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LIB 802 Information Resources Management


MODULE ONE: Information Resources Management in Information Work
Unit 1: Information Resources and Types
Unit 2: The Concept of Information Resources Management
Unit 3: Evolution of Information Resources Management
Unit 4: Information Resources as an Asset

Unit 1:Information Resources and Types
1.0 Introduction
2.0 Objectives
3.0 Main Content
3.1 Definition of Information Resources
3.2 Types of Information Resources in Organisations
4.0 Conclusion
5.0 Summary
6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignment
7.0 References/Further Reading

In this unit, we shall examine the concept of information resources from various
definitions provided by scholars. We shall also attempt to identify and discuss the various
types of information resources as argued by several authorities in the field of library and
information science. This will enable you understand the importance attached to managing
such information resources particularly in this competitive information environment.

At the end of this unit, students should be able to:
 Define Information Resources
 Identify various information resources in organisations
 Explain the types of information resources

3.1 Definition of Information Resources


Information Resources include any information in electronic, audio-visual or physical
form, or any hardware or software that makes possible the storage and use of information.
This definition includes but is not limited to electronic mail, phone mail, local databases,
externally accessed databases, CD-ROM, motion picture film, recorded magnetic media,
photographs, digitized information, or microfilm. Others are: coaxial wire, radio,
electromagnetic, photo optical, photo electronic and other facility used in transmitting
electronic communications, computer facilities or related electronic equipment that
electronically stores such communications.

When the term information resource is used, it is usually regarded as "stuff” (Wilson,
1985). According to Wilson the most important information resource is people. It is natural
for anyone who wants to know something, to first try asking someone else. He also pointed
out that almost no organisation sets out to record its "knowledge holders" even though it is
accepted that any newcomer to the organisation will spend "a great deal of time" to find out
"who knows what".
Marchand et al. (1986) define information resources as:
• Individuals;
• Information technology;
• Information facilities such as a library and
• Information providers.

It should be noted that Marchand included information technology as an information
resource. Information technology can, at most, be a storage medium or an information
conduit. It will be shown later that information technology, like information systems and
others, are all parts of the information infrastructure needed to facilitate the process.
Typical resources would be money/capital, people, equipment and supplies, land and
buildings and energy. Information is placed alongside these by Burk and Horton (1988).
Identifying resources such as people and equipment is easy, but identifying the information
resources of a business is not so easy as one could be dealing with something intangible.
Context plays an important role in identifying any resource, but specifically with the
information resource. What may be an information resource to one business, may not be a
resource to another (Burk et al., 1988).
The information resources can be said to be the information products, information
sources, information services, information technology and information systems. These are the
resources which an individual or an organisation turns to when information is needed. It is
important to realise that these resources may not necessarily, in fact they will in all
probability not, provide all the answers to the information needs. They are, as the name
implies, still resources and they will have to be processed further in order to satisfy the needs.
The process necessary for this transformation is the appropriation process where context and
perspective are added. When this happens, data are transformed into information.

3.2 Types of Information Resources in Organisation
Wilson (1985) puts information resources into two main categories, namely: internal
resources and external resources, as follows:
Internal information resources:
• People - oral communication;
• Correspondence - mail, memoranda;


4 . government publications.• Data. internal reports. External information resources • People outside the organisation. • "Published" information . records. charts. journals. files (on activities/operations/personnel/etc. moving pictures. statistical information. minutes.. graphics and more (Wilson.books. He points out that this list is not complete and concludes that information is a multi- media phenomenon because it involves sound (voice). reports. • Internal documentation (meeting papers. diagrams. 1985). • Internal information resources of other organisations. etc. text. numbers. and • Electronic databases and data banks (covering parts of both of the above items).) and • Graphic materials (maps. etc.). • Mass media .

thereby building a knowledge base from information that originates in the form of issues and opinions. and the need of its staff to follow the contents of technical literature such as scientific periodicals and patents. The information sources and systems are means-oriented. they provide answers to the "where". "who" or "how" interrogatives. filter and classify and consolidate information emanating from multiple personal sources.some ambiguity is virtually inevitable in the end" (Horton.g.. Typical of the operational units that can provide intelligence are:  Customer relations because of their regular contact with the organisation’s clients.. • Information services • Information products (e. the different specialists often can make a business intelligence contribution. cassettes. public relations and property could all have contributions to make. libraries). its monitoring of press employment advertisements and consequent knowledge of job relativities. Within organisations.Horton (1979) categorized information resources into four groups. or introduce new features.".... and for its ability to identify employees who have worked for competitors. people and processes. information products and services are ends-oriented (the "what" interrogative).  Human resources because of its knowledge of industrial relations. An example of such software is grapeVine. Otten (1984) defined information resources as "Everything that is involved in handling .data and contributing to its use as information. Depending upon the organisation.  Accounting because they will be aware of the financial condition of customers who may also be competitors. Horton warns that these categories overlap and that ". and to use of enhanced conferencing software that permits a degree of information assessment. data. People . and its monitoring of cases that involve enterprises that have the same business concerns and  Research and development for its knowledge of competitor products.the specialists Most people prefer to get information from other people. 5 .g. namely. maps. while the other two. it helps to adjust their impression of authority of the information. namely: • Information sources (e. Structured approaches to gathering such information vary from having regular meetings with personnel concerned to asking them to complete reports on potentially useful material.  Legal department for its collection of material on the regulatory environment. other departments such as sales. products or services. personnel in these areas are likely to be the first informed if customers see advantages in competitors. That is. Bryce (1987) categorised information resources in three groups. Documents A document in this text is used to mean either a print document or its digital equivalents. 1979). which is designed to gather. purchasing. people.. Particularly if they know the source. Most of the materials that are mentioned have at least some examples available in digital forms via networks or on compact disks. encyclopedias) and • Information systems.

government regulatory information and reports or conference papers. However. maintain directories of membership. Some environmental scanning programs consist partly of subscriptions to news clipping services that try to cover the interests of the company. and the annual reports of companies. trade magazines. Many professional associations. They may be general ones such as Who’s who in its various guises. and it may be possible to identify someone who can provide the required information. and Standard & Poor. However the needs of a small organisation may be much more localised. There are 6 . AAP. will depend upon the extent of coverage of material. Such is the great range of reference material that may be necessary to come to terms with what is in a particular field by consulting a guide. In the business field. Computer-based services are increasingly able to offer a greater range of major newspaper and other press coverage. without having to commit to further reading.Directories Directories are significant. Information Access Company. broadcast services have greater immediacy. there are directories to provide information about the finances of companies. their products and services. News services are the most important source of information dealing with current events. There are also computer-based equivalents of these. General print information Although serials. not least because they include directories of people. including the ones in the information management profession such as Nigerian Library Association (NLA). NAN. This ranges from books relating to particular subjects or organisations to prospectuses for companies. Useful serials for environmental scanning include some directories the newspapers of the national and local press. the effectiveness of the filtration process for determining what is of interest to the company. The SDI services have long been able to provide abstracts from specialised research databases. Typical of these are the print and computer- based Kompass directories for a number of countries. Many such directories are now available in CD-ROM form or are searchable from the Internet. there is a great deal of useful material that appears only in print form. These services may provide continuous updates to news through press or business news agencies such as Reuters. or they may have consolidated databases such as NEXIS in the USA or TEXTLINE in the UK of issues and opinions. These general organisational listings carried in Telecommunications Company directories are complemented by organisations which have a formal page structure on the Internet that includes access to their internal telephone directory listings. The worth of such services. or more specialised ones for particular industries or professions. sometimes called current awareness services or Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI). and their directors. and recourse to print may be the most appropriate approach. The traditional print form of publication and the newspaper remain very significant. including directories are increasingly appearing in computer form which makes them more amenable to automatic searching. Serial publications Serial publications are those that are issued periodically and with the intention of indefinite continuation. and the currency of the service. print or manual. sometimes with research specialties or special interests. Dun & Bradstreet. and online news services draw on a wider range of sources and have great utility in the business community.

Similarly. Examples include various educational and reference sources published as CD-ROM packages. government publishers do not publish all the material of the different organs of government. 7 . concerned. for example. it is often the case that details of how to obtain the print version will be provided. may now exist together in a single 'document'. most often from outside the organisation of which the library or information centre formed a part. but they are not necessarily structured to permit effective searching and information retrieval. with the acquisition. word-processed documents may have sound comments attached by readers and may include pictures. Chicago). The governments of the world publish a myriad of documents. telecommunications and software systems that aid the organisation. functional divisions of an organisation often have more expertise in the matters underlying software packages (for example. such as Microsoft's Encarta encyclopedia. graphics. pictures and video. and it is often necessary to seek out other catalogues and directories. Multimedia Due to advances in information technology (IT) sound recordings. storage and dissemination of printed materials. in records held by a consumer products test laboratory. Many government agencies now maintain their own Internet sites. London) and Guide to reference materials (American Library Association. but it is possible to step further back in order to identify guides about guides. as they have been. telecommunications.many guides for the literature of particular areas. Thus. Text Textual information has long been the province of libraries and information centres. transmission. multimedia records require the application of information technology. Prominent guides to materials in general include latest editions of Walford’s guide to reference materials (Library Association. The American Library Association also produces a Reference books bulletin. particularly in research-intensive organisations. For example in a personal database. organisations are finding applications for multimedia databases in which. but also often including the maintenance of stores of internal reports. A starting point will often be a directory of the respective government’s own publishing service. However. and there are many print and database directories to this information. Increasingly however. storage and utilisation of what might better be called the 'knowledge resources' dealt with above. are often controlled separately from the computer resources of organisation. A major source of government information will usually be the relevant statistics bureau and its catalogues. including telephone systems and facsimile transmission systems. With the development of office automation systems and the creation of many more electronic documents in organisations. or video clips. Information technology Information technology embraces computers. The range of equipment and the variety of specialized knowledge needed for their effective control is enormous and for these reasons information technology is often dealt with by different sections in organisations. While it may sometimes be possible to obtain an electronic version of a publication directly at the site. for accounting purposes) than the computer managers. the producers of such systems have become increasingly aware of the need for effective information retrieval systems to underlie the database of electronic documents. Structured databases The computer-based equivalents of print material may be regarded as databases. organisation. While the other information resources referred to above may exist in either paper or electronic format.

5. we identified that information resources connotes those outfit/media through which individuals and organisations obtain relevant information that will be adjudged as an asset to the corporate existence and survival of oneself and the organisation as a whole. updates and timeliness must be considered. e. this often involves scanning of contents pages and indexes. no electronic database contains all the information that one may need for his research.As the name implies. Considerations such as subject coverage.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1. With databases. e.g. Lexis-Nexis etc. title.g.Structured databases have been created in such a manner as to facilitate a wide range of approaches to searching. List other types of information resources in organisations? 8 . it contains the complete text of a work. The database consists of files (or relations) that consist of records that consist of fields (or attributes) that consist of characters (or bytes) that consist of bits. It is of importance prior to developing a search strategy to establish what type of database is to be searched and how the field and record levels for the database are defined. ALEPH. video tapes or government documents. They do not contain the items themselves but give the researcher the clue to find the item. blogs etc. We observed that several definitions were provided as there are many authorities in the field of library and information science. In other words. textual information and electronic databases and other electronic outfit such as websites.0 SUMMARY We have succeeded in discussing extensively on the concept of information resources. book. These outfit/media included people/specialists. publisher. but not the full text of the cited articles. 6. it is imperative to note that. Consequentially they make poor use of the database.This contains citations and subject headings for publications such as books. In conclusion. Essentially. It is hoped that you will use the knowledge acquired in this unit to appreciate the roles of information resources in the development of our organisations. 4. such as an article. date coverage. With print material. periodical articles. even though they pick up some relevant material.0 CONCLUSION This unit tried to help you understand the concept of information resources and types in order to equip you with the needed knowledge as information resources manager. We also identify and discuss the types of information resources that are usually acquired and generated in most of our organisations. publication coverage. The structured database can be thought of as being constructed of a hierarchy of building blocks. the ease of using information retrieval software often means that searchers may neglect to examine the structure of a database before using it.  Full text Database: . it only provides the scholar with the basic descriptive information about the indexed items such as author. List the major types of information resources available in libraries? 3. The term has been used differently from different context. We tried to establish the fact that as information managers our roles are not limited to libraries and information centres. information technology. it is important to establish the overall content and scope of a database before deciding upon how it will be used. This is to say the fact that there is no single universally accepted definition of information resources. Databases may be categorised as:  Bibliographic database: . poem or essay in the database itself. date etc. What do you understand by the term information resources? 2. As with print material.

Blackwell ScientiÞ c. NJ. Oxford. E. The IRM Idea. & Fitzgerald. Information Management. 29-47. (1998). Datamation. (1988). (1991). Journal of information and image management. Greenwood. 3(1). April15. G. F. (1985). Otten. analysis and strategy. Oxford University Press. (1987). D. (1984). 18(1). Information Management and Information Technologies: Keys to professional and Business Success. (1998) The information audit: An integrated strategic approach. Information resources management. CT. K. K. F. Information Management: A consolidation of operations. T. Choo. Prentice Hall.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS Michael Middleton (2002). The Electronic Library. D. Australia Bryce. (1985). techniques and tools.7. & Gibb. Englewood Cliffs. Wilson. New York 9 . W. The knowing organisation: How organisations use information to construct meaning. W. W.. create knowledge and make decisions. M. Information and information systems. C. M. Buchanan. Westport. S. Pp45 Horton. Information systems development: Methodologies. Centre for Information Studies. International Journal of Information Management. Buckland.pp132 Avison. jr.

Good and quality information can improve decision making. students should be able to:  Define the concept of Information Resources Management  Highlight the key issues in Information Resources Management  Discuss the relevance/importance of IRM in organisations 3.0 Conclusion 5. 2. professionals and authorities. establish ownership and responsibility.Unit 2:The Concept of Information Resources Management CONTENTS 1. and to promote development and exploitation where appropriate.0 Tutor-Marked Assignment 7. Porter and Miller (1980) reported that one of the most important elements in competitive advantage is information.0 Main Content 3.1 Definition of Information Resources Management (IRM) 3.0 References/Further Reading 1.0 Objectives 3. Information resource management is one of the concepts which attract the attention of various researchers. Information Resource Management includes the management of all kinds of 10 . This situation made it difficult to have one single accepted definition of IRM worldwide.1 Definition of Information Resources Management (IRM) Information Resources Management has been defined differently by different individuals. determine cost and value.0 Introduction 2. It is important to properly educate.0 MAIN CONTENT 3. enhance efficiency and allow organisations to gain competitive advantages.0 INTRODUCTION Information is important to any organisation.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit. There are as many definitions of IRM as there are authors dealing with the subject.3 The relevance of IRM in Organisations 4. Information Resource Management (IRM) recognises that information is an asset. Information resources management has been one important area in which its contribution can ensure organisational success and effectiveness. The return on investment for Information Resources occurs when the information resources utilisation enhance the effectiveness and/or the efficiency of an organisation in carrying out its mission.0 Summary 6. Like other business or organisational assets.2 Key issues in Information Resources Management 3. It must be managed as any other business or organisational asset to produce value. Information resources management is defined as applying the general principles of resources management to identify discrete information resources. Many organisations are continuously looking for solutions to effectively seek and handle information within their internal and external environments. it is created as the result of significant expenditures and effort. orientate and understand some of the definitions available.

information use. storing information. (Butcher. It evaluates the kinds of data/information an organisation requires in order to function and progress effectively. and natural resources. images and sounds available in making the proper strategy at a certain moment. numbers. Moreover. 1998). namely. and to start providing access to information resources ‘just in time’ and easy to use. 11 . Also. information collection. information requirement. value and distribution of all data and information within an organisation whether processed by computer or not. or the management of information policies and standards. White (1982) defined IRM as "the process of efficiently and effectively identifying. integrating and applying information resources to meet current and future information requirements". Horton (1985) offerred a more comprehensive definition: IRM is “a managerial discipline which views information as a resource equal to financial. IRM addresses the efficient and effective handling of information resources (raw data) and the resulting information assets (knowledge)”. On the other hand. Wilson (2002) referred to IRM to include planning. It is especially important to provide the acquisition of information resources ‘just in case’ they are likely to be useful for information users. human. physical. organising. Burk and Horton (1988) improved this definition by considering IRM as a managerial link that connects corporate information resources with the organisation’s goals and objectives. acquiring information. physical. and the use of technology and techniques for effective management of information and knowledge resources and assets within the organisational internal and external environment to gain competitive advantage and to improve performance. 3. For example. information process. and natural resources. Horton (1985) defined IRM as "a managerial discipline which views information as a resource equal to financial. uses. distributing information and using information. IRM is mainly seen by many as a means of deploying new technology solutions such as content or document management systems. From another perspective. directing and controlling information within an open system.2 Key Issues in Information Resources Management Management challenges of accessible information resource can exist in every stage of information resource management. It covers the definitions. acquiring. and information disposition. all aspects of information resource management should be based upon a consideration of information requirements and information needs in practice. According to Computer Desktop Encyclopedia (2004). texts. IRM addresses the efficient and effective handling of information resources (raw data) and the resulting information assets (knowledge)". developing information products and services. IRM has also been equated with the management of information and knowledge resources. human. In another work. Although management challenges could relate to both information resource management stages and information resource management activities. According to Todorova (2011) Information Resource Management (IRM) defines the way in which the organisation will accomplish its business when using different information resources in order to make its short term strategies. Also. Similarly. It encompasses all the systems and processes within an organisation for the creation and use of corporate information. Kerr (1991) defined IRM as "the practice of managing information as a corporate asset". data warehousing or portal applications in order to provide an integrated IRM environment. the management of information tools and technologies. IRM is a discipline that analyses information as an organisational such challenges could also be associated with information resource management related activities. organising information.

In order to manage the accessibility of an information resource, the provision of the
right information in the right form and at the right time to meet the needs of practical
information users should always be considered as the most important objective of information
resource management. However, people do have very different opinions on the importance of
information because different life styles and cultures may affect their perceptions and
expectations. This could be closely associated with both the information provider and
information users. In practice, the key challenge of IRM is the mismatch between the
information provider and information users, which can be summarized as four types:
 The important information is provided but is not important for users, and therefore the
provided information is of no use to information users;
 The important information required by information users is not important for
information providers, and therefore it is not available for information users;
 Although the provided information is important and exists, it may not be
understandable for information users because the inconsistent or mismatched
description and definition of information between the information provider and users.
To this end, in order to ensure the availability, reliability, integration and consistency of
information resources in organisation, we could raise and address questions such as: What is
the available approach to manage an information resource? How could we reduce the
mismatch between the information provider and information users? How can an information
resource be created and maintained? In other to answer those questions above, we will
discuss the various models for managing the information resource under unit four.

3.3 Relevance of IRM
The functions of IRM are commonly associated with managing the information assets
of an enterprise, typically a corporation or government organisation. Increasingly,
organisations are taking the view that information is an asset of the enterprise in much the
same way that a company’s financial resources, capital equipment, and real estate are assets.
Effectiveness in either IRM or KM is seen as necessary to ensure organisational continuous
survival and competence in the face of increasingly continuous environmental change.

It therefore seeks to efficiently and effectively exploit the data, information and
knowledge resources available in the organisation. It ensures that all the data and information
needed by organisations are collected and processed efficiently and effectively into
information and knowledge useful to an organisation. IM also supports decision-making
through efficient access to accurate and relevant information.
Other benefits of IRM involve continuous improvement in the quality of information,
improvement in information and knowledge organisation and retrieval through the use of
appropriate technology, effective organisation of corporate memory, improvement in
information and knowledge sharing, and enhancement in organisational learning as staff are
able to share the knowledge and learn from experts and others, (Wilson, 1998). According to
Robertson (2005), organisations continue to improve IM practice due to the need to improve
the efficiency of business processes, the demands of compliance regulations and the desire to
deliver new services. Similarly, ensuring the availability, quality and integration of the firm's
data is a major goal of IRM (Friedlander, 1985; Wilson, 1985). Additional goals involve
changing attitudes about the benefits of data processing from the focus on short-range, cost
displacement, or return on investment to a higher level: longer term improvement of
competitive advantage and opportunity fulfillment, (Lucas and Turner, 1982).


In another dimension, the goal of Information Resource Management (IRM) is to
manage information as a corporate resource, in the same way that other organisational
resources such as finance, personnel and property are managed (Henderson, 1987). In the
absence of such explicit management, different parts of an organisation are likely to collect
their own copies of information and store them in different formats. The costs of an
uncoordinated approach include duplication of capture, storage and update effort, and
difficulty in consolidating information for reporting. On this premise, Moya (2004) asserted
that to remain competitive in the future, organisations will need to abandon their ideas of
information hoarding and embrace information resources management and sharing.
Competitive success will be based less on how strategically physical and financial resources
are allocated, and more on how strategically intellectual capital is managed - from capturing,
coding and disseminating information, to acquiring new competencies through training and
development, and to re-engineering business processes. In view of these trends, and
recognising that information and knowledge has great potential value and because there is a
corresponding failure to fully exploit it, some corporations have embarked on comprehensive
information resources management programmes.

A good information system provides a framework for organisations to evaluate
themselves relative to their goals and objectives. By so doing, they can maximize the value
and impact of information as a strategic corporate asset to gain competitive advantage. The
following are the most important relevance of Information Resources management system in

1. To control the creation and growth of records

Despite decades of using various non-paper storage media, the amount of paper in our offices
continues to escalate. An effective records information system addresses both creation control
(limits the generation of records or copies not required to operate the business) and records
retention (a system for destroying useless records or retiring inactive records), thus stabilizing
the growth of records in all formats.

2. To reduce operating costs

Recordkeeping requires administrative dollars for filing equipment, space in offices,
and staffing to maintain an organized filing system (or to search for lost records when there is
no organized system). It costs considerably less per linear foot of records to store inactive
records in a Data Records Center versus in the office. [Multiply that by 30% to 50% of the
records in an office that doesn't have a records management program in place], and there is an
opportunity to effect some cost savings in space and equipment, and an opportunity to utilize
staff more productively - just by implementing a records management program.

3. To improve efficiency and productivity

Time spent searching for missing or misfiled records is non-productive. A good
records management program (e.g. a document system) can help any organisation upgrade its
recordkeeping systems so that information retrieval is enhanced, with corresponding
improvements in office efficiency and productivity. A well designed and operated filing
system with an effective index can facilitate retrieval and deliver information to users as
quickly as they need it.


Moreover, a well managed information system acting as a corporate asset enables
organisations to objectively evaluate their use of information and accurately lay out a
roadmap for improvements that optimize business returns.

4. To assimilate new records management technologies

A good records management program provides an organisation with the capability to
assimilate new technologies and take advantage of their many benefits. Investments in new
computer systems whether this is financial, business or otherwise, don't solve filing problems
unless current manual recordkeeping or bookkeeping systems are analysed (and occasionally,
overhauled) before automation is applied.

5. To ensure regulatory compliance

In terms of recordkeeping requirements, China is a heavily regulated country. These
laws can create major compliance problems for businesses and government agencies since
they can be difficult to locate, interpret and apply. The only way an organisation can be
reasonably sure that it is in full compliance with laws and regulations is by operating a good
management information system which takes responsibility for regulatory compliance, while
working closely with the local authorities. Failure to comply with laws and regulations could
result in severe fines, penalties or other legal consequences.

6. To minimize litigation risks

Business organisations implement management information systems and programs in
order to reduce the risks associated with litigation and potential penalties. This can be equally
true in Government agencies. For example, a consistently applied records management
program can reduce the liabilities associated with document disposal by providing for their
systematic, routine disposal in the normal course of business.

7. To safeguard vital information

Every organisation, public or private, needs a comprehensive program for protecting
its vital records and information from catastrophe or disaster, because every organisation is
vulnerable to loss. Operated as part of a good management information system, vital records
programs preserve the integrity and confidentiality of the most important records and
safeguard the vital information assets according to a "Plan" to protect the records. This is
especially the case for financial information whereby ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning)
systems are being deployed in large companies.

8. To support better management decision making

In today's business or organizational environment, the manager or Director that has
the relevant data first often wins, either by making the decision ahead of the competition, or
by making a better, more informed decision. A good management information system can
help ensure that managers and executives have the information they need when they need it.

By implementing an enterprise-wide file organisation, including indexing and
retrieval capability, managers or administrators can obtain and assemble pertinent
information quickly for current decisions and future business planning purposes. Likewise,


To foster professionalism in running the business A business office with files. 6. you create the records. an irreplaceable asset that is often overlooked. we have tried in this unit to identify and explain the relevance of information resources management in organisations. though hard to quantify in cost-benefit terms. Every business day. 10. which could become background data for future management decisions and planning. 5. Identify and discuss the relevance of IRM in organisations 7. Define the term information resources management 2.0 REFERENCE/FURTHER READING Burk. may be among the best reasons to establish a good management information system. We have discussed several conceptions of IRM as put forward by different scholars and organisations. C. records and financial data contain its institutional memory. It was established that IRM has become an essential managerial process and skill that needs to be applied in the general management of our organisations in order to overcome the chaotic state of the ever-growing information resources and records generated in such organisation. F. 9. To preserve the corporate memory An organisation's files. F. Briefly explain the key issues in IRM 3. stacked on top of file cabinets and in boxes everywhere. 4. creates a poor working environment. W. and "image" and "morale" of the staff. we have learnt the general understanding underlying the concept of information resource management and its relevance in organisations. (1988) InfoMap: A Complete Guide to Discovering Corporate Information Resources. Also.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1.implementing a good ERP system to take account of all the business’ processes both financial and operational will give an organisation more advantages than one who was operating a manual based system. documents and financial data askew. 15 . The perceptions of customers and the public. It expected that you as information manager will be able to apply the knowledge acquired in this unit to promote and protect the integrity of information resources and records in your custody. In this unit specifically you are taught the concept of information resources management and its relevance in our libraries and corporate organisations. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.0 SUMMARY In this unit. and Horton.0 CONCLUSION This unit has tried to connect you to the previous unit where you were introduced to the general discussion on information resources.

) Jr. (1988). Qualitative Cross-National Study of Cultural Influences on Mobile Data Service Design. 7(2).121-130.) Jr. 80. Lee. and Burk (Cornelius F. J. Journal of Cases on Information Technology. K... Horton (Forest W. 661-670. I. Cross-Cultural Implementation of Information System. factory and laborator. (2007). X. pp. USA. F. and Jeon. A.1-24. (1985) Information resources management: harnessing information assets for productivity gains in office. (2005). In Wai Law (Ed.HORTON. Feng. Hoven (John Van den) (2001). P. p. (2). Choi. 18. Law. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. InfoMap: A Complete Guide to Discovering Corporate Information Resources. 16 . W. and Karri. Prentice Hall : Englewood Cliffs. 2005. Idea group publishing.). B. (2005). W. Y. Cross-cultural Information Resource Management: Challenges and Strategies. pp. pp. Information systems Management. Information Resources Management: Global Challenges. Kim. Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Information Resource Management: Foundation for Knowledge Management.

This could also be regarded as one of the approaches to the evolution of information resource management.0 INTRODUCTION Having studied the meanings and relevance of IRM in organisations in previous unit. 2.1 Early Development and Use of IRM 3. This will allow you to trace the relationship and differences among concepts such as data management.e.0 MAIN CONTENT 3. That will give us the exact time when the term was officially introduced to the corpus of information management knowledge.0 Objectives 3. record management and information management. such as Hoxie and Donald M.1 Early Development and use of IRM In studying the evolution of information resource management. they repeated that they were the first ones to coin the term IRM "that would hopefully grease the skids for a synergistic blending of information communications and processing units and avoid the collision course that many companies are currently embarked upon". Some authors. i.0 Conclusion 5.0 References/Further Reading 1. There is no firm evidence as to who might have been the pioneer in using the term 'information resource management'. Among them.0 Main Content 3. The arguments offered by Hoxie and Shea about being the creators of the IRM term unfortunately cannot sustain serious criticism. IRM lost its leading role and became part of a broader concept. research about the actual appearance and the initial use of the term itself has special significance. some changes were noticed.0 Summary 6. Surely enough. one of the first requirements of this approach is to find out who was the first to implicitly use the term information resource management. A year later Hoxie and Shea (1977) wrote another article where they made an attempt to detect any significant shifts and trends among the 'top ten' issues for managers.3 Interdisciplinary Nature of IRM 4. Shea (1976) claim that they have coined the term information resource management (IRM) as a phrase "for an organisational approach that encompasses all corporate information resources". it is imperative for you to understand the evolution of information resources management.Unit 3:Evolution of Information Resources Management CONTENTS 1. namely a part of information policy. Although the time span was relatively short. IRM. students should be able to:  Trace the early development of Information Resources Management  Discuss the use of IRM  Explain the interdisciplinary nature of IRM 3.0 Tutor-Marked Assignment 7. Still.0 Introduction 2. The only exception might be that they proved the fact that a number of years had to pass before the term IRM became better known and 17 . We shall also discuss the interdisciplinary nature of IRM as well as some major causes of the IRM evolution.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit.2 Causes of IRM Evolution 3.

information needs and uses. Horton's book “How to harness information resources: a systems approach” published in 1974 by the Association for Systems Management. triggered the inception of IRM.widely accepted. This 18 . the increasing relationship between information and the competitive economic advantages of nations. satellites. It was an outcome of a set of events which preceded it and influenced its beginning particularly in information management. Information economics contributed the argument for treating information as a resource. analysis. telephone. 2010). The notion of knowledge work was introduced in the 1960's. computer networks. online services. information resources management system. we can. On the other hand.W. the growth of literacy among the middle classes in the 17th and 18th centuries. It is a situation in which information is abundantly available or over abundance of data. According to Savic (1992). These main events are:  Information explosion  Proliferation of paper  Extensive use of information handling technologies Information explosion Information explosion is an important development of the twentieth century which brought many changes to the way we perceive the world around us. there are at least three events which. television. when combined together. CD- ROMs. This is just a short list but illustrative enough to show the diversity of available media of information. It is information explosion that leads to information overload.2 Causes of IRM Evolution The evolution of information resource management was not just a pure coincidence. the feeling of being faced with an amount of data that one has no hope of completely processing”. model development. its origins and sources. it is entirely devoted to the subject. starting from inventorying and cataloguing. Even if there was another published work which used IRM as a term before Horton's book. with full certainty. Katz (2002) as cited by Ifijeh Goodluck Israel of the Covenant University in Nigeria postulated that information explosion can be attributed to four main causes. Not only does this book mentioned IRM. research reports. and the advent of information and communication technology (ICT)” (Israel. Information Overload is “an overwhelming feeling upon the receipt or collection of an indigestible or incomprehensible amount of information. newspapers. It seems that one of the first published documents which mentioned IRM was F. information presentation and communication. Information explosion can be viewed as: a sudden increase of knowledge communicated or received concerning a particular fact or circumstances. These are: “the invention of printing in the mid-15th century. argue that How to harness information resources was the first book to elaborate and bring a complete system of IRM. and ending with installation and system implementation. These characterisations were popularly described in the 1970's as "the information age" and the "information economy". Information Explosion has been further explained as a situation in which users and managers of information are overwhelmed with available information Books. as well as radio. followed by the concept of the "post-industrial society" in the early 1970's. 3. It also gave a useful guide for the practical implementation of IRM through various steps. information handling and processing. computers. journals. testing. Trauth (1989) argued that two phenomena were responsible for the emergence of IRM. proceedings and correspondence. Information Explosion could simply be defined as the rapid increase in the amount of published information. It covered a number of topics such as information explosion. all contribute to the flood of information in the society.

The fact that we are still living in a 'paper world' should not limit our thinking to the present 'state of the art'. It appears that the critical piece of information is always somewhere else and it is missing when we need it the most. run the economy. Proliferation of paper The second event which influenced the appearance of IRM is closely related to the above mentioned information explosion. our need for information. is offered by the American Paper Institute. Someone once said that "realising that a problem exists is already a half way to its solution". There is an obvious need for a well organised retrieval system which will allow us to quickly find exactly what we want. It is the proliferation of paper. Obviously. In his book The Third Wave. Hundreds and hundreds of books and articles were written with one goal in common. imaging. on its own. retrieve and process information. The most implicit are economic storage. and effective use of such a mountain of information. This situation should be improved and changed through the application of new and presently available technology. Information resource management imposed itself on us as the way out of this information explosion. Every single aspect of society is being affected. comes as a way out of this paper tunnel. efficient retrieval. energy and labour. was the extensive use of information handling technologies. using the great capabilities of 19 . This tremendous amount of paper files and paper documents still available almost everywhere lead us to at least two related conclusions. Still. Statistics showed that the current annual per capita consumption of writing and printing paper today in Northern America reaches 83. Toffler (1980) suggested that the world will never be the same after the computer revolution. property. Extensive use of information handling technologies The third event which helped to bring about IRM. The burden is lack of ability to make use of the increased quantity of information in order to enhance further decision making and improve business and other activities. such as the way we store.2 kilograms. The computer technology offered an opportunity to reorganise our activities. It was left to people to start exploiting this new opportunity. (This figure excludes newsprint) (UNESCO. we have to concentrate on ways to organise efficiently this 'pile of paper files' while reducing its quantity and increasing its usefulness. After all. "that we have an obligation to direct our attention to our own paper records. Another astonishing finding which sheds even more light on the proliferation of paper. mainly computers and telecommunications. to explain the way people can benefit from the new concept of information handling based on powerful computer technology. It is a paradox that we are experiencing difficulties in finding the right information when we are living and working in a flood of information. The attention of human minds switched from tangible resources such as raw materials.tremendous quantity of information unfortunately does not satisfy. equipment. and does not solve our problems. The 'information civilisation' which came after the industrial revolution (the second wave brought us some dramatic changes. 1990). networks. 1990). It changed the way we organise business and governmental affairs. Management of information resources. In fact it brings some new challenges (let's not call them problems). such as computers. about 95 percent of records are paper based" (Barber. finance. Most information is still stored in paper form. to some more elusive resources such as information and knowledge. It was realised that the information explosion is not a burden per se. plan agriculture. and changes in our social and cultural lives followed. IRM with its objectives of economic sharing and pooling of information resources towards a common goal.

an attempt can be made to identify the line of thought which preceded the appearance of IRM. training of personnel. data administration is made up of two components: data management (DM) and database administration (DBA). Information storage. organisation. were the categories used and developed by the records management adopted by the new concept of IRM. its accountability. This diversity of origins and opinions suggests that IRM is a response to the interdisciplinary nature of information problems. a line of difference with other related concepts. 1989). records management. The DM is primarily responsible for planning of data. At the conclusion of its work. retrieval. By looking at the origins and evolution of IRM. Some library schools changed their names to reflect a wider concern and to acknowledge the growing presence of more than paper documents. and drew. 3. evaluation. Information resource management therefore represents a multi-disciplinary concept. This was the first area to use the term IRM to describe a coherent and global approach to managing information. the DBA has a more operational responsibility 20 . Records Management The records management approach to IRM has its origins in library science. This work resulted in the passage of the Paperwork Reduction Act in 1980. retrieval. administrative management. became the main topic for many researchers and information scientists. records management. However. improve its use and allow sharing correspondences. Most authors are of the opinion that there are three main concepts used as sources of IRM's intellectual inspiration. Data Management Data management and electronic data processing (EDP) was another source from which the theory and practice of IRM was developed. The Commission on Federal Paperwork was established in 1974 by the US Government in response to growing Federal information reporting requirements and the burden placed upon both government agencies and private citizens. This Act produced a framework for the implementation of IRM. database design and users' technical support. and other disciplines concerned with the effective storage.  Records management  Data management  Information management. and data processing management. policy setting. documentations and other sources of information. and its maintenance. In other words. According to Gillenson (1985).3 Interdisciplinary Nature of IRM There is wide variation of opinion as to how the IRM philosophy should be implemented. helped in shaping it. The prime goal of records management was always-to facilitate access to documents. It is important to state that evolution of information resource management can be studied from the perspective of its relationship with other concepts. and utilisation of documents in organisations. the Commission produced over twenty documents that recommend ways to minimize the paperwork burden.computers to store. This partially explains the wide variation in meaning of the term. development of standards. we find that the seeds of IRM were planted in three disciplines: database management. retrieve and process information. (Trauth. The activities of each discipline were generally independent of one another. as well as information creation control. dissemination.

0 CONCLUSION In this unit. This was the easier part of change. data storage facilities. It is hoped that as students of library and information science it is incumbent upon you to guarantee the realisation of your organisational goals and objectives through active use of information resources and records. it raised investments in information assets such as information hardware and software. design. This required an interdisciplinary approach and use of electronic data processing. The outcome was increased office efficiency but. Many business organisations were faced with a need to design more efficient offices based on information automation technology. The IRM can be viewed in this context as the term for what data administration would like to be. we tried to help you trace the evolutionary trend that occurred in the development of information resources management (IRM) in our organisations. This observation provides part of the explanation for the emergence of the term IRM. It can therefore be concluded that no successful effort could be carried out to study IRM without making reference to data management. The scope of responsibility was. a real resource as any other resource available in a company. records management and information management. As increasing volumes of data led to an interest in the development of more efficient information storage and retrieval methods in the 1960's. communications. consistency. and operation of databases. the creation. reliability. The job of the database administrator was to define the rules that control the database and to determine the manner in which the data would be stored. A more complex change was in bringing the 'business or organizational mentality' to information storage. Most authors are of the opinion that there are three main concepts used as sources of IRM's intellectual inspiration. records management and information management. and accuracy of the information be improved? And how can data redundancy be reduced? Information Management The third related concept is information management. 4. groups were also addressing its administration. It can be seen as an attempt to disassociate the data administrator's role from the data processing image. They are data management. thus. documents and literature stored in either electronic or paper form. or more precisely management of information as a resource. This perspective is concerned with establishing and enforcing standards to support a global view and integrated use of enterprise data. The notion of treating data as a true organisational resource had emerged along with a new corporate position: database administrator. office administration and paper or records management personnel. There exist a plethora 21 . at the same time. The need for the coordination and control of organisational data was recognized from the start. The 1970's and 1980's witnessed an increased growth in the use of databases and database management systems. The introduction of a concept that information represents an asset. with a gradual shift toward data management as database management sys terns were recognized as only one part of the management of manage data on a day-to-day basis.0 SUMMARY We have succeeded in this unit to have discussed the evolutionary trends of information resources management noting its interdisciplinary nature. We have established that information resource management represents a multi-disciplinary concept. It would like to address questions such as: What information is most crucial to the success of the company? How can the quality. 5. as well as data. was a crucial step towards a change from information management to IRM. and its use. timeliness. retrieval.

0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1. Volume 1. jr.H.3] 22 . In S. G.. records management and information management. D. (9).0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READING Hoxie.). (1976). 317-325 Gluckman. 9. Horton. 28 Hoxie. 16. Ten hot buttons facing management: a year later. [19. Eileen M. 23. M. Outline and discuss the major disciplines that are related to information resource management? 3. Ten hot buttons facing management.H. Launo (eds.. pp. pp. F. Also. (1985) Trends in data administration. Infosystems. G. (1991). evolution … North-Holland. It is important to note that the concept of IRM has continued to evolve in such a manner that it becomes an integral part of organisational management. P." Information Manager. and Shea. M. 185-191. 30-31. knowledge. D. Infosystems. "Educating the Information Manager. D. Information and Management. W. Information resources management: An overview. we have identified and discussed some of the major causes of information resources management evolution. UNESCO Sources. List and explain the major causes of IRM evolution in our society? 7. (April). Information. (1989) The evolution of information resource management. Koskiala & R. (8). Discuss evolution of information resources management? 2. (1992). 6. Evolution of information resource management. Helsinki. M.of literature that relates IRM with data management.257-268 UNESCO (1990) Facts in figures: books around the world. Journal of Librarianship And Information Science. 60 Savic. 7 Toffler. 24. MIS Quarterly. (1977). August 1978. (December). and Shea. 14. 2 4 (3) Trauth. Alvin (1980) The third wave. New York: William Morrow Gillenson.

Also.2 Attributes of information resources as assets 3. They are specific to a place and time. depends very much on context.Unit 4:Information Resources as Asset CONTENTS 1.3 How to manage Information as assets in Organisations 4. In library and information centres. In accounting parlance. 2. Information assets have recognisable and manageable value. although they can depreciate over time if not maintained.0 References/Further Reading 1. So in conventional asset terms. content and lifecycles. A stock of information.0 MAIN CONTENT 3. An information asset is a body of information resources. The extent to which the stock will need to be replenished and the frequency of updating.1 Information Assets in Organisation How does an information resource fit within conventional notions of an asset? Information assets are not always easy to identify.1 Information Assets in Organisation 3. risk. an asset is ‘the right or access to future economic benefits that is controlled by the firm as a result of past transactions or events’. defined and managed as a single unit so it can be understood. Individual items of data are frequently transitory.0 Conclusion 5. a distinguishing feature of information assets over conventional assets is that.0 Summary 6. or as the case may be. Various attributes of information assets shall be highlighted so as to be able to identify which type of information constitutes asset to you as information manager and your organisation as a whole.0 Tutor-Marked Assignment 7. you have learnt the concepts of information resources and information resources management and its evolution.0 INTRODUCTION In the previous units. weekly. you shall understand the place of those information resources as assets to your organisation in addition to other assets.0 Main Content 3. shared. an information resource. students should be able to:  Discuss information assets in organisations  Identify the basic attributes of information assets  Explain the various ways and techniques to manage information as assets to organisations 3. they are 23 .0 Introduction 2.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit. some vital techniques for managing information assets have been identified and discussed in order to equip you with the requisite skills and abilities to manage them effectively to ensure the success of your entire organisation. a stock of information resources could be viewed as an asset that may require continuous maintenance by library staff to preserve its functionality. So from an economic perspective a defining feature of any asset is its longevity. Like some other intangible assets. Now.0 Objectives 3. information resources are acquired and updated daily. may only have longevity if it is replenished with a flow of new data. protected and exploited effectively.

It may save money by substituting the use of other resources. information was still a mysterious and little discussed resource. They found that a number of information types or assets were consistently identified across organisations. Human Resource Information Supplier information Legal and regulatory information Organisational information However. over 50% of all security breaches result from insiders’ activities. former Chief Executive of Nuclear Power plc.not depleted by use. the very existence of organisations can be under threat”. 1994).  Information is substitutable. explained that the failure of organisations to address their information resource and its value would result: “…at best. The marginal cost of exploiting them may be very low. therefore. (Hawley. Hawley (1995) pointed out that.2 Attributes of Information Assets A literature review was undertaken to identify the attributes of information as an asset. 24 . in a lack of consistency in strategic understanding. The threats come not just from the internet. It exists only through human perception. to assess whether an information resource is an asset. reputational or financial repercussions if your library could not produce it on request? Will it have an effect on operational efficiency if you cannot access it easily? Will there be consequences of not having it? Is there a risk associated with the information? Is there a risk of losing it? Does the information resource has a manageable lifecycle? In conclusion. budgeting. One of the biggest trends we see is organisations not focusing enough on the threat of data leakage from their own employees. But we frequently see that internal employees who have a right to access sensitive information are making improper internal decisions that create serious compliance risks. it is important for information managers to note that like any other valuable business asset. at worst. planning. information must be seen as an asset that is valuable to the organisation and. The free flow of information maximises its use. These information assets were: Customer Information Competitor Information Product Information Business Process Information Management Information.  Information is compressible. in fact. while intangible assets like brands and intellectual property were discussed in the business literature and so brought to the attention of boards of directors. 1995). This is an important reason why intangibles can be so valuable. Dr Robert Hawley.  Information is expandable. Many threat analyses and risk models have been created that focus on preventing outside access to information. you need to ask the following questions: Does the information resource has a value to the organisation? How useful is it? Will it cost money to reacquire? Will there be legal. 3. The Hawley Committee recommended the identification of information as an asset in 1994 (KPMG/IMPACT. needs suitable protection against any type of threats. retail and security industries. Many of the attributes which have appeared in the literature over the years are summarised by Repo (1986) as follows:  Information is human.The Hawley Committee comprised a leading group of business executives from the financial. management and control and.

but even out of date information can be reused and it is this reusability of information which again makes it unique as an asset. Currency and Accuracy are necessary attributes for information assets (Burk and Horton. This does not mean that information cannot be out of date or defunct.3 How to Manage Information as Assets in organisation Managing data as a resource is an important managerial task in any organisation today. Information is not lost when given to others.  Information is diffusable. The second economic attribute identified by Repo (1986) is Expandable. Arrow (1984) explained that information cannot enter into traditional economic exchange because it becomes the possession of both buyer and seller: “…. Eaton & Bawden (1991) showed that information can only be managed as an asset if the following three conditions are fulfilled:  The production of the information is undertaken to contribute to some purpose of the organisation. Information management is described by Lessing & Scheepers (2001) as “… the management of information as a resource of an enterprise by applying sound management principles. 1984). While all of these attributes are and information within an organisation and its environment form part of the strategic. converting data into information. organising. (Arrow. tactical and operational resources of an enterprise (Lessing & Scheepers.information is inappropriable because an individual who has some can never lose it by transmitting it”. budgeting and evaluating. 2001). costing. land and equipment). including planning. but on the efficient utilisation of resources . 1986). These are the attributes “shareable” and “expandable”. development of and control over data and information.  Information is easily transportable by using applications of new information technology. giving it away does not mean losing it (Repo. Another attribute related to quantity of information proposed by Burk and Horton (1988) is comprehensiveness. As such it is unlike any other resource. money. It is Shareable.  Information is shareable.” Eaton & Bawden (1991) remarked that information is a resource that should be managed like other resources (i. This implies applying resource management techniques like planning.  The relationship of the information to the achievement of the stated purpose can be clearly shown. 25 . to the information resources of the firm. two of them have long histories in the information and economics literature making them particularly interesting for thinking about the value of information.e. It is evident that business or organisational success depends not only on the possession of resources. Information expands as more uses are found for it. Even a comprehensive information collection is not useful if it does not fulfill its purpose. According to Boisot (1998) the “…value of an information asset is derived partly from the utility of the service and partly from its positional status”. people. integrating people. hardware. and assigning the position for information resources management responsibilities to more senior levels within the organisation (Marchand & Horton 1986). It tends to “leak” though we try to contain it. This was redefined as sufficiency for a purpose on the recommendation of the information managers’ discussion group. software and systems. It can therefore be deduced that managing information as a resource is an important managerial activity. Attributes of information assets relating to utility are also well documented. 3. 1988). and utilising the information ethically in decision-making for goal achievement.  The relationship can be empirically tested.

Yet many managers do not fully understand the real impact of information . finance. Provide selective and tailored dissemination of vital signs to key executives. 26 . Link to Management Processes. political. industry dynamics. distribution. and corporate planning. Make sure that key decision and business process are supported with high leverage information. Assign Responsibility for Leading your IRM Initiative. Improved information flows can improve the quality of decision making and internal operations. Make the policies consistent with your organisational culture. of a strategic mistake . Develop knowledge maps. This includes the wider environment . this is sometimes called a knowledge inventory "knowing what you know". their users. management economics. Skyrme (1999) outline the following points as techniques for managing information as an asset to the organisation:- 1. markets. 2. cost and value. Develop Clear Policies on Information Resources Policies for ascertaining information needs. MIS units or librarians. 3. For this reason information is an important resource which should be managed appropriately and thus it increases the company's chances of success. 4. Systematically assess your business environment. social. Classify information and knowledge by its key attributes.. Identify current knowledge and information resources (or entities).legal and regulatory. economic and technological . Systematic scanning. 5. 6. The better the instrument of using this information the better the decision will be.the cost of a lost opportunity. As knowledge management gains prominence. Pay particular attention to ownership. human resource management. customers and competitors. Identify sources. The more information is used the better for the company. However. public policy. This goes beyond the daily abstracting service provided by many suppliers. acquiring and managing information throughout its life cycle. usage and importance. Developing value from information resources is often a responsibility that falls between the cracks of several departments . of a poor product. Understand the role of well as the inner environment of your industry. Conduct an Information Audit (Knowledge Inventory). That is why a great quantity of information and its optimal use is needed especially by decision makers in the processes of decision making. office automation.the user departments in different business units. operations management. information integrity and sharing. production. Information can add value to your products and services.all risks that can be reduced by using the appropriate information. Assess each process for its information needs. Information impacts on all aspects of the organisation: marketing. The better the decision will be the less the risks for the company are.

office systems. Tweak your MkIS system to do these comparisons. It has also presented some techniques to be adopted in the management of information resources as assets. 8. Optimize your information purchases. publishing. Advances in text retrieval. Develop Appropriate Technological Systems Continual advances in technology increase the opportunities available for competitive advantage through effective information management. discussing and analysing teams of experts. 7. Mix hard/soft. groupware and other collaborative technologies make it possible for more widespread sharing and collaborative use of information. 11. to help. Exploit this convergence through open networking. using facilities such as the World Wide Web. You can use technology such as intelligent agents.0 CONCLUSION This unit has identified information resources as assets and some attributes of information assets as discussed in the library and information science literature. It is hoped that as information resource managers. Yet many organisations do not integrate these disciplines. processed. By treating consultancy. report and databases as separate categories. True patterns and insights emerge when internal and external data is juxtaposed. documentation are converging. we should endeavour to ensure that information resources are properly arranged. Good information management involves 'data mining'. One useful technique is content analysis. when hard data is evaluated against qualitative analysis. document management and a host of other trends in knowledge management technologies have all created new opportunities for providers and users alike. market research. This will enable the information manager to effectively manage his/her organisation’s information resources and records to guarantee continued survival and development of the organisation. intranets. 27 . Introduce mining and refining processes. library expenses.7. Encourage a Sharing Culture Information acquires value when turned into intelligence. Raw information needs interpretation. librarian. In particular. synthesising and refining of information combines the crafts of the information scientist. Market Intelligence Systems (MkIS) are human expert-centred. This know- how sharing is a hall-mark of successful organisations 4. 10. offering different perspectives. business analyst and market researcher/analyst. which is being used in analysis information contents. but most organisations do not know how much they are really spending on external information. not just for external information dissemination but for sharing information internally. Telecommunications. secured and used. 9. but ultimately subject matter experts are needed to repackage relevant material in a user friendly format. internal/external. many organisations are confusing media with content. You don't have to control purchasing. 'information refining' and 'knowledge editing'. The classifying. Exploit technology convergence.

Define the term Information asset? 2. Information management and technology. Oxford: Blackwell. D. Wiley Oppenheim. Retrieved online on 23/8/14 from www. C.skyrme.eurim. (1984) “The economics of information” in Collected papers of Kenneth J.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1. Lessing. Retrieved on line on 5/9/14 from http://www. This will assist you to support your organisation towards the realisation of its goals and objectives. Discuss how information resources as asset be managed? 7.Arrow: the economics of information. Valuing Information as an Asset. (2000) Competing with information: a manager’s guide to creating business value with information content. C. & Waltho. & Bawden D. Management Insight.php. Hawley. F. (2001).H. and Horton. We also make attempted to identify the important attributes of such information assets. (1988) Infomap: a complete guide to discovering corporate information resources. Information Resources Management. W.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS Arrow. List any 5types of Information asset in Library and information centres? 3. J. (Volume 4). (nd). Information is a management issue. Lastly. Johannesburg : CSIC Marchand.J. its measurement and role in enhancing organisational effectiveness.5. Infotrends: profiting from your information resources. J. 1 (2). What kind of resource is information? International Journal of Information Management. K. KPMG/IMPACT (1994) The Hawley report: information as an asset: the board agenda. London: KPMG/IMPACT. F.D. the unit itemised and discussed the techniques used for managing information resources as assets in organisations. J. (1999).htm Eaton.A. Prentice-Hall. 5th ed. Chicester:Wiley. M. A Whitepaper. Fourth NorthUmbria. (1991).0 SUMMARY We have learnt and understood the meaning of information resources as assets to organisations. Marchand. 28 (6): 237-239. A. David Skyrmes Associates. The attributes of information as an asset. Identify the major attributes of Information Asset? 4. J. (2009). (1986). 6. 11(2):157-165. & Horton. (1995) “Information as an asset: the board agenda”. and Stenson. C. Oxford: OUP Burk. D. J. Higson. Englewood Cliffs:N. 28 . (1998) Knowledge assets: securing competitive advantage in the information economy. N & Scheepers C. R.

Identifying Information Assets and Business. Repo. M. Strategic Management: Competitiveness and Globalization. J. D & Hoskisson. Retrieved online on 13/10/14 from nationalarchives.pdf 29 . A. (1986) “The dual approach to the value of information – an appraisal of use and exchange values”. R.Hitt. Ohio : Thomson. Ireland. (2003). 22 (5): 373-383. 5th The National Archives (2007). E. Information processing & management. R.

descriptions.1 An Overview of the concept of Evaluation 3. electronic and digital including people need to be integrated and constantly evaluated to determine their effectiveness.4 Reasons for Information Resources Evaluation 4. 30 . 2. 3.0 Summary 6. we are saddled with the responsibility of ensuring that information resources are regularly evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. documents.0 MAIN CONTENT 3.3 Definition of Information Resources Evaluation 3.2 Types of Evaluation 3.0 Tutor-Marked Assignment 7. As library managers. In fact.  Define the term Information resources Evaluation. In addition to its long history. you have learnt the indispensable place of information resources as asset to organisations.0 References/Further Reading 1.0 Objectives 3.0 Introduction 2.0 Main Content 3. This will go a long way in ensuring that our customers are highly satisfied and delighted with the use of information resources.C.1 An Overview of the concept of Evaluation The notion of evaluation has been around a long time.MODULE TWO: Strategies and Methodologies of information Resources Evaluation Unit 1: The concept of Information Resources Evaluation Unit 2: Criteria and techniques of Information Resources Evaluation Unit 3: Roles of Information Resources Evaluation in Libraries/information centres Unit 4: Strategies/Methodologies for Information Resources Evaluation Unit 1:Concept of Information Resources Evaluation CONTENTS 1. you will learn the basic concepts of Information resources Evaluation and types.0 Conclusion 5.  Identify and discuss the major types of Evaluation. relevance and cost effectiveness. evaluation has varied definitions and may mean different things to different people. the Chinese had a large functional evaluation system in place for their civil servants as far back as 2000 B. students should be able to:  Discuss the concept of Evaluation.0 INTRODUCTION In the previous module. systems and services provided to them.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit.  State the reasons for Information resources Evaluation in organisations. reasons for evaluating information resources will be highlighted. Evaluation can be seen as synonymous with tests. Information resources in form of print and non print. Also. In this unit.

evaluation has frequently been viewed as an adversarial process. but a comprehensive definition presented by the Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation (1994) holds that evaluation is “systematic investigation of the worth or merit of an object. conducted in an adversarial mode. it has all too often been considered by program or project directors and coordinators as an external imposition that is threatening. When the guests taste the soup. evaluations need not be. or added to. Formative evaluation is more commonly used by large or long-term projects rather than small. evaluation. and implementation are all parts of a whole. Evaluation. Its purpose is to guide the design and implementation of activities that include the best or most promising practices that will increase the chances of success.2 Types of Evaluation Managers can carry out two broad types of evaluations: formative and summative. that’s formative. It can also reveal ways to improve the design and management of future activities. Evaluation also provides an opportunity for continuous learning from experience. or eliminate. unit. but rather. is part of it from the beginning. It also includes process evaluation to investigate the process used for delivering an information resource to 31 . Planning. This information helps determine which activities to expand. 3. It assesses the extent to which your organisation achieves its desired results and helps you understand why the results were or were not achieved. including your government and the beneficiaries of your services. an IRM system. “When the cook tastes the soup.” We shall discuss them as follows: Formative Evaluation This type of evaluation is conducted during the development and implementation of a program. learners. evaluations should be conducted for action-related reasons. There are two reasons for carrying out an evaluation. or organisation in meeting its objectives. Accordingly. In this role. is used to assess the effectiveness (and sometimes the cost) of efforts to improve services and to prevent and manage priority health problems. and not very helpful to project staff. on the other hand. According to evaluation theorist Bob Stake. The current view of evaluation stresses the inherent interrelationships between evaluation and program implementation. short- term ones. that’s summative. Evaluation measures outcomes and impact. Its main use has been to provide a “thumbsup” or “thumbs-down” about a program or project. The information so provided should facilitate deciding a course of action. Evaluation is not separate from. Its main purpose is to catch deficiencies so that proper learning interventions can take place and allow the learners to master the required skills and knowledge. modify. They permit the designers. Over the years. and they work best when they work together. and most often are not.or even management.  Evaluation provides information about the success of your team. disruptive. and instructors to monitor how well the instructional goals and objectives are being met. Formative evaluation includes a needs assessment to discern the desires and requirements of a population group and determine how best to meet them.” This definition centres on the goal of using evaluation for a purpose. Many definitions have been developed. While that may be true in some situations.  Evaluation can demonstrate accountability to your donor and other stakeholders.

improve the design of organisational activities. Formative evaluation is also useful in analysing learning materials. number of information resources procured. library customers. unit. Outcome evaluations typically use a non-experimental design (often called “pre-post evaluation”) that simply measures changes before and after an intervention. and problems into an ultimate meaningful whole A process evaluation typically includes several approaches. The first dimension encompasses awareness.. or entire organisation has achieved its intended results. entire organisation or the community as a result of their access to our information resources?  What difference did we make in terms of the realisation of their respective goals and objectives?  Are there any impact on the use of information resources by customers and organisation as well?  To what extent do the information resources meet the needs of the customers and organisation as a whole? As pointed out earlier in this chapter. and.. Outcome evaluation assesses the extent to which a team. outcomes are typically measurable and/or observable changes in two dimensions. cost- effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis.the customers. and skills of stakeholders in IRM program or beneficiaries of services during or after their involvement in the use of the system. number of training workshops conducted. Formative evaluation is primarily a building process which accumulates a series of components of new materials. The main questions addressed are:  What has changed in the lives of individual members of the organisation. even if it is limited to participant feedback. estimated costs. Ideally. both dimensions should be measured at three points: at the beginning and end of the implementation period. Summative Evaluation This type of evaluation is conducted after the completion of a set of activities or intervention to assess the quality of the information resources systems and services and their key results. and operations research. number of workshop participants) as well as individual interviews or focus groups among stakeholders in the organisation. impact evaluation. knowledge. The second dimension involves changes in behavior in these same groups. attitudes. but there must be some improvement in at least one or two outcomes for the intervention to be considered a success.. better allocate resources. as opposed to an experimental design (comparing participants to a control group with random assignment to both groups) or quasi-experimental design (comparing participants to a control group. but 32 . the changes may be modest. If the follow-up measurement is not feasible. It may involve a review of output data (e. and number of people to be served—and whether the quality of the processes used is in accord with the best known practices. In many cases. It is used to demonstrate accountability. after a suitable follow-up period. at least baseline and post-intervention measures should be compared. values. and teacher effectiveness. skills. student learning and achievements..g. It is good practice for organisations including libraries to carry out process evaluation. You can use process evaluation to assess whether activities have been conducted according to plan—in terms of the original design. if possible. and promote successful future interventions. Summative evaluation includes outcome evaluation.

The questionnaires should be trialed (tested) before using to ensure that the recipients understand their operation the way the designer intended. It usually takes place over three to five years. It should be carefully designed and executed to ensure the data is accurate and valid. there are others which include cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis. strategies. Questionnaire application is the least expensive procedure for external evaluations. development and survival of the entire organisation. Other Types of Evaluation Apart from the previous types of evaluation of information resources discussed. interviews. or merit. The various instruments used to collect the data are questionnaires. and activities that have led to them. Usually. When designing questionnaire. The model or methodology used to gather the data should be a specified step-by-step procedure. These are findings that emerge during data collection or data analyses that were never anticipated when the study was first designed. It assesses the overall or net effects—both intended and unintended. observations. systems and services. an information manager may be interested in evaluating certain methods and approaches or paradigms of reference service provision in a University Library. It is important to note that summative evaluation collects information about outcomes and related processes. The evaluation is an appraisal of worth. it is important to consider unanticipated outcomes. surveys. Taking a longer time to conduct impact evaluation of information resources and products in organisations and libraries in particular is inimical to the success. Generally. impact evaluation is always recommended to be carried out periodically at regular short intervals. OR is a powerful tool that librarians/information managers and decision-makers can use to improve and expand their services. Also. The non-experimental design is acceptable for standard outcome measurement and reporting purposes.with no random assignment). This will enable information managers ascertain the consequences of their action and make appropriate decisions for the betterment of the IRM system. All instructions should be clearly stated and let nothing be taken for granted. It can be used to collect large samples of graduate information. OR is used to test and evaluate new approaches in delivering information services. For instance. But for IRM. It could be used to identify problems in service delivery and to develop solutions. 33 . Operations research (OR): is the assessment or evaluation of specific activities within the context of a broader program as contained in an organisation’s manual. It is broader than outcome evaluation. Also. systems and services for stakeholders to be procured or cautions to bear in mind. These results could suggest new requirements/information resources. These types of analysis address an information resources and services’ efficiency by analysing outcomes in terms of their financial costs and value. when conducting a summative evaluation of information resources. and test. Impact evaluation is another component of summative evaluation. keep in mind the most important feature is the guidance given for its completion. this type of evaluation is needed for decision making.

range and importance of the resources and services being provided and that it is being given efficiently (Abbot 194:4). According to Mackenzie (1990). Practitioners need to carry it out rather than pay lip service to it. For example. It is important to evaluate information resources in organisations since it offers a chance for continued organisation’s improvement.. however.3 Definitions of Information Resources Evaluation Evaluation of the performance of library and information systems is one of the major concerns and an integral part of the library and information systems manager’s job. Information resources Evaluation can be defined as a systematic set of data collection and analysis of activities. “ it is a systematic measurement of the extent to which a system (for example a library) has achieved its objectives in a certain period of time”. 1987).. information resource planning. Concrete data. Rodger. The effectiveness of any programme can be sustained through continuous evaluation. For example. and provide a comparison of programme options.making. Fundamentally. even if the budget itself is shrinking (Mackenzie 1990. Evaluation activities make it possible to make reasonable judgements about efforts. can be accumulated through the evaluation of library and information resources and services. It can help the librarian to describe the extent. It can be used to convince institutions that the library needs the same relative share of institutional budget. Shertzer and Stone (2005) view evaluation as necessary to provide for the effectiveness of achieving organisational goals. 1990: 49). although it has been looked at or defined variously. It is also described as a systematic process of determining “value” (in terms of benefit gained) and “quality” (as reflected in customer satisfaction) of a system (McKee 1989: 156). staff development. It is widely recognised as an important issue.3. standard. in relation to specific standards. adequacy. It should. It may be used to assess how well library and information resources and system contributes to 34 .4 Reasons for Information Resources Evaluation Performance evaluation of a library and information system or its components is required for different reasons. public accountability and promotion. al..”. The process of evaluation of performance can focus on the whole of a system or the components of a system (such as the individual services of a library and information system) as the assessment needed can be at any level of a given library and information system. Evaluation seeks to provide objective evidence of whether the information resources. systems and services have met the desired objectives. an evaluation of the performance of library and information resources and systems and the resulting data could be used to assess how well the information resources and system meet stated objectives or for justification of continuance of a service (Bawden. It may allow a librarian to demonstrate how one’s library stands in relation to others (Winkworth 1993). 1990: 3). evaluation remains comparing “what is” with “what ought to be” for the purpose of exercising judgement (Van House et. They determine the worth of an information resource and provide an opportunity to explore other alternative approaches or strategies to reach specific objectives. Cronin (1982b) wrote that it is “a process of systematically assessing effectiveness against a predetermined norm. It provides an opportunity for programme planning and decision. effectiveness. In another dimension. be noted that the main purpose of IR evaluation is to improve access and use of such information resources. indicating the benefits and limitations of the information resources. 3. undertaken to determine the value of an information resource in order to aid management.

1990: 3). Every library and information system has to be careful about it to stay in the good graces of a particular funding or other similar agency. The process of evaluation is an assured effort to correct the discovered weakness in these resources and concerned with whether the goals of meeting the user’s 35 . in particular. It is also critical that the investment made on the systems is well managed and utilised in the best interest of the funding bodies as library and information systems almost entirely depend on these internal and external sources of funds. 1990: 3). in acceptable form. This is the major reason why performance evaluation started to gain in significance in the 1980s in the “increasing hostile financial climate” of the period (Bawden 1990: 73). Particularly “in times of tight budget” resulting in stiff competition for donor recipients. or some aspect of services or resources. It can diagnose particular problem areas of service or monitor progress towards specification or even compare past. whose major part is the financial detail. it can identify what we have yet to accomplish and to communicate what we do. Secondly. The “rising costs of libraries”. 1990: 3). that they are competent and trustworthy in managing their finances. evaluation data to justify the worth and importance or value of library and information systems has become critical (Van House et al. It is also required that library and information systems show funding agencies. as evaluation can provide “objective data” on library and information systems’ performances (Van House et al. 1990: 3). All proofs to justify the importance and the resources consumed by the library and information systems require compelling data that can be acquired through conducting performance evaluation.achieving the goals of parent constituents (Pritchard 1996). It is a concept that is very much applied as an integral aspect of library and information resources management. they have to be evaluated in order for their managers to find out if there are deficiencies in the system. Essentially. It is essential for library and information systems to prove that the activities they are engaged in and the subsequent costs that they incur are worth doing. 4. al. External funding agencies financing projects. continuing relationship between funding agencies and a given library and information system. how well we do it and what we need to accomplish them (Van House 1995) or to provide evidence that the expectations of a variety of stakeholders are being met (Cullen 1998). current and desired level of performance (Van House et. Library and information systems can communicate their “concern for efficiency and effectiveness” to the funding agencies by using performance evaluation data as evidence (Van House et al. 1990: 8) It can identify areas where improvement is needed (Van House et. on the success or failure of the project. al. have become one of the major concerns causing the management of many organisations to require library and information systems to provide evidence to justify their cost using objective data acquired from evaluation of performance. evaluation of information resources is an effort aimed at determining the worth or otherwise of information resources in our libraries and organisations.0 CONCLUSION This unit of our course has tried to help you understand the meaning of evaluation. This is the basis for any healthy. However. normally require progress reports to monitor whether or not the activities as well as the expenditures are according to the agreed upon plan before releasing funds or before letting themselves into any additional financial commitment. Finally. there is an overwhelming agreement that library and information systems first and foremost have to justify their existence and the cost to their constituencies. They also require a final report.

Riga. Q. different types of evaluation ranging from formative and summative were highlighted with the hope that librarians can have a good grasp of the concepts. Göran Goldkuhl (2003) Strategies for Information Systems Evaluation. The many reasons and justifications for conducting evaluation in libraries which include the need to improve the image and self esteem of our libraries and librarians were enumerated and explained.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1. second edition. 6.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READING Blank. Michael Quinn. Rossett. CA: Sage Publications. We have learnt that evaluation is an important component of information resources management to the extent that achieving organisational goals and objectives will be near impossible without a standard framework for evaluation of information resources. Amsterdam Patton. (1993) Developing a System of Education Indicators: Selecting. Spring): 65-80. R. 15 (1.Quality Ideals Put Into Practice”. North.Six Generic Types.Andersen & G B Davis). What do you understand by the term Evaluation? 2. and Reporting Indicators. in . Hirschheim R & Smithson S (1988) “A Critical Analysis of Information Systems Evaluation”. You should not only be current and knowledgeable in this area. Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods. Patton. Proceedings of Eight European Conference on Information Techology (ECIT). Beyond the Podium: Delivering Training and Performance to a Digital World. Discuss the term Information Resources Evaluation? 4. 5. Oxford. Newbury Park.needs are reached or not. (1990) Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods.0 SUMMARY Under this unit. Distinguish between the two major types of Evaluation? 3. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis. 1990. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer Cronholm S & Goldkuhl G (2002) “Actable Information Systems . State any 4 reasons for Evaluating Information Resources in organisations? 7. Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation 6(2) 36 . M. Implementing. Also. but should be able to conduct a thorough evaluation of information resources in your establishment. London Seddon P (2001) “IT Evaluation Revisted: Plus Va Change”. Latvia. Kendra (2001).IS Assessment: Issues and Change (eds N Bjorn. Sage Publications. Allison & Sheldon. Presented at the Eleventh Conference on Information Systems (ISD 2002) 12-14 September. we have discussed extensively on the concepts of evaluation on one hand and evaluation of information resources on the other. United Kingdom Stefan Cronholm.Holland.

André Cossette (2010). Evaluating the effectiveness of a library: a theoretical and
methodological framework


Unit 2:Criteria and Techniques of Information Resources Evaluation

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Objectives
3.0 Main content
3.1 Criteria for Information Resources Evaluation
3.2 Techniques of Information Resources Evaluation
4.0 Conclusion
5.0 Summary
6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignment
7.0 References/Further Reading

This unit is intended to give you a foundation for evaluation of Information
Resources. As information managers, once you find information, you need to evaluate it, to
determine its value with respect to the information needs of your customers and organisation
as a whole. This Unit is presented in three parts. Part I covered the criteria by which you may
evaluate information resources (IR). Part II discussed about the techniques used in evaluating
information resources, systems and services be it in the library or any organisation. Part III
discussed the problems of conducting successful information resources evaluation
particularly in developing economies. When you have any item of information you should
critically evaluate it to determine its suitability and value. This applies to any information
resource no matter what format it might be, including a story told by your superior, found on
the Internet, or an article in a major journal. There is no one single test or criterion which you
may use to judge your information's value. There are a number of clues or criteria, you
should use to base your judgment.

At the end of this unit, students should be able to:
 Identify the variety of criteria used for information resources evaluation
 Explain the techniques of information resources evaluation

3.1 Criteria for Information Resources Evaluation
There are a variety of criteria to consider when evaluating information resources,
ranging from personal, informal methods to the more educational, formal techniques. There is
no one single perfect method of evaluating information resources. Rather, you must make an
inference from a collection of clues or indicators, based on the use you plan to make of your
information resource.
Similarly, there are exist variety of criteria for information resources evaluation as
there are variety of information resources that are generated and used by individuals and
organisations. As we learnt earlier in module one, information resources could be categorized
into different types ranging from people, textbooks, journals, magazines, newspapers, reports,
policies, databases, CD-ROMs, computers, software, electronic resources/web resources,
reference sources, etc. As the list of information resources is endless, so also is the criteria for
information resources evaluation. You should understand that every type of information


resources has unique criteria for their evaluation. The criteria used for evaluating textbooks
might not fit for evaluating journals and databases respectively. The same situation applies to
the other types of information resources. To avoid poor evaluation of information resources,
information managers should employ relevant and appropriate indicator that suit each type of
information resources. Some of the evaluation criteria are discussed below:

•External/Internal Criteria

External: External criteria refers to who and where of information. In other words,
who wrote the article and from where did it come? When we cannot evaluate the information
itself, we can evaluate where it has come from, and hope that those sources are credible. For
example, if the author has a Ph.D in his/her title, does this increase or decrease his/her
credibility? Does this title increase your belief in their information provided, or does it
decrease it? Did they include this title because otherwise they had no substantial proof of
knowledge in that area/topic? These are just some of the questions you should ask yourself.

Internal: Internal criteria are using our own expertise, or independent knowledge, to
determine if the information is accurate. Everyone has an area in which they are proficient,
when encountering information which contains inaccurate pieces of data, one would surmise
that the site is not a credible source to gather information.

•Credibility Indicators

There are a multitude of indicators which you can use to evaluate a site. Some of the
most common indicators mentioned in several sources are to look at the following:

Authorship: This is a major factor in considering the accuracy and credibility of information
found on the Internet. Evaluating credentials of an author involves analysing the educational
background, past writings, expertise, and responsibility he/she has for the information. One
should check the knowledge base, skills, or standards employed by the author in gathering
and communicating the data. Obviously, when we look for information of critical value, we
want to know the level of the authority with which he/she speaks. The most effective means
of discovering the credibility of an author is to ask yourself the following questions:

•Has the content been reviewed, critiqued, or verified in any way?

•Is the author a well-known and well-regarded name you recognise?

•Have you seen the author's name cited in other sources or bibliographies? Do authoritative
sites link to the page?

•What biographical information is available--author's position, address, and institutional or
organisational affiliations? What are the basic values and goals of the institution or

Links to and from a Resource: credibility of information could be determined when one
person links to or cites another. They propose that the "web links that constitute the Internet
is a vast network of relations of credibility: the people who establish active links to reliable
information, and whose information or viewpoints are in turn identified and recommended by
others, gain credibility both as users of information and as providers of it." Also noted here


perhaps. Web databases. The reverse may also be true. Publisher: The publisher of the document should be noted. footers. tells you nothing about the author's credentials within an institution? •Can you verify the identity of the server where the document resides? •Does the Web page actually reside in an individual's personal Internet account. trade and professional associations. Look to make sure the source is current or out-of-date for your specific topic. are highly reliable.was the fact that there are many times when the author or agent of a particular piece of information cannot be identified. rather than being part of an official Web site? To check the validity of the publisher. Judgments of credibility rely upon the avenues through which the information was attained. you were studying humanities. can equip navigators with the necessary tools to evaluate publisher validity. if. Web pages do not have to go through a screening process in order to verify that it has met the standards or aims of the organisation that serves as publisher. major universities. the document includes information of the regularity of updates. the links others have made to the information. •Where there is a need to add data or update it on a constant basis. The following criteria can be used to ascertain the timeliness of a document: •The article includes the date on which information was gathered. to which academic institutions often subscribe. Date of Publication/Currency: Determining when the source was published is a necessary step in discerning a site's accuracy. Topics which continually change or develop rapidly (sciences) require more current information. It can usually be found at the bottom of the home page. Unlike print materials. the publisher of Internet materials may simply be the server (computer) where the document lives. 40 . along with information one can receive from government agencies. or a distinctive watermark that show the document to be part of an official academic or scholarly Web site? Can you contact the Webmaster from this document? •Can you link to a page where the above information is listed? Can you tell that its on the same server and in the same directory (by looking at the URL)? •Is this organisation recognized in the field in which you are studying? •Is this organisation suitable to address the topic at hand? •Can you ascertain the relationship of the author and the publisher/server? Was the document that you are viewing prepared as part of the author's professional duties within his/her expertise? Is the relationship of a casual or for-fee nature. This information. There are a series of questions to assess the role and authority of the "publisher." or server: •Is the name of any organisation given on the document you are reading? Are there headers. or research centers. On the contrary. and sometimes every page. and the frequency with which the information has been accessed. •The document refers to clearly dated information.

In addition. personal and professional/educational. are country identifiers Site Format/Overall Design: Certain types of formats are more accessible on the Web. etc. this information needs to be accurate and verified in several other types of sources. The information should be easy to find and use. For instance. The text should be easy to read. When selecting first rate sites. military site •. you would be able to determine where the information came from: •. Domain Types: This involves examining the end of the URL. natural resources. if the following domain types were found in the URL. a viewer's purpose might be for their personal interest or for professional or educational reasons. The purpose of locating and evaluating the information is personal. The site should be well organized and easy to get around. For example. "A great site has personality and strength and character. economy. if the viewer is using the site for educational reasons.S. . A person viewing a site about another is an accredited post-secondary educational institution •. Another method of evaluating information is to consider the viewer's purpose for using the site. particularly an Internet-related network • is a commercial. and a different type of site would be necessary.•The document includes a publication date or a "last updated" date. government site •. and profanity will assist in evaluating Web site design. •The document includes a date of copyright. and are easier to use. you can view the directory in which it resides and read the date of latest modification. The design should be appealing to its is a noncommercial. not muddled with distracting graphics. Purpose Credibility issues are not only related to the material itself. . and is a computer network. may be looking at that site to plan a vacation. a variety of qualities should be present. of this country. On the other hand. recognising spelling errors. •Tools 41 . are quite different and will make a difference in the evaluation of is a etc. The page should load in a reasonable amount of time and consistently be available. not-for-profit entity •. grammatical is an international organisation •. These two uses of the information.S. but also to the reader's purpose. their purpose is quite different. Obviously. for-profit entity •.gov is a U. •If no date is given in an electronic document. fonts. . such as researching the for example.

These tools are especially useful for educators in evaluating Web sites to be incorporated into classrooms for teaching evaluation criteria and critical thinking skills to their students prior to using the Internet. and professional organisations publish quality materials. Is there an author or contact person listed. to be considered by librarian is the reputation and financial standing of the publishers or sponsoring agencies. reasonableness and support presented within an Internet site. However. education.  Does the author cite his or her sources? Does it have a complete bibliography?  Were primary or secondary sources used? 42 . The creators of these evaluation tools have utilized different credibility indicators which are evaluated using the criteria they have established. experience of the editors. as far as you can tell? Look at several information sources and compare them. and is there a contact e-mail address available. and contributors. It could be at the top of the page with the title. as well as rubrics. for a fee?  Is it a university press?  Is the publisher a professional organisation or association? Generally. are not sufficient in assessing the credibility of material found on the Web due to the nature of this vast new medium. accuracy. A few of the more useful evaluation tools include Kathy Schrock's surveys. Also. These include checklists. surveys or worksheets.The evaluation tools designed and used for centuries to evaluate traditional printed resources though still relevant. Questions requiring answers include: Where did the information come from? Did it come from an authority in the field? Authority should be judged on both the author and the publisher of the material Author:  Is the author's name available?  What is the author's training. this might be harder to figure out. there are varieties of tools designed to assist in the evaluation of Internet information. Reliability in this context relates to the accuracy and treatment of the information. experience in the field?  Are there other works by this author in this field? Books. RELIABILITY: Reliability is directly related to Authority. it is assumed that known publishing houses.good or bad?  If your information source is a web site. university presses. articles?  Does the author have a reputation in the field . Alexander and Tate's checklist. and the CARS checklist which assess the credibility. AUTHORITY: The authoritativeness of information resources can usually be judged on the basic qualification. or at the bottom of the page. Publisher:  Is the Publisher well known in the field?  How much do they publish?  Is this a "vanity press" where anyone can have something published. How reliable is this information resources? Can you trust and believe it? ACCURACY:  Is the information correct. but does address different issues.

but the way they are presented .a government agency o . nonstandard language or misspelled words?  If your information source is a web . CURRENCY: How old is this information? Is there newer information available?  When was the information published?  Can you tell when it was published? If it is not dated. or does it appeal to emotions or biases?  Is the information presented as educational institution o .com . basic information?  Who is the intended audience for the material? Is it popular or scholarly?  If your information source is a web site. SCOPE: Is the complete information available? Is it comprehensive? Who is it written for?  Is the information complete.the bias of the source .a not-for-profit organisation Keep in mind that while .a commercial entity o .will present very different information. How reliable is this information source? Can you trust and believe it? OBJECTIVITY OR BIAS  Do you detect a bias on the part of the author in the writing?  Do the facts support the viewpoint of the author?  Is it written from an objective viewpoint. The National Rifle Association of America and The Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence will both give you accurate facts and statistics. The most common are: o . or is it a summary of other work?  Is the subject covered completely?  What level is the information? Is it . does it include links and are they annotated? 43 . such as medical research or technology. and take that into consideration when looking at an information resource. the date of publication and/or last updated date are usually found at the bottom of the . But you should be aware of them. or one which is fairly stable and requires more background information such as history or literature?  If your information source is a web site.  Does it appear to be well edited? Do you see poor grammar.  Is that information up-to-date? Have new discoveries been made. what is the origin of the source? The domain or last part of the web address can tell something about its origin. which can be documented. or have other events taken place since the information was published?  Is your topic one which is changing quickly. you should be cautious of the information sites might provide valid information. or opinions of the author? Bias is not necessarily a bad thing as we all have our own opinions and biases on issues. technical. they are probably more interested in selling something.

etc. and records. questionnaire. When using this technique. They can be structured or unstructured. You must know what information you need. It is important that notes taken are discussed with the person interviewed.. This requires full concentration by the observer. or as a participant. but this leads to a great risk of missing out important information. It is important that data be recorded. In this regard. and what you will be using that information for (a final term paper. Some evaluators depend on their memory. or take notes throughout the interview. 3. so that possible distortions. In this case. a short composition. do not affect the results. does the information source answer your questions? Does it satisfy your information need? While the other criteria are based on facts. This requires a good ability to listen. Information managers can use interview technique to find out the worth or otherwise of information resources and services assembled for their customers.). The observer should carefully guard against bias. You must make the judgment as to the relevancy of your information resource.RELEVANCY: After all is said and done. inspection of records. the observer should report and discuss any findings immediately.2 Techniques for Information Resources Evaluation There are several evaluation techniques or ways of collecting data. the evaluator decides whether he/she will observe as an outsider. interviews. You can choose which stakeholders can be used to check the value and relevance of their information resources. your personal knowledge or information. 44 . a librarian can decide to evaluate the effectiveness of OPAC in the library by mere observing the functionality of the system. observers need to have sharp eyes and ears to be able to collect adequate data. As a result of this observation. observations. very current. what type of information resource you need it to come from. Observations This is a visual technique where the evaluator observes. For this technique to be worthwhile. who should study an aspect in detail. after consultation with other staffs. but not relevant to your topic. to check whether the information was correctly recorded. It is important for the evaluator to select the best technique to suit the purpose. For instance. The observer actually serves as a second person for what other implementors are looking for. Interviews Interviews are a basic evaluation technique. things you can see or find out about your information resource. in order to transcribe the relevant parts later. He may also decide to be a participant observer. this one is a total judgment call. customers are selected for interview sessions with the aim of collecting data that might perhaps improve the information resources provision in the library. and very complete. We shall briefly discuss them as follows: 1.. any findings. 2. discussions and open box suggestions. Here. he will collect relevant data that will help in improving the effectiveness and efficiency of the OPAC. The evaluator may use a tape recorder. These include tests. A more structured interview would require the preparation of interview questions prior to the interview itself. Is the information resource relevant to your information need? It is entirely possible and highly likely that you will find an item which is very reliable from a very authoritative source. or failure to remember. the librarian will act as a customer and operate the OPAC himself.

Questionnaire This involves a structured series of questions and statements that enable the librarian to gather information about a particular information resource or the entire library collection. 5.3. the number and type of information resources provided on site. Focus group discussion It is a facilitated discussion among 8–12 carefully selected participants with similar backgrounds. Rapid Assessments 45 . Another drawback is that service statistics provide information only about the customers who use information systems and services. there are many impediments to this use. Ideally. These systems provide data that are readily available and are intended to tell you what is happening in the organisation. The advantage is that it can be sent to clients.” You can draw on several routine service information systems to monitor services from all divisions and units. Unlike an interview. for example. use statistics. For these reasons. the facilitator may use a discussion guide. Routine Data Data collected and analysed on a routine basis by an IRM system are referred to as “service statistics. Participants might be beneficiaries or program staff. They cannot provide the information about the many people who do not use the services. All evaluation techniques require planning on the part of the evaluator. managers can use the data from an existing large-scale survey to provide context for interpreting the data captured through their own evaluations. routine data are inaccurate or incomplete. 4. All too often. It is important for the evaluator to consult with relevant beneficiaries on the evaluation techniques they would like to use. These include population-based surveys such as the Demographic and information resources use Surveys. 7. and make decisions that will continuously improve performance in their organisations. However. as an evaluator of information resources. 6. to be completed in the absence of the evaluator. it also gives the evaluator an opportunity to cover a larger number of people at one time. track performance and accountability. Data collected via large scale surveys are useful for understanding national or regional and global trends that may help explain data gathered in a focused evaluation in a given locality. the number of customer visits at a library. These include the basic recording and reporting system. so that conflicts of interest are avoided. Large-scale surveys Large-scale surveys constitute another readily available source of information. note-takers record comments and observations. information managers would use these data to guide daily operations. divisions or units for onward transmission to higher level for aggregation and decision making. It is important to emphasise that these data are usually generated at the departments. Examples of routine data include. For example. information officer reporting systems. or the number and types of electronic resources subscribed each month. In many cases. systems and services you cannot rely solely on service statistics alone for an evaluation.

(undergraduate students) and compare their feelings with that of the postgraduate students. during. and other qualitative approaches to determine the worth or otherwise of an information resources. small-scale facility assessments. They use individual or key informant interviews (including client exit interviews). and implementing programs. 8. Although the profession has some tools to offer they don’t provide the kind of flexibility and appropriateness for developing countries’ 46 . Rapid Sample Surveys These surveys can be used to collect standardized information from a carefully selected small sample of people or units/divisions within the whole organisation. They can also provide context and qualitative understanding of quantitative data collected by more formal methods. librarians may decide to conduct a rapid sample surveys using a segment of their library customers e. In many locations where community members cannot read and write. rapid sample surveys. Participatory methods (also called participatory learning and action) These techniques and methods aim to incorporate the knowledge and opinions of community members in planning and managing development projects.g. Examples include customer exit interviews. For instance. They enable voices from the community to be included in policy. 4. it is almost absent. These types of surveys can describe conditions and opinions of specific stakeholders within a given group and allow comparison of different groups at a given point in time or changes in the same group over time. systems and services in libraries and information centres. symbols. participatory methods are not based on samples. and group memory. You may use rapid assessment techniques to supplement information from routine data or large-scale surveys. physical objects. participatory methods are useful approach for identifying and trouble-shooting problems. record reviews. They also permit the comparison of actual conditions with planned results. Unlike other techniques for rapid assessment. case studies. group interviews.0 CONCLUSION Despite the importance of performance evaluation for library and information systems in developing countries. The methodological issues achieve prominence. Participatory methods can be used before. During access and use of information resources in organisations including libraries. It is impossible to fully implement the existing evaluation tools that the profession can provide. They provide information for both design and evaluation of information resources infrastructure and allow active involvement of stakeholders in decision-making. and after assemblage and implementation of an information resource or system as well as set of activities. participatory methods can rely on oral communication supported by pictures. This is primarily so because the information scenario of developing countries makes performance evaluation one of the very difficult tasks to undertake. and other participatory methods. planning. 9. as these are important problems particularly in these countries. Rapid assessments can provide you with valuable information about the stakeholders’ feelings of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with your information resources provided to them. focus group interviews. influencing policy. and research to generate a sense of ownership in the IRM results and the recommendations made by both the organisation and its beneficiaries. These are quick and inexpensive ways to obtain information for decision-making especially at the activity level.

Aslib Proceedings 39(11/12): 349–54. M. Taking the measure of service. Proceedings of the 2nd North umbria International Conference on Performance Measurement in Libraries and Information Services. B. (1982). (1987). (1982). you have learnt that the success. It was established that the success of information resources evaluation is a function of how well and appropriate techniques and criteria are used for that purpose. Determining quality in academic libraries. Libri. Issues in the provision of services to developing countries. (1996).0 SUMMARY In this unit. (1995). effectiveness and benefits of information resource can only be measured through a systematic. Performance measurement. eds. Judith. Hants: Gower Publishing Company Ltd. Identify and discuss the techniques of evaluation that could be used in Library and Information center? 2. Organisational effectiveness assessment: case studies of the National Library of Wales and Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia. (1990). M. B. T. Pritchard. Newcastle upon Tyne: Information Bawden. (1991).0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1. Adeyami. N. Baba. Performance measurement: A historical perspective. (1999) Performance Evaluation in Library and Information Systems of Developing Countries: A Study of the Literature. C. M. User oriented evaluation of information systems and services. (1994). Journal of Librarianship 20(2): 128–44. Identify any 4 evaluation criteria used for evaluating web based information resources? 7. Library Trends 44(3): 572–94.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS Kebede. The evaluation of library and information services in times of economic restraint: The university view. Cronin. All the same. P. pp. (1988). Rodger.needs. Different types of information resources either in our libraries or organisation require variety of evaluation criteria to ascertain their worth and place in the library or organisation. IFLA Journal 21(4): 278–81. one thing remains true. D. efficiency. Boekhorst. (1998). 47 . that library and information systems in developing countries have to be able to conduct performance evaluations using tools and methods that are appropriate to their context. Aslib Proceedings 34(5): 227–36 Goodall. 106–119 Abbot. critical and logical evaluation using certain techniques and criteria. Aldershot. Performance measurement and information management. Archives and Information Science 1(1): 1–8. 49. G. London: Aslib. African Journal of Library. In: Pat Wressell & Associates. Cronin. L. S. 5. D. Aslib Proceedings 34(6/7): 273–94. E. Measuring quality: the IFLA guidelines for performance measurement in academic libraries. Zawiyah and Broady. 6.

1 Roles of Information Resources Evaluation 3. Library and information systems’ managers.0 Conclusion 5. and the professionalism of their work. need to monitor their progress to determine if they are on the right track in implementing their various undertakings.0 Summary 6. These include determining the relevance and meaningfulness of their information resources.0 Tutor-Marked Assignment 7. information resources evaluation plays a significant contribution towards the realisation of the goals and objectives of the library and individual customers in particular. Whatever the situation. what is needed to realise the desired goal. the system’s efficiency in executing tasks. Although the degree to which they do this varies considerably. their cost effectiveness.0 References/Further Reading 1.0 Objectives 3.0 Introduction 2.1 The Roles of Information Resources Evaluation in Libraries Many managers of library and information science (LIS) now routinely build into their planning and operation some kind of measurement and evaluation of their information resources. systems and services.Unit 3: Roles of Information Resources Evaluation in Libraries/information centres 1. according to the size and nature of their resources and services that they offered. Below are some of the salient contributions of evaluation of library and information systems particularly in the developing societies:  Performance evaluation for self-improvement purposes Apart from justifying their existence and the cost that is expended on them.2 Problems for conducting Information Resources Evaluation 4. Willemse (1995) confirms that a continuous evaluation contributes to improving services by revealing remedial actions that need to be taken based on the result of the ongoing 48 .0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit. students should be able to:  Explain the roles of information resources evaluation in Libraries  Discuss the major problems of conducting successful information resources evaluation 3. like any responsible managers.0 Main content 3.0 INTRODUCTION 2.0 MAIN CONTENT 3. library and information systems need to take a look at their information resources on a continuing basis to find out whether each of them are relevant and being utilized in the best possible way.

To justify the existence and cost of the information resources and systems. library and information systems are among the first departments to be targeted for budget reduction. Willemse discusses in detail how performance evaluation has been useful in improving information resources and services and instrumental in winning over the support of the parent institution. the prevailing attitude of management towards library and information systems in developing countries. And it is not even uncommon for library and information systems to have no separate budget of their own or to have no channel to fight for the manager and for the budget like managers of other departments. The library and information systems manager’s struggle to win sufficient funding or to receive a due share of the organisation’s budget is even more difficult when compared to managers of most of the other departments within the same organisation. system. For example. Therefore. If they cannot come up with strong evidence to support their claim to change the opinion of the already decided management. and to improve continuously their internal working. In fact. The scarcity of finances in these countries makes the competition for organisational budgets among departments fiercer than in 49 . Rosenberg’s report indicated that the libraries and information systems in Africa did not have access to expenditure figures. or to prove that without them the organisation can be at a disadvantage. As a management tool evaluation helps library and information systems managers to have better knowledge of the status of their information resources. the possibility of getting financial support will continue to get worse. In his report of the experience of the University of South Africa. which implies worthlessness. allowing them to be in a better position to make informed decisions and to exercise better control over the destiny of their systems. a common phenomenon in developing countries. However. It is the only way to generate objective data about their performance to demonstrate their worth against the traditional belief of their worthlessness held by parent management and the nation at large. the only effective way to prove their value (Pritchard 1996). managers have to rely on intuition and anecdotal information as the basis for assessing the usefulness and value of their activities (McClure and Lopata 1995) which could lead to failure.  Justification of worth and resources consumed One of the major obstacles that library and information systems face in developing countries is that their role and importance is highly undermined and so they are not taken seriously.  Improving competitiveness for securing financial support As finance underpins everything. can be changed only by showing their worth using performance evaluation data. it is a key issue to library and information systems in developing countries for a number of reasons. Without performance evaluation data.evaluation. This applies equally to library and information systems in developing and developed countries. Consequently the library and information systems in these countries are in desperate need of data to prove that they have useful contributions to make in the fulfilment of the objectives of their parent organisations. When the financial constraints on the parent organisations increase. This is because library and information systems rarely are accorded the proper status on a par with other departments (Neill 1991). performance evaluation is thus a necessity. engaging in an evaluation process is a life and death option if library and information systems in developing countries are to live up to their purposes. this situation has not improved up till now. Library and information systems in developing countries have more at stake because they are units that are “grudgingly tolerated” by government bodies and that appear at the “bottom of any national list of priorities” (Neill 1991).

as Rodger (1987) stressed. it is accepted that library and information systems cannot be continually financed on the assumption that they are “good things” in their own right (Winkworth 1993). 50 . The outcome of their requests depends on management’s appreciation of these justifications (Abbot 1994: 4). evaluation is needed more in economically constrained situations “because there is less money with which to attempt to do the same. Library managers have to present strong cases to justify increments in investment because what they currently receive is already much below what they require.  Improving internal efficiency and services provided to users The exercise of performance evaluation is needed to find out the relevance of each information resources and services and their efficiency. The poor situation of these library and information systems and their need for greater financing each year is exacerbated by the increasing cost of library resources which affects the library and information systems in developing countries more). This has a profound impact on the future and the status with which library and information systems in developing countries are held. the permanent situation of library and information systems in developing countries. mainly because library and information systems in developing countries have not succeeded in living up to these expectations. Some information technologies (ITs) currently in use by library and information systems in the developed world are becoming absolutely necessary to keep the gap in meeting the needs of the users of developing countries from widening further. Library and information systems in developing countries have been unable to prove what good they can do and to meet the expectations of their patrons. Performance evaluation data is needed if they are to be successful in competing for organisational budgets. Neill (1991) summarises it well as “for the majority of Africans. but instead they have to prove their “goodness” by demonstrating their relevance and usefulness. Thus. Furthermore. or more than before”. Similarly. libraries appeared to have very little to offer. This makes performance evaluation data more important to library and information systems in developing countries. It will provide the data needed to make sound and informed decisions and to take effective measures to survive even under their constrained situations. It is also true that performance evaluation is most needed during times of economic constraint as such situations result in “pressure for cost justification of all activities” (Baba and Broady 1998.” Furthermore. technological developments also contribute to the increasing financial requirements of library and information systems of developing countries. Performance data from evaluation can then be one way of showing why the money should be made available as well as how it has been expended effectively on a continuing basis. This has made it important for the managers to devise the means of winning the required resources while parent organisations must be convinced to accommodate this increasing cost.developed countries. The need to get enough money is critical. Thus.Bawden 1990: 73). The internal workings of library and information systems will also be improved when remedial measures can be taken as needed based on the results of the assessment desperately needed by library and information systems of developing countries. “to identify areas where improvement is needed” and to live up to the requirements and expectations put on them. the role of information in the development process is sidelined by the majority of decision makers. in these days of constrained financial input. library and information systems need to perform self-audits with more zeal and commitment.

The importance of the performance evaluation exercise in developing countries is thus very high. Only one participant confirmed that they had any evaluation activity in the past. In a different context. And library and information systems in developing countries have greater need for supporting evidence to prove their worth and to improve their performance now more than anytime previously. Some of the reasons. Proving value through improved ways of doing things is then one major aim towards which library and information systems in developing countries need to work. i. diagnostic and justification. The fourth is peculiar and more important to library and information systems in developing countries and is discussed in a detailed manner. are peculiar to library and information systems of developing countries. is the least practised management tool in these countries (Town 1998). But these.e. Taking into account.  Low level of awareness of relevance and importance of performance evaluation The first problem is a low level of awareness as to the relevance of evaluation by library and information systems managers and/or management of the parent organisations. while critically needed and potentially beneficial particularly to library and information resources and systems of developing countries. This includes not being convinced of its value or of its worth as a priority in many library and 51 . But in developing countries.. are very few. too. evaluation. these problems are more severe. furthermore. on the other hand. Why is such a timely and much needed management practice ignored by library and information systems in developing countries? There are a number of possible reasons for the absence of performance evaluations in these countries. This requires continual monitoring through performance evaluation as improved services using such evaluation help in gaining the support of parent organisations (Willemse 1995). Library and information systems in developing countries are for the most part under- performing and this requires an immediate solution. 3. library and information systems in these countries can use performance evaluation data to improve their efficiency. the general absence of reports on performance evaluation from developing countries in international library and information science indexes. Of course this excludes evaluative work conducted by sponsoring agencies on information projects implemented in developing countries. to the extent of becoming major stumbling blocks for performance evaluation to take place. performance evaluation was almost non-existent in the seven universities participating in a CD-ROM pilot project sponsored by American Association for the Advancement of Sciences (AAAS) from 1994–1996. confirms this as well. Specifically the first three problems discussed below are common but are severely felt in developing countries. no performance evaluation has been made in any library and information system for any of the two main purposes of performance evaluation. the case of Ethiopia. Some of the reasons are problems that are known to exist even in library and information systems of developed countries. As a part of improving their internal workings.2 Problems for conducting Information Resources Evaluation Unfortunately. particularly in the area of financial management. Saracevic (1980) also confirms that “very few actual evaluative studies have been conducted” in developing countries and this holds true largely up to this time. such as Library Literature. Although there is the possibility that such activity was not reported. Although no formal survey for this study has been conducted.

 Shortage of required staff The third problem is shortage of staff. only basic activities are considered at any one time. managers and professionals of library and information systems who appreciate its value and the necessity for it on a continuous basis leaving alone those who are willing to initiate and use it to convince the management. Particularly because it is research. Performance evaluation is more of an academic exercise in these countries. This is very true as most modern management techniques are by in large unknown in library and information systems of developing countries. it is confined to research related to academic requirements. in rare cases. But in developing countries since the shortage of staff is acute and more pronounced. lack of staff who can be spared or whose time can be spent on performance evaluation puts pressure on considering the exercise as a routine and necessary activity. if used at all. It is known that library and information systems’ managers with appropriate conviction may shy away from conducting performance evaluation because of the resulting “unacceptable increase in the existing work load” on the library and information systems all over the world (Cronin 1982b).information systems in developing countries. This makes performance evaluation among the least likely technique to occur in these countries. it is more severe in developing countries. performance evaluation is almost non-existent. diminishing the chance of conducting performance evaluation. It is just a new development in developing countries. Goodall 1988). money that needs to be allocated for it is beyond the reach of the majority of library and information systems. Because of the financial realities of developing countries. for the most part. 52 . The meagre professional staff is highly in demand to cover all aspects of library and information work. The environment can be said to lack. This is the general workforce situation in the information sector of developing countries as indicated by Adeyemi (1991): “Information activities in most third world countries suffer from absence of relevant expertise in the areas of generation. Although the problem of finance is common to all countries (Cronin 1982b. to undertake performance evaluation in library and information systems in these countries. Thus. Qualified/trained library and information workers as heads of library and information systems are found in limited number. among others. This problem is more prevalent in library and information systems of developing countries because the issue of evaluation itself is little known. This problem has a far reaching impact in that no resources have been allocated for this purpose nor is it one of the areas that library and information systems in these countries normally consider their territory. Managers found in most library and information systems in these countries are good indicators of lack of qualified personnel. rendering the resulting data almost useless for the purpose (Town 1998). As a one-time-only exercise. the resulting workload on already over-extended staff makes it the least welcome commitment. The problem of finance has been one of the long-standing problems which library and information systems in developing countries may not hope to overcome in the near future. both in quantity and quality. it is done haphazardly. As a result there is no receptive ground even when motivated individual staff members want to engage in such exercise. processing.  Lack of finances The second reason for not exercising performance evaluation is the cost of such exercises even if their importance is recognised. Because of the low level of awareness about the relevance of performance evaluation by library and information systems managers or management of the parent organisations. Equally problematic is the scarcity of qualified/ trained personnel to plan and execute performance evaluation activities in library and information systems of developing countries. including even non-professional jobs (Lawal 1991).

These evaluation models and approaches are being used with a degree of success in developed countries.” The problem of staff adequate in number and qualification is also an issue that library and information systems have a long way to overcome. finances and staff are overcome. methods and frameworks for evaluation of performance of library and information systems in the developed world. The problem is unique because it is results mainly from the characteristic features of library and information systems in these countries. In the effort to use these performance evaluation models and approaches. Winkworth 1993). there is a major problem prohibiting performance evaluation that is peculiar to library and information systems in developing countries. the system needs clearly stated objectives. In the literature these bases for evaluation are brought out as prominent more frequently. making existing methodologies practically of little help to developing countries. run into complications. Unfortunately the prerequisites for the use of most existing bases for evaluation are grossly absent in developing countries. The problem is also more important because even when the problems of awareness. They are the most highly included elements of the models and the approaches for evaluating the performance of library and information and retrieval. for example. present these different models and approaches for evaluation of the performance of library and information systems. or not clearly 53 . as the library and information systems in developing countries have difficulty in using existing evaluation tools and methods developed by the profession. standards and user opinion (Goodall 1988).  Use of Stated Objectives To use “stated objectives” to assess the performance of library and information systems. three approaches emerge as the dominant bases for evaluation during the period under review: the use of stated objectives. The problem is lack of appropriate evaluation tools (methodology). For example in the review of performance measurement by Goodall. Although the profession acknowledges that it lacks widely accepted and applicable tools and methods for performance evaluation (Pritchard 1996. This paper uses these commonly mentioned and highly rated means of evaluating performance in library and information systems to demonstrate the difficulty that library and information systems in developing countries encounter in attempting to use them. the library and information systems of developing countries. however. rendering the models/approaches inapplicable by in large. this problem persists making it difficult to conduct performance evaluation by library and information resources. including those strongly motivated and convinced as to the importance of performance evaluation as a management tool. also encountered by library and information systems all over the world at varying degrees. The overwhelming majority of library and information systems in developing countries have no clearly stated objectives or else the occasionally available objectives lack the quality needed to determine an evaluation of the performance of the library and information systems. The methodologies can only be of use if they are appropriate and practical in the environment where the evaluation is to take place. systems and services of these countries. primarily as they result from work done in these countries and hence fit the needs of these countries’ environments. The reviews made by Goodall (1988) and Pritchard (1996). The problem remains strong for all sorts of library and information systems’ managers. this section elaborates on the issues. Stated objectives outlining which activities should have efforts and resources directed to them are lacking. there is a continuing effort and marked achievement in developing and employing tools.  Lack of evaluation tools / methodologies Apart from these three major problems. To appreciate this situation.

systems and services. Lack of clearly stated objectives also implies that it is difficult to determine the relevance of information services and resources since normally objectives serve as basis for defining the services to be provided (Abbot 1994: 13). as only few developing countries have tried to have these in place. we should note that no developing country meets the standards set by and for developed countries that take into consideration the relatively fortunate local situations of these developed countries. either set by consensus or by taking average achievements in comparable systems. if developing countries use standards initiated by developed countries to evaluate their information resources.enough brought out to guide the efforts and resources expenditures in library and information systems of developing countries.  Use of standards Evaluating library and information systems’ performance by comparing their achievements/output against standards or agreed upon norms or “theoretically maximum targets” is also equally hampered as a performance evaluation method to be used in developing countries. And these seemingly objective statements are also objectives that have generally outlived their purposes. need to be unique to each country (or to similar library and information systems in a given country). e. As a result. Each service or resources has to be selected on the basis of its usefulness and relevance in achieving the objectives of the organisation. As library managers. library and information resources and systems cannot be assessed to see how much they have succeeded in their effort of information service delivery. according to Mackenzie (1990) whose definition statements “do not lend themselves for measurement”. encounters a variety of problems. they are liable to a number of factors that can affect the reliability of their judgments. It is important to understand that when there is no such element in place. Van House 1995). However. they are either too broad or vague to point out specific targets to be measured. Line (1990) pointed out that users’ perceptions of the quality of library services are affected by circumstances. These are rather mission statements.g. Specifically in developing countries these factors are generally affecting the user’s view in a particular way rendering 54 . simply because setting standards is affected by the local circumstances of each country (Boekhorst 1995. as standards have to be based on what is possible in each specific environment (Kasar 1982). Although users are important indicators of whether a given library and information system is doing well. Standards. Having standards for each country is necessary because what has been set as a standard for one country cannot be used as a standard for another country. in cases where objectives are available. then the result is known even before conducting the assessment. Unfortunately developing one’s own standard is one of the areas in which very little progress has been made by developing countries. opportunities and expectations. Standards developed for each country and for type of library in each country is by and large lacking.  Use of user opinion The use of “users’ opinions” as a measure of the performance of library and information systems in developing countries. objectives for services that no longer exist or objectives that were set years ago no longer reflect the current needs and situation.

6. This can then render them more or less inappropriate judges as to whether the library is meeting their needs. operations and services to ensure that their information resources are meeting the information needs of their target customers. you have learnt the roles of information resources evaluation in library and information systems with particular reference to developing countries. This misleading opinion is what should be expected as the majority of library and information systems in developing countries continue serving without subscriptions to current journals. 5. you have learnt that certain factors such as lack of awareness of the value of evaluation. a situation unique to users in developing countries is the low level of information literacy among the population. systems. Also. It was established that the internal workings of library and information systems will also be improved when remedial measures can be taken as needed based on the results of the assessment desperately needed by library and information systems of developing countries.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1. for example. Also. the ways of satisfying them. the ways of expressing needs. he may claim that the particular system is satisfactory because this is the best thing that has happened to him. say. Discuss the roles of information resources evaluation in a University library? 55 . evaluating the library resources and systems will guarantee the continued funding and patronage from the parent organisation and donor agencies. absence of clearly stated objectives etc have to greater extent affected information resources evaluation particularly in library and information systems.0 CONCLUSION In this unit. 4. In addition.0 SUMMARY In this unit. It was established that library and information systems need to conduct performance evaluation of their resources. lack of evaluation tools and standards. were discussed with the hope that information managers would become very conversant of the likely challenges to face or facing our libraries. whether it is doing well. etc. which indicates the general difficulties that the users face in understanding their own information needs. etc. First their exposure to quality library and information systems or services is very limited so that their expectations are low. shortage of qualified staff. average quality in terms of currency and coverage in a given library and information system. lack of finances etc. Also. If a user deprived of all basic resources sees materials of. using books 25–30 years old and are usually limited to the traditional library services (Adeyami 1991). lack of standards. It will provide the data needed to make sound and informed decisions and to take effective measures to survive even under their constrained situations.this method of performance evaluation as shaky as the earlier ones. you are introduced to the major roles of information resources evaluation in our library and information system. This will enable them become more proactive in addressing the challenges instead of being only reactionary. some challenges inhibiting successful information resources evaluation particularly in developing economies which include among others lack of competent staff/shortage of staff.

1994. Line. Lawal. 49. pp. (1991). Performance measurement. NM.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS Kebede. 1991. London: The Library Association: 185–95. Mackenzie. O. (1999) Performance Evaluation in Library and Information Systems of Developing Countries: A Study of the Literature. M. Judith. Van House. A Survey of task performance in Library and information work: Nigerian perspective. Boekhorst. LB. London: Aslib. In: Pat Wressell. Measuring quality: the IFLA guidelines for performance measurement in academic libraries. Baba. ed. Archives and Information Science 1(1): 29– 35 56 . ed. (1990). Performance measurement. (1988). Issues in the provision of services to developing countries. African Journal of Library. (1998). African Journal of Library. LB. Kasar. (1995). In Maurice.2. Journal of Librarianship 20(2): 128–44 Pritchard. ed. London: The Library Association: 196–205. Organisational effectiveness assessment: case studies of the National Library of Wales and Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia. Archives and Information Science 1(1): 1–8.O. T. The concept of “library goodness”: Users perspective and value. Adeyami. M. Zawiyah and Broady. S. B. (1982). Highlight any 4 major problems militating against information resources evaluation in Library and Information System? 7. Academic library management. Hants: Gower Publishing Company Ltd. GA. Aldershot. D. (1995). (1996). D. Library Trends 31(1): 7–19. Determining quality in academic libraries. Newcastle upon Tyne: Information Bawden. Goodall. Academic library management. 106–119 Abbot. L. C. D. Organisation politics and performance measurement (introductory talk). Performance measurement: A historical perspective. P. Proceedings of the 2nd North umbria International Conference on Performance Measurement in Libraries and Information Services. N. 1990. Library Trends 44(3): 572–94. User oriented evaluation of information systems and services. Libri. In: Pat Wressell & Associates. Standards for college libraries. (1990). Newcastle upon Tyne: Information North: 1–10. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Performance Measurement in Libraries and Information Services. IFLA Journal 21(4): 278–81. G. eds. In: Maurice.

Although there is no universally accepted definition of an information audit. inefficiencies and areas of over-provision that enables the identification of where changes are necessary.Unit 4:Strategies/Methodologies for Information Resources Evaluation 1. In more recent years. the information audit process has been promoted by information professionals as a means of identifying the information needs of an organisation and matching them against existing services and resources.0 Introduction 2.1 INTRODUCTION In this unit we shall further examine the concept of information audit as a veritable strategy in information resources evaluation in organisation. students should be able to:  Define the concept of Information Audit  Identify the relevance of information audit  Discuss the stages for conducting information audit  Explain the basic three strategies of Information Resources Evaluation 3.0 Conclusion 5. it has been used extensively. this definition adopted by Aslib.0 Main content 3. duplications.1 Information Audit as a strategy for IR evaluation For many years. resources and flows.0 References/Further Reading 1. with a verification by reference to both people and existing documents in order to establish the extent to which they are contributing to an organisation's objectives'. We shall as well attempt to highlight some other strategies such as Goal Based Evaluation (GBE). An information audit is a process used to  Identify the information needs of the organisation and assign a level of strategic importance to those needs • Identify the resources and services currently provided to meet those needs  Map information flows within an organisation and between an organisation and its external environment  Analyse gaps.2 strategies/methodologies for Information resources Evaluation 4. the Association for Information Management in the UK is the most appropriate as it incorporates the critical elements of 'information use' and 'people' (Orna.0 Tutor-Marked Assignment 7.0 Summary 6. 57 . systems and services in our libraries and information centres. An information audit is 'a systematic evaluation of information use. 2. 1999 p69).0 Objectives 3.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit. noting the various arguments put forward by different scholars and authorities in information resources management. mainly by consultants. as the first step in the development of a knowledge management strategy. Goal Free Evaluation (GFE) and Criteria based Evaluation (CBE) strategies that can be used in the evaluation of information resources.0 MAIN CONTENT 3.1 Information Audit as a Strategy for Information resources evaluation 3.

by whom and for what purpose. The information audit process enables the mapping of information flows within an organisation and between an organisation and its external environment. duplications. An information audit not only counts resources but also examines how they are used. Combining this with the assignment of a level of strategic significance to all tasks and activities enables the identification of the areas where strategically significant knowledge is being created. Also. It is then possible to trace a specific resource from the task it supports to the organisation objective. An information audit also enables you to map information flows within an organisation and between an organisation and its external environment. bottlenecks and other inefficiencies in existing flows. and links them with the relevant organisational objective. department or section. critical success factors and tasks and activities of each group. This allows you to not only identify those resources and services that are supporting organisational objectives but also to ‘rate’ them according to their strategic significance.introducing the model Just as there is no universally accepted definition of an information audit. The information audit goes one step further in not only finding out what information resources and services people need to do their jobs. It allows for identifying efficient flows. there is also no universally accepted model for information audit process because of the dramatically varying structures. not only the resources used. It identifies the information that is required to support each task or activity. It looks at the objectives. The seven stages are:-  Planning  Data collection 58 . The seven-stage information audit model as shown in figure 3 takes you through the information audit process stage-by-stage highlighting those aspects of the process that are critical to its success and the issues that you may face that can impact on the value of your outcomes. It also identifies those tasks that rely on knowledge sharing or transfer and those that rely on a high quality of knowledge. It examines. This is a significant feature of the process as it identifies the existing formal and informal communication channels that are used to transfer information as well as highlighting inefficiencies such as bottlenecks. How to conduct an information audit . but how those information resources and services are actually used. business unit. it identifies existing channels that can be utilised for knowledge-transfer and areas of the organisation where there is a need for high quality knowledge that isn’t being met. The model presented here is one that was developed by the author as a result of examining the methodologies used by librarians and consultants and extracting the components necessary to achieve the objectives of an information audit. nature and circumstances of the organisations in which they are conducted. gaps. but how they are used and how critical they are to the successful completion of each task. gaps and duplications. The information audit examines the activities and tasks that occur in an organisation and identifies the information resources that support them. and assign a level of strategic significance to it.The term ‘audit’ implies a counting.

personal interview or focus group interview. Stage One . Data can be collected by questionnaire. tasks and activities  data relating to information transfer This stage involves the creation of an information resources database that is used as the tool to establish the strategic significance of resources. The analysis process will identify gaps.Planning As with any major project.Data Analysis Once the data has been collected it must be analysed. Analysis can be done inhouse or by external analysts depending on the resources available inhouse. In order to plan properly for an information audit there are five steps to work through. Rather it is a structured framework that is flexible and can 'bend' to meet the varying conditions and constraints of an organisation. critical success factors and tasks and activities. Whether you create a questionnaire or conduct interviews it is critical that the right people are asked the right questions. It will enable a level of strategic significance to be assigned to tasks and activities that can then be used to determine where critical knowledge is being produced and stored and where it is required for re-use. duplications and over provisions and the use of sub-standard or inappropriate resources. 2000).Data Evaluation 59 . Records must be created for all business units/sections/departments that include their objectives. in terms of its volume. Strategic significance analysis and Information flow mapping.  Data analysis  Data evaluation  Communicating recommendations  Implementing recommendations  The Information Audit as a continuum The model is not a highly structured and controlled process that operates in a tightly defined manner. Stage Three . It is usual to collect three types of data:-  data relating to information required to perform tasks and activities  data relating to the ‘level of criticality’ of information resources.Data Collection This stage involves collecting the data you need to achieve your objectives. There are three types of analysis carried out on the data collected: General analysis. These are:-  Understand your organisation and develop clear objectives  Determine the scope and resource allocation  Choose a methodology  Develop a communication strategy  Enlist management support Stage Two . Stage Four . the planning stage is critical as it can determine the project's success or failure. the components can be 'tailored' to suit the objectives of the organisation and the resources available (Henczel. In other words. and the complexity and volume of the data collected. The data collection process will gather the data relating to the information resources that enable and support the tasks and activities. It is critical that the questions you ask result in a dataset that is usable. content and format.

Once the data has been analysed, problems and opportunities can be identified and then
interpreted and evaluated within the context of the organisation. Not every problem will need
to be addressed and some will be unable to be addressed due to organisational constraints
such as insufficient resources (people, money, technical or physical resources).
Many of the problems that are identified are opportunities to improve the provision of
information, extend information services and improve the quality of knowledge created. They
can include:-
 Information hoarding
 Biased distribution of resources
 use of sub-standard resources
 gaps in the provision of resources
 information overload issues
 lack of transparency and accountability
 lack of traceability

in order to evaluate how significant the problems are, a number of questions need to be
answered before a decision can be made regarding the feasibility and cost effectiveness of
addressing the problems. These relate to its level of criticality, the cost of addressing it, the
cost of not addressing it, and the level of formality needed to address it (local, departmental
or organisational).
It is important that the recommendations that are formulated in this stage are realistic,
achievable and manageable. The costs associated with the recommendation, the processes for
incorporation and implementation and quantifiable goals must all be established and

Stage Five - Communicating the Recommendations

Communication strategies are important throughout the entire information audit process.
However, it is critical that once the recommendations have been made, they are
communicated to the people who are integral to their being implemented. Since many of the
recommendations will represent an element of change to the resources and services available
in the organisation, they may affect the daily work processes of some, if not many,
employees. It is critical that the changes are communicated in a positive way, and in a way
that guarantees management support for their implementation. Also, if you have established
and maintained successful communication channels throughout the audit process, the
employees will recognise the validity of the process that has been worked through to reach
the final recommendations.

There are many ways in which you can communicate the information audit results and
recommendations. The most common method is a written report, or oral presentation (or a
series of presentations depending on the size and structure of the organisation). Other
methods include seminars and workshops, newsletters and bulletins either in hardcopy or
posted on corporate intranets and web sites.

Stage Six - Implementing the Recommendations
Once the findings of an information audit have been developed into strategies, and the
recommendations that have been formulated from the strategies have been successfully
communicated to management and throughout the organisation, plans must be made for
implementation of the recommendations. Nothing can be changed in isolation and each
change that is made in an organisation has a roll on effect. This must be understood when


formulating the recommendations, and also during the implementation process. The
development of a comprehensive implementation plan. A post-implementation review
strategy will facilitate the changes and minimise resistance.

Stage Seven - The Continuum
The initial information audit is the 1st generation information audit (Buchanan, 1998). It has
provided you with a rich dataset that presents a 'snapshot' of where the organisation is at with
regard to its information - this is your first information baseline. It has also provided you with
a database that contains information relating to the information resources, and the
organisation's business units, tasks and activities. Subsequent audits add to the dataset and re-
assess the validity of the information baseline which is constantly changing as the
organisation changes. They also add to and supplement the information resources database to
reflect changes in significance, tasks or organisational structure.

3.2 Strategies/methodologies for IRs Evaluation
When evaluating information resources, we can think of at least three different
strategies/methodologies that can be adopted. In this unit, we identify that information
managers can evaluate their information resources using any of the following strategies or
methodologies: Goal Based Evaluation (GBE); Goal Free Evaluation (GFE) and Criterion
Based Evaluation (CBE) as the case and situation demand.

Goal-Based Evaluation (GBE)

According to Patton (1990) goal- based evaluation is defined as measuring the extent to
which a program or intervention has attained clear and specific objectives. The focus is on
intended services and outcomes of a program – the goals. A GBE is “any type of evaluation
based on and knowledge of and referenced to the goals and objectives of the program, person,
or product, (Scriven, 1991).” This is the typical evaluation with which most of us are
familiar. We have a list of goals and objectives, and we design an evaluation to see how well
we deal with each.

Good et al (1986) claim that evaluations should be measurable and that the evaluation should
meet the requirements specification. The goals that are used for evaluation are derived from
an organisational context. That means that they are situationally applicable, which means that
they act like specific business goals. The basic strategy of this approach is to measure if
predefined goals are fulfilled or not; to what extent and in what ways. The approach is
deductive. What is measured depends on the character of the goals and a quantitative
approach as well as qualitative approach could be used. In this paper we adopt the concept of
goal-based evaluation from Patton (1990) in order to identify this approach.

Goal Free Evaluation (GFE)

Goal-free evaluation (GFE) is any evaluation in which the evaluator conducts the evaluation
without particular knowledge of or reference to stated or predetermined goals and objectives.
GFE is defined as gathering data on a broad array of actual effects and evaluating the
importance of these effects in meeting demonstrated needs (Patton, 1990, Scriven, 1972). The
evaluator makes a deliberate attempt to avoid all rhetoric related to program goals; no
discussion about goals is held with staff; no program brochures or proposals are read; only
the program’s outcomes and measurable effects are studied.


GFE as a strategy for evaluation is identified as a more interpretative approach (e.g.
Remenyi, 1999; Walsham, 1993). The aim of interpretive evaluation is to gain a deeper
understanding of the nature of what is to be evaluated and to generate motivation and
commitment (Hirschheim & Smithson, 1988).

The involvement of a wide range of stakeholder groups is often considered essential to this
approach of evaluation. This can also be a practical obstacle where time or resources for the
evaluation are limited.
Goal-free evaluation has been conducted in program evaluation both by design and by default
in the more than 40 years since Scriven (1972) introduced it, yet several evaluators criticize
GFE as pure rhetoric and imply that it lacks practical application (Irvine, 1979; Mathison,
2005). Although evaluators know of GFE in theory, they have little knowledge of it in
practice. Without knowledge of GFE’s use, evaluators are less likely to believe it can be used.
Shadish, Cook, and Leviton (1991) describe how this leads to a perpetuation of goal-based
evaluation (GBE)

Patton (1990) uses the term goal-free evaluation. The aim of goal-free evaluation is to
(Patton, 1990):
 avoid the risk of narrowly studying stated program objectives and thereby missing
important unanticipated outcomes
 remove the negative connotations attached to discovery of unanticipated effect: “The
whole language of side-effected or secondary effect or even unanticipated effect
tended to be a put-down of what might well be a crucial achievement, especially in
terms of new priorities.”
 eliminate the perceptual biases introduced into an evaluation by knowledge of goals;
 maintain evaluator objectivity and independence through goal-free conditions. In this
paper, we adopt the concept of goal-free evaluation from Patton (1990) in order to
identify this approach. The basic strategy of this approach is inductive evaluation. The
approach aims at discovering qualities of the object of study. One can say that the
evaluator makes an inventory of possible problems and that the knowledge of the
object of study emerges during the progress of the evaluation.

Goal-free evaluation is also used by default in situations where program goals have not been
previously stated or the goals are not known. The case of the anonymous philanthropist who
donates without direction or stipulation serves as an example of GFE by default. For instance,
consider the university that receives money from an anonymous donor who gives to a
university’s endowment: The typical assumption is that the donor supports the existing goals
of the university, but this is clearly an assumption. It is possible that the donor wants to
improve the reputation of the school, increase aid and access to minority students, enhance
the aesthetics of facilities, or to stroke his or her own ego. The point is that if the donor
chooses not to elaborate on the intentions, no one can speak definitively on the “true” goals.
Goal-free evaluation can be used with quantitative or qualitative data-collection
methodologies and Success Case Method.

Criteria-Based Strategy


knowledge audit. Goal Free and Criteria based strategies in information resources evaluation were also explained noting some major differences and relationships among them. It was also revealed that library managers as information resources evaluators can decide on what strategy or method of evaluation to adopt among Goal based strategy. principles or quality ideals. using criteria simply means to set focus on certain qualities that according to the perspective is important to evaluate.0 CONCLUSION This unit has succeeded in establishing the relevance of conducting information audit as veritable tool and strategy for successful information resources evaluation in every organisation whether profit making or not. As information manager. What is typical for this approach is that the IT systems interface/library system is the interaction between users and IT-systems and that serves as a basis for the evaluation together with a set of predefined criteria. The criteria of the evaluation must:  be relevant  be easy to use and valid  be accommodating and include an element of fitness-for-purpose  be operational and form the basis for real assessment  focus on implementation and not only principles  be in consistency with each other 4. This particular topic has been discussed previously in this module. 5. What do you understand by information audit? 2. Again.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1. 6. financial audit. heuristics. However. We noted that a number of perspectives have been advanced in order to develop a clear cut difference between information audit and other audits such as communication audit. a model was introduced in order to learn how to conduct information audit in your organisation. Over the years. you have learnt that each of these strategies has its strength. Why do we conduct information audit in our libraries and information centres? 63 . Also. The basis for these action-oriented criteria is to understand if and how the information resources support the actions performed in the business or meet the needs of users. At the same time the attention according to the criteria also de-emphasize other qualities. weakness and criticism. Goal Free strategy or Criteria based strategy. information managers. There are lots of criteria-based approaches around such as checklists. The concepts of Goal Based. what procedures do you follow to conduct a successful information audit? 3. library and information systems have been using several criteria for assessing the worth of their information resources. must ensure that information resources are evaluated accordingly. However. The criteria chosen govern the evaluator’s attention and thereby the kind of knowledge the evaluator achieves.The third identified strategy is a criteria-based approach.0 SUMMARY We have discussed the concept of information audit. More of such criteria used and principles for evaluation can be found in Cronholm & Goldkuhl (2002) and in Ågerfalk et al (2002). etc. of which librarians are one.

Horne. (2000). B. J. Q.1177/109821409101200108. (2008). H. Thousand Oaks. ON: Pergammon Press. Henczel. & Ingraham. 42-47). The information audit as a first step towards Effective knowledge management: an Opportunity for the special librarian. retrieved 10th may 2009 Worthen. CA: Sage Scriven.1182 Available at: http://scholarworks. November 2000]. http://aje. (2). The Danish Evaluation Institute (2004). (1991). The Information Audit: An Integrated Strategic Approach. Program evaluation.9707/1944-5660. 12. Haertel (Eds. p. Toronto. (1990). Explain the three strategies/methodologies for information resources evaluation? 7. 2.strath. 64 . [To be published East Grinstead: Bowker-Saur. Walberg & G. Impact Apr. Information and knowledge organisational audit: Genesis of integration. Thousand Oaks.4. N. A. Brazilian Journal Information Science (BJIS).W. The Foundation Review. Evaluation Methodology basics: The nuts and bolts of sound evaluation. E. Utilisation-Focused Evaluation: The new century text (3rd ed. DOI: http://dx.unesp. M.sagepub. international encyclopedia of educational evaluation (pp. (2005). M. Downloaded 28/09/99. http://www. The Information Audit: A Practical>.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS Youker. 5(4) Article 7.). G.). (55) DOI: 10. Information As An Asset. American Journal of Evaluation. Henczel. Prose and Cons about Goal-Free Evaluation. 34(3/4). S. 1999. (2014). INSPEL. CA: (1997). Dante. W.doi. S. Patton.3-15.Goal-Free Evaluation: An Orientation for Foundations’ Evaluations. Available in: <http://www. Criteria based evaluations: EVA's experience in evaluations based on criteria Davidson.

retrieving and disseminating information. transmission. retrieving and processing information in libraries have given way for modern ways via Information and Communication Technology (ICT). management. The traditional ways of acquiring. In the view of Salisu (2002). It is a technological development that has changed work and job expectations in library. in what could be called the digital age.0 References/Further Readings 1.0 OBJECTIVES 65 . educational.1 The Meaning of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) 3. The ICT has caused socio-cultural.0 INTRODUCTION Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is an electronic means of capturing. The change in technology using electronically stored and retrieved information have change the way information resources are managed using ICT facilities. Nwachukwu (2005) clearly observed that due to the changes in information and the processes of access. librarians can no longer be simply information providers or “keepers of knowledge”.MODULE THREE: APPLICATION OF ICTs IN INFORMATION RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES Unit 1: The Concept of ICTs Unit 2: Types of ICTs Used in Information Resource Management Unit 3: Roles of ICTs in Information Resource Management Unit 4: Emerging Technologies and Tools in Information Resource Management Unit 5: Challenges and Constraints in ICTs Application in Information Resource Management UNIT 1: The Concept of ICTs CONTENTS 1. These developments in library and information services that have come with the new information age pose reasonable range of developments for libraries. political.0 Conclusion 5. processing. This has touched all facets of library as an organisation and librarians who have been the custodians of information resources.0 Tutor-Marked Assignment 7. libraries and librarians must adapt to new roles and skills to cope with change.2 Characteristics/Features of ICTs 3. Today. and economic change.0 Main Content 3. storage. 2.0 Summary 6. storing. and reproduction.0 Introduction 2. ICT has brought a new approach to work of information services delivery.3 Development of ICTs in Libraries 4.0 Objectives 3. storing.

for example keyboards. It can also view as the electronic means of capturing. storing. scanners. Private automatic box exchange (PABX). and by means of which we exchange and distribute information to others. satellite systems and so on. cameras. ICT are composted of many different tools that enable capturing. students should be able to:  State the meaning of ICT  Identify the characteristics/features of ICTs  Explain the Development of ICTs in Libraries and Information centres 3. In the following figure (UNESCO. The term is used broadly to address a range of technologies. transmission. barcode readers. encompassing: radio.0 MAIN CONTENT 3. storing and transmitting information in a fast and easy way. including telephones and emerging technology devices. Information and Communications Technology or Technologies is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application.1 The Meaning of ICT The ICT is a compound term that is used to refer to the convergence of a wide array of new technologies presently being developed and used in the creation. Moreover. storage. the term ICT is plural. mice. as well as the various services and applications associated with them. and between electronic systems themselves.At the end of this unit. storage. organisation. computer and the internet. computer and network hardware and software. to name a few. This view embraces the full range of ICTs and includes capturing technologies that collect and convert information into digital form. sound. interpreting. retrieval. which provides the mechanism for transporting data in a number of formats including text. ICT can be defined as tools used for collection. microcards and smart cards (such as those used in financial transactions). The American Library Association (1983) defined information technology (IT) as the application of computers and other technologies to the acquisition. photocopier. and disseminating information. mobile phone. Ngenge also defined ICTs as encompassing all those technologies that enable the handling and storing of information and facilitate communication between humans and electronic systems. images. hard disks. processing. 2010). close circuit television sets. and video. Association of African Universities (2000) sees Information Communication Technology as a diverse set of technological tools and resources used for creating. According to UNESCO (2010). record and store information. and image scanners. we can observe several options which allow us to better understand the society where we live: Isah (2006) added that Information Communication Technology devices include telephone. conventional digital camera. referring to a great many technologies and it is an all encompassing term that includes the full gamut of electronic tools by means of which we gather. cellular phones. processing. managing and communicating information. microwave link systems and very small aperture terminal (V-Sat). and dissemination of information. Following closely are storage technologies such as magnetic tapes. and dissemination of information 66 . Central to these is the internet. voice recognition systems. storing. television. fax machines. processing and transmission of information. optical discs (such as CD ROMs). such as videoconferencing and distance learning.

The ever-changing field of technology has made the world a smaller place. computing and communication technologies. transmit or receive information electronically in a digital form and is concerned with these products. manipulate. Library and School systems around the world are developing the ability to provide learning opportunities to students “anytime. For example. ICT has more recently been used to describe the convergence of several technologies and the use of common transmission lines carrying very diverse data and communication types and formats. ICT is changing the way we learn. email. manipulate. broadcast media. they will make cheaper information appliances available which do not require the processing power or size of the PC. or libraries. telephone and computer networks through a common cabling system. More importantly. such as in education. A good way to think about ICT is to consider all the uses of digital technology that already exist to help individuals. especially to more underserved areas of the globe. which eliminates many of the costs associated with cabling. however. Videoconferencing and distance learning allow people thousands of miles apart to speak together as if they were in the same room. A good way to think about ICT is to consider all the uses of digital technology that already exist to help individuals. 3. Information and communications technology (ICT) refers to all the technology used to handle telecommunications. and network-based control and monitoring functions. it is also concerned with the way these different uses can work with each other. digital television. robots. ICT covers any product that will store. personal computers. Converging technologies that exemplify ICT include the merging of audiovisual. digital television. ICT is the integration of information processing. health care. ICT involves more than just sharing of information. The Internet has proved a huge advancement in the ICT community. The elimination of the telephone networks has provided huge economic incentives to implement this convergence. transmit or receive information electronically in a digital form. New advances in hardware and software are making mobile “smart phones” indispensible tools. retrieve.  One-to-One computing. signal distribution. intelligent building management systems. retrieve. user installation. anywhere”. businesses and organisations use information. ICT covers any product that will store. The trend in information management and education around the world is to provide an information appliance to every user/learner and create learning environments that assume universal access to the technology. audiovisual processing and transmission systems. It also includes the quest to improve communication throughout the world. For example. servicing and maintenance costs. as information is easily and rapidly exchanged through devices of telecommunication. phone and television services to homes and businesses through a single optical cable. work and live in society and in a particular context. The implications of this trend for education systems are huge. email. 67 . Internet service providers (ISP) commonly provide Internet. robots. businesses and organisations use information. personal computers.  Ubiquitous learning. For these authors the main ICT´s characteristic are:  Mobile Learning.  Cloud computing.2 Characteristics/features of ICT Laudon and Laudon (2010) stated that the most important drive behind globalization has been the explosion in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sectors.

Schools and libraries around the world are re-thinking the most appropriate learning environments to foster collaborative. optical storage. the mini computer. However. and information theory. The first generation used vacuum tubes. the second used transistors. Education systems are increasingly investigating the use of technology to better understand a student’s knowledge base from prior learning and to tailor teaching to both address learning gaps as well as learning styles. and the fourth used integrated circuits on a single computer chip. still in the experimental stage. Since the 1950s.3 Development of ICT The term "ICT" evolved in the 1970s.  Gaming. Each generation reflected a change to hardware of decreased size but increased capabilities to control computer operations. the micro-processor and related devices and third. Supo (2000) viewed features of Information Communication Technology in the form of their operations. On the other hand. built in incentives and interaction suggests that current educational methods are not falling short and that educational games could more effectively attract the interest and attention of learners. 3. graphics. and video discs etc.  Digitization of information – text. new facilities for cheap and rapid transmission of information over long distance.  Redefinition of learning spaces.c. and retrieving of data related to learning will help teachers to better understand learning gaps and customize content and pedagogical approaches. with greatly increased capacity for data transmission  Decrease size of equipment  Increased reliability of hardware and software. He notes that the main features of recent development in information and communication technologies can be summed up as follows. sorting. computers. the military remained the major source of research and development funding for the expansion of automation to replace manpower with machine power.  Smart portfolio assessment.  Cheaper data storage facilities for example optical storage media. students centered learning. new ways to store information compactly and cheaply-magnetic storage on tapes and discs. photographs. sound.  Better data transfer between different system and media. Advances in artificial intelligence that will minimize the need for complex programming characterize the fifth generation of computers. can be traced to the World War II alliance of the military and industry in the development of electronics. James Thompson (1982) observed that ‘there are three key components of Information Communication Technology: first. cross-disciplinary. The collection. new mechanisms to manipulate. the third used integrated circuits. Second. telecommunication systems and networks. management. After the 1940s.  Improved telecommunications such as ISDN.  Increase computer power leading to speed and cheaper computer processing. four generations of computers have evolved. scan and search such stored records – the large scale computer.t. It is a basic concept. 68 . video e. speed. however. The phenomenal success of games with a focus on active participation.  Personalized learning.

 To introduce and provide new services. and processing ability. Internet access and an increasing diversity in format of resources. Minicomputers came on to the scene in the early 1980s in small businesses. As many primary journals and being published in CD form. ICT enables a library:  To capture. Supercomputers were used in science and engineering. 1999).The first commercial computer was the UNIVAC I. which can be used for faster access to information in the libraries. The first and foremost ICT component. Therefore. In 1976. mainframe computers were used in large corporations to do calculations and manipulate large amounts of information stored in databases. manufacturing plants. store. E-mails. Wide Area Networks. libraries no longer disseminate information only in a packaged a print media but in a multimedia format with a speed of light. laptop. the Apple microcomputer was introduced in 1977. the availability of library management software is dictating that library automation be the norm. manipulate. and microcomputer. Ukoha (2010) observed that the way information is made available and the way users access it have changed. online retrieval networking. Tandy Corporation's first Radio Shack microcomputer followed. mainframe. However. The sudden emergence of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in the 1940s launched the world’s information packaging and services into a global electronic platform.4 Development of ICTs in Libraries The development and availability of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in libraries have today not only increased and broadened the impact of information resources at their doorsteps. but Local Area Networks. Thus. Their applications in libraries. Tanner (1997) noted the effect not only of automation of library management. have indeed continued to ease and promote quick and timely access to and transfer of information resources that are found dispensed round the globe. but also placed more emphasis on effective and efficient services. minicomputer. which can be adopted in the libraries. Not only are library systems becoming increasingly more commonly computerised. and for predicting worldwide weather patterns. For the next twenty-five years. Mauchly in 1951. rather than the exception (Freeman. 69 . 3. cost. the Massachusetts Institute of Technology developed microcomputers. The market for microcomputers increased dramatically when IBM introduced the first personal computer in the fall of 1981. the current decade is one in which digital technology is making a huge impact on libraries. for designing aircraft and nuclear reactors. Computers today are divided into four categories by size. and distribute information. network. it becomes necessary to equip the libraries with ICT to optimize the use of information. commonly known as library automation. multimedia and internet are the other important technologies. and factories. revitalize the existing services by providing faster access to the resources. Personal computer categories include desktop. by overcoming the space and time barriers. They are supercomputer. Because of dramatic improvements in computer components and manufacturing. and handheld. In 1975. It was used by the Census Bureau to predict the outcome of the 1952 presidential election. more commonly known as a personal computer. developed by John Eckert and John W. is the computer for library automation and to have an in-house database of library holdings in electronic form. personal computers today do more than the largest computers of the mid-1960s at about a thousandth of the cost.

 To provide need-based. to have large number of databases in CDs.  To improve the efficiency of library functions.0 CONCLUSION In this unit.  To digitize the documents for preservation and for space saving. electronic publishing. Minishi Majanja. that LIS curriculum in Nigeria did not integrate majority of the courses or competencies highlighted above by Ocholla which made the Job market in Nigeria unattractive to the practitioners. (tailor made). facsimile transmission. online searching and retrieval. Ocholla. Several African LIS educators and scholars have reiterated the need to produce efficient and effective graduates equipped with competencies for working in the current information environment. automatic indexing and abstracting. browsing and retrospective search services to the users. acquisition control. according to the writer. 4. This. word processing.  To access library catalogues databases of other libraries through library networks. telecommunications. database construction and management. inter library loans and co-operation and in the participation of international bibliographic project. spreadsheets. the LIS curriculum development in Nigeria has shown considerable strides in infusing ICT competencies as most LIS schools have developed relevant ICT courses and also merged relevant ICT knowledge in traditional curriculum. CD-ROM services. is because the application of ICT to library operations greatly helps in the provision of efficient reference and information services. home page design and administration.  To develop/upgrade the abilities of professionals. 70 .  To retrieve and disseminate the information in user-defined format. is increasingly becoming ICT-dependent (Adeya. which though still largely traditional. and archiving of audio visual and electronic documents. It is unfortunate. 2004. 2003). selection of software and hardware. stock  maintenance and other routine office works and developing in-house database. However. Nwachuku (2004) opines that ICTs application to library works and services could be seen as the best way that could be used to assist researchers to adequately solve their literature need for effective research activities. authority control. you have been exposed to topics that are related to ICTs and ICTs in Libraries which is new trends that help in effective and efficient resource management in libraries.  To encourage networking and resource sharing at local level. serials control. most LIS schools teach these ICT courses theoretically because they have inadequate laboratories of computers and poor Internet access. Ocholla (2003) observes that the LIS job market requires additional and new competencies such as computer literacy. and  To improve the cost effectiveness of library operations.  To support library functions such as circulation. desktop publishing. Others include electronic current awareness service.  To have access to a number of national and international journals which are being published only in machine readable form. 2001. library automation systems. This negative development has been caused by the Government for not providing effective policy formulation and implementation especially with regards to ICTs deployment in the educational development. the utilisation of network operations such as cataloguing. text digitisation.  To utilize the staff for providing better information services. However.

T. you will learn many other things in relation to ICTs in libraries. Info. J. Lagos. (2002) Whiter continuing professional education (CPE) for librarians Lagos Librarian 23 (182) 15-22 71 . 6. and Aboyade. 21(2-3): 181-194. P. Auditing of information and communication technologies in library and information science education in Africa. we have devoted some time to the discussion of ICTs and ICTs related facilities that take new shape in the library as well as the characteristics of ICTs. An overview of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the LIS schools of Eastern and Southern Africa. W. Freeman. 39(2): 121-133... Inter. Technical Experts meeting. C. HVK Polytechnic 5 th December Laudon.M. Isah. (2006) Professional Development of Business Education teachers on Information Communication Technology for effective leadership in education. Rev. A. Njoku IF (2007) Library and information science education in Nigeria: curricula contents versus cultural realities.. (2004). Ben. 17th – 19th May. Oxford: INASP. Macquarie University. Info. A. Information and communication technologies in Africa: a selective review of studies and projects. Association of Africa Universities (2000) ‘The use and application of Information Communication Technology in Higher Education Institutions in Africa. 22(3/4): 187- 221.5. Management Information Systems.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1.0 SUMMARY In the unit. Ogunsola. In the next unit. Dacomms Communications Diso LI. 11(1): 7-14 Salisu. Minishi-Majanja MK. Upper Saddle River (New Jersey): Pearson Global Edition. The aim of this exercise is to make you a good information resource manager using ICT facilities.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS Adeya CN (2001). (1999). Computer skill competencies among academic librarian: An imperative for the computerization of Nigerian University Libraries. A. Mbomu (2003) ‘Internet and the World Wide Web. Ocholla DN (2004). Identify the basic characteristics/features of ICT? 3. Info. Information and Communication Technology in Nigeria: Revolution or Evolution. & Laudon. Highlight the development of ICTs in Libraries? 7. (2005). Lib. A paper presented at National Conference organized by CAMS. A. Nwachukwu. February 12. V.N. Edu. Edu. Organisation of resources: Introductory talk for Charles Sturt subject ETL403. K. Journal of Social Sciences. The Nigerian Library Link 2 (1) Ocholla DN (2003). L. Eleventh Edition. (2010). Define the concept of information and communication technology? 2.

2 . Ukoh. (1984). K. Do teacher librarians still buy books? School library collection in the electronic age. 2010. K. 28 June. A. 72 . A paper presented at the international Workshop on Current trends and technologies in libraries and information services in the 21st century the way forward at covenant university.I. (1997). O. Ogun state. “Application of Modern Technology in the Library. Paper presented at the ALA schools section (Victorian Group) seminar. Current technologies in library and information services: issues and challenges. Ukoha. 2(1&2): 3. Nigerian Library and Information Science Review.Tanner. pp. (2010).8. 24th-26th March.

Information Resource Management also is a term regarding to planning.0 Conclusion 5. 73 .0 References/Further Reading 1. creation.0 Tutor-Marked Assignment 7. libraries now use various types of technologies to aid the services they render. etc. promoting. students should be able to:  Identify various ICT facilities used in information resource management  Discuss the need for Intranet in Information Resource Management 3.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit. and dissemination of information by libraries. It is the aspect of the practice that is responsible for selecting. collection.1 Concept of Information Resource Management While collection development relates to the selection and acquisition of information Resources. preservation. and includes the management of information and related resources in the library 3. it includes a policy on the general management of resources in the library known as “Information Resource Management Policy” which may include the policy on the conservation.0 Objectives 3.0 MAIN CONTENT 3. 2.0 INTRODUCTION One of the fundamental functions of the Library and information centres is Collection Development.2 Need for Intranet in Information Resource Management 4. One of the fundamental of ICT used in Information resource management is Internet. The impacts of new technologies are felt by libraries in every aspect including information resource management. budgeting. and management activities associated with the burden. in additions.0 Summary 6. training. and acquiring information resources that will enable Libraries and Librarians to perform their myriad functions to the users effectively. directing. selection. Everyday new technological advances affect the way information is handled in libraries and information centres. Information Resource Management is an all-encompassing term that ensures there is a balance of materials acquired with respect to various disciplines.UNIT TWO: TYPES OF ICT USED IN INFORMATION RESOURCE MANAGEMENT CONTENT 1.0 Introduction 2.2 ICT Facilities Used in Information Resource Management With the invention of Information and Communication Technology. and security of Library Resources. use. controlling.1 ICT Facilities Used in Information Resource Management 3. types of materials.0 Main Content 3. weeding. organising.

the potential of internet exploitation is multifold extra than the network limited intranet. type of data exchanged. Internet is a collection of websites that are fairly connected to each other in every possible manner and readily accept new users to be registered irrespective of the fact that they are employees of that particular organisation or not. it not only becomes easier to access data but is also very cost effective as lesser amount of hardware is required by the organisation then.3 Need for Intranet in Information Resource Management As an organisation grows in terms of data and services. However. such as electronic mail. public space. file transfer. Moreover. in order to access the Facebook accounts. the website and the servers for this purpose form the essential information technology foundation for the company. The 74 . Hence. is not accessible unless a gateway is provided for data exchange. It is a worldwide. On the other hand. Installing a separate division that keeps the hard copies of all company services is quite lumber some and is difficult to maintain. Thus. The interconnection of the employee computers makes them exchange crucial information and program codes very easily and swiftly over LAN. 3. The website. the website enables a network for its employees to connect irrespective of their location and time. Most of intranet accessing modes refer to the website of the organisation which can only be accessed by its employees who have a user name and password. integration of all departments is highly desired. This functionality of easy employee access with significant security measures is provided by intranet. publicly accessible series of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). which together carry various information and services. intranet is a privately owned part of the internet under which only a selected number of IPs are allowed to communicate. and the interlinked Web pages and other documents of the World Wide Web. this interconnection portal is totally aloof from the Facebook accounts of the employees or their Gmail accounts. Even though the internet regulatory organisations of various countries have some restrictions on the internet.Internet is the worldwide interconnection of all smart communication devices that have a valid IP. Whereas. they might have to open a different browser window or even activate an employee IM communicator. However. The Internet is an open. The information shared on the internet is unbound in terms of location. a worldwide system of interconnected computer networks. employees cannot access. online chat. business. they need to activate any such pre-requisite and just logging on to the webpage would be enough requirement. A clear difference between internet and intranet can be understood with the help of an example explained below Consider Facebook employees to be connected to each other through a back end interconnection. academic. though available through the internet methods. To access the employee interconnection. There's one major distinction between an intranet and the Internet. When the data storage and access is turned into the software way with allowing only a selective number of people to access it. and government networks. Intranet is commonly used in connecting computers of a certain organisation to remain connected and don’t face any interference from the IPs outside the intranet. The method through which only employees can connect and communicate is the intranet working and the connection through which employees can access Facebook and their Gmail accounts is internet enabled and is not restricted. accessing data and calculating it becomes very easy. Even a little glitch in communication can cause big problems in data processing and fiscal matters. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of smaller domestic.

This is because the public Internet is at the mercy of traffic spikes. we discussed some of the available ICT facilities in Information resource management like Internet and Intranet. global Internet users cannot get onto an intranet unless they have access to it. and much more. increased productivity. over an intranet. Mention and explain any five ICT facilities that can be used in information resource management in any Nigerian Academic library? 2. The broad bandwidths that are used in intranets allow for speedier communication and access to information than the Internet. One main difference is that users of an intranet can get on the Internet. but as a rule it's protected by a password and accessible only to employees or other authorized users. catalogues. an intranet can be a separate entity as long as its owners do not require that users have access to information found on the Internet. such as audio and video. an intranet server may respond much more quickly than a typical Web site. This versatility gives the Internet its power. The use of an intranet allows companies to control their business easier and manage their employees more successfully. the Internet is the global World Wide Web. This makes it easier to serve high-bandwidth content. and chat scripts are still used. The private internal networks (such as a LAN) offer security and protection in the form of the aforementioned firewalls as well as password-protected access and secure servers. added flexibility. You should start explore the ICTs facilities in your library 5. Discuss the need for Intranet in organisations? 7. When they were first introduced. while an intranet is a private Internet operating within a company.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1. 6. An intranet often gets confused with the Internet.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READING 75 . an intranet may be accessible from the Internet. however. servers.0 CONCLUSION This unit has exposed you to different ICT facilities that can be use in information resource management. and versatility are other factors that intranet users take advantage of. In fact. bulletin boards. From within a company. magazines. While there are a lot of similarities between them. That soon changed when businesses started to realize just how important a tool an intranet can be. they really are two different things. While an intranet is designed to be a private space. an intranet can be ran without an Internet connection. server breakdowns and other problems that may slow the network. books. All of this adds up to a bottom line that is attractive in any business decision: the ability to save money and increase profit. A company would want to set up an intranet for many reasons.0 SUMMARY In this unit. Both the Internet and an intranet use TCP/IP protocol as well as features like e-mail and typical World Wide Web standards. intranets were dismissed by critics as the latest in a seemingly endless parade of technological fads and buzzwords.Internet is a combination of several media technologies and an electronic version of newspapers. but thanks to protection measures like computer firewalls. Within a company. users have much more bandwidth and network hardware may be more reliable. Less paperwork. While Internet technologies like browsers. 4. Simply put.

(2012) Availability and use of Electronic Information Resources in University libraries in South South Nigeria. University of Nigeria. The Nigerian reality Brazillian Journal of library & Information Science 5 (1) pp 60 – 68 76 . Tony .I.Obaseki Tony . Phd thesis Department of Library and Information Science.I. Obaseki. (2010) Library Computerization.

0 Tutor-Marked Assignment 7.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit.2 ICTs Used in Libraries and Information Centres Cataloguing and Catalogs Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) is a great relief to users of the library catalogue in the sense that.1 ICTs Used in Information Resource Management ICT on LIS means as the application of computers and communication technologies to the acquisition.0 Main Content 3. retrieval and dissemination of information process.0 Conclusion 5.0 INTRODUCTION Rana (2009) opines that ICT holds the key to the success of modernizing information services.0 Objectives 3.0 References/Further Reading 1. students should be able to:  Identify ICTs Used in Information Resource Management  Discuss the areas of ICTs application in Libraries 3. organisation. Overdue notices are generated and sent to users through their e-mails. This means that the maintenance of the information. ISBN. Therefore. The card catalog which was replaced in the early 1990s has itself been replaced with a Web- based interface. users can search the online library catalogue through ISSN. ICT can be use in information resource management in the following: 3. and combination of title and author etc.1 ICTs used in Information Resources Management 3.0 Summary 6. Convergence of computer and communication technologies and their subsequent application to library and information activities such as information resource management has changed the philosophy of information from unitary to universal access. Also.0 Introduction 2. retrieval and dissemination of information to the users 2. has to be accurate and the level of sophistication and technical expertise to handle the amount of information added to the library’s own knowledge base increases 77 . different users can search for the same information at the same time using different terminals which is impossible through the traditional card catalogue. typically handled by library support staff.0 MAIN CONTENT 3.2 ICTs used in Libraries and Information Centres 4. storage.UNIT THREE: ROLES OF ICTS IN INFORMATION RESOURCE MANAGEMENT CONTENT 1. Applications of ICT are numerous but mainly it is used in converting the existing paper-print records in the entire process of storage.

Invoices can be downloaded from the websites that makes service faster and avoids postal delay. price checking etc are done very effectively using ICT technique. Also important to note. IT also helps in the process of the serial control in the university library. Order placing. 2004:5). Preservation of digital materials poses many challenges. Collection Development Collection development can be defined as the selection and acquisition of library materials based on current and potential user needs. Digital Preservation of Data One of the major costs facing the academic library is the cost related to the conversion and preservation of information in digital format. duplication checking. ever changing user needs. negotiation of contracts and evaluation of resources. Acquisition of library resources With the help of web. 78 . E-mail helps in sending reminders to the publishers. Although. The sheer volume of information available also makes selection of the most suitable information a complex task (Fishel. One of the problems with converting records into digital image is the fact that the technology used to store these pages as a digital photograph results in large files which have storage implications and place demands on band-with (Wood & Walther. it also impacts the collection development process of library negatively. It helps in preparing union list of serials and helps in circulating via e-mail to the branch libraries. ICT in its capacity aids collection development by providing a wider range of information resources to choose from. Collection management goes beyond this.yearly as the capacity to store and access information has increased. 2000:463). Collection management implies involvement in tasks such as analysis of needs. Online bookshops and publisher’s websites save the time of the librarians. There are budgetary constraints. the online catalog is accessible from anywhere as it is a web-based catalog. The latest edition of Uhlrich’s has indicated the availability of more than 172 000 journal titles. It is further complicated by the fact that computer technology changes at an unprecedented rate. numerous formats. For the procurement of journals. This has to do with expectations that the costs of digital preservation over length of time might be very high. 2000:175). 2004:1). The impact of electronic resources has made collection management a very complex and challenging task. storage and accessibility of a collection. Funding allocated to preservation of digital material is generally inadequate. It is also difficult to forecast cost in terms of how long to retain digital material in an archive and computer architectures needed to access material (Lavoie & Dempsey. Collection development can thus be seen as a subdivision of collection management (Singh. acquisition work has become very much simplified. Academic librarians find themselves in an era of unparalleled access to information. This does not include the cost relating to the annotation for indexing purposes and the cost of conversion of audio-visual material. vendors and even to the borrowers of the books. Although this appears to be a most ideal situation it is not because the financial resources available in acquisitions departments have not necessarily increased. It is concerned with managing the utilisation. order is placed in the prescribed format to the publishers through Internet.

and variety of display formats & styles. (2001).bls. Advance features like natural language query ranking the search results in also available in many databases.on 4/6/2010.pdf on 18/5/2010 K. STN and Silver Platter are some of the popular database companies that offer bibliographic and reference databases on CDROM and Online platforms. In Crosby. K. Discuss the areas of ICT application in Libraries and Information centers? 7. Web based services facilitate full text searches and link to full text of the documents. efficient and cost effective information retrieval. and Babu. 2001). Electronic databases also provide unique search features such as searching on multiple criteria (key-word. classification code. offers convenient. 6. 79 .0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1. Occupational Outlook Quarterly (Winter.).nu/Articles/Vol 4/v4n/po25- 034-pdf.0 SUMMARY In this unit. (2000). and does not always produce up to date result. inform. 5.H. O. subject. Dialog.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READING Fishel. 4. author. F. year of publication. source. What are the roles of ICTs in information resource management? 2.www. (2001). Browsing through the manual indexes and abstracts is a tedious and time consuming work. Some of these facilities are already in our libraries while others are yet to be exploited. Role of Librarian in internet and World Wide Web Environment. Information Science 4 (1) 25-34. Availability of databases in electronic form on CDROM or online.N. language etc. particularly in research and academic libraries. Information experts in the Information age. ‘’ Training on use of technology in Libraries’’ Oral interview. reading lists and state-of-art reports are very parts of LIS work.0 CONCLUSION We concluded that there are a lot of ICT facilities that can be used in information resource management.Bibliographic Service Compilation of bibliographies. you now understand the various ICT facilities that can be used to manage our library resources.

2 ICT based New Services in Libraries and Information Centres 4.0 Introduction 2.0 Main Content 3.0 Summary 6.1 ICT tools and Information Services 3.0 References/Further Reading 80 .UNIT FOUR: EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND TOOLS IN INFORMATION RESOURCE MANAGEMENT CONTENT 1.0 Tutor-Marked Assignment 7.0 Objectives 3.0 Conclusion 5.

and 2. timeliness and currency of information. Information Services Some of the important changes that developments in ICT have brought about in information services are: 1. New Services. like acquisition. company information etc. While general IT application tools and Integrated Library Management Systems are largely used in housekeeping operations. providing convenience of use.1. Extinction or significant transformation of some of the conventional information services such as press clippings. cataloguing. the role of the LIS professional is changing from an intermediary to a facilitator and enabler. Computer storage and compression technologies have made it possible to store 81 . ICT enabled conventional LIS. Changes in formats. Shift from physical to virtual services that offer convenience of time and location for access to services. Internet has been used extensively as a resource as well as a tool to deliver the Library and Information Services. 4.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit. Today almost every important reference tools is available in electronic format whether offline (CDROM) or online. Use of new tools and technologies for dissemination of information. 6. Transformation of role of LIS professional as the subject specialist and end-user gets directly involved in the information work and consequent need for new skills.0 MAIN CONTENT 3. 2. 5. contents pages. circulation control. This requires procedural and infrastructural changes and cost implications in Libraries. and a new business model for use of information products. which have been made possible due to developments in ICT. 2.0 INTRODUCTION ICT’s has tremendously changed the Management of Resources or House Keeping Operations as well as the way services are delivered. 3. Emergence of Internet as the largest repository of information and knowledge.1 ICTs Tools and Information Resource Management In the specific context of Library and Information Services. storage. students should be able to:  Identify ICTs Tools and Information services  Discuss the ICT Based New Services 3. ICT has enabled users to avail many services without any human intervention. one of the implications of use of ICT is that Libraries can reach out globally to provide their services 24-hours a day in very cost effective manner. In this Unit we have grouped the ICT enabled services into two categories as follow: 1. serials control etc. that can be delivered more efficiently through use of ICT. contents and methods of production & delivery of information products.

and Current Awareness Service in ICT enabled environment. Electronic databases also provide unique search features such as searching on multiple criteria (key-word. Finding particular information in an electronic reference tool is also very convenient and fast. Search engines now provide tremendous power to search and select Internet information effectively and in a user friendly manner. user training. of articles selected from the current issues of journals and other material. and variety of display formats & styles. It means that the library has access to more reference tools that are more up to date and cheaper. Information can also be delivered in a variety of media using different tools. and online edition of chemical abstracts is updated every week. source. pricing and evaluation of services and products.large amount of data and information on small digital and optical media. author. From the LIS professional’s point of view. a major part of which is available free of cost. Reference Service: Asynchronous tools such as email. subject gateways. Advance features like natural language query ranking the search results in also available in many databases. and ask-me are replacing theconventional means of post. The reference librarian either provides an answer. links to resources or link to a subject expert. chat. discussion forum etc. email. efficient and cost effective information retrieval. New skills in information retrieval. Since its inception. Bibliographic Service. It is also faster and easier to keep the electronic sources up to date. and usually organized by subjects. copyrights. subject. Dialog. such as CDROM. reading lists and state-of-art reports are very parts of LIS work. For example the focus has shifted from owning the information to right to use. Current Awareness Service: Current Awareness Services has been important means for keeping the users up to date in their areas of interest. For example a 24-volume Encyclopedia Britannica can be stored on a single CDROM. Libraries now compile current awareness bulletins using predefined search strategy and running on the database either on CDROM or online periodically and getting the desired 82 . particularly in research and academic libraries. and electronic libraries and interactive tools like chat rooms. Browsing through the manual indexes and abstracts is a tedious and time consuming work. This has opened a whole new area of interest in issues like licensing. STN and Silver Platter are some of the popular database companies that offer bibliographic and reference databases on CDROM and Online platforms. Bibliographic Service: Compilation of bibliographies. Availability of databases in electronic form on CDROM or online.). year of publication. technology management etc are required by the LIS professionals. FAQs. and does not always produce up to date result. language etc. classification code. Internet has emerged as the largest repository of knowledge and information containing billions of documents. offers convenient. web design. Ask-a- Librarian allows the user to click on ask-a-librarian link to send a formatted enquiry to the reference librarian. Reference service. Web based services facilitate full text searches and link to full text of the documents. phone or in-person reference enquiries. eliminating requirement for large space for holding the printed sources. virtual reference desk. new environment means adaptation to a different management paradigm. A current awareness service may be as simple as copy of table of contents or a bulletin containing bibliographic records. Some new information services are described later. In the following paragraphs we will now briefly discuss a few types of information services viz. The LIS professional’s focus is on making partnership and designing user- friendly interfaces to facilitate users to do their information work. Interactive tools now allow a reference interview online. marketing.

Locating a source and procuring the document requires considerable time and efforts and the process is laden with uncertainties. and value added services. ideas and opinions. Access to the catalogue of partner libraries is crucial to inter-library lending. hot topics. One such document delivery service provider British Library Document Supply Service (BLDSC) offers a flexible system of receiving orders and tracking. For example one can register on New York Times newspapers to receive summary of news on daily basis. The documents can be received in print as well as electronic format. education and entertainment. Webzines and e-newsletters are common. in a subject area. From searching the holdings to ordering and delivery have been benefited by the use of ICT. They review. Audiovisual Services Audiovisual materials are important sources of information. Union catalogues. Weblogs literally log the web.output. and disseminated online (internet. Developments in digital library and internet technologies have made it possible to automatically update the catalogue records from member library systems. and Digital Video Disks (DVD) have advantage of higher 83 . Inter-Library Loans and Union Catalogues As described earlier. ICT has made the document delivery services very simple and reliable. Some publishers even offer free email update of table of contents. pictures and photographs etc. standardization and machine readable catalogues are aimed at promoting resource sharing. distributed searches using a single user interface. Table of contents of most journals are available free from the publishers’ sites. which generates location of the sources. methods of production and distribution of current awareness products. Many libraries particularly media libraries and large academic and public libraries hold audio visual material such as music. Internet has enabled a lot of innovations in contents. Listserv give the latest information. BLDSC’s email based document supply system allows registered users to send requests through a formatted email that automatically is processed by BLDSC’s system. Old media of LP records and tape slide have long been replaced with audio and video tape. Full text of electronic journal articles that are available in electronic form may also be downloaded through links provided by aggregator or gateway services. Many library networks maintain union catalogue of their member’s journal holdings. The new multimedia of audio CD. CDROM. Tools such as Listserv. intranet) and offline (print. A large number of electronic publishing sites or portals now offer current information via email to registered users. films. email). Video CD (VCD). a chance to discuss issues. select and package the latest relevant information. Libraries use document delivery services from other libraries and commercial organisations for copies of research papers etc not held by them. the output can also be stored on a local system. Subject to copyrights. Resource sharing through Inter-library loan is a necessity for the libraries. Online and web based database services such as STN provides link to document delivery services of their own or a third party. no library can fulfill all the needs of its users from its collection. a source of advice and assistance. Printed union catalogues and Computer Output on Microfiche (COM) catalogues and CDROM are now being replaced by web OPAC and web based union catalogues. A large number of libraries now host their up to date holdings on their website and can be searched on internet. Librarians can now access catalogues of thousands of libraries across the world using Internet. Document Delivery It is not possible for libraries to have everything that its clients may need. Weblog.

suggestion box. Libraries are making use of potential of internet and computing power to provide new and innovative services. bulletins boards. use of new means of communications such as email. Many libraries allow their members to borrow these. Some of these tools can even be used by the libraries to involve the users in book selection etc. customer services and user training are important aspects of its activities. making interactive library maps and floor plan available on the library web site. Not only these tools provide a fast. stand-alone or networked. Library’s customer relations can be tremendously improved by innovative use of technology like virtual library tours. self-help tools and frequently asked questions. In a web enabled environment the new LIS services can be grouped into the following three categories:  Providing access to internet and internet based services  Providing access to web based resources  Providing access local or internal information resources in digital form Internet Access Internet is not only a medium for digital communication but also the world’s largest repository of information. but also offer scope for innovations and greater peer participation. Large segment of user groups may still be deprived of personal access to internet facility. rules etc can be hosted on the library web site. Conventional user education programs can be supplemented with web based instructions and guides for use of resources. under developed internet infrastructure in a country like Nigeria. Depending upon the availability users 84 . Multimedia documents can now be played on standard PCs. Recent developments in storage media. provide free or controlled access to internet and email. convenient and transparent and cost effective medium.2 ICT Based New Services A library web page or Universal Resource Locator (URL) facilitates single window access to various web enabled library services. While the conventional means of interaction such as meetings. A URL could be as simple as a library web page listing the services with some links to catalogue and external free and subscribed resources or may include advance features like interactive helps and value added services such as subject gateways. calendar. Software such as Quick Time Player. However. The contents of user training must include use of internet tools and resources. Libraries. discussion forums and listserv are fast replacing these. and information about the library such as timings. Customer Relations and User Education Library being service organisation. therefore. poses a serious challenge to growth of ICT enabled services. web forms. A highly ICT enabled environment requires appropriate training to its users also. Apart from the ICTs enabled conventional capacity. A continuous interaction with users for feedback and information is a must to maintain the standards of service. In the conventional class room based user education also ICT tools are used for presentation and demonstration. surveys and interviews are still important. Microsoft Media Player etc are now freely available to play or see these documents in a browser. 3. compression and encryption technology have made it possible to store large amount of multimedia documents on hard disk and disseminate through internet. random access and longer life than audio and video tapes and cassettes.

and talking books in MP3 format. space requirements and decreasing level of usage as the journals get older. Access to Web Based Resources As already discussed. and multimedia and self-publishing possibilities. A large number of universities have converted their theses and dissertation collection into digital libraries and have made it available on Internet for global access. where researchers submit theses in electronic format. Nevertheless. Electronic Journals can be accessed via internet from any web enabled PC. poor infrastructure. Emerald. Development of e-book in Nigeria is still in the infancy stage and issues like in development of web based union catalogues of ETDs submitted over 100 libraries throughout the world are worth mentioning. OCLC and J-Gate are some of the example of e-journal aggregator services. pictures. usually in bound form. annotation. E-books can be read just like a paper book. From the library’s point of view digital format offers convenience of storage and maintenance. newspapers. and ability to disseminate and share information. and links to journal site for full text. social and technological problems. Electronic journals also offer benefit of full text searching and downloading of articles. Usually a few internet enabled terminals are provided in the library that can be used by the visitors for internet access and email etc. many types of library materials such as journals. problems in internet access and speed.can be given time slots for use of internet facility. using dedicated E-Book reader such as GemStar eBook or on a computer screen after downloading it. Depending on the type of subscription. cost advantage. E-Journals: Libraries have been exploring easy to cope with the problems of ever increasing prices of the journals. A number of universities have also implemented Electronic Theses and Dissertation programmes. The main disadvantage of electronic journal is that libraries cannot physically possess the journals. text search. ability to link to further reading material. except that the text can be changed. E-Books: E-Book has been described as a text analogous to a book that is in digital form to be displayed on a computer screen. either directly from an independent web enabled PC or in a local area network through a proxy server (IP addresses based access). e-book readers. Access to articles in electronic journals can also be made through aggregator services which offer searchable databases of contents of e-journals from several publishers. availability and intellectual property rights are to be addressed before it can be implemented on large scale. one or more users can access the service simultaneously. books. and perceptional change resulting from right to use rather than physical possession. E- book offer advantages like portability. 85 . photographs. motion pictures or music are now available in electronic or digital form. lack of sufficient skills to use the digital resources. standards. patents. Some initiatives such as Networked Digital Library of Dissertation and Theses (NDLTD) (www. linking. etc. From the user’s point of view digital resources hold many advantages such as time and place convenience. However. Electronic Journal helps the librarians in addressing these problems to a great extent without significantly affecting the service levels. Many publishers of electronic journals offer their journals through consortia of libraries at much lower rates. ability to target global users. which is much like paper.ndltd. Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD): Dissertations and theses produced at universities are important sources of information and knowledge for further research. such as discomfiture in reading on the screen. 24 hours access. There are also some newer technologies developing such as electronic paper. digital resources also pose human. libraries are required to maintain back issues of the journals. timeliness. ability to search directly on text (as against the catalogue records). etc.

but is an inefficient use of bandwidth and time.uspto. This can be done by providing links to the courseware sites through subject gateways or provide local access after downloading the material. MERLOT-Multimedia Educational Resources for Learningand Online Teaching(http://www.thegateway. Large public and academic libraries also provide up to date local information via internet.g. Crossnet Systems Ltd. Setting up a digital library can either be done using ‘off-the-shelf’ digital library products. Archives or record management is also part of Library’s . These are basically a dynamic catalogues of pre-dominantly online resources. who picks up the sources after careful evaluation. remote access to high-demand or restricted materials for multiple concurrent users. Some of the off-the-shelf products are from Blue Angel Technologies.html ).careo.merlot. photographs and paintings etc. Digital Library and Archives Many Libraries traditionally have been repositories of local information and heritage documents such as manuscripts. Endeavor 86 . research reports etc represent the intellectual strength of the institution. documents generated in-house such as dissertation and theses. In other cases such as university libraries. Libraries can provide access to course material to the learners and teacher and thus contribute to open learning. Such guides are normally prepared in consultation with the subject experts or by a subject librarian. Digital libraries are a natural progression from electronic document sharing. particularly in business and research organisations. Many academic institutions have adopted such course material for their curricula. Some of the important sites where web based course material and tools can be found are Ask ERIC ( . Subject Gateways Preparing subject guides or path finders has been an intellectual activity for reference librarians.syr. though some libraries include information on print resources as document management products or library management products capable of digital library management. Random surfing of the Internet may be a popular pastime.The Gateway to Educational Materials (http://www. description and how to access. rare books. Advanced subject gateways offer searchable catalogue or even full text search facility on listed sources. Generally access to subject gateways is provided through library website.Patents: Many patent issuing authorities now have made their complete full text patent records online. and GEM. designed to help library users discover high-quality information on the internet in a quick and effective way. One of the most useful ways to discover quality resources in a particular subject area is use of subject- based Internet gateways and directories. LESTER-Learning Science & Technology Repository ( Some of the commercial organisations such as Derwent also provide downloading of full text patent from either an online database vendor (e. and providing Internet or intranet access to these.rice. CONTENTdm. A subject gateway thus is a facility that allows easier access to web based resources in a defined subject area. Libraries are developing digital repositories of such resources. STN) or directly from their site to the subscribers Course Material: A large number of web based course ware and teaching aids are being developed to facilitate flexible open learning by many universities and commercial organisations. class number. CAREO-Campus Alberta Repository of Educational Objects Alexandria (http://www. For example United States patent documents can be searched and downloaded free of cost from (www. The main benefit of digital library is the ability to provide 24-hour. or in-house system development using open archives software. A simple subject gateway may list web based or print resources on a given subject with links to the website of the resources and some useful information such as keywords.

Epixtech. it make the resources to manage effectively 5. 4.0 SUMMARY In this unit you are exposed to the emerging technologies in information resource management that really changed the way information resources are managed. ESP.H. Identify the emerging ICT tools in Information Resources Management? 2. K.Fretwell-Downing Informatics.0 CONCLUSION In the specific context of Library and Information Science. IBM.M. Identify the ICT new based services that could be introduce in any organisation of your choice? 7. These technologies include the new ICT based services such as providing access to internet and internet based services providing access to web based resources and providingto access local or internal information resources in digital form 6.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS ) is leading open source digital library management software.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1.Information Systems . (2000) 'An investigation of the use of intranet technology in UK retail banks'. Leow. and SydneyPlus. Information Management Review3(3). 32(3). 135- 146 87 . R. 9-16. Sirsi. Ex Libris .greenstone. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science. Explain how ICT tools could be used in the provision of information services? 3. Greenstone (http://www. and MacLennan. one of the implications of use of ICT for information resource management is that. A. (1988) 'Information resource management: a five-year perspective'.

and ever changing education and research needs of library users make it difficult for any library to be an effective learning resources without using ICT facilities.. students should be able:  Identify the constrains of using ICT facilities  Find out ways of dealing with the constrains 3.0 Main Content 3. The constantly increasing amount of information been generated and published.0 OBJECTIVE At the end of this unit.UNIT FIVE: CHALLENGES AND CONSTRAINTS IN ICTs APPLICATION IN INFORMATION RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 1. Staff Training: most of the staffs in the libraries need more experience and training to deal with ICT services 88 .0 Introduction 2.0 Objectives 3.g. such as ICT illiteracy is also a bottleneck in the management of information resources since many library users in developing countries are not able to utilize ICT services and their applications in library hence there in need for consistent user training and user support services.1 Challenges of Using ICT in Information Resource Management Despite the challenges facing the availability and usability of ICTs in libraries.0 INTRODUCTION Libraries have always been repositories of learning resources. copies. network/internet and subscriptions to more electronic databases. Inadequate Funds in the libraries for acquiring ICT facilities: most of the libraries havenot been given key attention that they deserve in terms of financial allocations -- thus limiting their ability to meet the targeted requirements of supporting the learning process positively. the expanding formats of information storage and retrieval.).0 MAIN CONTENT 3. c.0 Summary 6. 2.0 Conclusion 5.1 Challenges of Using ICT in Information Resource Management 4. therefore. From earliest time. they have provided access to information for scholars and researchers. The libraries are. printers. librarians andAuthorities concern must find means of making the ICT facilities and resources available to the libraries for effective information resource management a.0 References/Further Readings 1. User Education: Technological factors. b. access to computers.0 Tutor-Marked Assignment 7. not able to acquire adequate ICT services for effective information resource management (e. modern bindery equipment etc.

bls. Staff Training etc 6. S. Such a team is required to have basic training in troubleshooting skills and support of library hardware and software f. ‘’ Training on use of technology in Libraries’’ Oral interview. (2001). g.0 CONCLUSION Libraries have always been repositories of learning resources. In Crosby. Information for a new age. Inadequate diffusion of ICT in information resource management can also be attributed to lack of real awareness about the benefits of ICT. e.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT What are the challenge and constrain in the application of ICT for information resources in your library 7.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READING Fishel. various challenges in the application of ICT in information resource management has been discussed like Inadequate Funds in the libraries for acquiring ICT facilities. 2001). 4. The outdated and bureaucratic procedures in acquisition of ICT equipment and materials coupled with lack of appropriate policies to support development of ICT in is noted to slow down implementation of ICT in information resource management. Political and economic instability in developing countries have negatively impacted the operations of libraries external funding agencies taking advantage of this instability to push for their own agenda and and the implications if ICT is not integrated in this library operation.0 SUMMARY In this unit. Inadequate access to technical expertise: the ICT department that is responsible for the installation. Information experts in the Information age. development and expansion of the backbone network (WLAN/LAN) in the library has undermined diffusion of ICT in information resource management. From earliest time. for-a-new-a Libraries and Librarians.www. they have provided access to information for scholars and researchers.theviocelu. 89 . Occupational Outlook Quarterly (Winter. The constantly increasing amount of information been generated and published. the expanding formats of information storage and retrieval.pdf on 18/5/2010 Francis – and ever changing education and research needs of library users make it difficult for any library to be an effective learning resources without using ICT facilities. 5. O. Redefining the role of http:/www. (2010). (2000). F. d.

In fact. it is impossible to read a lot of literature about IRM without encountering discussions that presume at least some knowledge of how the OSI Reference Model works. When it comes to information resource management and networking. sizes.MODULE FOUR: Models of Information Resources Management Unit 1: Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model Unit 2: A Dual loop Model Unit 3: Event driven Interactive Model Unit 4: The Willard Model Unit 1:Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model 1.0 Tutor-Marked Assignment 7.  boundary conditions or initial conditions must be identified. In general all models have an information input. Of these models is one of the most popular and commonly used is the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model.0 Conclusion 5. there are several models that are used to explain the roles played by various technologies. by allowing them to be considered as modular pieces that interact in predictable ways.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit. built and rearranged. and styles.0 Summary 6. an information processor.  the range of applicability of the model should be understood However. and how they interact.0 Objectives 3. of the OSI Reference Model. The existence of the model makes it easier for networks to be analysed.0 Introduction 2. Key features common with the development of any model is that:  simplifying assumptions must be made.1 An overview of Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model 3. rather than enormous. The idea behind the OSI Reference Model is to provide a framework for both designing networking systems and for explaining how they work.0 References/Further Reading 1.3 Layers of OSI Reference Model 4. you will frequently find references to the various levels. and an output of expected results. or layers. It is important to emphasize that a model is not the real world but merely a human construct to help us better understand real world systems.0 INTRODUCTION A model can come in many shapes. As you read about networking as an important component of IRM.2 History of OSI 3. students should be able to:  Explain the thrust and philosophy of OSI Reference Model 90 . designed. models are useful because they help us understand difficult concepts and complicated systems.0 Main content 3. complex monoliths. 2.

New protocols and other network services are generally easier to add to a layered architecture. By separating networking functions into logical smaller pieces. The OSI model has seven layers. The original objective of the OSI model was to provide a set of design standards for equipment manufacturers so they could communicate with each other. Physical: Connects the entity to the transmission media 91 .0 MAIN CONTENT 3. list or change directories. The principles that were applied to arrive at the seven layers are as follows:  A layer should be created where a different level of abstraction is needed. and small enough that the architecture does not become unwieldy. Presentation: Converts the information 5. Application: Provides different services to the application 6. OSI layers also allow extensibility. Data Link: Provides error control 1. each of which has a different level of abstraction and performs a well-defined function. The OSI model defines a hierarchical architecture that logically partitions the functions required to support system-to-system communication.  The layer boundaries should be chosen to minimize the information flow across the interfaces. Transport: Provides end to end communication control 3. network problems can more easily be solved through a divide-and-conquer methodology. Network: Routes the information in the network 2. rename or delete files.  The means of transferring the files and file-related information between hosts. have some common characteristics:  An end-user interface that provides a human or another application with the means to enter commands that direct the application to send files to and receive files from a remote host. network problems can more easily be solved through a divide-and- conquer methodology.1 An Overview of Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model has served as the most basic elements of computer networking since the inception in 1984. the layered approach offers several advantages. However. OSI layers also allow extensibility.  The function of each layer should be chosen with an eye toward defining internationally standardized protocols.  Each layer should perform a well-defined function. etc.  Account for the historical development of OSI Model  Identify and discuss the seven layers of OSI reference Model 3. Distributed applications services. New protocols and other network services are generally easier to add to a layered architecture. The layered approach offers several advantages. The seven OSI layers are defines as follows: 7.  The means of performing input to and output from mass storage devices.  The number of layers should be large enough that distinct functions need not be thrown together in the same layer out of necessary. By separating networking functions into logical smaller pieces. whether OSI or TCP/IP based. Session: Handles problems which are not communication issues 4. The OSI Reference Model is based on a proposal developed by the International Standards Organisation (ISO).

This includes networking protocols. Below is the diagram showing the OSI Model: 3. data link. network. Software in these layers performs application specific functions like data formatting. things did not quite work out as planned. The rise in popularity of the Internet and its TCP/IP protocols met the OSI suite head on. and in a nutshell. and even different types of hardware devices. however. and flow controls. the OSI protocols lost out to TCP/IP when the Internet started to grow. The OSI model itself. The standard is usually referred to as the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model. but as a whole. or CCITT (the abbreviation is from the French version of the name). The transport. while the other was undertaken by the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee. The OSI Reference Model represented an early attempt to get all of the various hardware and software manufacturers to agree on a framework for developing various networking technologies. and physical layers comprise the lower layers. This was called. the OSI Reference Model. what the Internet became. or even just the OSI Model. Some of the OSI protocols were implemented. It was published in 1984 by both the ISO.) The application. presentation. These two international standards bodies each developed a document that defined similar networking models. encryption. these two documents were merged together to form a standard called The Basic Reference Model for Open Systems Interconnection. which provide more primitive network specific functions like routing.2 History of OSI The idea behind the creation of networking standards is to define widely-accepted ways of setting up networks and connecting them together. In 1983. such as switches and routers. two projects began independently. While most technologies were not designed specifically to meet the dictates of the OSI model.200 One interesting aspect of the history of the OSI Reference Model is that the original objective was not to create a model primarily for educational purposes even though many people today think that this was the case. One was administered by the International Organisation for Standardization (ISO). as standard ISO 7498.(An acronym used to help remember the model from bottom to top is “Please Do Not Throw Sausage Pizza Away. but networking in general terms. addressing. many are described in terms of how they fit into its layers.” From top down the “All People Seem To Need Data Processing” acronym can be utilized. It was used widely as an educational tool—much as I use it myself in this Guide—and also to help describe interactions between the components of other protocol suites and even hardware devices. TCP/IP won. The OSI Reference Model was intended to serve as the foundation for the establishment of a widely adopted suite of protocols that would be used by international internetworks basically. and session layers comprise the upper layers of the OSI Model. the OSI Protocol Suite. software applications. However. and connection management. and the renamed CCITT (now called the Telecommunications Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunication Union or ITU-T) as standard X. found a home as a device for explaining the operation of not just the OSI protocols. In the late 1970s. The model is also useful to those who develop software 92 . with the same goal: to define a unifying standard for the architecture of networking systems. unsurprisingly.

Access and Management (FTAM): Provides handling services in the network.  Electronic Mail and Messaging Handling (MHS): Facilitates the electronic exchange of documents.3 Layers of OSI Reference Model The Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model has seven layers. This includes the movement of files between different systems. Layers seven. certain activities happen to the data that prepare it for the next layer. At each layer. by helping to make clear the roles performed by each of the components in a networking system. This layer is concerned with the syntax and semantics of the information transmitted. It provides a set of interfaces for applications to obtain access to networked services as well as access to network services that support applications directly. reading. it converts data into a generic format for the transmission. To understand the layers. For outgoing messages.  Virtual Terminal (VT): Provides services to access applications in different remote computer systems through stimulating a real terminal. you should think of them as the assembly line in the computer. writing and deletion of remote files. six and five are grouped under the application set while layers four. Also. Generally the layers are discussed below:  Application  Presentation  Session  Transport  Network  Data Link  Physical Application Layer (Layer 7) The application layer is the top layer of the OSI model. This layer also provides application access security checking and information validation. The Application Layer provides the following functions:  File Transfer. For the incoming messages.and hardware products. This layer may translate data from a format used by the application layer into a 93 . it converts the data from the generic form to a format understandable to the receiving application.  Directory Services (DS): Provides services with the ability to match names with addressing information. This unit describes and explains them. the seven layers can be grouped into the Application and transport sets.  Common management Information Protocol (CMIP): Provides services for network management Presentation Layer (Layer 6) The presentation layer is responsible for the format of the data transferred during network communications. two and one are under the transport set. 3. It can be viewed as the translator for the network. three. and management of remote file storage. beginning with the 'highest' in the hierarchy (the Application) and proceeding to the 'lowest' (the Physical).

 Data compression: reduces the number of bits that need to be transmitted on the network. so that after a crash. The applications on either end of the session can exchange data or send packets to another for as long as the session lasts. then. The session layer has the option of providing one-or-two-way communication called dialogue control. Only the side holding the token is permitted to perform the critical operation. This process must be restarted from the beginning.  Data encryption: encrypt data for security purposes. The presentation layer makes it possible for computers with different representation to communicate.common format at the sending station. Cryptography is frequently required for privacy and authentication. and so on. ASCII to EBCDIC. the session layer provides a way to insert checkpoints into the data stream. and tear down when the session ends. text compression. or in only one direction at a time. Token management may be used to prevent both sides from attempting the same operation at the same time. The presentation layer is also concerned with other aspects of information representation. the transport layer must correct it. translate the common format to a format known to the application layer at the receiving station. the presentation layer provides:  Character code translation: for example. and reformatting. The correction may mean re-sending just the damaged data or restarting from the beginning. It relieves the higher layer protocols from any concern with the transfer of data between them and their peers. the session layer provides tokens that can be exchanged. A session can be used to allow a user to log into a remote time-sharing system or transfer a file between two machines. Different computers have different codes for representing data. For example. CR-CR/LF. Transport Layer (Layer 4) The basic function of the transport layer is to accept data from the session layer. To manage these activities. and ensure that the bits delivered are the same as the bits transmitted without modification. Another session service is synchronization. There is a set of rules to follow that detail the handling of the error and how to correct it. If an error occurs during transmission.  Data conversion: bit order. only the data after the last checkpoint has to be repeated. To avoid this problem. Session Layer (Layer 5) The session layer permits two parties to hold ongoing communications called a session across a network. split it up into smaller units. This can be achieved because the transport layer protocol includes the capability to acknowledge the receipt of a 94 . Sessions can allow traffic to go in both directions at the same time. The session layer handles session setup. password encryption. loss or duplication. Consider the problems that occur when transferring a file between two machines and the system crashes not being able to complete the transfer. data or message exchanges. integer-floating point. pass it to the network layer. The presentation layer provides common communication services such as encryption. Specifically. It also monitors session identification so only designated parties can participate and security services to control access to session information. Data compression can be used to reduce the number of bits that have to be transmitted.

the transport layer might create multiple network connection by dividing the data among the network connections to improve the throughput.” (Tan Ten Hong. This multiplexing is transparent to the session layer. The network layer controls the operation of the subnet. prepending a header to each frame.  Message acknowledgment: provides reliable end-to-end message delivery with acknowledgments. The transport layer header information must then include control information. or sessions onto one logical link and keeps track of which messages belong to which sessions (see session layer). and other factors. The transport layer at the destination station reassembles the message. to enable the transport layer on the other end to recognize message boundaries. the transport header must contain sequence information to enable the transport layer on the receiving end to get the pieces back together in the right order before handing the received message up to the layer above. such as message start and message end flags. priority of service. For a reliable network layer with virtual circuit capability. but there are strict message size limits imposed by the network (or lower) layer. The size and complexity of a transport protocol depends on the type of service it can get from the network layer. A key design issue is determining how packets are routed from source to destination. However. Typically.packet. splits the message into smaller units (if not already small enough). However. the transport layer must break up the messages into smaller units. the transport protocol should include extensive error detection and recovery. congestion control and accounting.  Message traffic control: tells the transmitting station to "back-off" when no message buffers are available. The network layer provides both connectionless and connection- oriented services. the transport layer can retransmit the packet or time-out the connection and signal an error. In addition. provides routing. If the network layer is unreliable and/or only supports datagrams. Network Layer (Layer 3) The network layer controls the operation of a sub-net. Consequently. 2001). It provides: 95 .  Session multiplexing: multiplexes several message streams.” (Tan Ten Hong. the transport layer can accept relatively large messages. or frames. the transport layer might multiplex several transport connections onto the same network to reduce costs. “If no acknowledgement is received. and passes the smaller units down to the network layer. in specific terms the transport layer provides:  Message segmentation: accepts a message from the (session) layer above it. deciding which physical path the data should take based on network conditions. 2001) If the transport connection requires a high throughput. These addresses are often referred to as ports and connection opened to these ports as sockets. a minimal transport layer is required. The transport protocol can also mark packets with sequencing information so that the destination system can properly order the packets if they are received out of order. if the lower layers do not maintain sequence. It is important to stress that transport protocols “provide the capability for multiple application processes to access the network by using individual local addresses to determine the destination process for each data stream.

This can be accomplished by attaching special bit patterns to the beginning and end of the frame. This control of data flow controls approximately 70 percent of all error handling. It accomplishes this task by having the sender break the input data up into data frames. If communication extends beyond the LAN onto the Internet.  Routing: routes frames among networks. It establishes. Token Ring. and flow control. and process the acknowledgment frames sent back by the receiver. or names. bit error detection/correction error control.  Frame fragmentation: if it determines that a downstream router's maximum transmission unit (MTU) size is less than the frame size. and ARCnet are examples of LAN data link protocols. such as Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) or Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP). it is up to the data link layer to create and recognize frame boundaries. To be specific. 96 .  Subnet usage accounting: has accounting functions to keep track of frames forwarded by subnet intermediate systems. These frames refer to the physical hardware address of each network card attached to the network cable.  Subnet traffic control: routers (network layer intermediate systems) can instruct a sending station to "throttle back" its frame transmission when the router's buffer fills up. Data Link Layer (Layer 2) The main task of the data link layer is to take a raw transmission and transform it into a line that appears free of transmission errors in the network layer. The source and destination stations may be separated by many intermediate systems. the data layer provides:  Link establishment and termination: establishes and terminates the logical link between two nodes. maintains and terminates connections across the intervening communications facility (one or several intermediate systems in the communication subnet). but the neighbor may be a node through which data is routed. The protocol packages the data into frames that contain source and destination addresses. In the network layer and the layers below. transmit the frames sequentially. Ethernet. Encryption can be used to protect the message as it flows between each network node. Each node then decrypts the message received and re-encrypts it for transmission to the next node. to produce billing information. This layer relieves the upper layers of the need to know anything about the data transmission and intermediate switching technologies used to connect systems.  Frame traffic control: tells the transmitting node to "back-off" when no frame buffers are available. a router can fragment a frame for transmission and re-assembly at the destination station. Since the physical layer merely accepts and transmits a stream of bits without any regard to the meaning of the structure. into physical addresses.  Logical-physical address mapping: translates logical addresses. the network might use other data link protocols. peer protocols exist between a node and its immediate neighbor. not the destination station. The network layer software must build headers so that the network layer software residing in the subnet intermediate systems can recognize them and use them to route data to the destination address. The data link layer sends blocks of data with the necessary synchronization.

it is pertinent to state that not every network uses all of the model’s layers in information resource management.  Frame error checking: checks received frames for integrity.  Frame delimiting: creates and recognizes frame boundaries. accommodating various possibilities in the medium: o Will an external transceiver (MAU) be used to connect to the medium? o How many pins do the connectors have and what is each pin used for?  Transmission technique: determines whether the encoded bits will be transmitted by baseband (digital) or broadband (analog) signaling. It provides:  Data encoding: modifies the simple digital signal pattern (1s and 0s) used by the PC to better accommodate the characteristics of the physical medium. It has seven layers.  Frame acknowledgment: provides/expects frame acknowledgments. Detects and recovers from errors that occur in the physical layer by retransmitting non- acknowledged frames and handling duplicate frame receipt. It determines: o What signal state represents a binary 1 o How the receiving station knows when a "bit-time" starts o How the receiving station delimits a frame  Physical medium attachment. It describes the electrical/optical. and to aid in bit and frame synchronization.0 SUMMARY Under this unit. ISO’s intent in creating the OSI model was not to describe every network but to give protocol designers a map to follow to aid in design. and carries the signals for all of the higher layers. This model is useful for conceptualizing network components to demonstrate how they fit together to help the computers within the network communicate. 5. and determines: o What physical medium options can be used o How many volts/db should be used to represent a given signal state. is concerned with the transmission and reception of the unstructured raw bit stream over a physical medium. and functional interfaces to the physical medium.0 CONCLUSION Based on our previous discussions of the OSI model.  Media access management: determines when the node "has the right" to use the physical medium. we tried to understand that The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model has served as the most basic elements of computer networking since the inception in 1984. each of which has a different level of abstraction and performs a well-defined function as summarized below: 97 .  Physical medium transmission: transmits bits as electrical or optical signals appropriate for the physical medium. using a given physical medium 4.  Frame sequencing: transmits/receives frames sequentially. Physical Layer (Layer 1) The physical layer. mechanical. the lowest layer of the OSI model.

The OSI Model's Seven Layers Defined and Functions Explained. L. What is the main thrust of the OSI model with particular reference to information resource management? 7. Yoke Chuan.. virtual terminal.” URL: http://members. 98 .  The network layer handles the routing of the data.  The application layer is the layer at which a user and a computer interface to a network to view a message.htm (31 July 2001). 6. (2004).  The session layer manages the establishment of a continuing series of requests and responses between the applications at each end. It manages the syntax and semantics of the information transmitted between two computers. Rohlin..  The data link layer provides error control and synchronization for the physical level. and dialogues between two computers. and Mitchell.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1. B. such as file transfer..  The presentation layer converts incoming and outgoing data from one presentation format to another. Robert W. R. Trace the historical development of OSI reference model? 2. URL: http://www. Miller. Kozierok (2012) The TCP/IP Guide available online: http://www. T.  The physical layer conveys the bit stream through the network at the electrical and mechanical level. (2014. It contains a variety of commonly used protocols. “Computer Networks: The OSI Reference Model.” URL: Briefly discuss the basic layers of OSI model? 3.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READING Charles M.” URL: http://compnetworking. or response. It establishes and manages sessions. C. It controls the operation of a packet from one network to another.TCPIPGuide. SANS Institute InfoSec Reading Room Feig. Chee Meng. M.htm (31 July 2001). It physically transmits signals across a communication medium. “Comparing OSI and TCP/IP. & Kim M. (2001).htm .. Cheong (2001). The OSI Model: An Overview. conversions. Yew Wai. “Basic Network Design – The OSI Model. data request.  The transport layer manages the end-to-end control and error checking.htm Tan Teng Microsoft Support Group (2014).tripodasia. “OSI Model: Upper Layers”.

It is thus constructed from an individual knowledge conversion process.0 MAIN CONTENT 3. The dual loop model is constructed from an individual’s intellect conversion process (personal loop) and organisational intellect conversion process (Organisational loop).0 Summary 6.0 Introduction 2. It is nothing. It is on the line of “Knowledge Awareness” proposed by Ogata. we shall now proceed to discuss dual loop model in order to establish the relationship between individuals and organisations in order to understand the processes involved in the creation of information resources and knowledge for the overall realisation of the organisation’s goals and objectives. 2. The dual loop model is a reference model of the information system design.Unit 2:A Dual loop Model 1. it is used in designing a knowledge management support environment.0 Tutor-Marked Assignment 7. The flow of knowledge creation activities in this dual loop model is explained herein and functions supporting each activity are detailed in the next subheading.0 INTRODUCTION Having learnt the OSI model. this is because. but the combination of centrally two integrated 99 . Thus the need for a system that will integrate the information resources and knowledge created in the organisation life cycle.2 Basic Elements of a Dual Loop Model 3.1 Principles of a Dual Loop Model An organisation stands to be a phenomenon within which individuals and group of peoples divide and carry out roles and work together to achieve the so called shared objectives within a formal social structure and with established processes. It reflects the idea of reference approach.3 Importance of the Model 4. It is seen by many as a term used to represents the flow of information in an organisation.0 Main Content 3. students should be able to:  Discuss the basic principles and philosophy of a Dual Loop Model  Explain the basic elements of a Dual Loop Model  Highlight the importance of the Model 3.0 Objectives 3.1 Principles of a Dual Loop Model 3.0 References/Further Reading 1.0 Conclusion 5. This is the basis of expressing ‘behavior’ in knowledge management. and it represents the flow of intellect between them.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit. It works as the reference model for designing a learning-oriented knowledge management support environment. to clarify ‘who must be informed of what knowledge in which situation’. This model reflects the key idea of our approach inspired by the theories of Senge’s ‘Learning Organisation’ and Nonaka’s ‘Organisational Knowledge Creation’. A Dual Loop model emphasizes that both individuals and the organisation itself are major essential stakeholders in the management of information resources.

This is closely equivalent to the considerations in the study of knowledge awareness support. The whole model called “Dual Loop Model” is roughly illustrated in the figure 1. asserts that Dual Loop Model is made up of the Personal Loop and the Organisational Loop. In this research. Systems supporting the learning and the creation modes can be considered the learning support and creative support systems respectively. 3. socialization. Further. In the organisational structure of the middle up-down management. The loop consists of internalization. externalization. For example. based on the two ideas set out in previous section. This loop has a learning mode.2 Basic Elements of a Dual Loop Model Minsky (1975). some activities relating to the formation of organisational knowledge are explained from both viewpoints of the ‘individual’ as the substantial actor in an organisation and the organisation as the aggregation of the individuals. in which an individual acquires knowledge from his or her surroundings. The two are modeled as separated loops of activities related to each other by making the interaction between the loops clear. and a creative mode in which he/she creates knowledge of which the significance is approved in an organisation. which is thus explained from the viewpoints of an individual and organisation as the aggregation of individuals. Possible common basic requirements for supporting these two models are:  Easy access to useful knowledge for its acquisition and creation activities. Organisational Loop This is an abstracted model that reflects members’ activities in personal loops in an organisation as knowledge inheriting and creating activities from an organisational viewpoint.  Creates rational learning process for an organisation in the creative mode. Externalization and the Combination. Amplification. And they are explained below: Personal Loop The personal loop is a loop of individual activities of knowledge acquisition and creation. this dual loop can explain learning conditions in an organisation. and combination. and the process of externalization and combination (on the right) are the activities for K-practitioners and K-engineers respectively.  Supports acquiring knowledge and sending it to others as the basis of an individual amplifying process. The typical activities include acquisition and creation of knowledge inside and outside an organisation. It is also the reference model for designing a knowledge management support environment. an organisation that frequently has events in the socialization process (at the top left) and rarely has events in the combination process (at the bottom right) mean that even though a K-practitioner actively carries out knowledge acquiring and creating activities . It consists of four processes: Internalization.ideas that are used to coordinate some activities relating to the formation of an organisational knowledge. Our goal is to present a framework that supports all the activities from the practical ones in an organisation to the knowledge creation ones. the process of internalization and socialization (on the left). they are not likely to be recognized as ‘organisational knowledge’. Lack of activities of K- 100 . The two viewpoints are modeled as two separated loops of activities and related each other by making the interaction between the loops clear.

this model serves as a useful communication channel to capture users’ preferences when they access to an information resource. but also various information requirements for information users. Third. At the same time. An organisational loop there is a typical example of creative organisational behavior that each member has appropriate knowledge. It is believed that the dual loop model provides a sound management mechanism by linking both information users and information providers to building up an adaptable information resource. and create innovative ideas based on the acquired knowledge. perception and opinion for information resource management. To develop such a knowledge creation process. and can be supported by the information and communication technology so as to improve the accessibility of others’ knowledge in organisation.practitioners and K-engineers can be identified as the causes. it can also help information provider provide information service in the specified filed. K-practitioners acquire knowledge in the socialization and internalization process of the organisation loop. is regarded as inheritance of systemic knowledge that is explicit knowledge externalized and socialized. Internalization. it can then try to ensure that the information resource management delivers what users liked and preferred. however. Socialization can be regarded as knowledge communication among K- practitioners. passing down and creation in an organisation. when an organisations have events only in the internalization process in the organisational loop (at the bottom left). this model is also a useful channel for information provider to gain user’s preference. However. First. can help information provider to extend the information service wherever the business to be deployed. this model can be a way of learning for information resource designed in one location and will be implemented to another. 3. on the one hand. Thus. From time to time. perception and opinion. it can be seen that a tendency of the organisation leans to practice acquisitional activity. the organisation immediately adopts the ideas and clarifies the value of the idea from an organisational view point.3 Importance of the Model The dual loop model for information resource management indicates a number of significant improvements in practice. if information resource management is armed with this approach. In return. and should be satisfied if they can access an information resource that is as pleasant as they thought. 101 . Further. Meanwhile. the dual loop model is also use as a reference for analyzing the proper flow of knowledge acquisition. On the other hand. Second. information technology is thought to be able to support the maintenance of the creation process. In this way the channel could transmit information users’ preference. exchange the knowledge and create innovative ideas. based on the continuous and repetitive updating the contributions from information user and information provider. the adaptable information resource could bridge information users and information resource both professionally and individually. Accordingly this model. which will greatly contribute not only the information recourse management and information service business. information users will benefit.

and it represents the flow of intellect between them. This explains the justification for a Dual Loop Model. Oxford University Press. 6. “SECI.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READING Ikujiro Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi (1995) “The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Createthe Dynamics of Innovation”. and Konno N. The dual loop model is a reference model of the information system design. John Wiley & Sons Mitsuru Ikeda. Yusuke Hayashi. The dual loop model is constructed from an individual’s intellect conversion process (personal loop) and organisational intellect conversion process (Organisational loop). Briefly discuss the 2 elements of a Dual Loop Model? 3. It allows for information resources and needs of both the user and organisation to be identified. (2000). Enumerate the importance of the Model to information resource managers? 7. This is the basis of expressing ‘behavior’ in knowledge management. S. Harvard Business School Press. Mitsuru Ikeda.. 162. Transformational Learning: Renewing Your Company thought Knowledge and Skills. This model reflects the key idea of our approach inspired by the theories of Senge’s ‘Learning Organisation’ and Nonaka’s ‘Organisational Knowledge Creation’. 5-34 Brown J.1237800 102 . Boston Tobin D. to clarify ‘who must be informed of what knowledge in which situation’. What are the basic principles and philosophy underlying the Dual Loop Model? 2. 2001. pp. analysed. (2000). Toyama R.4.2001. Hiroyuki Tsumoto. and Duguid P. Also. 2001 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo.. Riichiro Mizoguchi. Yusuke Hayashi.0 CONCLUSION This unit tried to equip you with the requisite knowledge to understand the need for integrating both the information users and information providers to developing an effective and efficient information resources management system. synthesized.“The Social Life of Information”. 2001 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo 2001. and distributed for use. It is hoped that information managers of which librarians are one would apply this model in order to guarantee maximum customer satisfaction as well as the realisation of the goals and objectives of the organisation. Hiroyuki Tsumoto.1109/ICME. (1996). doi:10. Leadership: a Unified Model of Dynamic Knowledge Creation”. ICME. pp. 1995. we have learnt the importance of this model in the management of information resources. Riichiro MizoguchiKfarm: A Knowledge Management Support System Based on Dual Loop Model Nonaka I. Long Range Planning. Ba. 5. "A Knowledge Management Support Environment based on Dual Loop Model". 33.0 SUMMARY We have succeeded in discussing the theoretical framework of a dual loop model noting the major key variables of individual user loop and organisational loop.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1.

A Dual Loop Model for Managing Information Resource. Minsky. 103 . International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA). A Framework for Representing Knowledge in the Psychology of Computer Vision. (1975). (2008). M.Xiuzhen F. Winston: Mc Graw-Hill.

1 Concept of Event Driven Interactive Model 3. The model is beneficial to information managers in such a way that information resources provision and use in organisations could be enhanced. events include both user-generated actions like mouse clicks and keystrokes and system- generated events such as program loading. The event-driven approach contrasts with batch processing. students should be able to:  Define the concept of Event Driven Interactive Model  Identify the components of the Model  Discuss the various characteristics of an Event  Highlight the major criticism of the Model 3.0 Tutor-Marked Assignment 7.3 Characteristics of an Event 3.0 Introduction 2. you will learn the basics of event interactive model used for information resources management in organisation.0 Main Content 3. or messages from other programs/threads. sensor output.4 Criticism of Event Driven Interactive Model 4.0 MAIN CONTENT 3. Event-driven programming separates event-processing logic from the rest of a program’s code.2 Components of Event Driven Interactive Model 3. an event-driven model is a computer program that is written to respond to actions generated by the user or the system.0 Summary 6.0 INTRODUCTION In this unit. On the other hand. In a computing context.0 Conclusion 5.0 References/Further Reading 1.Unit 3:Event Driven Interactive Model CONTENTS 1.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit.1 Concept of Event Driven Interactive Model It is a programming paradigm in a computer programming that is used to manage information in which the flow of the program is determined by the events such as user actions for example mouse clicks. Because event- driven programming is an approach rather than a type of language. key presses. It is thus a dominant paradigm used in graphical user interfaces and other applications (for example. an event is any identifiable occurrence that has significance for system hardware or software. event-driven apps can be 104 . 2.0 Objectives 3. It is a model that is based on computer programming that allows information resources to be managed according to series of events interacting as a system to facilitate data input. As such. secured and effective. output and retrieval as well as dissemination to the target audience. java script web application) that are centered and are performing certain actions in response to user input.

 The event-driven approach can give you a way of extending an existing application in a flexible. may occur that possibly prevent further processing. where changes in state are monitored as they happen lets an application respond in a much more timely fashion than a batch approach where the detection process runs only intermittently. such as closures. many programming frameworks take care of their implementation and expect the user to provide only the code for the event handlers.  Your application might need to identify and react to certain situations (either good or bad) as they occur. An event-driven approach. there may be a call to an event handler called On Key Enter that includes an argument with a string of characters. non-invasive manner. Opher Etzion describe some purposes of event-driven applications:  Your application might be naturally centered on events.2 Components of the Event Driven Interactive Model A Trivial Event Handler Because the code for checking events and the main loop do not depend on the application.  Your application might involve analysis of a large amount of data in order to provide some output to be delivered to a human user or some other application. In an event driven application. Rather than changing the original application to add the extra function it's sometimes possible to instrument the original application by adding event producers to it (for example by processing the log files that it produces). Exception Handlers In PLK/1. In this simple example.created in any programming language. corresponding to what the user typed before hitting the ENTER key. authors Peter Niblett and Dr. By treating the input data as events you can use an event-driven approach to distribute this analysis across multiple computing nodes. and then triggers a callback function when one of those events is detected (Samek. In their book Event-Driven Processing in Action. In embedded systems the same may be achieved using hard ware interrupts instead of a constantly running main loop. certain abnormal events such as a hard ware error. They involve some kind of sensor that detects and reports events and the purpose of the application is to analyse and react to these events. Exception handlers may be provided by “ON statements” in unseen callers to provide housekeeping routines to clean up afterwards before termination. Depending on the specific application. Event driven programs can be written in any programming language. Creating Event Handlers 105 . Overflow or program checks. event-driven processing can improve responsiveness and flexibility. there is generally a main loop that listens for events. The additional functionality can then be implemented by processing the events generated by these event producers 3. 2009). although the task is easier in languages that provide high-level abstractions. even though a program itself may not be predominantly event driven.

OS extensions. provided a built –in main I/O loop known as the program cycle. whose 1960’s design concept was similar to event driven programming as it is discussed above. An event can be anything that can happen asynchronously and has meaning for a computation. This is a function that checks for the occurrence of events. 3. The second step is to blind event handlers to events so that the correct function is called when the event takes place. RPG. efficiency. As one can understand from the description above event is a very wide and often subtle notion. an early programming language from IBM. where the calculations responded in accordance to indicators that were set earlier in the cycle. These routines handle the event to which the main program will respond. each one of them responsible to handle multiple event contexts. In these kind of applications in an event was given a programming instance. The first step in developing event-driven program is to write a series of subroutines. Many researchers and developers have also experimented with hybrid event models that spawn threads.3 Characteristics of an Event To cope with asynchrony. There are two ways to handle events in an application. The user. Communication also plays an important role when dealing with this kind of situations. a single left button mouse click on a mouse button in a GUI program may trigger a routine that will open another window. and then calls the matching event handler to process it. programmers have described the event driven programming model. Each event is received and then processed according to the type of the event and the data that carries with it. In order to program event driven applications we must be familiar with the notions and the basics of concurrent and parallel programming. Generally someone can interpret and use the notion of what is an event according to its needs. There is not a clear description for what is an event and there is no clear description on who produces the events. Many modern day programming environments provide programmer with an event templates. But generally there are some characteristics that cannot be changed. compilers etc where developed over the years as tools for developers to handle event driven programming. Another characteristic is that of asynchrony. and the editor creates an empty event handler and associated with the user clicking the button and opens a text window so you can edit the event handler. allowing the programmer to focus on the writing the event code. Either we spawn new threads to handle them or we create a context for each event and we process it along with the other contexts in one computation stream. another computation or even the same computation can produce events. save data to a database or exit the application. Many libraries. The third step in developing an event driven program is to write the main loop. programming languages. Events can be produced almost anywhere in a system. Events can happen at almost any time. so it need not be specifically provided by the application programmer. Most event driven programming environments already provide this main loop. For example. If someone decides to take the first approach then the 106 . A characteristic that we can conclude is that event driven discipline follows concurrency and parallelism. usability and tried to include a wider set of application to the event definition. Graphical editors combine the first two steps: Double click on a button. or methods called event handler routines. All applications of this category tried to focus on aspects such as performance. an I/O module.

communication and synchronization are left to be done by the operating system. Hybrid approaches are actually systems with two levels of event processing. It is considered a viable and effective framework for ensuring 107 . for instance the Android concurrency frameworks are designed using the half-Sync/Half-Async pattern. and where a combination of a single. Switching between different modes requires modifying many variables. which allows an extremely large number of threads to be handled. Communication between events can easily be done since the contexts exist on the same memory space. Each branching point requires evaluation of a complex expression. Communication raises issues around synchronisation. This is essentially a finite state machine approach. and while they are extensible. In conclusion. this is because: 1. difficult to extend and excessively complex application code. shared memory or message passing communication and synchronisation are some of the characteristic of this kind of computation. The second approach requires for knowledge such as creating and storing an event context.0 CONCLUSION This unit tried to provide you with the comprehensive explanation of the event interactive model which is a model that is mostly applied in the management of information resources in organisations. a careful consideration of the first approach will reveal the fact that thread-spawning is actually an instance of the second approach. This is because the UI widgets are not thread safe. Scheduling is also important. Context switching.4 Its Criticism and Best Practices Event driven programming models widely used graphical user interfaces. Once done the CPU can move on to process other event driven threads. for promoting an over simplified model of event action. 2. but this should not be a big problem since the context switching is done in known time. For a more advanced study of the subject. It always leads to convoluted conditional logic. 4. Stack-less Threading An event driven model is used in hardware description languages. A thread context only needs a CPU stack while actively processing an event.principles of thread or process programming should be applied. For example if we are waiting for a response from an event then it is best to store it until if the response is ready and proceed with the processing of another event. thus single-threaded model alleviates this issue. scheduling. which all can easily lead to inconsistencies. leading programmers to create error prone. Thread creation. 3. the thread processing overhead should be taken into account. The application must be able to decide which context to process next. It is thus fertile ground for bugs. 3. there is no way to guarantee that all the implementations are thread safe. The design of those toolkits has been criticized by many for example Miro Samek. This provides more flexibility and fine tuning to the application. These contexts should be distinct. in a sense that contexts exist in its own memory boundaries.threaded event loop processing for the main UI threads is used.

2009. Jeremy Condit. In 2007 USENIX Annual Technical Conference on Proceedings of the USENIX Annual Technical Conference. output and process data and information for onward transmission to managers for effective decision making. That is why event interactive model is viewed as a computer programming which enables user input. Samek. access. volume 9. 2007. Rob von Behren. 410(2-3):202{220. Identify the major characteristics of an event 7. It is our hope that you will apply the knowledge in your establishment. State Machines for Event Driven System. In Proceedings of the 9th conference on Hot Topics in Operating Systems. We observed that several scholars have suggested its use and adoption for effective information resources management. 6. AN Unpublished Thesis Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the MSc Degree in Advanced Computing of Imperial College London Maxwell Krohn. security.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSISGNMENT 1. use and distribution. Scala actors: Unifying thread-based and event-based programming.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READING Dimitrios Kouzapas (2009) A Session Type Discipline for Event Driven Programming Models.information quality. 5. Also. we have explained to you the basic principles of event driven interactive model. and M. Webmaster 108 . TCS. M. Frans Kaashoek (2007) Events can make sense. 2003. and Eric Brewer (2003) Why events are a bad idea (for highconcurrency servers). (2009).0 SUMMARY In this unit. Discuss the basic principles of Event Driven Interactive Model 2. Eddie Kohler. we learnt the characteristics of the model with the hope that as library managers we should be seen to be applying models as the case may be in our attempt to manage our information resources in our libraries and information centres. This will go a long way in ensuring that right information is provided at the right time and in the right format to a right customer. Philipp Haller and Martin Odersky.

we shall as usual examine the philosophy of Willard Model noting the fact that information resources have been regarded as essential ingredient for the attainment of the goals and objectives of our libraries. processing and utilisation.2 Elements of Willard Model 4. etc. 2.0 Objectives 3.0 MAIN CONTENT 3. This is because IRM stresses upon Information as a resource just as any other resource like human resources and financial resources in organisations.1 The philosophy of Willard Model 3. In order to realize this he identifies five key elements to justify the need for the efficacy of the model.1 The philosophy of Willard Model It is one of the most important models used in the field of Information Resources Management [IRM] particularly to manage explicit knowledge.0 References/Further Reading 1.). He (Willard) made mention that the reason behind business information is feed decision through the filter of knowledge. precision.0 Tutor-Marked Assignment 7. The essence of the model was to facilitate access and use of information resources by stakeholders in different organisations. reliability.2 Elements of Willard Model 109 .0 Introduction 2. On this note. The intent of this unit is to provide you with a framework that will facilitate access and use of information resources by stakeholders using a more traditional information resources management. These key elements will be discussed under the next subheading. and effectiveness of its application. students shall be able to:  Discuss the basic philosophy of Willard Model  Explain the elements of Willard Model 3. We shall also attempt to explain the various elements of the model taking into cognizance their relationship with information resources access. The model eventually became known as 'The Willard Model'. Nick Willard proposes his Model in order to ensure organisations could realize their goals and objectives and remain competitive in their business environment.0 INTRODUCTION In this unit.Unit 4:The Willard Model 1.0 Main Content 3. 3. IRM affect all functional areas and all management levels of an organisation. Information is a resource with a final value established according to information quality criteria (novelty.0 Summary 6.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit. The trend in information resources management took a definite shape when Nick Willard proposed a model based on traditional resource management principles. Its name was derived etymologically from one of the IIRMC associates Nick Willard in its year of invention (2003).0 Conclusion 5. potential.

The need to enhance and sustain the resource in a charging environment. A different ISBN is allocated to each manifestation of a title (Paperback . And then. So. To conduct an information inventory. were lack of creativity will result in the diminution of its value and utility. Information and resource managers. An identifier embodies the information required to distinguish what is being identified from all other things within its scope of identification. 5. a user with a specific ISBN can find the resource efficiently. such as the librarians and the database managers). Hardback. or external commercialization opportunities. how could it be used to improve existing processes. This also entails the assignment of responsibility for various information management processes that has to do with sourcing. distributing and maintaining information throughout its life cycle. Ownership establishes the responsibility for maintenance of resources Eg: If a Digital Library is holding a resource. 4. effectiveness or strategies position enables an organisation to be successful in developmental accomplishment. It enhances resource discovery and recording essential features in an inventory. EXPLOITATION This may be identifying who else could take advantage of the existing information. Below is the brief discussion of the five key elements of Willard Model: 1. To expatiate his model. 2. can it be sold as an asset in its own right (like database marketing)? 110 . IDENTIFICATION Labels are assigned or any other means of identification. DEVELOPMENT The proactive maximization of value by seeking for opportunities to benefit from the improving efficiency. creating an information resource directory. 3. They do measure information utility and express it in monetary form as a means of making an objective judgment. To identify the resource by means of a string or number conforming to a formal identification system. one needs to specify information with its attributes and specification. For example. OWNERSHIP This includes the sponsors (those who agree with its value to the business). Eg: Metadata stores the ISBN (International Standard Book Number) . how could it add value to products. archivist and librarians including information scientist have realized the need to embrace frameworks and theories to manage information resources as their organisation asset. stewards (those who are front line users) and custodians (those who physically hold the information. COST AND VALUE This may be acquisition or any replacement costs. CD – ROM etc. Nick Willard identified six basic elements to represent the essential components of his model for effective Information Resource Management in both profit and nonprofit making organisations. value may be expressed in any number of ways.). the library is also responsible for exposing information regarding applicable rights and permissions to resources.

Organising information resources. Aslib Information. It is therefore hope that you would find this model worthwhile in guaranteeing maximum customer satisfaction on one hand and ensuring the realisation of the organisational goals and objectives on the other. Guidelines for using resource identifiers in Dublin Core metadata. Arthur H. Highlight the basic philosophy of Willard Model? 2.35-45. it clearly identifies who is responsible for ensuring a core of excellence in a particular field. cost and value places business value on different categories of knowledge than not easily being purchased externally (for example. cost and value. pp. we have identified and discussed the important key elements of the model for easy application in our respective libraries and information centres. 6.0 REFERENCE/FURTHER READING Devika P Madalli (ND) Re-defining Resource Management using Semantic Technologies SCHNEYMAN. 5. WILLARD. But then. For ownership.4. architecturewiki/Resource Identifier Guidelines (Accessed on 12/12/2009) 111 .0 CONCLUSION In this unit. Available at:http: //dublincore. identifying experts in various knowledge areas to the organisation. Summer 1985. Nick. This is made possible considering the various key elements of the model which are identification. you will be able to understand the fact that Willard Model is an essential instrument for IRM that facilitate access and use of information resources in our organisation. Development helps to introduce mechanisms to share the expertise of individuals more widely across the organisation. ownership. 1993. if people leave). Identify and briefly discuss the key elements of Willard Model? 7.0 SUMMARY We have succeeded in this unit to highlight the basic philosophy of Willard Model noting some salient facts as proposed by Nick Willard. 21(5).0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1. Information resource management. Information Management Review. development and exploitation. The essence of identification is to know ‘who’ as a part of a knowledge audit.

political and informational practices of individuals and institutions across the globe. Nor are the ethical implications of these technologies strictly interpersonal. MySpace. neighbour-to- neighbour.3 Social Networking Opportunities for Libraries 3. Twitter and YouTube began to transform the social.1 Social Networking Sites and Libraries 3. the urgent need for attention to this phenomenon is underscored by the fact that it is reshaping how human beings initiate and/or maintain virtually every type of ethically significant social bond or role: friend-to-friend.4 Challenges of Social Networking 4.0 Main Content 3.0 Tutor-Marked Assignment 7. 2.0 INTRODUCTION In the first decade of the 21st century. and doctor-to-patient. employer-to-employee.MODULE 5: CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN INFORMATION RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES Unit 1: Emerging Technologies and Social Networking Sites (SNSs) Unit 2: Ethical and legal issues Unit 3: Development of Institutional Digital Repository Unit 4: Electronic Resources Management (ERM) UNIT 1: EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES (SNSS) CONTENTS 1. students should be able to:  Define the Concept of Social Networking 112 .0 Objectives 3. While this scholarly response continues to be challenged by the rapidly evolving nature of social networking technologies.0 Conclusion 5.0 Summary 6. inviting a philosophical response from the community of applied ethicists and philosophers of technology.0 References/Further Readings 1.2 The Changing Library Environment 3.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit. co-worker-to co-worker. new media technologies for social networking such as Facebook. parent-to- child. to offer just a partial list. teacher-to-student.0 Introduction 2. seller-to-buyer.

the user is a participant.0 MAIN CONTENT 3. activities. 3. such as e-mail and instant messaging. Social Network Sites (also called Social Networking Services or Social Networking Communities). potentially increasing interaction. Social networking sites allow librarians to adopt a new role by placing themselves into a social realm with users. and blog features to improve their presence. calendar. The dynamic nature of this technology enables users to have an open access to knowledge and contribute local content on the social network space. connecting people with shared interest. interests with people in their network. Some of the prominent examples include: Facebook. Some of these Social Networking Sites (SNS) popularly used by librarians in Nigeria to meet the information needs of the users include: Facebook: most popular now because it is librarian. custom catalog search tools. Social networks are web-based services that allow individuals to create a public profile. 113 . Social networking sites allow users to share ideas. to create a list of users with whom to share connections. Social networking sites are two-way transparent communication that encourage a feedback mechanism. Most social network services are web-based and provide means for users to interact over the Internet. posts. libraries have taken advantage of this site to post. MySpace: In Academic institutions where the students are. Libraries try to link some of these specialized library applications to Facebook. to articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection. and a variety of additional services. Linking to patron profiles also keeps the library within the consciousness of users. his or her social links. Social network sites are varied and they incorporate new information and communication tools such as mobile connectivity. A social network service consists of a representation of each user (often a profile).2 Social Networking Sites and Libraries Social networking sites are web-based services that allow individuals to construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system. pictures. Librarians can interact with users to know their information need.1 The Concept of Social Networking A social networking service is a platform to build social networks or social relations among people who share interests. photo/video/sharing and blogging. World Cat. social network service usually means an individual-centered service whereas online community services are group-centered. In the social network site.  Discuss Social Networking Sites and Libraries  Explain the Changing Library Environment and Social Networking  Enumerate the Social Networking Opportunities for Libraries  State the Challenges of Social Networking 3. backgrounds or real-life connections. and message boards. a co- creator. Online community services are sometimes considered as a social network service. group postings. though in a broader sense. Different social groups in Nigeria such as Nigerian Library Association (NLA) can establish contacts and online forum. and view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system. Twitter. who is able to anticipate and advise patrons as needs arise. with many applications like JSTOR search.friendly. and view and cross the connections within the system. and a builder of knowledge. LinkedIn. and much more. events. activities. are those Internet systems that have at their heart the personalized profile. the librarian becomes an active participant. By reading blogs. and MySpace.

free communication and contribution to knowledge. Librarians can use this platform to render specialized services such as Strategic Dissemination of Information (SDI). and more. It offers a platform for users to access. news on topical issues and expect an instant reaction from their users. It can also be used to enlighten users on topical issues such as the different pictures of emblems of the political parties in Nigeria. Library Thing: Atool that enriches the library OPAC. The potentials of the modern technology with the Open Access Protocols provide the opportunity for free access. conferences and workshops are disseminated via the YouTube. Users can utilize this platform to type in short messages or status update. edit and contribute to content. like frequently updated collections. They can write articles. Ezeani and Eke (2010) posit that the most applicable web 2. events such as important highlights of inaugural lectures. This is a collaborative web page for developing web content. collaborative and participatory social space where users are free to access and contribute content. to keep staff and patrons updated on daily activities.3 The Changing Library Environment and Social Networking Today. The concept of a library as physical place where one can visit to get information is rapidly changing to a social cyberspace where users access. for the on-going lections in Nigeria. free interaction. and allow users to contribute to content. content creation. Tise (2009) posits that libraries facilitate access to information thereby providing the means through which new knowledge is developed and made available to all. LinkedIn: Librarians can get patrons connected with specialists in their particular field of interest via LinkedIn. share information on a particular subject or issue. The Nigerian Library Association (NLA) utilizes this platform to discuss topical issues among the members. and also a movement away from the old stereotype. 3.0 technology for library services is the social 114 . YouTube: In institutions in Nigeria. librarians can periodically post messages. communicate and contribute to existing knowledge. a list of books with ISBNs is sent to Library Thing which sends back a piece of code which is pasted into the footer of the Library OPAC. This is because the modern library of the 21st century is characterized with collective knowledge creation and enabling technologies. Blogs: Here. Once an account is created.Ning: Librarians can get connected with users. Wikis: is a free online encyclopedia that gives a background knowledge and definition of concepts. many Public and Academic libraries put this to great use. two- way communicational network environment characterized by open access. conventional and one directional library services to users to a more dynamic. Librarians in Nigeria can use this platform to give users firsthand information on the on-going national elections. Cover page of new arrivals of both books and journals can be disseminated to users via Flickr. Users can send Instant Messages (IM) on complaints or ask questions on a particular issue and get a feedback on the spot using twitter. Flickr: Librarians can use this tool to share and distribute new images of library collections. libraries are using the latest technologies and trends to make their services popular and user friendly. Librarians can utilize this to send a list of current publications to users. library associations. Twitter: a micro blogging application.

This is particularly useful for distance learners who may call in from any part of the country with reference queries. copy. print. Librarians can spread awareness of library services to those who may not be aware of these services via social media. scholarly perspectives resulting in an enriching 115 . Marketing of library services – the growing population of patrons and librarians that make use of social networking is an indication that it is an ideal vehicle for marketing the services of libraries to patrons. The feature of social networking allows users to search. but also to benefit the researcher. find.networking tools – where librarians can interact with their users to study their needs and give a feedback. Budapest Open Access Initiative. Librarians can also develop subject-specific blogs and play a leading role in advocating the use of blogs for scholarly communication and commenting on research findings. p. 2002. p. 4) Students are using tools like Ask a Librarian. Social networking tools like Instant Messaging (IM). 378). Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) could be used to achieve a successful and sustainable reference services in an online social space by engaging in an online face-to-face interaction. Open access is the term used to refer to resources that are openly available to users with no requirements for authentication or payment.4 Social Networking Opportunities for Libraries Social networking sites are constantly promoting open access to knowledge. download. Most students are not aware of the different services offered in the library such as reservation of books. (Steiner. 2008). In an open access platform. programs and new resources but they are also used for reference service. MySpace. Reference Services – the use of social networking tools enable librarians to identify library patrons on the social cyberspace and pro-actively provide the type of information that would normally result from reference service. or link to full texts of these resources. Libraries need to realize that in order to engage with their users they will need to reach them “in their preferred methods of communication” (Topper. distribute. meebo and twitter to ask questions in “real time”(Steiner. which provide interactive platform for users to access and generate content. 3. Using social networking tools for making the reference act a participatory one means that the client can be served by multiple sources and a variety of authoritative. filter. Social networking presents some important opportunities to libraries which include marketing of library services and reference services. Flickr is an excellent marketing tool which could be used by librarians to sensitize the users on general library services. Information is now produced in a variety of media whose representation can no longer be presented in the physical books alone. Wiki. photo sharing – where archival pictures can be posted to users or uploaded on the library websites…”Librarians in Nigeria are gradually utilizing these tools to offer “on the spot” library services to users. 2007. 5) and this is assisting in promoting the library as a relevant. efficient and helpful place. users are not charged for access to articles or other resources. and are free to read. Reference interaction has always been a conversation (Lankes. etc. collaborate and have online open access to knowledge and contribute to web content. browse. In: Tiamiyu and Aina (2008). It is a model that presents free access to publications. 2009. moving towards reference in the social environment is therefore a natural development that has been shown to be not only practically viable. reference services and Strategic Dissemination of Information (SDI). These are made possible with the present social networking sites such as Facebook. search. provided they do not violet copyright rules. p. 2009. Social networking tools are not only being used as a vehicle for promoting services.

In fact. even the few that are aware are still struggling to find out the productive uses of these sites for library services. Unreliable power supply –The low supply of electricity discourage people from participating in the online forum. Copyright Issue – The free access to information where people copy.0 SUMMARY In this chapter various social network site have been discuss in general. it also discuss the sites that can be used for information resource management in the libraries. Lack of maintenance culture – Maintenance culture is seriously lacking in most institutions in developing countries. Users are also not aware of the protocols involved in social communication. Lack of training of staff – Most librarians lack the 21st century skills that could be required to adopt the social networking tools for effective library services. 5. Many students and possibly even some of the academic staff may be unaware that there is a subject specialist in their discipline. paste and edit without acknowledging the authority is a serious challenge to copyright management.0 CONCLUSION The complex web of interactions between social networking service users and their online and offline communities. there is a general slogan in Nigeria that says “leave Face book and face your book”. What are Social Networking Sites? 116 . corporations. social network developers. The few available technologies are in moribund conditions that may not support remote access to information. Getting students and Facebook users to move beyond the social aspect of Facebook to use it for more serious and productive outcome is a challenge in Nigeria.3.5 Challenges of Social Networking Lack of Awareness – Most librarians in the developing countries are not aware of social networking services. governments and other institutions like libraries along with the diverse and sometimes conflicting motives and interests of these various stakeholders—will continue to require rigorous philosophical analysis for decades to come. Government intervention: There is little or no intervention of the government in the area of ICT in Nigeria. 6. This point to the fact that Face book is usually seen as a vehicle for unserious communication Bandwidth problem – Most institutions have limited bandwidth to support this practice. 2007). They make the traditional library services their comfort zone and are not eager to embrace change. Poor connectivity can frustrate effective online participation. Technophobia – Many librarians and users are afraid of handling computers.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1. It is important for librarians to initiate contact with clients and experiment with developing a “public self” (Horizon Report. 4.

Discuss the challenges of adopting Social Networking media in IRM? 7. 2011. Enumerate the advantage and disadvantages of using social network sites in our libraries for information resource management? 3. G.” in Information Technology and Moral Philosophy. Bakardjieva.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READING Moor. print edition forthcoming] 117 . DOI 10. 26–39..” Philosophy of Technology.1007/s13347-011-0032-9 [published online May 2011. Cambridge: UK: Cambridge University Press.0 Technologies of the Self. van den Hoven and J. and Gaden.2.. “Web 2. Weckert (eds. J. M.). J. pp. 2008. “Why We Need Better Ethics for Emerging Technologies.

For economic value to be enjoyed by creator." New approaches came with the arrival of information communication technologies (ICT).0 INTRODUCTION Information resources come in many forms.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit. students should be to:  Understand copyright as a legal Issue in Information Resource Management  Understand Copyright as a Balancing of Interests in Information Resource Management  Explain the role of Libraries in the implementation of Copyright Law  Know What Librarians Seek in any Copyright Law 3. and linking information.1 Copyright as Legal Issue in Information Resource Management Ekpo (1992) notes that copyright allows authors to enjoy the full benefits of creative works for a limited period of time. Zhu. such as trade secrets.0 Main Content 3. analyzing. 2. which have brought barriers to access and communication in their wake.3 Libraries as creatures of the balance in copyright law 3.0 MAIN CONTENT 3. The 1988 copyright act extended the duration of copyright from 25 years to 50 years for creators or authors. Nigeria acceded to the Universal Copyright Convention in 1961 and promulgated a copyright decree in 1970.4 What librarians seek in any copyright law revision or rulemakings? 1. greater complexity in locating.0 Objectives 3. eliminating the possibility 118 . Many literatures show a great deal on copyright and intellectual property. many databases are made available to the general public for free access. increased speed in acquiring information.0 Introduction 2. establishing the Nigeria Copyright Council. For example characteristics of the environment in which librarians are now working include greater access to a range of information. Robson (1994) observes that electronically stored data is a recent phenomenon and that the confidentiality of manually stored data has been protected by law for many years. (2002) agree that "there are several possible legal mechanisms for conventional database protection.1 Copyright as Legal Issue in Information Resource Management 3. copyright infringement must be viewed seriously. contract law. Hongwei. The law was repealed because it was ineffective and was replaced by the copyright act of 1988. Eisenschitz (1993) observes that the ease of accessing information online has led to the growth of a large number of criminal activities.2Copyright as a balancing of interests 3. But on the Internet. et al. and copyright.UNIT 2: ETHICAL AND LEGAL ISSUES IN INFORMATION RESOURCE MANAGEMENT CONTENT 1.

The Copyright Act also provides that authors may transfer their rights to publishers in order to bring their works to market. are governed by contract. A crucial function of the Copyright Act. to promote science and the useful arts. and through limitations and exceptions such as fair use. and between publishers and users. but those rights are limited in various ways in order. The creation of new intellectual property building on the old is stimulated as a result of the existence of libraries. Libraries share materials and preserve works under specific provisions for libraries in the Act. many more industries. and public access could be inhibited through monopoly pricing or other monopoly-like practices. Libraries are places where the public and the proprietary meet. and one of the principles underlying copyright. The 119 . and the interactions between creators and publishers.3 Libraries as Creatures of the Balance in Copyright Law Libraries are creatures of the historical and statutory balance in copyright law. it is costly and sometimes impossible to enforce those contracts. Copyright in its origins and in the way it has evolved in the United States has always involved a balancing of interests. In the digital age. and groups of users are affected by the outcome of intellectual policy deliberations. Focusing on three groups is a convenient simplification. thus enriching society's store of intellectual material. and are often the only entities that preserve public domain materials. creators' rights are almost always transferred. Some even see these rights implicit in the copyright clause of the Constitution stemming from its purpose of advancing knowledge and creativity. publishers who have legal rights by transfer. users have rights.2 Copyright as a Balancing of Interests in Information Resource Management The roles libraries play are shaped by copyright law. institutions. that work will eventually enter the public domain. in the Constitution's phrase. Authors and creators are granted certain monopoly rights in order that adequate return stimulates the creation of intellectual works. If copyright owners' (most often the publishers) rights were too strong or unlimited." 3.of trade secret protection. 3. Libraries are often the only entities that provide access to the vast majority of copyrighted works that lose market vitality long before the expiration of the copyrights. The First Amendment protects the right to speak and to publish as well as the right to read and to hear.creators who are granted legal rights under the Constitution and the Act. is to help equalize the bargaining leverage among the three groups. innovators and creators. Thus authors are granted rights. Although some database owners have managed to negotiate licensing agreements with their users. So there are really three groups -. and users (or institutions such as libraries and schools) who have legal rights through exceptions and limitations to creators' rights. In practice. Another part of the bargain or balance in copyright has historically been that in return for limited rights to exploit a newly created work. authors and creators might be little rewarded for their efforts. Libraries enable users to access copyrighted and public domain works and to exercise their rights under the exceptions and limitations to creators' rights in the law. Libraries lend materials based on the First Sale doctrine. Monopolies in intellectual property in a democracy can also be in tension with the First Amendment.

3. their rights to at least the same extent as they have enjoyed them in the analog environment. Libraries are a small but significant market for published works.4 What Librarians Seek in any Copyright Law? What librarians seek as copyright law and related rules are being reshaped for the digital age is to maintain for users. This is especially true of subscriptions to periodicals. The disappearance of much electronic information after a very short period of time. Often libraries pay more for copyrighted works than would an individual. to ongoing reference works.the archival function -. Librarians take seriously their role as advocates for individual users of copyrighted materials. most of which will not retain economic viability.creators. and for libraries and educational institutions acting on their behalf. but do not usually get involved in policy deliberations. Libraries play this archival role because history has shown that it is not economically viable for profit-based businesses to do so. this may mean that a consortium of libraries negotiates on behalf of all its members. Librarians seek incentives under the law to be able. and to electronic information. Members of the public take their rights for granted and generally exercise common-sense. Libraries and educational institutions expect the law to continue to equalize the bargaining leverage among the three groups -. Because of their institutional roles. publishers. librarians and their associations pay close attention to that balance and to the need to promote users' rights as well as creators' rights. It makes all parties nervous because they know they cannot accurately foretell the future. In the electronic environment. 4. the fragility of digital bits. Adapting policy to rapid technological change is never easy. or a state library agency may negotiate agreements on behalf of all the public libraries in a state. Should any new rights be granted to copyright proprietors in copyright law revision. This becomes even more important as licensing replaces purchasing. and the short life of hardware and software suggest that this role of libraries will be more needed than ever before.0 CONCLUSION With a good balanced copyright law and intellectual property policy. The difficulty and the complexity underscore 120 . there is no reason why the digital information environment should not increase the opportunities for creators. These higher rates are presumably to account for multiple uses in libraries.multiple roles of libraries as social organisations address the balance in the law. Librarians recognize that most users of copyrighted material are not aware of their dependence on balanced law and policy for access to information and for gaining knowledge. publishers. The vast majority of copyrighted works in library collections was purchased or was acquired through license agreements. and are shaped by it. Librarians also recognize that a key societal function of libraries -. and users. Debate on such crucial policy matters is at risk because electronic information is so seldom actually available for purchase and permanent retention or preservation. but harder and harder for libraries to accomplish. to maintain and preserve electronic information. Libraries often aggregate their purchases or licenses to enhance their buying power. they should be circumscribed in analogous and appropriate ways on behalf of users. Librarians do not see debate over intellectual property policy issues in terms of winners and losers. and users. at reasonable prices.

“The Good Life in Intercultural Information Ethics: A New Agenda.the importance of a careful and thoughtful approach to copyright law revision and rulemakings 5. Wong. ”International Review of Information Ethics 13: 26–32.H. you are exposed to the legal issues in information resource management especially issues that has to do with copyright and intellectual property.. “Ethical Aspects of Managing A Social Network Site: A Disclosive Analysis. Discuss the possible legal issues in managing information resources in our libraries? 2. 121 .0 SUMMARY In this unit. P.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1. Explain the roles of libraries and librarians in the protection of copyright? 7.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READING Skog. D.”International Review of Information Ethics. 16: 27–32. 2010. 6. 2011..

and historical materials generally unavailable to searchers and the public. technological.UNIT 3: DEVELOPMENT OF INSTITUTIONAL DIGITAL REPOSITORY CONTENTS 1.1 An Overview of Institutional Digital Repository 3. and histories of institutions. museums.1 An Overview of Institutional Digital Repository Development of institutional repositories has largely taken place in universities.2 Examples of Institutional Digital Repository 3. intellectual output. preserving.0 Main Content 3.6Standardization in Digital Repositories 3.10 Richard Johnson observation on Digital Repositories 4.4 Policies of Digital Repositories 3.5 Legal Considerations in Digital Repositories 3.0 Tutor-Marked Assignment 7.0 Objectives 3. print formats. fulfilling their roles as experts in collecting. Institutional repositories are now being created to manage. While the key articles describing institutional 122 .0 Conclusion 5. and a variety of storage devices. artistic. governments.8 Sustainability and Funding of Digital Repositories 3. and other organisations house treasures that have been hidden in archives. and maintain the digital assets.7 Collaboration in Digital Repositories 3.0 Introduction 2. students should be able to:  explain Institutional Digital Repository  identify various examples of Institutional Digital Repository  identify the requirements for Access and Use of Digital Repositories  highlight the different Policies of Digital Repositories  discuss the Legal Considerations in Digital Repositories  identify the Standardization issues in Digital Repositories  identify the techniques for collaboration in Digital Repositories  discuss the various ways for Sustainability and Funding of Digital Repositories  explain the effect of Digital Repositories on Publishing  account for the Richard Johnson observation on Digital Repositories 3. and providing stewardship for documents and digital information. describing. Librarians are taking leadership roles in planning and building these repositories.0 References 1.9 Effect of Digital Repositories on Publishing 3. basements. attics. 2. These treasures encompass scientific.0 INTRODUCTION The world's universities.0 MAIN CONTENT 3. cultural. preserve. Three articles describe the activities of universities.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit.3 Access and Use in Digital Repositories 3.0 Summary 6.

The loss of revenue could place these societies in the position of having to ask members to pay more of the cost of member services. Repositories provide services to faculty. one] are publishing online and establishing digital archives. and other activities and collections. and making scholarly and artistic materials available.uchicago. and BiblioVault [http://cddc. established metadata standards. However. university. and administrators who want to archive research. Computers have been ubiquitous on campuses since the late 1980s. University of California scholarships editions [http://escholarship.].org/ucpressbooks. preserving. important print and image collections. raising funds. repositories are marketing tools communicating capabilities and quality by showcasing faculty and student research. Not- for-profit organisations may find repositories useful for relating the histories of the organisations. public service projects. which might in turn affect their ability to pay overhead expenses and to provide enhanced member services. While the main purposes of institutional repositories are to bring together and preserve the intellectual output of a laboratory. have enabled people to think in practical terms about the establishment of central facilities for storing. white papers.cdlib. teaching and learning materials. or other entity. theses. along with the development of the Internet and more powerful search engines. important new information sources are seeing the light of day and becoming more generally available. Using open archive models [http://www. the University of Chicago Press. or a consortium of several institutions. such as High wire []. For universities. the Chicago Digital Distribution Center. the need for changes in scholarly communication to remove barriers to access. and creative materials. The open access and open archives movement. and digital rights management. Faculty teachers and researchers want to archive their own materials and have them available on personal or institutional Web sites. these societies have a serious dilemma. 123 . Collaboration through a consortium reduces costs for each member through resource sharing while expanding access to digital materials.openarchives. If the societies establish open access repositories.Stanford. Repositories in universities may include preprints and post prints of journal articles. and the increasing awareness that universities and research institutions are losing valuable digital and print materials have begun driving the establishment of institutional repositories. Digital university presses. Scholarly societies may establish discipline-based repositories to preserve the history and literature of a particular subject area. Students and faculty are comfortable with the power of online communication. They publish journals to disseminate research about their fields. they could experience reduced or zero publishing profits. and creating interest in the projects and activities of the organisations. one department. and materials documenting the history of the institution. historic.repositories relate to universities. Materials in corporate repositories would most likely remain proprietary and unavailable to people outside the company. Corporations and not-for-profits may establish repositories to archive and preserve their institutional histories and administrative documents.html]. department. the incentives and commitments to change the process of scholarly communication have also begun serving as strong motivators. any organisation can adapt and adopt the concept. archiving. dissertations. these articles. research data. Repositories may be limited to one field. work in progress. technical reports.

uk] to build institutional repositories in U. Ohio] plan to include the digital assets and information services available to the OSU community in the repository.The increased demand for scholarly information.. The system uses Berkeley Electronic Press software [http://www. white papers. Determination of acceptable content is in the hands of researchers and faculty. The MIT repository contains a variety of research materials deposited in accordance with the policies developed by departments and research units at and administration in higher education through the use of information and communications technology. and other] mission is to increase the ability of research universities to share research for the benefit of research communities. discipline.lib. Dspace developed open source software with a grant from Hewlett Packard and created a federation of universities to work collaboratively on the project. In the U. Many institutions use GNU e-print software for these] at MIT has received extensive coverage in the news and literature. and the University of Washington. indexes. The developers of the Ohio State University (OSU) Knowledge Bank [http://www. The idea of the invisible college nurtured by meetings and preprints of journal articles has been replaced by global. University of Toronto. research. especially in science. The University of California's eScholarship Repository [http://repositories. The software. Research institutions worldwide may acquire the Dspace software at no cost and any institution can adapt it to their own needs. stores. Columbia. the Consortium of University Research Libraries (CURL) and the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) have established Project SHERPA [http://www. 3. more research. learning. CURL's [http://www. research universities.curl. Individual research centers. offers faculty on the 10 UC campuses a central facility for the deposit of research or scholarly output. Cornell. JISC [http://www.ohio-] aims to support teaching. The institutional repository projects support the goals of both organisations and promote collaborative development and operations. developed at the University of Southampton in England. and redistributes the intellectual output of a university's research faculty in digital formats". is free. Digital publishing. and sponsoring units set the policies for acceptance of content. part of the California Digital Library. Governments and government agencies may use repositories in the same ways as universities to document work in progress and the histories of] licensed by the University of]. MIT.2 Examples of Institutional Digital Repository The Dspace repository project [http://dspace.or project-based online hearings. global networking.bepress. will probably increase the pressure on scholarly societies and universities. preserves. and increased communication among communities of scholars are driving the demand for broader access. The library manages the Knowledge Bank as part of its knowledge management initiative. Repositories and open archives are being established worldwide. It creates an open access archive through author and/or institutional 124 .sherpa. The Federation includes Cambridge University. Some agencies will find repositories useful for storage and access to technical reports. University of Rochester. The Dspace Web page describes the project as "a groundbreaking digital institutional repository that captures. departments.

eprint. and other elements will depend on institutional context and the scope and purposes of the]. Faculty will not contribute willingly to a central repository unless they have been consulted and trust the process. disciplines. the better. In establishing repositories there are a variety of decisions to make. Will the repository be central? Distributed? Will it cover only parts or all of the 125 . and bring institutional communities to consensus can make it a slow process. Nonexclusive publisher licenses would increase availability to these materials and place the publishers in the open access arena. Other publishers opt for exclusive licenses for a limited time. Not all materials can be made available freely. Some materials may be restricted to a small group of researchers or to people associated with the institution because they represent work in progress deemed proprietary or that may entail sponsor restrictions. The movement is new and the time it takes to plan. a group working on a patentable device or process may want to share data only with members of the group. Some publishers permit authors to self-archive. For example. The sooner participants can buy into the process. and research groups. formulate policies.4 Policies of Digital Repositories Librarians both use and create institutional repositories. Policies appropriate for an academic institution may not work in a corporate In an internally competitive environment where cooperation and trust are not nurtured. systems architecture. Copyrighted materials may carry a variety of restrictions.3 Access and Use in Digital Repositories Repositories now represent potentially rich sources of information. Here are some of the key issues to consider when developing repositories: • the institutional culture • the scope of the repository • content • access levels • legal aspects • standards • sustainability • funding Institutional culture depends on how the organisation is structured as well as how much collaboration and trust exists within an institution.archives [http://software. Faculty need to be convinced that contributing to a repository will enhance their reputations in their disciplines and result in wider dissemination of their work. 3. go to http://www. while still others will not allow any deviation from exclusive copyright. For a list of projects using the GNU software for author self-archiving. images. Each institution defines its own policies dealing with access to and use of materials in repositories. In academic organisations. faculty belong to departments. and valuable research results. Academic competition may be fiercer in some universities than in corporations. Policies.eprints. Repository advocates must decide early on the purposes and scope of the repository and communicate them to all affected parties. 3. data. building a repository will become more difficult. Not-for-profit organisations have unique purposes and cultures that will dictate how their repositories are formed and maintained.

technical reports.6 Standardization in Digital Repositories Interoperability requires that repositories employ standards developed to handle issues associated with open access. In some cases. At MIT. and the Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS).organisation? For some institutions. Other organisations involved in standards and repository design and operations include the Digital Library Federation. If there are limits on distribution of materials or access levels. archivists. 3. audio and video files. privacy considerations may limit access. Coalition for Networked Information. Access policies are determined by MIT [http://libraries. image files. OCLC. Many universities have comprehensive intellectual property policies setting forth the responsibilities of faculty and administration. The author/owner agrees to give MIT permission to distribute and preserve the material. but the Dspace guidelines specify that material must be "education-oriented. Corporations and not-for-profit organisations may have formal intellectual property policies. distribute. conference papers. and produced by an MIT faculty member. A repository may be limited to self-archiving by authors or may include the intellectual output and business and administrative documents for the whole institution. faculty. and Creative Commons. If student portfolios are included in the repository. the electronic theses and dissertations program at Virginia Tech. Many institutions have treasures known to only a few people. Open Archives Metadata Harvesting Protocol (OAIPMH). intellectual property issues may be covered in employment] is a valuable tool for selecting software appropriate to the needs and context of the institution and its repository. The Dspace project at MIT includes articles.soros. the repository software needs to build in those limits to ensure compliance. Repositories provide the means for unearthing these treasures and bringing them to light. version 2.5 Legal Considerations in Digital Repositories Librarians and administrators responsible for operating and maintaining repositories need to ensure that all legal requirements are met. These standards include the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model. These requirements include appropriate software and content licenses. and reformatted digital library collections. e-theses. 126 . working papers. and preserve repository materials. published by the Open Access Society [http://www. Software is a key element in the construction of an institutional repository." in digital format. authors must sign a nonexclusive license granting MIT permission to deposit. data sets.7 Collaboration in Digital Repositories Librarians. Policies for the deposit of content and who may contribute content come from each MIT community. Large and complex institutions will need consensus on key issues and technical standards. Criteria for deposit into the repository could come from each community or from a central body with input from the participants. Guide to Institutional Repository Software. and information technology staff have gained increased understanding of each other's work and learned to work more collaboratively in recent years. Decision-making on content can become a contentious issue.html]. Academic institutions usually opt for open access but may have to restrict access for some research activities. reprints. community-based repositories will work well.

success in building a repository involves eight "C" words: • comprehension • collaboration • context • change • caring • commitment • creativity • competence Comprehension means that all members of the team must share a common vision and understanding of the purposes and scope of the repository. and published. The talents and commitment of time and energy from each group are essential to the success of a repository project. software. 127 . encouraging others to do likewise by contributing ideas and energy. Thinking and working together in a non-threatening atmosphere helps people integrate other contexts into their own. preserved. Caring motivates the desire to share research results and joint scholarly endeavors. IT staff and librarians need to know the consequences of changes in hardware. and provide knowledge and information needed for future generations to learn. New ideas can come from anywhere — from individuals or groups of individuals. In corporations. Creation and sustainability of a repository heavily depend on thinking together and learning what others on the team think so decisions can be made within their working context.8 Sustainability and Funding of Digital Repositories Maintenance and sustainability are key issues that involve the long-term commitment of money by management. Collaboration involves thinking and working together. This change requires faculty to deposit their research results. Competency means knowing how to make the repository work for all its constituents. and standards and be able to adjust accordingly. Repositories involve change in the way research is disseminated. A repository cannot run by itself. working with others to solve problems. Maintenance of content. management may require staff to deposit items. Managers show their commitment by understanding that repositories will grow and require support and funding in perpetuity. It needs constant attention. software. education. hardware. Librarians and archivists need to carry their collection development skills and operational know-how to the repository project. and making important decisions. Creativity involves imagination and the ability to visualize a new way of doing things. 3. preserve history. networking. such as strategic plans.Each group now recognizes and appreciates the expertise and creativity of the others. Caring leads to the commitment to deposit one's scholarly work in the repository. data sets. Context is each person's world view and working environment. and experience. and accessibility can change. Each person has a unique mind-set based on background. and working papers. and standards needed to make the repository serve everyone. and other materials in the repository — a new step in the research process. marketing plans. with different people contributing their different talents. In simple terms. Information technology staff demonstrates their competencies by knowing about the software.

the Public Library of Science charges authors for value-added services (editing. accessibility. large amounts of scientific and medical research results are not readily available.) but does not charge readers for access. and other anticipated contingencies will ease the problem-solving process. rather than expands. it becomes clearer and clearer that academic institution. to disinter mediate. recognition of the benefits of knowledge sharing grows.S. 3. marketing. Despite the vast amount of U. "Altering the structure of the scholarly publishing model will be neither simple nor immediate. 3. Their reluctance to commit funds is exacerbated in an uncertain economy. 4. corporations. or with government or industry. Libraries buy technical reports from the National Technical Information Service and. Raym Crow points out that one of the purposes of institutional repositories is to form a global system of interoperable repositories that will become centers for scholarly publishing. Having clear policies concerning deposit. refereeing. Governments at all levels need to regard dissemination of the information they generate as crucial parts of technological and economic infrastructures and essential in a democratic republic. librarians. the National Institutes of Health.10 Richard Johnson observation on Digital Repositories The current system of scholarly publication limits. and publishers — and the inertia of the traditional publishing paradigm is immense. Players in the open access movement and builders of repositories have reacted to high journal prices by beginning plans to disaggregate the structure of scholarly publishing. The stakes are high for all the well-entrenched participants in the system — faculty. Too often managers in corporations seem unable to look beyond the quarter's bottom line and shy away from long term commitments. faculty collaborating with faculty in another institution or group of institutions. Many managers in academe emulate their corporate colleagues through their reluctance to raise and dedicate enough money to ensure that the repository is funded at an appropriate level forever. the readership and availability of most scholarly research (while also obscuring its institutional origins) People with no affiliation with research institutions have a difficult time identifying and finding research information.Librarians need to prepare to handle problems arising from a faculty member or key person leaving the organisation. The drivers of the open access movement are high. Lower access costs would broaden usage. The availability of these reports would increase if they were made part of the Federal Depository Library Program. until recently. In a world where journal prices continue to rise while the costs of information and networking technologies that enable interoperability continue to drop. especially in science and medicine. Each day. etc. to eliminate or curtail the distance between author and reader.0 CONCLUSION The open access movement and institutional repositories could contribute significantly to economic growth by broadening the market for scholarly publications and research results." The open access movement is driving changes in how publishing costs are paid. and other organisations will no longer pay the prices charged by scholarly publishers. Everyone involved in a repository needs to understand that the project has become part of their everyday lives and will require attention and funding in perpetuity.9 Effect of Digital Repositories on Publishing Institutional repositories and the open access movement will affect the publishing business. Repositories cannot be sustained without long-term infusions of funds. government information available online. For example. Economist Joel 128 .

(1986) 'Improving information worker productivity'.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1. Information Management Review3(4). 5. How can our Universities build effective digital repository? 7. Outline the key issues to consider in developing IDR? 3. P. 39-46. but inexpensive to use once implemented. Information Management Review. (1988) 'InfoFind: a practical tool for managing information'. 1(4). (1976) 'Managing the costs of information'. Strassman. 133-42. you are exposed to the different issues in building successful and effective digital repository 6.Mokyr found in his studies of knowledge creation and dissemination that lower access costs brought knowledge to people who used that knowledge as the basis of invention and innovation.0 SUMMARY In this unit.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READING Stone. P. Strassman.A. 54 (September/October). Harvard Business Review.A. He also pointed out that ideas and knowledge may be expensive to generate. N. Define the term Institutional Digital Repository? 2. 55-60. The future will bring greater innovation and technologies through open access and institutional repositories. 129 .

traditionally. First.1 Concept of Electronic Resources Management (ERM) 3. with the acquisition. and librarianship and information science (especially in special librarianship and information work).6 Functional Requirements in Electronic Resources Management (ERM) 3.3 Features of Electronic Resources Management (ERM) 3.0 Objectives 3.0 Main Content 3.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit.2 History of Electronic Resources Management (ERM) 3.0 Summary 6. maintenance and use of electronic documents: archives and records management.8 Interpretability. including database design and development.4 Recent Developments in Electronic Resource Management in Libraries 3. it has its origins in a variety of fields that have had to do. organisation. 2.7 DLF ERMI and Consortia 3. Many of the areas of concern within EIM have long been the concern of other professional groups in the information field. students should be able to:  Define the Concept of Electronic Resources Management (ERM)  Trace the history of Electronic Resources Management (ERM)  Identify the Features of Electronic Resources Management (ERM)  Trace the recent developments in Electronic Resource Management in Libraries  Identify the Electronic Resource Management Processes  List the Functional Requirements in Electronic Resources Management (ERM) 3. Ambiguity.0 References/Further Reading 1.UNIT 4: ELECTRONIC RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (ERM) CONTENTS 1.0 Introduction 2.0 MAIN CONTENT 130 .5 Electronic Resource Management Processes 3. and the economics of information. information storage and retrieval.0 Tutor-Marked Assignment 7. and Adaptability in Electronic Resources Management 4.0 INTRODUCTION Several strands have contributed to the development of electronic information management.0 Conclusion 5.

consortia arrangements. Integration with content modules.2 History of Electronic Resources Management (ERM) The idea of developing electronic resource management systems emerged in 2001-2002. These standards were published in the 2004 as Electronic Resource Management: Report of the DLF ERM Initiative. The Digital Library Federation and NISO began work in May 2002 to develop standards for ERM data. notices to managers when actions are expected or required) 131 . and electronic books. access platform  Providing contact information for all content providers  Logging problems with resources and providers  Providing customizable e-mail alerting systems (e. Since the publication of the report.g. as represented by the Standardized Usage Statistics Harvesting Initiative (SUSHI). e-journals) to the package record  Encoding and perhaps publicly displaying licensed rights such as e-reserves. incident report mechanisms and license descriptions. especially internet-based resources such as electronic journals. Features of some ERM systems include:  Supporting acquisition and management of licensed e-resources  May be integrated into other library system modules or may be a standalone system  May have a public interface.3 Features of Electronic Resources Management (ERM) In future releases. and interlibrary loan  Tracking electronic resources from point of order through licensing and final access  Providing information about the data providers. such as e resource registration processes. is also on the agenda.1 Concept of Electronic Resources Management (ERM) Electronic resource management (ERM) is the practices and software systems used by libraries to keep track of important information about electronic information resources.g. vendors plan to incorporate overlap analysis and cost-per-use analysis into their ERM systems to help with collection development. Standardizing usage data collection is a major objective of the ERM industry. coursepacks.3. The development of ERM became necessary in the early 2000s as it became clear that traditional library catalogues and integrated library systems were not designed to handle metadata for resources as mutable as many online products are 3. either separate or integrated into the OPAC  Providing descriptions of resources at the package (database) level and relate package contents (e. whose objective is to develop a standard for downloading COUNTER-compliant (Counting Online Usage of Networked Electronic Resources) usage statistics from vendor sites into ERM systems. several vendors of integrated library systems have released ERM products. databases. growing out of research by Tim Jewell at the University of Washington. 3.

representing Innovative Interfaces Inc. cataloging and binding now includes selecting. the intricacies of consortial arrangements still need to be resolved by libraries and vendors. often requiring more staff with a greater skill set at each stage. representing Harvard University and the Digital Library Federation’s Electronic Resources Management Initiative (DLF ERMI) steering group. evaluating. discussed the recent advent of electronic resource management (ERM) systems for libraries. The resulting document covered the information and workflows that an ERM system should integrate in the key areas of selection and acquisition. paper files or email folders became increasingly cumbersome.5 Electronic Resource Management Processes The steps required for managing e-resources are more complex than those for print resources. and Ted Fons. billing and registering access and is accompanied by a series of technical aspects.  Linking license documents to resource records  Supports retrieval of SUSHI usage statistics 3. Also addressed were problem-solving activities (e. 3.. ERMI developed a value schema to take into account the entire range of permissions. The document contained data elements new to ERM systems at that time. detailed license information. explicit or not: Permitted 132 . administrative IDs and passwords. Haverford and Swarthmore). performance. defined by the DLF as non-repeatable. licensing. renewal and termination information). A process that consisted of selecting. 3. storing and managing administrative information in spreadsheets. 3.. public interfaces. Under Review and Rejected by any of the three colleges at one time. user support and troubleshooting. Entities that do not require multiple fields for single libraries often do so for consortia. pricing models. a panel composed of Ivy Anderson.g. Ambiguity.. all three colleges may run a trial separately. approving. could actually be Active.. troubleshooting and usage statistics.8 Interpretability. such as usability. and a more integrated solution was called for. 3. For example.g. usage statistics.4 Recent Developments in Electronic Resource Management in Libraries At the 2005 Annual Meeting of ASIS&T.. resource availability) and staff (e. renewal and retention.g. access provision. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the vendor Ex Libris to define the necessary functions of an ERM system. ordering. relevant to both users (e. resource administration. Barbara Weir. representing the Tri-College Consortium (Bryn Mawr. troubleshooting. E-resource management is a time-intensive and iterative process. vendor communications) and business functions (e. but only one may actually buy the resource.6 Functional Requirements in Electronic Resources Management (ERM) The functional requirements were developed from an initial collaboration between Harvard University.7 DLF ERMI and Consortia The DLF ERMI guide is intended mostly for individual libraries. license permissions and restrictions. access technologies. training information). The Electronic Resource Status field.g. and Adaptability in Electronic Resources Management Currently licensing values are often left open to varying interpretations. Any field should also be customizable locally and not limited to a prescribed set of values. As demand for e-resources grew.

link-resolver menu or Web- based news blog.0 SUMMARY In this unit different concept in relation to electronic information management has been discussed. which would require a novel encoding system. acquisitions data from the library’s serial vendor. 6. J. Trace the historical development of ERM? 3. ERM system data describing downtimes or use restrictions could be exported to the library’s online public access catalogue (OPAC).0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1. prohibited (explicit). Discuss the important features of ERM? 4. as well as exchanges between publishers. R. XML-formatted license terms from publishers.0 CONCLUSION A long-term goal for e-resource management is ensuring interoperability between systems. libraries and various cultural communities. Permitted (interpreted). ERMI plans to develop an ERM language that is open enough to accept new trends and address the needs of all relevant communities. What are the constrains in managing electronic information resources in Nigerian libraries? 7. 4. Knoppers.(explicit). In participation with the joint National Information Standards Organisation (NISO)/DLF/EDItEUR License Expression Working Group (LEWG). EDItEUR is the international group coordinating the development of electronic commerce in the books and serials sector. 9-16. 5. Not Applicable. 133 . Prohibited (interpreted). it seeks to develop a single standard to support internal library management. e. Silent (uninterrupted). aggregator packages from e- journal management services.V. Define the concept of Electronic Resources Management (ERM) 2.H. (1986) 'Information law and information management'. Rights expression languages (RELs) only support two values: Permitted (explicit) and Prohibited (interpreted). Imported data could originate from several sources. such as cultural memory organisations and creative commons.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READING Lytle.g. all in an attempt to come out with ways through which electronic information resources can be manage effectively.T. Information Management Review1(3). 63-73. serial subscription and holdings data in the ONIX for Serials format from publishers. (1988) 'Electronic Information resource management: a five-year perspective'. Information Management Review3(3). It is believed that any new licensing language would have to accommodate a certain level of ambiguity.. EDItEUR has become involved in the license expression work initiated by ERMI and is working on a license transmission standard that will be part of the ONIX (Online Information eXchange) for Serials format.