These internal loadings can be determined by the method of sections

Force component N, acting normal to the beam at the cut session


V acting tangent to the session are normal or axial force and the shear
force
Couple moment M is referred as the bending moment

70
71
Example 7.3
Determine the internal force, shear force and
the bending moment acting at point B of the
two-member frame.
Solution
Support Reactions
FBD of each member
Member AC
MA = 0;
-400kN(4m) + (3/5)FDC(8m)= 0
FDC = 333.3kN
+ Fx = 0;
-Ax + (4/5)(333.3kN) = 0
Ax = 266.7kN
+ Fy = 0;
Ay 400kN + 3/5(333.3kN) = 0 72
Ay = 200kN
Solution

Support Reactions
Member AB
+ Fx = 0; NB 266.7kN = 0
NB = 266.7kN
+ Fy = 0; 200kN 200kN VB = 0
VB = 0
MB = 0; MB 200kN(4m) 200kN(2m) = 0
MB = 400kN.m

73
7.2 Shear and Moment Equations

Beams structural members designed to support loadings


perpendicular to their axes
A simply supported beam is pinned at one end and roller
supported at the other
A cantilevered beam is fixed at one end and free at the other

74
7.3 Relations between Distributed Load, Shear and Moment

Distributed Load
Consider beam AD subjected to an arbitrary load
w = w(x) and a series of concentrated forces and moments
Distributed load assumed positive when loading acts
downwards

75
7.3 Relations between Distributed Load, Shear and Moment

Distributed Load
Distributed loading has been replaced by a resultant force F
= w(x) x that acts at a fractional distance k (x) from the
right end, where 0 < k <1

Fy 0;V w( x)x (V V ) 0
V w( x)x
M 0;Vx M w( x)xk x ( M M ) 0
M Vx w( x)k (x) 2

76
7.3 Relations between Distributed Load, Shear and Moment

Distributed Load
Slope of the dV Negative of distributed
shear diagram
w(x) load intensity
dx

dM
Slope of V Shear moment diagram
shear diagram dx

Change in shear M BC Vdx Area under


shear diagram

Change in moment VBC w( x)dx Area under


shear diagram

77
78
79
Example 7.9
Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the
overhang beam.

The support reactions are shown.


Shear Diagram
Shear of 2 kN at end A of the beam
is at x = 0.

Positive jump of 10 kN at x = 4 m
due to the force.

Moment Diagram
M x4 M x0 M 024 8 kN m

80
81
7.4 Cables

Cable Subjected to Concentrated Loads


For a cable of negligible weight, it will subject to constant
tensile force
Known: h, L1, L2, L3 and loads P1 and P2
Form 2 equations of equilibrium
Use Pythagorean Theorem to relate the three segmental
lengths

82
Example 7.11
Determine the tension in each segment of the cable.
FBD for the entire cable.

Fx 0; Ax Ex 0
M E 0;
Ay (18m) 4kN (15m) 15kN (10m) 3kn(2m) 0
Ay 12kN
Fy 0; 12kN 4kN 15kN 3kN Ey 0
Ey 10kN

Consider leftmost section which cuts cable BC since sag yC = 12m.

MC 0;
Ax (12m) 12kN (8m) 4kN (5m) 0
Ax Ex 6.33kN
Fx 0; TBC cos BC 6.33kN 0
Fy 0; 12kN 4kN TBC sin BC 0
BC 51.6 , TBC 10.2kN 83
7.4 Cables
Cable Subjected to a Distributed Load
Consider weightless cable subjected to a load w = w(x)
For FBD of the cable having length x
Since the tensile force changes continuously, it is denoted on the FBD by T
Distributed load is represented by second integration,

w( x)dxdx
1
y
FH

84
Cable

T cos (T T ) cos( ) 0
T sin ww (T T ) sin( ) 0
1
wx( x) T cos y T sin x 0
2
1 T cos d
[T cos (T T ) cos ] 0 (T cos ) 0
x x dx
1 d (T sin )
[T sin wx (T T ) sin( )] 0 w0
x dx
1 y dy
wx T cos T sin 0 tan
2 x dx

T cos FH constant
T sin wdx
T sin 1
y tan dx dx ( wdx)dx 85
T cos FH
Solution
Note w(x) = wo y wo dx dx
1
FH 1 wo x 2
Perform two integrations y C x C
FH 2
1 2

Boundary Conditions at x = 0 y 0, x 0, dy / dx 0

wo 2
Therefore, C1 C2 0 Curve becomes y x
2 FH

Boundary Condition at x = L/2 y h


wo L2 4h
For constant, FH and y 2 x 2
8h L

Tension, T = FH/cos
dy wL
Slope at point B tan max max tan1 o
dx x L /2 2 FH

FH
Therefore Tmax
cos( max )

Using triangular relationshipTmax 4 FH wo L


2 2 2

2 86
Solution

For a differential segment of cable length ds,


2
dy
ds dx dy
2 2
1 dx
dx

Determine total length by integrating,


2
L/2 8h
ds 2 1 2 x dx
0
L

Integrating yields,

L
2
4h L 1 4h
1 sinh
2 L 4h L

87
7.4 Cables

Cable Subjected to its Own Weight


When weight of the cable is considered, the loading function
becomes a function of the arc length s rather than length x
FBD of a segment of the cable is shown

88
7.4 Cables
Cable Subjected to its Own Weight
T cos (T T ) cos( ) 0
T sin ws (T T ) sin( ) 0
1
ws ( s ) T cos y T sin x 0
2
1
T cos constant FH
s
1 d
(T sin ) w 0
s ds
dy sin 1
cos FH
tan wds
dx

Apply equilibrium equations to the force system


dy 1
T cos FH T sin w( s)ds
dx FH
w( s)ds

Replace dy/dx by ds/dx for direct integration


2
dy ds
ds dx dy
2 2
1
dx dx


1/ 2
ds 1 2
x
ds
Therefore 1 2 w(s)ds

1/ 2
dx FH 1 2
1 2
FH
w(s)ds
89
Example 7.13
Determine the deflection curve, the length, and the maximum
tension in the uniform cable. The cable weights wo = 5N/m.
Solution
For symmetry, origin located at the center of the cable.
Deflection curve expressed as y = f(x)

ds ds
x x


1 1 / F 2
H w ds
o
2 1/ 2
1 1 / F w s C
2
H o 1
2 1/ 2

Substitute
u 1 / FH wo s C1 du ( wo / FH )ds
Perform second integration
x
FH
wo

sinh 1 u C2
1 1
or F
x H sinh wo s C1 C2
wo H
F 90
Solution
1 1
F
x H sinh wo s C1 C2
wo FH
Evaluate constants
dy 1 dy 1

dx FH wo ds
dx FH
wo s C1

dy/dx = 0 at s = 0, then C1 = 0
s=0 at x=0, then C2=0

F w dy w
sinh o x y
FH w
cosh o x C3
solve for s s H sinh o x dx FH wo FH
wo FH
FH
Boundary Condition y = 0 at x = 0 C3
wo
FH wo
For deflection curve, y cosh x 1
wo FH

This equations defines a catenary curve. 91


Solution
F wo
Boundary Condition y = h at x = L/2 h H cosh x 1
wo FH
FH 50 N
Since wo = 5N/m, h = 6m and L = 20m, 6m cosh 1 FH 45.9 N
5N / m FH

For deflection curve, y 9.19 cosh 0.109 x 1 m

5N / m
10m 12.1m
45.9
x = 10m, for half length of the cable sinh
2 5N / m 45.9 N

Hence 24.2m

Maximum tension occurs when is maximum at s = 12.1m

dy 5 N / m 12.1m
tan max 1.32 , max 52.8
dx s 12.1m 45.9 N
FH 45.9 N
Tmax 75.9 N
cos max cos 52.8 92
Chapter 8 Friction
Objectives
Introduce the concept of dry friction
To present specific applications of frictional force analysis
on wedges, screws, belts, and bearings
To investigate the concept of rolling resistance
Chapter Outline
Characteristics of Dry Friction
Problems Involving Dry Friction
Wedges, Screws, Flat Belts, Collar Bearings, Pivot Bearings,
and Disks, Journal Bearings
Rolling Resistance
93
8.1 Characteristics of Dry Friction
Theory of Dry Friction: Impending Motion
Constant of proportionality s is known as the coefficient
of static friction
Angle s that Rs makes with N is called the angle of static
friction 1 Fs 1 s N
s tan tan tan s
1


N N
Typical Values of s
Contact Materials Coefficient of Static Friction s

Metal on ice 0.03 0.05

Wood on wood 0.30 0.70

Leather on wood 0.20 0.50

Leather on metal 0.30 0.60

Aluminum on aluminum 1.10 1.70 94


Chapter 9 Center of Gravity and Centroid
Objectives
Concept of the center of gravity, center of mass, and the
centroid
Determine the location of the center of gravity and centroid
for a system of discrete particles and a body of arbitrary
shape
9.1 Center of Gravity and Center of Mass
Mass Center
~
xm ~
ym ~
zm
x ;y ,z
m m m
Consider a particle having weight of dW

x ~
xdW
;y ~
ydW
;z ~
zdW

dW dW dW 95
Example 9.1
Locate the centroid of the rod bent into the shape of a parabolic arc.

Solution
For differential length of the element dL
2
dx
dx dy
2 2
dL 1 dy
dy
Since x = y2 and then dx/dy = 2y
2 y 1 dy
2
dL
The centroid is located at

xdL x 4 y 1 dy y
1
2
1
2
4 y2 1 dy 0.6063
x L
0
0
0.410m
dL 4 y 1 dy
1 1
2
4 y2 1 dy 1.479
0 0
L

ydL y 4 y 1 dy 0.8484
1
2

y L
0
0.574m

1
dL
4 y 1 dy 1.479
2
0
L

96
9.2 Composite Bodies
Example 9.10
Locate the centroid of the plate area.
Solution
Composite Parts
Plate divided into 3 segments.
Area of small rectangle considered negative.

Moment Arm
Location of the centroid for each piece is
determined and indicated in the diagram.
Summations
~xA 4
x 0.348 mm
A 11 .5
~y A 14
y 1.22 mm
A 11 .5
97
9.5 Fluid Pressure
Magnitude of depends on the specific weight or mass density
of the fluid and the depth z of the point from the fluid surface
p z gz Valid for incompressible fluids
Flat Plate of Constant Width
As pressure varies linearly with depth, the
distribution of pressure over the plates surface is
represented by a trapezoidal volume having an
intensity of w1 bp1 brz1 at depth z1 and w2 bp2 brz2
at depth z2
Magnitude of the resultant force FR
= volume of this loading diagram
Curved Plate of Constant Width

98
Example 9.14
Determine the magnitude and location of the resultant hydrostatic
force acting on the submerged rectangular plate AB. The plate has
a width of 1.5m; w = 1000kg/m3.
Solution
The water pressures at depth A and B are
A w gz A (1000 kg / m3 )(9.81m / s 2 )(2m) 19.62kPa
B w gzB (1000 kg / m3 )(9.81m / s 2 )(5m) 49.05kPa

For intensities of the load at A and B,


wA b A (1.5m)(19.62kPa) 29.43kN / m
wB b B (1.5m)(49.05kPa) 73.58kN / m

1
FR (3)(29.4 73.6) 154.5 N
2

This force acts through the centroid


of the area, 1 2(29.43) 73.58
h (3) 1.29 m
3 29.43 73.58 99
measured upwards from B
Chapter 10 Moments of Inertia
Objectives
Method for determining the moment of inertia for an area
Introduce product of inertia and show determine the
maximum and minimum moments of inertia for an area
Outline
Definitions of Moments of Inertia for Areas
Parallel-Axis Theorem for an Area
Radius of Gyration of an Area
Moments of Inertia for Composite Areas
Product of Inertia for an Area
Moments of Inertia for an Area about Inclined Axes
Mohrs Circle for Moments of Inertia
Mass Moment of Inertia 100
10.1 Definition of Moments of Inertia for Areas

Centroid for an area is determined by the first moment of an area about an


axis
Second moment of an area is referred as the moment of inertia
Moment of Inertia
moments of inertia of the differential plane area dA

dIx y2 dA dI y x2 dA
Ix y2 dA I y x2 dA
A A

Formulate the second moment of dA about z axis


dJ O r 2 dA
where r is perpendicular from the pole (z axis) to the element dA
Polar moment of inertia for entire area,
Jz r2 dA Ix I y
A
101
10.2 Parallel Axis Theorem for an Area

Determine the moment of inertia of area about a corresponding parallel.


For moment of inertia of dA about x
axis
dI x y ' d y dA
2

For entire area


I x y ' d y dA
2
A

y '2 dA 2d y y ' dA d y2 dA
A A A

y ' dA y dA 0; y 0
Ix Ix Ad y2 and I y I y Adx2
For polar moment of inertia
J z JC Ad 2

102
10.3 Radius of Gyration of an Area

Radius of gyration of a planar area has units of length and is


a quantity used in the design of columns in structural
mechanics
For radii of gyration

Ix Iy Jz
kx ky kz
A A A

103
Example 10.1

Determine the moment of inertia for the rectangular area with respect to (a)
the centroidal x axis, (b) the axis xb passing through the base of the
rectangular, and (c) the pole or z axis perpendicular to the x-y plane and
passing through the centroid C.

Solution

h/2 h/2 1 3
I x y '2 dA y '2 (bdy ' ) y '2 dy bh
A h / 2 h / 2 12

By applying parallel axis theorem,


2
1 h 1
I xb I x Ad 2 bh 3 bh bh 3
12 2 3
For polar moment of inertia about point C,
1 3 1
Iy ' hb and JC Ix I y ' bh(h2 b2 ) 104
12 12
10.5 Product of Inertia for an Area
Moment of inertia for an area is different for every axis
Product of inertia for an element of area dA located at a
point (x, y) is defined as dIxy xydA
Ixy xydA
A
Parallel Axis Theorem
For the product of inertia of dA with
respect to the x and y axes
dI xy x' d x y ' d y dA
A
For the entire area,
dI xy x' d x y ' d y dA
A

x' y ' dA d x y 'dA d y x'dA d x d y dA


A A A A
Forth integral represent the total area A,
I xy I x ' y ' Ad x d y
105
10.6 Moments of Inertia for an Area about Inclined Axes
x u
r , r
y v
x cos sin u
r Ar , v

y sin cos
u cos sin x
r AT r ,
v sin cos y
Ixx y2 dA, Iyy x2 dA, Ixy xydA
Consider moment of inertia matrix
y
Ixx Ixy Iuu Iuv
I=
I I
Ixy I yy uv Ivv v
Then I AT IA and I A I AT
u
r
Principal Moments of Inertia

Or find the eigenvalue of I or I
0 x 106
matrix
Example 10.8
Determine the principal moments of inertia for the beams cross-sectional
area with respect to an axis passing through the centroid.

Moment and product of inertia of the cross-sectional area,



I x 2.90 10 9 mm 4
I y 5.60 10 9 mm 4
I z 3.00 10 9 mm 4

Solution
2.9 3
I
3 5.6
( -2.9)( -5.6)+9 =0
2 8.5 7.24 0
eigenvalue of (I) 0.96 or 7.54
0.96 2.9 3 1.94 3 3
eigenvector I x x,
0.96 2.9 3 1.94 1.94
x x 0, x
3
7.54 2.9 3 4.64 3 3
x 3 1.94 x 0, x 4.64
3 7.54 5.6 107
10.7 Mohrs Circle for Moments of Inertia
The circle constructed is known as a Mohrs circle with radius
Ix Iy
2

R I xy2
2
and center at (a, 0) where a I x I y / 2

108
10.7 Mohrs Circle for Moments of Inertia

Determine Ix, Iy and Ixy


Establish the x, y axes for the area, with the origin located at point P of
interest and determine Ix, Iy and Ixy
Principal of Moments of Inertia
Points where the circle intersects the abscissa give the values of the
principle moments of inertia Imin and Imax
Product of inertia will be zero at these points

Principle Axes
This angle represent twice the angle from the x axis to the area in question
to the axis of maximum moment of inertia Imax
The axis for the minimum moment of inertia Imin is perpendicular to 109
the
axis for Imax
10.8 Mass Moment of Inertia
Mass moment of inertia is defined as the integral of the second moment about an axis of all
the elements of mass dm which compose the body
For bodys moment of inertia
about the z axis,

I r 2 dm
m

The axis that is generally chosen


for analysis, passes through the
bodys mass center G
When being a constant,
I r 2 dV
V

For moment of inertia of body


about the z axis,

m m

I r 2 dm d x' y '2 dm
2

m

x'2 y '2 dm 2d x' dm d
m
2
dm
m

Parallel Axis Theorem


For moment of inertia about the z axis,
I = IG + md2
I
Radius of Gyration I mk 2 or k
m 110