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9th International Conference on Power Electronics-ECCE Asia

June 1 - 5, 2015 / 63 Convention Center, Seoul, Korea

Comparison of Voltage Source and Current


Source Based Converter in 5MW PMSG
Wind Turbine Systems
Tahyun Kang, Taewon Kang, Beomseok Chae, Kihyun Lee, and Yongsug Suh
Department of Electrical Engineering
Chonbuk National University, Jeonju Korea
yukie@jbnu.ac.kr, tw_kang@jbnu.ac.kr, isbadrenin@jbnu.ac.kr, lkh0120@jbnu.ac.kr, ysuh@jbnu.ac.kr

Abstract--This paper provides a comparison of power increases, in order to reduce current level, the Medium
converter loss and thermal description for voltage source Voltage (MV) system has been adopted for power
and current source type 5MW-class medium voltage converter and generators of wind turbine [1]-[3]. MV
topologies of wind turbines. Neutral-point clamped three- converter becomes more preferable due to less
level converter is adopted for voltage source type topology component count, high efficiency and simple power stage
while two-level converter is employed for current source
type topology considering the popularity in the industry. In
design in power converters of wind turbines [4].
order to match the required voltage level of 4160V with the Among various topologies of MV converter, back-to-
same switching device of IGCT as in voltage source back type three-level neutral-point clamped Voltage
converter, two active switches are connected in series for the Source Converter (VSC) is one of popular choices in
case of current source converter. Transient thermal wind power systems. This converter topology has become
modeling of a four-layer Foster network for heat transfer is a quite reliable industrial solution in wind turbines of MV
done to better estimate the transient junction and case class owing to many existing high power semiconductor
temperature of power semiconductors during various switch components and modules in the market. Current
operating conditions in wind turbines. The loss analysis is source type converter has been regarded as one of many
confirmed through PLECS simulations. The comparison
interesting circuit topologies in motor drives of MV class
result shows that VSC-based wind turbine system has a
higher efficiency than that of CSC under the rated due to its inherent short circuit protection capability and
operating conditions. low dv/dt characteristic of ac line voltage in a long-range
Index TermsVoltage Source Converter, Current Source cable connection. Previous literatures regarding Current
Converter, Junction Temperature Wind Turbine Systems Source Converter (CSC) have focused on the design and
loss analysis of current source converters [5]. In addition,
I. INTRODUCTION most of previous work has dealt with high-power motor
The demand of sustainable and renewable energy has drive applications of current source converters [6]-[7].
been increased remarkably due to the energy crisis and Some work has been done to apply thyristor technology
the environmental concern. Among the renewable energy to wind turbine systems [8]. However, in contrast to
sources, especially, the wind energy capacity has been voltage source type converters, current source type
increased rapidly over the last decade. According to the converters, particularly those with turn-off power
recent trends, power capability of wind turbines is semiconductor switching devices, have received less
moving from kW class to MW class to reduce the cost of attention in the field of wind turbines in spite of its many
energy. As the power capacity of wind turbine systems powerful advantages in MV applications.

DLU

Dma_1 Dmb_1 Dmc_1 Sga_1 Sgb_1 Sgc_1


Sma_1 Dga_1 Dgb_1 Dgc_1
Smb_1 Smc_1
Dma_2 Dmb_2 Dmc_2 Sga_2 Sgb_2 Sgc_2
Dga_2 Dgb_2 Dgc_2 iag
Sma_2 Smb_2 Smc_2
Lf ibg
icg

Dma_3 Dmb_3 Dmc_3 Sga_3 Sgb_3 Sgc_3


Cf Dga_3 Dgb_3 Dgc_3 Cf
Sma_3 Smb_3 Smc_3

Dma_4 Dmb_4 Dmc_4 Sga_4 Sgb_4 Sgc_4


Dga_4 Dgb_4 Dgc_4
Sma_4 Smb_4 Smc_4
MSC GSC

Fig. 1. Back-to-back type CSCs for 5MW PMSG MV wind turbines.

2015 KIPE
894
DLU

Sma_1 Smb_1 Smc_1 Sga_1 Sgb_1 Dgb_1 Sgc_1


Dma_1 Dmb_1 Dmc_1 Dga_1 Dgc_1

NDma_1 NDmb_1 NDmc_1 NDga_1 NDgb_1 NDgc_1


Sma_2 Sga_2 Sgb_2 Sgc_2
Dma_2 Smb_2 Smc_2 Dga_2 Dgb_2 Dgc_2
Dmb_2 Dmc_2
iag
A
Lf ibg
N B
icg
C

NDma_2 NDmb_2 NDmc_2 NDga_2 NDgb_2 NDgc_2


Dma_3
Cf Sga_3 Sgb_3 Sgc_3 Cf
Sma_3 Smb_3 Smc_3 Dga_3 Dgb_3 Dgc_3
Dmb_3 Dmc_3

Sma_4 Smb_4 Smc_4 Sga_4 Sgb_4 Dgb_4 Sgc_4


Dma_4 Dmb_4 Dmc_4 Dga_4 Dgc_4

MSC di/dt snubber di/dt snubber GSC


& OVP & OVP
Fig. 2. Back-to-back type 3L-NPC VSCs for 5MW PMSG MV wind turbines.
This paper investigates the application of current
B. Voltage Source Converter
source converter topology in wind power systems. This
paper also includes both the quantitative and qualitative Figure 2 shows the schematic of 3L-NPC VSC. Each
investigation on the performance comparison of current leg of the VSC consists of two neutral-point clamped
source converter and voltage source converter in a wind diodes (NDm_x, NDg_x), four switches (Sm_x, Sg_x), and four
turbine of MV class. The wind turbine of 5MW/4160V anti-parallel diodes (Dm_x, Dg_x). The DC-link voltage is
PMSG type is chosen as a common platform for the split into three-levels by two series connected capacitors.
comparison work. Back-to-back type three-level neutral- The middle point of two capacitors N can be defined as a
point clamped voltage source converter, which is neutral point. The output voltage vAN has three states;
regarded as the most popular topology choice in this Vdc/2, 0, and Vdc/2 in each leg, which are produced by
power range of 5MW, and back-to-back two-level current specific conduction paths depending on output current
source converter topologies are analyzed. Due to the direction and output voltage polarity [3].
industrial practices of simpler implementation, instead of C. Power Semiconductor Device(Press-pack IGCT,
three-level current source topology, two-level current Press-pack Diode)
source converter equipped with a series connection of
In this paper, VSCs and CSCs employ the same
power semiconductor switches is proposed to be the
target circuit topology of current source converter in this switching devices of press-pack IGCT (ABB
paper. The performance of two different types of 5SHY42L6500) and press-pack FRD (ABB
5SDF10H6004) devices for the sake of consistent and fair
converter system is studied with respect to the loss factors
comparison of two topologies. The same type of FRD is
and thermal behavior of power semiconductor devices.
utilized as anti-parallel diodes, neutral-point diodes, and
The main objective of this paper is to provide a
reverse blocking diodes. The main characteristics of
comparison result of system efficiency for high-power
VSC and CSC of the wind turbine system. This paper is employed power semiconductor devices are summarized
structured in five main sections. Section II describes the in Table I. [9]-[10].
TABLE I
power semiconductor devices under comparison of 5MW DEVICE PARAMETERS OF POWER SEMICONDUCTOR [9][10]
PMSG Wind Turbine System (WTS). Section III
discusses the model of semiconductors for calculating the Device Press-pack IGCT Press-pack Diode
losses and thermal description of the power Manufacturer ABB ABB
semiconductor devices. Section IV presents simulation Code 5SHY 42L6500 5SDF 10H6004
results of 5MW PMSG WTSs. Finally, comparison of Blocking Voltage 6.5kV 6.0 kV
VSC and CSC is given in Section V. VTO (Max.) 1.88 V 1.5 V
RT (Max.) 0.56 m 0.6 m
II. VSC AND CSC BASED WIND TURBINE SYSTEMS Eon (Max.) 3.1 J -
Eoff (Max.) 44 J 5J
A. Current Source Converter
Figure 1 shows the schematic of two-level CSC with
D. System Specification
series connection of two IGCTs, i.e. ns=2. Each leg of the
CSC consists of four switches (Sm_x, Sg_x), and four The system specifications of target CSC and VSC-
reverse blocking diodes (Dm_x, Dg_x). The DC-Link based wind turbine systems as shown in Fig. 1 and 2 are
current idc should be continuous. So zero switching state summarized in Table II and III, respectively. Rated
of the CSC is equivalent to shorting one of three phase operating condition for both converter system is set to the
legs in the converter. In general, this placement of zero output power of 5MW and the ac line voltage of 4160V.
state vector complicates the control of CSC compared to In Table II and III, the filter networks in ac grid side and
VSC [7]. machine side of both converter system are designed to

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generate the ac current of same THD and power factor 1
T
Pcond = vsw (t ) i(t )dt
range for the sake of fair comparison of these two
converter systems. The switching frequency adopted for 1
= {von + Ron i (t )}i (t )dt (2)
the grid-side converter is set to 1020 Hz for both types of T
converter systems. This switching frequency is selected 2
= von I avg + Ron ( I rms )
to be 17 times of the fundamental frequency, 60Hz.
where T is the fundamental period of the converter [11].
TABLE II
SIMULATION PARAMETERS OF 5MW VSC B. Switching Losses
Parameter Symbol Value Per unit Switching loss of power semiconductor device is
determined by the total commutation time in which the
Output power Prated-out 5 MW 1.0
device is turned on/off, and also by the voltage v(t) and
Grid frequency fgrid 60 Hz 1.0 current i(t) across the device. The energy dissipated
Grid side inductance Lgrid 1.56 mH 0.17 during commutation is Eon and Eoff for the single-pulse
Grid side input voltage VLL 4.16 kV 1.0 turn on and off, respectively, and is provided by the
device manufacturers on their datasheet. The average
Grid side input current IAC_input 708 A 1.0
switching power loss Pswitching over a complete
Switching frequency fVSC 1020 Hz - fundamental period T may be determined by summing all
DC-link voltage VDC 7 kV - the commutations of the device during the respective
DC-link capacitance CDC 2.6 mF -
interval of time. Each switching loss for turn-on and turn-
off can be expressed as;
AC filter inductance Lf 1.5 mH 0.16
Pon = Eon f sw
AC filter capacitance Cf 0.35 mF 0.45
Von ( measure ) Ion ( measure ) (3)
= Eon ( spec ) f sw
TABLE III Vtest I test
SIMULATION PARAMETERS OF 5MW CSC
Poff = Eoff f sw
Parameter Symbol Value Per unit Voff ( measure )
I off ( measure ) (4)
Output power Prated-out 5 MW 1.0
= Eoff ( spec ) f sw
Vtest I test
Grid frequency fgrid 60 Hz 1.0 Equation (3) and (4) represent the linear
Grid side inductance Lgrid 1.56 mH 0.17 approximation of actual switching loss for turn-on and
Grid side input voltage VLL 4.16 kV 1.0
turn-off based on the specific values (Eon(spec) and Eoff(spec))
provided by manufacturers. Although the switching loss
Grid side input current IAC 708 A 1.0
can vary depending on the gate impedance, parasitic
Switching frequency fCSC 1020 Hz - circuit elements, and snubber characteristics, this linear
DC-link current IDC 997 A - approximation gives a fairly good accuracy particularly at
the vicinity of a manufacturers test point (Vtest and Itest)
DC-link inductance LDC 8.3 mH -
and snubber condition [7].
AC filter inductance Lf 0.98 mH 0.11
C. Thermal Model
AC filter capacitance Cf 0.26 mF 0.34
The power loss modeling can be implemented based
on the current and voltage values in the power devices.
III. THERMAL MODEL OF SEMICONDUCTOR LOSSES The thermal modeling of power devices and cooling
The losses of power semiconductor devices are environment for heat transfer are used to estimate the
approximated by analytical expressions in terms of junction and case temperature of power devices [12].
voltage and current. The total semiconductor device loss The steady state average junction temperature of each
Pt consists of the conduction loss Pcond and switching loss power semiconductor devices can be expressed as follows
Pswitching; [13]. Tj and Pt represent the junction temperature and
Pt = Pcond + Pswitching total semiconductor device loss, respectively [12].
(1)
= Pcond + Pon + Poff ( )
T j [D C ] = Pt [W ] Rth [D C / W ] + Ta [D C ] (5)
A. Conduction Losses Total thermal resistance Rth consists of Rth(j-c), Rth(c-h),
Conduction loss of each power semiconductor and Rth(h-a).
depends on the instantaneous on-state voltage vsw(t) and Rth = Rth ( j c ) + Rth ( c h ) + Rth ( h a ) (6)
the instantaneous switching current i(t) passing through it.
A forward on-state voltage of power semiconductor Rth(j-c) is the thermal resistance from junction to case. Rth(c-h)
device, vsw(t) can be modeled using a first-order linear is the thermal resistance from case to heatsink. Rth(h-a) is the
approximation comprised of a threshold voltage von and a thermal resistance from heatsink to ambient. In this paper,
series resistance Ron. And then, the total conduction loss water cooling environment is assumed. Therefore, the
in power semiconductors can be expressed as; ambient temperature (Ta) refers to the temperature of in-let
water in the cooling system. The ambient temperature is set

896
to 30 in this paper. power flows from the dc link to the ac grid. Under the
The transient behavior of junction temperature is also same operating conditions as in Fig. 4 and 5, Fig. 6 and 7
investigated in this paper. The thermal impedance from present the simulation waveforms of instantaneous
junction to case Zth(j-c) is modeled as a four-layer Foster RC junction temperature of switching devices in the upper-
network as depicted in Fig. 3. The curve for the transient leg of phase-a in VSC and CSC. In this paper, the
thermal impedance Zth(j-c) can be fitted into series of balanced sharing of switching voltage across two series
exponential term as in (7). The parameters of thermal connected devices (ns=2) in CSC is assumed. It is noted
impedances for 6.5kV IGCT platform are listed in Table from Fig. 6 and 7 that the RC Foster network thermal
IV [14]. model in Fig. 3 and its thermal impedance values in Table
n IV successfully exhibit the transient behavior of junction

i =1
(
Z th ( j c ) (t ) = Rth ( j c ),i 1 e t / i ) (7) temperature with respect to the corresponding switching
on and off instants. The waveforms of junction
The case to heatsink and heatsink to ambient thermal temperature in Fig. 6 and 7 confirms the fact that the
impedances are modeled as a simple thermal resistors in transient thermal modeling of switching devices is quite
this paper. necessary in order to accurately investigate the transient
TABLE IV
PARAMETERS OF THE THERMAL IMPEDANCE FOR IGCT PLATFORM
thermal behavior of power semiconductor devices, e.g.
[9][10] peak temperature, repetitive temperature ripples, etc.

Rth(j-c) V. COMPARISON OF VSC AND CSC-BASED WIND


Thermal Rth(c-h)
Impedance
Part I Part II Part III Part IV TURBINE SYSTEMS
RiIGCT(K/kW) 5.562 1.527 0.868 0.545 3 This section provides a comparison result of system
iIGCT(s)
efficiency for target VSC and CSC-based wind turbine
0.5119 0.0896 0.0091 0.0024 -
systems. The conduction and switching losses of
RiDiode(K/kW) 7.440 2.000 1.840 0.710 3 employed power semiconductor devices are calculated
iDiode(ms) 0.0470 0.0910 0.0100 0.0047 - based on (2)-(4). In order to investigate the characteristics
of loss distribution under various operating conditions of
different power factor, three different power factor
Power Semiconductor conditions are selected in the loss comparison; 0.9
leading, 1.0, and 0.9 lagging. The loss distribution among
Tj Rth(j-c) Tc Rth(c-h) Th switching devices in the upper-leg of phase-a under these
three different power factor conditions are presented in
Power Rth(h-a) Fig. 8 through 13. Figure 8-10 correspond to loss
TA Loss TA
distribution of VSC while Fig. 11-13 correspond to those
of CSC.
The numerical data of junction temperature presented
Part I Part II Part III Part IV in Fig. 8-13 are obtained using the steady-state thermal
Rth1 Rth2 Rth3 Rth4 model as depicted in (5). It is noted from Fig. 8 and 11
that the steady-state values of junction temperature are
Tj close to average values of temperature profiles illustrated
1 2 3 4 in Fig. 6 and 7 whose operating conditions are same as
those of Fig. 8 and 11, respectively. In general, the
RIGCT/D(j-c) steady-state value of junction temperature obtained from
TA Tc (5) corresponds to the average value of instantaneous
RC Foster network of thermal impedance from junction to case junction temperature waveform measured from Foster RC
network within relevant time scales of thermal dynamics.
Fig. 3. Thermal model of power semiconductor devices with four-layer It is noted from Fig. 4 and 6 that, in the case of VSC,
Foster RC network. the loss is concentrated at the switching device of Sg_1
and Diode NDg_1, i.e. the outer switching device and
IV. SIMULATION RESULTS OF VSC AND CSC neutral-point clamped diode. Therefore, these devices
have relatively high junction temperature. On the other
Electrical and thermal behavior of the two target CSC hand, in the case of CSC, the loss is evenly distributed
and VSC systems in Fig. 1 and 2 are simulated. The over the switching devices and diodes as shown in Fig. 5
simulation is performed based on the parameters of 5MW and 7. This evenly distributed loss and junction
MV VSC and CSC as specified in Table II and III. Figure temperature profile among the devices in the case of
4 and 5 show the simulation waveforms of switching CSC, as compared to that of VSC, is mainly due to the
voltage and current in the upper-leg of phase-a in VSC balanced sharing of switching voltage across two series
and CSC under the power factor of 0.9 leading condition. connected devices. Therefore, when the voltage sharing
In this paper, the modulation scheme of varying dc link becomes uneven sharing becomes uneven across series
current depending on the power factor is adopted for CSC connected devices, the loss distribution also becomes
[15]. The both converter operates under inverter mode, i.e. uneven which is the usual case in industry practices.

897
Sga_1 v
5*Sga_1 i

Turn-off
Turn-on


Dga_1 v
5*Dga_1 i
Turn-off


Sga_2 v
5*Sga_2 i

Turn-off
Turn-on


Dga_2 v
5*Dga_2 i




NDga_1 v
5*NDga_1 i
Turn-off



iag




Gating signal

Fig. 4. Waveforms of VSC switching voltage and current in the upper-leg of phase-a under 0.9 leading condition (Sga_1, Dga_1, Sga_2, Dga_2,
)NDga_1
Sga_1 v
5*Sga_1 i
Turn-off
Turn-on

Dga_1 v
Dga_1 i
Turn-off


Sga_2 v

5*Sga_2 i
Turn-off
Turn-on


Dga_2 v
Dga_2 i

Turn-off


iag


Gating signal



)Fig. 5. Waveforms of CSC switching voltage and current in the upper-leg of phase-a under 0.9 leading condition (Sga_1, Dga_1, Sga_2, Dga_2

898
Fig. 6. Junction temperature of switching devices in the upper-leg of phase-a under 0.9 leading condition for the VSC

Fig. 7. Junction temperature of switching devices in the upper-leg of phase-a under 0.9 leading condition for the CSC

899
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1

0 0
Sg_1 Sg_2 Dg_1 Dg_2 NDg_1 Sg_1 Sg_2 Dg_1 Dg_2
Conduction Losses (kW) Switching Losses (kW) Conduction Losses (kW) Switching Losses (kW)

Parameter Sg_1 Sg_2 Dg_1 Dg_2 NDg_1 Parameter Sg_1 Sg_2 Dg_1 Dg_2

Conduction Losses Conduction Losses


0.6 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.9
(kW) (kW)
Switching Losses Switching Losses
4.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 2.2 1.7 1.7 1.4 1.4
(kW) (kW)
Junction Junction
115 50 32 30 82 77 77 77 77
Temperature (deg.) Temperature (deg.)
Fig. 8. Loss distribution in upper-leg two switches (Sg_1, Sg_2) and Fig. 11. Loss distribution in upper-leg two switches (Sg_1, Sg_2) and
three diodes (Dg_1. Dg_2, NDg_1) of VSC (pf=0.9 leading) two diodes (Dg_1, Dg_2) of CSC (pf=0.9 leading)

6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3

2 2

1 1

0 0
Sg_1 Sg_2 Dg_1 Dg_2 NDg_1 Sg_1 Sg_2 Dg_1 Dg_2
Conduction Losses (kW) Switching Losses (kW) Conduction Losses (kW) Switching Losses (kW)

Parameter Sg_1 Sg_2 Dg_1 Dg_2 NDg_1 Parameter Sg_1 Sg_2 Dg_1 Dg_2

Conduction Losses Conduction Losses


0.6 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.6
(kW) (kW)
Switching Losses Switching Losses
3.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.8 1.5 1.5 1.1 1.1
(kW) (kW)
Junction Junction
107 43 30 30 70 69 69 66 66
Temperature (deg.) Temperature (deg.)
Fig. 9. Loss distribution in upper-leg two switches (Sg_1, Sg_2) and Fig. 12. Loss distribution in upper-leg two switches (Sg_1, Sg_2) and
three diodes (Dg_1, Dg_2, NDg_1) of VSC (pf=1.0) two diodes (Dg_1, Dg_2) of CSC (pf=1.0)

6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3

2 2

1 1

0 0
Sg_1 Sg_2 Dg_1 Dg_2 NDg_1 Sg_1 Sg_2 Dg_1 Dg_2
Conduction Losses (kW) Switching Losses (kW) Conduction Losses (kW) Switching Losses (kW)

Parameter Sg_1 Sg_2 Dg_1 Dg_2 NDg_1 Parameter Sg_1 Sg_2 Dg_1 Dg_2

Conduction Losses Conduction Losses


0.6 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6
(kW) (kW)
Switching Losses Switching Losses
1.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.6 1.5 1.5 0.9 0.9
(kW) (kW)
Junction Junction
73 43 30 30 44 70 70 62 62
Temperature (deg.) Temperature (deg.)
Fig. 10. Loss distribution in upper-leg two switches (Sg_1, Sg_2) and Fig. 13. Loss distribution in upper-leg two switches (Sg_1, Sg_2) and
three diodes (Dg_1, Dg_2, NDg_1) of VSC (pf=0.9 lagging) two diodes (Dg_1, Dg_2) of CSC (pf=0.9 lagging)

900
pf=0.9 (lagging) 99.5%
23.4 Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea
99.2%
government (MSIP) (No. 2010-0028509) & (No.
VSC

pf=1.0 42.1
98.9%
pf=0.9 (leading) 56.3 2014R1A2A1A11053678).
99.1%
pf=0.9 (lagging) 45.7
99.1%
REFERENCES
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pf=1.0 47.3
98.8%
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VI. CONCLUSION [9] Asymmetric Integrated Gate-Commutated Thyristor
5SHY 42L6500, Datasheet, Doc. No. 5SYA1245-03 Dec.
This paper investigates the performance of VSC and
12, ABB Switzerland Ltd., Online: www.abb.com.
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ACKNOWLEDGMENT vol.24, no.4, pp.963-972, Apr. 2009.
This work was supported by the National Research

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