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R.SINDHUJA Department of ECE, DBIT, VTU University, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper is to study the LI-FI system and design a prototype to demonstrate the functionality of LI-FI system for audio and high speed digital signal transmission through modulated LED light beam. In VLC (Visible Light Communication) the communication happens through light hence LED is used as a source of transmission and reception. The VLC system consists of two main components which are transmitter and receiver. The transmitter is attached with LED and the receiver with photodiode, such that, the signal can be transmit through LED and received by Photodiode. The design of the VLC system involves idea of generating negative voltage, signal amplification, compensating background light intensity, recovering attenuated signal.

KEYWORDS: VLC, LED,LI-FI, photodiode, signal amplification.


Visible Light Communication (VLC) is a wireless communication using visible light as a medium to transfer information. Light is an electromagnetic wave which frequency spectrum lies between 400 THz to 800 THz or wavelength between 375 nm to 780 nm. LED has longer lifetime, high tolerance to humidity, smaller size and lower power consumption. Hence it is more environmentally friendly and does not cause any harm to humans. LED is used for illumination and at the same time, it also can be used for communication. Using visible light as a medium for data transmission entails many advantages and eliminates most drawbacks of electromagnetic wave which lies outside the visible light spectrum (400 -800 THz or 375-780 nm). The telecommunication industry is continuously expanding to meet the human needs. However, bandwidth of EM/RF islimited and cannot keep up with the demand, i.e. telecommunication companies are running out bandwidth to transmit. Therefore visible light can be used as an alternative transmission medium to extend the available bandwidth for transmission.

Visible light serve as an entirely free infrastructure to base a complex communication network. In certain areas such as hospitals and flights, EM/RF devices are prohibited to avoid unwanted interference. Since VLC does not interfere with EM/RF, It can be used as wireless medium for communication in those EM/RF prohibited areas. Wireless communication is a technology that involves point to point communication over a distance without wires, cables or any other forms of electrical conductors Wireless communication technology includes cellular radio, personal communication systems, satellite, mobile phone, wireless modems, local area networks and multi points distribution systems for wireless delivery of television or internet service. The latest addition to the family is Visible Light Communication (VLC). The visible light wavelength is in between 375nm to 780nm. However, the characteristic of white light is that it is an electromagnetic radiation composed of a fairly even distribution of all of the frequencies in the visible range of the spectrum. Therefore, it appears white to human eye.

There are two primary options in order for diode to illuminate a white beam combine the three primary colors to produce a white light. The second option is by using phosphor material to convert the emitted blue light into broad-spectrum in order for data transmitted from LEDs. In the Li-Fi communication, carrier signal consists of light pulses transmitted in short intervals. The interpretation of signal was depending on the chosen modulation scheme. Sub carrier pulse position modulation and frequency shift keying are the chosen modulation schemes.


The wireless VLC speaker has been designed. Figure 2.2 illustrates the block diagram of the VLC Audio transmitter and receiver.

the block diagram of the VLC Audio transmitter and receiver. Fig.1. Block Diagram of VLC Audio

Fig.1. Block Diagram of VLC Audio Transmitter and Receiver

In the audio signal transmission through Li-Fi, the intensity of the light emitted from white LED at transmitter must be modulated according to the audio signal. The audio signal can be obtained from the mobile or any other electronic device through a 3.5mm audio jack plug.

Audio source frequently have to be connected to amplification circuit via several meters of cable. Since the output of a source is very small (typically a few mill volts) there is often significant signal loss, and noise may also be generated by the cable. The signal can be fed to op-amp. The output of this amplifier is fed to the LED through LED driver.

In the receiving end, the photo-diode is used to convert the modulated light beam into electrical current and signal is amplified and fed to the speaker.


The capability of the designed Opto-Transceiver must be able to modulate the emitted light beam according to the digital data and process the received digital data accurately before being demodulated. In the design of VLC Opto- Transceiver ,design criteria such as light intensity control, signal amplification,background light elimination and saturated signal recovery are to be considered.

Cytron super bright white LED (Model: F51BC4BW-12) is used as the light source for emitting

the modulated light beam. since the operating voltage of LED

driver circuit is not necessary. So the LED can be directly light up and modulate the intensity of light accordingly.

falls between 3 V to 3.4 V, the


Fig. 2. Structure of proposed system At the receiver part, the photo-detector receive mili volt

Fig. 2. Structure of proposed system

At the receiver part, the photo-detector receive mili volt signal which is amplified by the op-amp

UA741CN. Since the UA741CN requires negative voltage,it is supplied through Microchip

TC7660 DC to DC converter.

The PIC24FJ64GA002 microcontoller used to compensate the background light which has an isssue and it helps to recover the saturated signal. However to ensure the intensity of LED light is adjustable and also the fraction of amplification gain is controllable. Hence the 10kΩ potential meter is included in design.


A prototype is implemented to visualize real time process, and enables to control and monitor

process status (input/output) through software.


order to use the DC power supply, the design of an alternative power supply required to power


the VLC system. This is important to make the system standalone and to ensure the portability


the system.Besides using the battery for supplying the positive DC power to the system, the

positive power supply can be obtained from computer USB port through the A-Type Male USB connector shows in Figure 3.1. In the second part of the project, the Cytron USB to UART Converter UC00B shows in Figure 3.4 can be configured to supply two different level of positive voltage which are 3.3V and 5V. Thus, the supply power is sufficient to make the system standalone.

Cytron USB to UART converter Cytron USB to UART Converter UC00B is used as the main hardware interfacing the computer and VLC Opto-Transceiver circuit. The UC00B also provide configurable voltage option either in 3.3V or 5V capable to power up the entire transceiver circuit.

The main function of UC00B is use to fetch the digital signal from computer into VLC Opto- transceiver. Consequently, the digital signal is modulated with On-Off-Keying through the UC00B. Thus it is generating the digital on-off pulse at transmit pin in 3.5V or 5V (Cyrton, 2011).


The UC00B, beside giving the friendly voltage configuration and also the sufficient supply voltage. It is also providing desirable output at transmit pin. The LED will be constantly lighting up if there is no data transmitted or at logic '0' and when the digital data at logic '1' the LED will off at very short time interval which does not detectable by human eyes. Thus, the Opto- Transceiver circuit has been simplified and the cost of design can be reduced. Since there is not require any other external circuit to ensuring LED is lighting up when there is no data been transmitted.

The schematic of the system in three parts (RF transmitter interface, RF receiver interface and LCD interface) and its brief description is given below.

• The controller is a 40 pin IC which has 4 programmable I/O ports.

• The driver circuit to drive the LED.

• The transmitter has cytron high power LED.

• The receiver has phototransistor.

• The Crystal being used is 11.0592 MHz

• The LCD being used is a 16 Pin LCD which is capable of different fonts/characters.


The Keil version 5 is used as a complier for Li-Fi implementation.The Hyper Terminal software had been used to command the computer in transferring and receiving the desired file. However, there is limitation in term of transmission speed. On the other hand, the configuration of software setting must synchronize with the receiving computer else the receiving computer will interpret wrong information from the sending computer.

will interpret wrong information from the sending computer. Fig. 3. Print Screen of Hyper Terminal Interface

Fig. 3. Print Screen of Hyper Terminal Interface

Flash Magic is a PC tool for programming flash based microcontrollers using a serial or Ethernet protocol while in the target hardware. And the program has been written in embedded C.


Fig.4.Flash magic screenshot PSEUDO CODES /* Header files*/ /* Function declaration */ /* Declaration of

Fig.4.Flash magic screenshot


/* Header files*/ /* Function declaration */

/* Declaration of global variables and macros*/ void main()


/* declaration of local variables */ Lcd_init( );



//Check switches pressed


If (key pressed)

/*send the data to port to which LED is connected*/ Lcd_writeline (“SERIAL DATA SENT (character)”);


If (character received by phototransistor)


/*send the data to microcontroller*/ Lcd_writeline (“SERIAL DATA RECEIVED (character)”);


/* rest of the code */


/*Function definitions*/


The constructed prototype for VLC audio transmitter is shown in fig.1. The complete set prototype with audio transmitter and receiver is shown in Fig.5.


Fig.5. VLC Audio Transmitter The constructed prototype for VLC Free Space Opto-Transceiver is shown in

Fig.5. VLC Audio Transmitter

The constructed prototype for VLC Free Space Opto-Transceiver is shown in Fig.2. The complete set prototype is shown in Fig.6.

in Fig.2. The complete set prototype is shown in Fig.6. Fig. 6. VLC Opto-Transceiver Circuit Fig.7.

Fig. 6. VLC Opto-Transceiver Circuit

The complete set prototype is shown in Fig.6. Fig. 6. VLC Opto-Transceiver Circuit Fig.7. Text display

Fig.7. Text display in a computer



VLC technology has impressive advantages over the existing EM/RF wireless technology. Especially while VLC willing to achieve the goal, that EM/RF couldn't achieve. For example, VLC allowed in EM/RF prohibited area such as hospital or aircraft and etc. The higher sensitivity photodiode can be used for fast respond LED in order to achieve the higher transmission speed. The communication is highly efficient ,secure ,high speed which transmits in speed of light.


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