This paper provides a comparison of power converter loss and thermal description for voltage source and current source type 5 MW-class medium-voltage topologies of wind turbines. Neutral-point clamped three-level converter is adopted for a voltage source type topology, whereas a two-level converter is employed for current source type topology, considering the popularity in the industry. To match the required voltage level of 4160 V with the same switching device of IGCT as in the voltage source converter, two active switches are connected in series for the case of current source converter. Transient thermal modeling of a four-layer Foster network for heat transfer is done to better estimate the transient junction and case temperature of power semiconductors during various operating conditions in wind turbines. The loss analysis is confirmed through PLECS simulations. Comparison result shows that the VSC-based wind turbine system has higher efficiency than the CSC under the rated operating conditions.

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This paper provides a comparison of power converter loss and thermal description for voltage source and current source type 5 MW-class medium-voltage topologies of wind turbines. Neutral-point clamped three-level converter is adopted for a voltage source type topology, whereas a two-level converter is employed for current source type topology, considering the popularity in the industry. To match the required voltage level of 4160 V with the same switching device of IGCT as in the voltage source converter, two active switches are connected in series for the case of current source converter. Transient thermal modeling of a four-layer Foster network for heat transfer is done to better estimate the transient junction and case temperature of power semiconductors during various operating conditions in wind turbines. The loss analysis is confirmed through PLECS simulations. Comparison result shows that the VSC-based wind turbine system has higher efficiency than the CSC under the rated operating conditions.

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Source Based Converter in 5MW PMSG

Wind Turbine Systems

Tahyun Kang, Taewon Kang, Beomseok Chae, Kihyun Lee, and Yongsug Suh

Department of Electrical Engineering

Chonbuk National University, Jeonju Korea

yukie@jbnu.ac.kr, tw_kang@jbnu.ac.kr, isbadrenin@jbnu.ac.kr, lkh0120@jbnu.ac.kr, ysuh@jbnu.ac.kr

Abstract--This paper provides a comparison of power increases, in order to reduce current level, the Medium

converter loss and thermal description for voltage source Voltage (MV) system has been adopted for power

and current source type 5MW-class medium voltage converter and generators of wind turbine [1]-[3]. MV

topologies of wind turbines. Neutral-point clamped three- converter becomes more preferable due to less

level converter is adopted for voltage source type topology component count, high efficiency and simple power stage

while two-level converter is employed for current source

type topology considering the popularity in the industry. In

design in power converters of wind turbines [4].

order to match the required voltage level of 4160V with the Among various topologies of MV converter, back-to-

same switching device of IGCT as in voltage source back type three-level neutral-point clamped Voltage

converter, two active switches are connected in series for the Source Converter (VSC) is one of popular choices in

case of current source converter. Transient thermal wind power systems. This converter topology has become

modeling of a four-layer Foster network for heat transfer is a quite reliable industrial solution in wind turbines of MV

done to better estimate the transient junction and case class owing to many existing high power semiconductor

temperature of power semiconductors during various switch components and modules in the market. Current

operating conditions in wind turbines. The loss analysis is source type converter has been regarded as one of many

confirmed through PLECS simulations. The comparison

interesting circuit topologies in motor drives of MV class

result shows that VSC-based wind turbine system has a

higher efficiency than that of CSC under the rated due to its inherent short circuit protection capability and

operating conditions. low dv/dt characteristic of ac line voltage in a long-range

Index TermsVoltage Source Converter, Current Source cable connection. Previous literatures regarding Current

Converter, Junction Temperature Wind Turbine Systems Source Converter (CSC) have focused on the design and

loss analysis of current source converters [5]. In addition,

I. INTRODUCTION most of previous work has dealt with high-power motor

The demand of sustainable and renewable energy has drive applications of current source converters [6]-[7].

been increased remarkably due to the energy crisis and Some work has been done to apply thyristor technology

the environmental concern. Among the renewable energy to wind turbine systems [8]. However, in contrast to

sources, especially, the wind energy capacity has been voltage source type converters, current source type

increased rapidly over the last decade. According to the converters, particularly those with turn-off power

recent trends, power capability of wind turbines is semiconductor switching devices, have received less

moving from kW class to MW class to reduce the cost of attention in the field of wind turbines in spite of its many

energy. As the power capacity of wind turbine systems powerful advantages in MV applications.

DLU

Sma_1 Dga_1 Dgb_1 Dgc_1

Smb_1 Smc_1

Dma_2 Dmb_2 Dmc_2 Sga_2 Sgb_2 Sgc_2

Dga_2 Dgb_2 Dgc_2 iag

Sma_2 Smb_2 Smc_2

Lf ibg

icg

Cf Dga_3 Dgb_3 Dgc_3 Cf

Sma_3 Smb_3 Smc_3

Dga_4 Dgb_4 Dgc_4

Sma_4 Smb_4 Smc_4

MSC GSC

2015 KIPE

894

DLU

Dma_1 Dmb_1 Dmc_1 Dga_1 Dgc_1

Sma_2 Sga_2 Sgb_2 Sgc_2

Dma_2 Smb_2 Smc_2 Dga_2 Dgb_2 Dgc_2

Dmb_2 Dmc_2

iag

A

Lf ibg

N B

icg

C

Dma_3

Cf Sga_3 Sgb_3 Sgc_3 Cf

Sma_3 Smb_3 Smc_3 Dga_3 Dgb_3 Dgc_3

Dmb_3 Dmc_3

Dma_4 Dmb_4 Dmc_4 Dga_4 Dgc_4

& OVP & OVP

Fig. 2. Back-to-back type 3L-NPC VSCs for 5MW PMSG MV wind turbines.

This paper investigates the application of current

B. Voltage Source Converter

source converter topology in wind power systems. This

paper also includes both the quantitative and qualitative Figure 2 shows the schematic of 3L-NPC VSC. Each

investigation on the performance comparison of current leg of the VSC consists of two neutral-point clamped

source converter and voltage source converter in a wind diodes (NDm_x, NDg_x), four switches (Sm_x, Sg_x), and four

turbine of MV class. The wind turbine of 5MW/4160V anti-parallel diodes (Dm_x, Dg_x). The DC-link voltage is

PMSG type is chosen as a common platform for the split into three-levels by two series connected capacitors.

comparison work. Back-to-back type three-level neutral- The middle point of two capacitors N can be defined as a

point clamped voltage source converter, which is neutral point. The output voltage vAN has three states;

regarded as the most popular topology choice in this Vdc/2, 0, and Vdc/2 in each leg, which are produced by

power range of 5MW, and back-to-back two-level current specific conduction paths depending on output current

source converter topologies are analyzed. Due to the direction and output voltage polarity [3].

industrial practices of simpler implementation, instead of C. Power Semiconductor Device(Press-pack IGCT,

three-level current source topology, two-level current Press-pack Diode)

source converter equipped with a series connection of

In this paper, VSCs and CSCs employ the same

power semiconductor switches is proposed to be the

target circuit topology of current source converter in this switching devices of press-pack IGCT (ABB

paper. The performance of two different types of 5SHY42L6500) and press-pack FRD (ABB

5SDF10H6004) devices for the sake of consistent and fair

converter system is studied with respect to the loss factors

comparison of two topologies. The same type of FRD is

and thermal behavior of power semiconductor devices.

utilized as anti-parallel diodes, neutral-point diodes, and

The main objective of this paper is to provide a

reverse blocking diodes. The main characteristics of

comparison result of system efficiency for high-power

VSC and CSC of the wind turbine system. This paper is employed power semiconductor devices are summarized

structured in five main sections. Section II describes the in Table I. [9]-[10].

TABLE I

power semiconductor devices under comparison of 5MW DEVICE PARAMETERS OF POWER SEMICONDUCTOR [9][10]

PMSG Wind Turbine System (WTS). Section III

discusses the model of semiconductors for calculating the Device Press-pack IGCT Press-pack Diode

losses and thermal description of the power Manufacturer ABB ABB

semiconductor devices. Section IV presents simulation Code 5SHY 42L6500 5SDF 10H6004

results of 5MW PMSG WTSs. Finally, comparison of Blocking Voltage 6.5kV 6.0 kV

VSC and CSC is given in Section V. VTO (Max.) 1.88 V 1.5 V

RT (Max.) 0.56 m 0.6 m

II. VSC AND CSC BASED WIND TURBINE SYSTEMS Eon (Max.) 3.1 J -

Eoff (Max.) 44 J 5J

A. Current Source Converter

Figure 1 shows the schematic of two-level CSC with

D. System Specification

series connection of two IGCTs, i.e. ns=2. Each leg of the

CSC consists of four switches (Sm_x, Sg_x), and four The system specifications of target CSC and VSC-

reverse blocking diodes (Dm_x, Dg_x). The DC-Link based wind turbine systems as shown in Fig. 1 and 2 are

current idc should be continuous. So zero switching state summarized in Table II and III, respectively. Rated

of the CSC is equivalent to shorting one of three phase operating condition for both converter system is set to the

legs in the converter. In general, this placement of zero output power of 5MW and the ac line voltage of 4160V.

state vector complicates the control of CSC compared to In Table II and III, the filter networks in ac grid side and

VSC [7]. machine side of both converter system are designed to

895

generate the ac current of same THD and power factor 1

T

Pcond = vsw (t ) i(t )dt

range for the sake of fair comparison of these two

converter systems. The switching frequency adopted for 1

= {von + Ron i (t )}i (t )dt (2)

the grid-side converter is set to 1020 Hz for both types of T

converter systems. This switching frequency is selected 2

= von I avg + Ron ( I rms )

to be 17 times of the fundamental frequency, 60Hz.

where T is the fundamental period of the converter [11].

TABLE II

SIMULATION PARAMETERS OF 5MW VSC B. Switching Losses

Parameter Symbol Value Per unit Switching loss of power semiconductor device is

determined by the total commutation time in which the

Output power Prated-out 5 MW 1.0

device is turned on/off, and also by the voltage v(t) and

Grid frequency fgrid 60 Hz 1.0 current i(t) across the device. The energy dissipated

Grid side inductance Lgrid 1.56 mH 0.17 during commutation is Eon and Eoff for the single-pulse

Grid side input voltage VLL 4.16 kV 1.0 turn on and off, respectively, and is provided by the

device manufacturers on their datasheet. The average

Grid side input current IAC_input 708 A 1.0

switching power loss Pswitching over a complete

Switching frequency fVSC 1020 Hz - fundamental period T may be determined by summing all

DC-link voltage VDC 7 kV - the commutations of the device during the respective

DC-link capacitance CDC 2.6 mF -

interval of time. Each switching loss for turn-on and turn-

off can be expressed as;

AC filter inductance Lf 1.5 mH 0.16

Pon = Eon f sw

AC filter capacitance Cf 0.35 mF 0.45

Von ( measure ) Ion ( measure ) (3)

= Eon ( spec ) f sw

TABLE III Vtest I test

SIMULATION PARAMETERS OF 5MW CSC

Poff = Eoff f sw

Parameter Symbol Value Per unit Voff ( measure )

I off ( measure ) (4)

Output power Prated-out 5 MW 1.0

= Eoff ( spec ) f sw

Vtest I test

Grid frequency fgrid 60 Hz 1.0 Equation (3) and (4) represent the linear

Grid side inductance Lgrid 1.56 mH 0.17 approximation of actual switching loss for turn-on and

Grid side input voltage VLL 4.16 kV 1.0

turn-off based on the specific values (Eon(spec) and Eoff(spec))

provided by manufacturers. Although the switching loss

Grid side input current IAC 708 A 1.0

can vary depending on the gate impedance, parasitic

Switching frequency fCSC 1020 Hz - circuit elements, and snubber characteristics, this linear

DC-link current IDC 997 A - approximation gives a fairly good accuracy particularly at

the vicinity of a manufacturers test point (Vtest and Itest)

DC-link inductance LDC 8.3 mH -

and snubber condition [7].

AC filter inductance Lf 0.98 mH 0.11

C. Thermal Model

AC filter capacitance Cf 0.26 mF 0.34

The power loss modeling can be implemented based

on the current and voltage values in the power devices.

III. THERMAL MODEL OF SEMICONDUCTOR LOSSES The thermal modeling of power devices and cooling

The losses of power semiconductor devices are environment for heat transfer are used to estimate the

approximated by analytical expressions in terms of junction and case temperature of power devices [12].

voltage and current. The total semiconductor device loss The steady state average junction temperature of each

Pt consists of the conduction loss Pcond and switching loss power semiconductor devices can be expressed as follows

Pswitching; [13]. Tj and Pt represent the junction temperature and

Pt = Pcond + Pswitching total semiconductor device loss, respectively [12].

(1)

= Pcond + Pon + Poff ( )

T j [D C ] = Pt [W ] Rth [D C / W ] + Ta [D C ] (5)

A. Conduction Losses Total thermal resistance Rth consists of Rth(j-c), Rth(c-h),

Conduction loss of each power semiconductor and Rth(h-a).

depends on the instantaneous on-state voltage vsw(t) and Rth = Rth ( j c ) + Rth ( c h ) + Rth ( h a ) (6)

the instantaneous switching current i(t) passing through it.

A forward on-state voltage of power semiconductor Rth(j-c) is the thermal resistance from junction to case. Rth(c-h)

device, vsw(t) can be modeled using a first-order linear is the thermal resistance from case to heatsink. Rth(h-a) is the

approximation comprised of a threshold voltage von and a thermal resistance from heatsink to ambient. In this paper,

series resistance Ron. And then, the total conduction loss water cooling environment is assumed. Therefore, the

in power semiconductors can be expressed as; ambient temperature (Ta) refers to the temperature of in-let

water in the cooling system. The ambient temperature is set

896

to 30 in this paper. power flows from the dc link to the ac grid. Under the

The transient behavior of junction temperature is also same operating conditions as in Fig. 4 and 5, Fig. 6 and 7

investigated in this paper. The thermal impedance from present the simulation waveforms of instantaneous

junction to case Zth(j-c) is modeled as a four-layer Foster RC junction temperature of switching devices in the upper-

network as depicted in Fig. 3. The curve for the transient leg of phase-a in VSC and CSC. In this paper, the

thermal impedance Zth(j-c) can be fitted into series of balanced sharing of switching voltage across two series

exponential term as in (7). The parameters of thermal connected devices (ns=2) in CSC is assumed. It is noted

impedances for 6.5kV IGCT platform are listed in Table from Fig. 6 and 7 that the RC Foster network thermal

IV [14]. model in Fig. 3 and its thermal impedance values in Table

n IV successfully exhibit the transient behavior of junction

i =1

(

Z th ( j c ) (t ) = Rth ( j c ),i 1 e t / i ) (7) temperature with respect to the corresponding switching

on and off instants. The waveforms of junction

The case to heatsink and heatsink to ambient thermal temperature in Fig. 6 and 7 confirms the fact that the

impedances are modeled as a simple thermal resistors in transient thermal modeling of switching devices is quite

this paper. necessary in order to accurately investigate the transient

TABLE IV

PARAMETERS OF THE THERMAL IMPEDANCE FOR IGCT PLATFORM

thermal behavior of power semiconductor devices, e.g.

[9][10] peak temperature, repetitive temperature ripples, etc.

Thermal Rth(c-h)

Impedance

Part I Part II Part III Part IV TURBINE SYSTEMS

RiIGCT(K/kW) 5.562 1.527 0.868 0.545 3 This section provides a comparison result of system

iIGCT(s)

efficiency for target VSC and CSC-based wind turbine

0.5119 0.0896 0.0091 0.0024 -

systems. The conduction and switching losses of

RiDiode(K/kW) 7.440 2.000 1.840 0.710 3 employed power semiconductor devices are calculated

iDiode(ms) 0.0470 0.0910 0.0100 0.0047 - based on (2)-(4). In order to investigate the characteristics

of loss distribution under various operating conditions of

different power factor, three different power factor

Power Semiconductor conditions are selected in the loss comparison; 0.9

leading, 1.0, and 0.9 lagging. The loss distribution among

Tj Rth(j-c) Tc Rth(c-h) Th switching devices in the upper-leg of phase-a under these

three different power factor conditions are presented in

Power Rth(h-a) Fig. 8 through 13. Figure 8-10 correspond to loss

TA Loss TA

distribution of VSC while Fig. 11-13 correspond to those

of CSC.

The numerical data of junction temperature presented

Part I Part II Part III Part IV in Fig. 8-13 are obtained using the steady-state thermal

Rth1 Rth2 Rth3 Rth4 model as depicted in (5). It is noted from Fig. 8 and 11

that the steady-state values of junction temperature are

Tj close to average values of temperature profiles illustrated

1 2 3 4 in Fig. 6 and 7 whose operating conditions are same as

those of Fig. 8 and 11, respectively. In general, the

RIGCT/D(j-c) steady-state value of junction temperature obtained from

TA Tc (5) corresponds to the average value of instantaneous

RC Foster network of thermal impedance from junction to case junction temperature waveform measured from Foster RC

network within relevant time scales of thermal dynamics.

Fig. 3. Thermal model of power semiconductor devices with four-layer It is noted from Fig. 4 and 6 that, in the case of VSC,

Foster RC network. the loss is concentrated at the switching device of Sg_1

and Diode NDg_1, i.e. the outer switching device and

IV. SIMULATION RESULTS OF VSC AND CSC neutral-point clamped diode. Therefore, these devices

have relatively high junction temperature. On the other

Electrical and thermal behavior of the two target CSC hand, in the case of CSC, the loss is evenly distributed

and VSC systems in Fig. 1 and 2 are simulated. The over the switching devices and diodes as shown in Fig. 5

simulation is performed based on the parameters of 5MW and 7. This evenly distributed loss and junction

MV VSC and CSC as specified in Table II and III. Figure temperature profile among the devices in the case of

4 and 5 show the simulation waveforms of switching CSC, as compared to that of VSC, is mainly due to the

voltage and current in the upper-leg of phase-a in VSC balanced sharing of switching voltage across two series

and CSC under the power factor of 0.9 leading condition. connected devices. Therefore, when the voltage sharing

In this paper, the modulation scheme of varying dc link becomes uneven sharing becomes uneven across series

current depending on the power factor is adopted for CSC connected devices, the loss distribution also becomes

[15]. The both converter operates under inverter mode, i.e. uneven which is the usual case in industry practices.

897

Sga_1 v

5*Sga_1 i

Turn-off

Turn-on

Dga_1 v

5*Dga_1 i

Turn-off

Sga_2 v

5*Sga_2 i

Turn-off

Turn-on

Dga_2 v

5*Dga_2 i

NDga_1 v

5*NDga_1 i

Turn-off

iag

Gating signal

Fig. 4. Waveforms of VSC switching voltage and current in the upper-leg of phase-a under 0.9 leading condition (Sga_1, Dga_1, Sga_2, Dga_2,

)NDga_1

Sga_1 v

5*Sga_1 i

Turn-off

Turn-on

Dga_1 v

Dga_1 i

Turn-off

Sga_2 v

5*Sga_2 i

Turn-off

Turn-on

Dga_2 v

Dga_2 i

Turn-off

iag

Gating signal

)Fig. 5. Waveforms of CSC switching voltage and current in the upper-leg of phase-a under 0.9 leading condition (Sga_1, Dga_1, Sga_2, Dga_2

898

Fig. 6. Junction temperature of switching devices in the upper-leg of phase-a under 0.9 leading condition for the VSC

Fig. 7. Junction temperature of switching devices in the upper-leg of phase-a under 0.9 leading condition for the CSC

899

6 6

5 5

4 4

3 3

2 2

1 1

0 0

Sg_1 Sg_2 Dg_1 Dg_2 NDg_1 Sg_1 Sg_2 Dg_1 Dg_2

Conduction Losses (kW) Switching Losses (kW) Conduction Losses (kW) Switching Losses (kW)

Parameter Sg_1 Sg_2 Dg_1 Dg_2 NDg_1 Parameter Sg_1 Sg_2 Dg_1 Dg_2

0.6 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.9

(kW) (kW)

Switching Losses Switching Losses

4.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 2.2 1.7 1.7 1.4 1.4

(kW) (kW)

Junction Junction

115 50 32 30 82 77 77 77 77

Temperature (deg.) Temperature (deg.)

Fig. 8. Loss distribution in upper-leg two switches (Sg_1, Sg_2) and Fig. 11. Loss distribution in upper-leg two switches (Sg_1, Sg_2) and

three diodes (Dg_1. Dg_2, NDg_1) of VSC (pf=0.9 leading) two diodes (Dg_1, Dg_2) of CSC (pf=0.9 leading)

6 6

5 5

4 4

3 3

2 2

1 1

0 0

Sg_1 Sg_2 Dg_1 Dg_2 NDg_1 Sg_1 Sg_2 Dg_1 Dg_2

Conduction Losses (kW) Switching Losses (kW) Conduction Losses (kW) Switching Losses (kW)

Parameter Sg_1 Sg_2 Dg_1 Dg_2 NDg_1 Parameter Sg_1 Sg_2 Dg_1 Dg_2

0.6 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.6

(kW) (kW)

Switching Losses Switching Losses

3.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.8 1.5 1.5 1.1 1.1

(kW) (kW)

Junction Junction

107 43 30 30 70 69 69 66 66

Temperature (deg.) Temperature (deg.)

Fig. 9. Loss distribution in upper-leg two switches (Sg_1, Sg_2) and Fig. 12. Loss distribution in upper-leg two switches (Sg_1, Sg_2) and

three diodes (Dg_1, Dg_2, NDg_1) of VSC (pf=1.0) two diodes (Dg_1, Dg_2) of CSC (pf=1.0)

6 6

5 5

4 4

3 3

2 2

1 1

0 0

Sg_1 Sg_2 Dg_1 Dg_2 NDg_1 Sg_1 Sg_2 Dg_1 Dg_2

Conduction Losses (kW) Switching Losses (kW) Conduction Losses (kW) Switching Losses (kW)

Parameter Sg_1 Sg_2 Dg_1 Dg_2 NDg_1 Parameter Sg_1 Sg_2 Dg_1 Dg_2

0.6 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6

(kW) (kW)

Switching Losses Switching Losses

1.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.6 1.5 1.5 0.9 0.9

(kW) (kW)

Junction Junction

73 43 30 30 44 70 70 62 62

Temperature (deg.) Temperature (deg.)

Fig. 10. Loss distribution in upper-leg two switches (Sg_1, Sg_2) and Fig. 13. Loss distribution in upper-leg two switches (Sg_1, Sg_2) and

three diodes (Dg_1, Dg_2, NDg_1) of VSC (pf=0.9 lagging) two diodes (Dg_1, Dg_2) of CSC (pf=0.9 lagging)

900

pf=0.9 (lagging) 99.5%

23.4 Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea

99.2%

government (MSIP) (No. 2010-0028509) & (No.

VSC

pf=1.0 42.1

98.9%

pf=0.9 (leading) 56.3 2014R1A2A1A11053678).

99.1%

pf=0.9 (lagging) 45.7

99.1%

REFERENCES

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pf=1.0 47.3

98.8%

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VI. CONCLUSION [9] Asymmetric Integrated Gate-Commutated Thyristor

5SHY 42L6500, Datasheet, Doc. No. 5SYA1245-03 Dec.

This paper investigates the performance of VSC and

12, ABB Switzerland Ltd., Online: www.abb.com.

CSC in PMSG type wind turbine of 5MW/4160V. In [10] Fast Recovery Diode 5SDF 10H6004, Datasheet, Doc.

order to effectively compare the performance of two No. 5SYA1109-03 Jan. 10, ABB Switzerland Ltd., Online:

converter topologies, this paper calculates and compares www.abb.com.

the efficiency of two different types of WTS. Along with [11] L. Clotea and A. Forcos, Power Losses Evaluation of

efficiency, the detailed loss distribution of each Two and Three-Level NPC Inverters considering Drive

functional block of the entire WTS is presented. The loss Applications, in Proc. OPTIM, 2012, pp.929-934.

analysis is confirmed through PLECS simulations in both [12] K. Ma and F. Blaabjerg, Thermal optimized modulation

of VSC and CSC. The loss calculation method proposed methods of three-level neutral-point-clamped inverter for

10MW MW wind turbines under low-voltage ride

in this paper can determine relatively accurate switching

through, IET Power Electronics, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 920-

losses in semiconductor devices on the basis of simulated 927, 2011.

switching waveforms. The simulation result shows that [13] ABB Application Note: Applying IGBTs, May 2007.

VSC-based wind turbine system has a higher efficiency [14] H. Wang, A. M. Khambadkone, and X. Yu, Control of

than that of CSC. This superior characteristic of VSC is Parallel Connected Power Converters for Low Voltage

attributed to the fact that CSC has the double the Microgrid Part II: Dynamic Electrothermal Modeling,

semiconductor junction drops in the device series IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, vol. 25, no. 12, pp.

connection structure (ns=2) of two-level topology in 2971-2980, Dec. 2010

contrast to three-level structure of VSC. [15] J. Dai, D.D. Xu, B. Wu, "A Novel Control Scheme for

Current-Source-Converter-Based PMSG Wind Energy

Conversion Systems," IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics,

ACKNOWLEDGMENT vol.24, no.4, pp.963-972, Apr. 2009.

This work was supported by the National Research

901

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