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Class 1 : Discuss OSI Reference Model.

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All contents copyright All rights reserved. No part of this document or the related files may be reproduced
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prior written permission of the publisher. -------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed------------------

Topic Covers in this Book
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OSI Refrence Module

U Contant U Page No

OSI Overview: 04
7) Application Layer: 05

o Telnet 23
o SSH 22
o FTP: 21
o TFTP: 69 06
o HTTP: 80
o HTTPS: 443
o NTP: 123

6) Presentation Layer: 07

o Encryption:
o Compression:
o Translation:

5) Session Layer:
4) Transport Layer: 08

o TCP:
o UDP:
o Flow Control:
o Segmentation:
o Fragmentation:

3) Network Layer: 09
2) Data Link Layer:
1) Physical Layer:

Protocol Data Unit (PDU) 10 -------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed------------------

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OSI Reference Module:

Soo Start with OSI because CCNA ki starting yahi sy hoti hy or essy samjhna important bhi hy qk essa
keh sakty hy k ye base hy CCNA ki. So what is OSI? Basically ye eak module hy jessy hum OSI
Reference Module k naam sy janty hy. OSI means (Open System Interconnection) network
communication k ley hamray do networks module bany thy the 1st one is DOD (Department of Defense)
or 2nd is OSI module. OSI Module ISO (International Organization Standardization) ny developed kia
tha, IOS jo k eak American company hy us ny 1 standard banaya k agar network py koi communication
hogi to wo is process sy or sequence ko follow kary gi or is process ko pher 7 hessu my divide kia gaya
jinhy aaj hum 7 layers k nam sy bhi janty hy yaha her layer ko kuch Responsibilities assign ki gai hy or
sari hi layer bhut important task perform karti hy agar in my sy koi 1 layer bhi hata di jaye to network
communication impossible hojaye gi. Is standard per 1977 py kam hona choru howa tha or pher 1984 my
essy globally approved kia gaya. Hum in ki detail dekhyee gy or start kary gy upper layer sy qk network
my communication start wahi sy hoti hy jo k hy Application Layer. -------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed------------------

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Layer 7: Application Layer:

Computers ki sari hi application wessy to application layer py perform hoti hy but important point jessy
hum assani sy samajh saky wo ye hy k koi bhi application jo computer per installed ho ya over the internet
hu jessy Facebook, yahoo, Gmail is tarha ki jitni bhi sites hum internet py search karty hy wo sub bhi
application layer py perform hoti hy. Kuch protocols Jo k application layer py work karty hy un ki details
nechy mention hy.

Application Layer Protocol:

Telnet protocol banna tha 1969 my telnet 1 protocol hy Jo port number 23 py work karta hy. like hamari
window my 1 service hy remote desktop connection ki to essi tarha Cisco k IOS py bhi 1 service hy jessy
hum telnet khty hy telnet bilkul wesa hi hy jessye remote desktop. Remote desktop sy hum window ka
remote ly lyty hy or us py kam kar lyty hy same essi tarha telnet sy hum router ki IOS ka remote ly lyty
hy or kahi sy bhi apny router ko configure kar sakty hy pher chahye wo kessi dosri country my hi q na
rakha ho or telnet session line VTY or IP address sy configure hota hy or is ka port number hy 23 simply
ye remote services hai Cisco Platform mai or hum apny computer per CMD sy telnet ko access karty hai.

SSH means (Secure shell) SSH bhi same telnet hy or telnet k sath hi work karta hy bs diffrence ye hai k
without SSH telnet py jo traffic ja rahi hoti hy wo plan text yani simple wording my hoti hy jessy koi bhi
catch kar k uski information ko read kar sakta hy or SSH ka benefit ye hy k is my sari traffic encrypted
hoti hy matlab k secure hoti hy or ye port number 22 py work karta hy or ye 1 secure tunnel banna k dyta
hy jis sy traffic securely flow hoti hy.

FTP means (File Transfer Protocol) jessy k hum apny computer py rehty howy hi apni files ko copy paste
karty hy same essi tarha agar hamara 1 computer kessi or country py rakha hy or 1 computer hamary
branch office my is condition my agar hamy remote office waly computer sy kuch heavy files copy karni
ho to waha hum FTP server ka use karty hy and over the internet file ko remote pc sy copy karty hy
apny computer py & the second example that k jo files hum internet sy download karty hy ya internet
per apni files ko store/Upload karty hy ye bhi FTP server sy hi kiya jata hy or is ka port number hy 21. -------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed------------------

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TFTP means (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) TFTP sever 1 application hy jessy hum internet sy download
karty hy or direct apny computer per use karty hy ye hota is ley hy k hamary CISCO k router my jo IOS
run hota hy matlab us my jo running configuration chal rahi hoti hy us ka backup save karny k ley use
hoti hy or wahi sy restore bhi hojati hy or hum apny router ko upgrade bhi essi application ki help sy
karty hy or ye port number 69 py kam karti hy.

HTTP means (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) i.e word, excel ki files MS office per run hoti hy essi tarha
HTTP ki files web browser k ley use hoti hy jessy k hum lekhty hy to computer dont
know what is google they know k ye HTTP per base hy HTTP backhand py communication karta hy or
pher essy hamary browser py open karta hy or ye port number 80 py kam karta hy.

HTTPS means (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure) ye bhi same HTTP ki tarha hi hy per HTTPS use
hota hy hamari secure websites per jessy hamari banks ki site hogai qk is ka link secure hota hy matlab
ye 1 tarha sy 1 tunnel create karta hy jis my sari traffic encrypted hoti hy jessi koi hack nahi kar pata or
ye port 443 py work karta hy.

NTP means (Network Time Protocol) hamry network py bhut sary switches or Routers ya servers hy to
in sub py logs generate hoty hy to ye bhi must hy k sub servers per time same hona chahye taky wo
servers apny statistics ko accurate time per record kar saky to is k ley 1 protocol use hota hy jessy hum
NTP khty hy ye hum kessi bhi router ya server py run karty hy or jaha ye run hy waha hum jo time set
karty hy sary server or switches py wohi time auto sync/set hojata hy or seconds ka bhi fark nahi aatta
so NTP protocol is ley use hota hy or ye port number 123 py work karta hy or ye sary hi protocols OSI
ki application layer per work karty hy or yahi application layer ki responsibility hy. -------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed------------------

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Layer 6: Presentation Layer:

Presentation Layer check the format of data jessy hamary data k formates hoty hy like docx, JPG, MP3,
MP4 ya koi bhi format hu to presentation layer ki responsibility ye hy k data ka format ko check kary k
network my jo file send ho rahi hy us ka format kia hy. Presentation layer ki kuch or responsibility bhi
hy which mention below.

Network my do tarha k text follow hoty hy 1) Plan Text or 2) Cypher Text. Plan text wo hoty hy jinhy
hum samajh sakty hy jessy English/Urdu ya any language jessy human easily read kar saky but Cypher
text essi language hoti hy jinhy hum samajh nahi sakty like *&^###@@ symbol wording garbage data
kuch is tarha sy to is sy hamara data secure hojata hy jis sy agar koi hamara data capture kar ley ya koi
file hack bhi kar ly to wo hamari information ko read nahi kar sakta qk wo encrypted hoti hy. presentation
layer my encryption or decryption hoti hy to encryption k process my data plan sy cypher my convert
hota hy or decryption my cypher sy wapas plan jis sy travelling k doran data secure hota hy or pher
destination py pouch k wapas cypher sy plan my ho jata hy or pher hum us language ko easily read kar
sakty hy ye sara kam backhand py hota hy. Hamari kuch sites bhi is process ko follow karti hy like banks
ki sites or her wo site jis k start my HTTPS laga ho S means Secure jaha encryption & decryption ho rahi
hoti hy. Or wo sites jin k start my just HTTP lekha hota hy wo sites plan text my access ho rahi hoti hy.

Compression means jis sy hamary data ka size reduce hojata hy or commutation easily hojati hy kam
bandwidth my qk bary size ka data choty size or blocks my hojata hy or travelling k doran km bandwidth
ko use karta hy.

Translation bhi presentation layer my hoti hy jessy koi bhi language ho to computer ussy translate kar
sakta hy suppose Information convert to Data and data convert to Signals to is tarha data communication
bhi translation ki form my hi hoti hy.

Layer 5: Session Layer:

Session layer hamary sessions ko create karti hy jaissy hum apny browser py multiples TABs open karty
hy 4 sy 5 to her TAB my hum kuch naya search kar rahy hoty hy to ussy sessions khty hy sessions layers
her TAB py 1 alag session create karti hy. jis sy har TAB py hum kuch new search kar rahy hoty hy or
wo session jab tak rehta hy jab tak hum wo TAB close nahi kar dyty. Essy hum yu bhi samajh sakty hy -------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed------------------

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k jb hum internet sy koi file download py lagaty hy to waha hamy 1 time dekhta hy k file 5 mint my
download hojaye gi to ye bhi session layer my hi perform hota hy k 5 minute tak hamara session connect
rahy ga us server sy jaha sy ap us file ko download kar rarhy hoty hy. Or agar is doran session break hota
hy to ERROR aata hy Session time out.

Layer 4: Transport Layer:

Transport Layer hamari end to end transmission karti hy from source to destination message or data ko
bilkul sahi tarha deliver karti hy or ussy 1 way means roadmap Provide karti hy jis py data flow hota hy.
Or jab hum transport layer ki bat karty hy to is k 2 main protocol hoty hy 1) TCP or 2) UDP jo is layer
py kam karty hy. Transport layer ki kuch or responsibilities bhi hy jessy Flow control, Segmentation,
Fragmentation which mention belowc.

TCP means (Transmission Control Protocol) zada tar networks ki communication my TCP use hota hy
bcz ye hamy Acknowledgment dyta hy like agar my ny kessi computer py message send kia hy to waha
sy mujhy 1 Acknowledgment milti hy k data sahi tarha send ho chukka hy ye sara process packets my
hota hy jessy hi 1 packet dosry computer tak pouch jata hy to dosra computer ACK dyta hy k packet
receive hogaya hy. Essi ley ye transmission Reliable hoti hy or trusted hoti hy.

UDP means (User Datagram Protocol) UDP kam to same TCP ki tarha hi karta hy per iska disadvantage
ye hy k ye ACK send nahi karta matlab koi guaranty nahi k data dosray end py received howa bhi hy ya
nahi ye sirf packets ko agye throw kar dyta hy or koi ACK received nahi karta or ye zada reliable bhi
nahi hota. voice or video communication k ley mostly UDP protocol use hota hy like Skype, Audio or
Video Calling k ley qk waha ACK ki need hi nahi hoti bat karty waqt agar 1 sy 2 packet miss bhi hojaye
to itna fark nahi parta.

Flow Control:
Transport layer hamy flow control provide karti hy matlab limited data send karti hy jinti k hamari speed
hoti hy data receiving ki us sy zada nahi karti warna conjunction ka khatra hota hy essi ley wo flow
control ko use karti hy data sending or receiving k doran jis mai Traffic k Flow ka 1 control hota hy. -------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed------------------

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Transport layer hamy Segmentation bhi provide karti hy matlab jessy k agar bhut bara data send ho raha
ho like 10MB ka to wo us 10MB k data ko phly 10 packets banati hy choty choty or pher ussy Arrange
karti hy sequence my like 1 to 10 or her packet py 1 label laga dyti hy jis sy agar koi packet miss hojaye
to ussy recover karny my aasani hu or sirf wohi packet recover ho jo miss howa hy to is process ko hum
segmentation khty hy.

Fragmentation opposite hota hy segmentation k segmentation my bara data choty choty packets my
convert hota hy or Fragmentation my wohi choty choty packets dobara destination py pouch k bary data
my wapas convert hojaty hy.

Layer 3: Network Layer:

Network Layer my hamari IP add hojati hy jis sy communication hoti hy like source and destination IP
address from host to host. Routers network layer py work karty hy or essi ley hum router ko layer 3
device bhi khty hy qk routers network my best path ko search karty hy IP or routing protocols ki base py
or data ko us ki destination py send bhi karty hy in a different network. Router use karta hy IP or IPx ko
bhi IP ka matlab (internet Protocol) or IPX matlab (Internet Packet Exchanged) jo routers k bech my
packets exchange hoty hy wo IPX protocol ki help sy hoty hy.

Layer 2: Data Link Layer:

Data link layer work karti hy hamary switches py ye work karti hy MAC Address per switches my jo
frames banty hy us my IP address to nahi hoti per MAC Address hoty hy jis sy data destination host tak
pouch pata hy is frame my source MAC or Destination MAC address hota hy jis sy switch py
communication hoti hy. Hamary network switches work karty hy data link layer per jabhi network
switches ko Layer 2 device bhi kaha jata hy.

Layer 1: Physical Layer:

Physical layer 1 essi layer hy jaha actual data network interface sy physically move hota hy. Physical
layer cables or connector sy related standard ko specify karti hy. Kessi cable or transmission technic ko
use karna hy media wire hy ya wireless hy kon sy connections ko use karna hy ye sub hi physical layer
k functions my aata hy. Jessy repeater, hub, media convertor etc subhi chezy physical layer py perform
hoti hy jo k physical layer ki responsibilities hy. -------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed------------------

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PDUs means (Protocol Data Unit) PDUs hamy hamary packet ki form bataty hy 7 layer my jab data
Application, Presentation, Session layers py hota hy to wo sirf Data hi hota hy per jab Data Transport
layer py ata hy to wo convert hojata hy Segment my or pher jab Data Network layer py hota hy tab data
khlata hy packet or pher jab Data Data link py hota hy to data khelata hy Frame or physical layer py data
bits ki form my hota hy essy khty hy PDUs matlab protocol data unit.
1) Data on Transport Layer called Segment.
2) Data on Network Layer called Packet.
3) Data on Data link Layer called Frame.

YES Finally you Complete your Module # 1 Hope this is

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