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previously.

The weld should look like


See Details A
& B and Note 7 that shown in Fig. 16-64. After you have
made a number of these joints that are
See Notes 2 & 3 45 5
visually satisfactory, cut a few test cou-
pons from the joint and subject them to
the usual tests.
Pipe Inclination Fixed (45 5) and Not
Rotated During Welding
Butt Joint V-Groove Weld on Pipe Axis
Without Backing in the 45 from Hori-
Test Position 6G
zontal Fixed Position (6G) (Arkansas
a = 60 a = 60 Bell-Hole) (Travel Up): Job Qualification
Minimum Minimum Test 2 The techniques used for the 6G
R
position are a combination of the 2G and
5G techniques, Fig. 16-75, detail A. See
T T
AWS WPS ANSI/AWS B2.1-1-201 for
R = 5/32, R = 3/16,
additional information.
f = 1/16 f = R/2
1/16 +1/4 1/16
Minimum Maximum Root Pass Practice welding from the bot-
Detail A Joint Geometry Without Backing Detail B Joint Geometry with Backing tom to the top using a combination of
techniques learned from Jobs 16-J3 and
Notes: J5. Because of the incline of the pipe
1. Administration of this performance qualification test in accordance with AWS QC7, axis, which is 45 from the horizontal,
Supplement G, supersedes AWS QC11 and AWS EG3.0 requirements of performance
qualification for SMAW of carbon steel pipe. the travel and work angles need to direct
2. 6 or 8 Schedule 80 carbon steel pipe (M-1/P-1/S-1, Group 1 or 2). the arc and weld pool into the root of the
3. The standard pipe groove test weldment for performance qualification shall consist of groove. Use 18-inch E6010 electrodes
two pipe sections, each a minimum of 3 in. (76 mm) long joined by welding to make one at 75 to 125 amperes. Maintain the 316-
test weldment a minimum of 6 in. (150 mm) long.
inch keyhole, Figs. 16-67 and 16-68. Use
4. With or without backing. Backing ring to suit diameter and nominal wall thickness of pipe.
Refer to Details A and B. proper restarting and stopping techniques
5. All welding done in position according to applicable performance qualification requirements. as shown in Figs. 16-70 through 16-72.
6. All parts may be mechanically cut or machine OFC. Fill and Cover Passes Before making the
7. Use WPS ANSI/AWS B2.1-1-022 for performance qualification without backing. Use WPS next pass, clean the face of the root pass
ANSI/AWS B2.1-1-016 for performance qualification with backing.
carefully. Chip off or grind any high spots
Fig. 16-75 A typical 6G pipe test for welders. or weld spatter, and chip or grind out any
holes or depressions along the toes of the
root pass. The E7018 is not a deep pen-
weld approximately 34 inch back from the crater on top of etrating electrode, so the root pass must be smooth with
the prior weld. Let the arc stabilize, and with a short arc a flat contour as should all subsequent passes. Use E7018
gap move into the crater and continue the weld. Never hold electrodes, 332-inch diameter at 70 to 110 amperes or 18-
a long arc gap with the E7018 low hydrogen electrode, be- inch diameter at 90 to 150 amperes.
cause porosity will occur and the weld will be rejected. Inspection and Testing After you have completed this weld,
use the visual inspection procedures described previously.
Fill and Cover Passes Before making the next pass, clean
The weld should look like that shown in Figs. 16-64 and
the face of the root pass carefully. Chip off or grind any
16-74. After you have made a number of these joints that
high spots or weld spatter, and chip or grind out any holes
are visually satisfactory, cut a few test coupons from the
or depressions along the toes of the root pass. The E7018
joint and subject them to the usual tests.
is not a deep penetrating electrode, so the root pass must
be smooth with a flat contour as should all subsequent Butt Joint Bevel Groove Weld on Pipe Axis Without
passes. Use E7018 332-inch diameter electrodes at 70 to Backing in the 45 from Horizontal Fixed Position (6GR)
110 amperes or 18-inch diameter electrodes at 90 to 150 (Arkansas Bell-Hole) with Restricting Ring (Travel Up):
amperes. Job Qualification Test 3 This qualification covers weld-
Inspection and TestingAfteryou have completed this ing in restricted areas such as T, K, and Y pipe and tubu-
weld, use the visual inspection procedures described lar connections. Check applicable code for the extent of

508Chapter 16Pipe Welding and Shielded Metal Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 16-J1J17 (Pipe)
this 6GR qualification, Fig. 16-76. See AWS WPS AWS3- bottom pipe. Care must be taken not to consume or melt
SMAW-1 for additional information. the root edge of the top pipe. Do not overpenetrate the
joint. Use 18-inch diameter E6010 electrodes at 75 to 125
Root Pass Practice welding from the bottom to the top. amperes. Maintain the keyhole in the beveled pipe. Use
The work and travel angles will have to be adjusted as proper restarting and stopping techniques.
this is a beveled butt joint versus a V-groove butt joint that
you have been practicing on. The electrode angle should Fill and Cover Passes Before making the next pass, clean
direct the weld pool to fuse into the square surface of the the face of the root pass carefully. Chip off or grind any
top pipe and totally consume the root face on the beveled high spots or weld spatter, and chip or grind out any holes
or depressions along the toes of the root pass. The E7018
is not a deep penetrating electrode, so the root pass must
be smooth with a flat contour as should all subsequent
passes. Use E7018 electrodes, 332-inch diameter at 70 to
See Detail A and
Notes 5 & 7 110 amperes or 18-inch diameter at 90 to 150 amperes.
45 5
See Notes 2 & 3 Inspection and Testing After you have completed this weld,
use the visual inspection procedures described previously.
The weld should look like that shown in Figs. 16-64 and
16-74. After you have made a number of these joints that
Pipe Inclination Fixed (45 5) and Not Rotated During Welding
are visually satisfactory, cut a few test coupons from the
Test Position 6GR (Multiple Welding Test Position with Restriction Ring) joint and subject them to the usual tests.

Restriction Pipe Fabrication Practice: Jobs 16-J7 Through J17 Be-


Ring Root face of thicker section
partially visible after welding. cause of the availability of manufactured fittings for prac-
Welder shall not melt root tically every installation purpose, the amount of hand
edge of thicker section.
1/2 Max. fabrication performed in the field is kept at a minimum.
371/2 Custom fittings are more costly and do not meet the ser-
See Note 6 vice requirements of pipe fabricated with manufactured
01/16
fittings. Since it is still a practice in the field, it is neces-
1/2 Min. 6 Min.
sary for the student welder to practice this type of con-
struction. It is not the purpose of this book to teach the
3/16
1/8
1/2 Max. layout necessary to hand fabricate fittings. It is assumed
Min.
this will be taught in a related class using a textbook that
1/2 Min. presents all phases of pipe fabrication. The cost of manu-
factured welded fittings is very high, and this rules out
Detail A
their use for school practice of Ts, Ys, and laterals.
The 90 branch connections and 45 lateral connec-
Notes:
tions (Jobs 16-J7 through J12) are merely a series of lap
1. Duplicate performance qualification tests are not required if welder is
tested under AWS QC12 using the AWS QC7 option. and fillet welds. The manufacturers procedure deter-
2. 12 Schedule 80 M-1/P-1/S-1 carbon steel pipe. Other schedules mines whether or not beveling is required and whether
of pipe 6 or greater may be used provided the requirements for the branch connection or the hole in the header is beveled
minimum offset root and minimum wall thickness can be met.
See Detail A. to ensure complete fusion into the inside of the pipe. This
3. The standard pipe groove test weldment for performance qualification would then be considered a groove weld. Welding should
shall consist of two pipe sections a minimum of 3 in. (76 mm) long be done with 532-inch electrodes. The weld is started at
joined by welding to make one test weldment a minimum of 6 in.
(150 mm) long.
a point about 2 inches on either side of the intersection
4. Without backing. Restriction ring to suit diameter of pipe.
at the heel of the joint. The arc should be in continuous
5. All welding done in position.
operation when passing over the intersection and the start
6. All parts may be mechanically cut or machine OFC unless otherwise
of the bead. Branch and lateral connections may be made
specified. I.D. of chamfered section bored to obtain a 0.500 in. with either the stringer bead or the weave bead technique.
(12.7 mm) minimum wall thickness. Depth of bore 11/2 in. minimum. The welding of 45 and 90 Ls and other fittings (Jobs
Refer to Detail A.
16-J13J17) are groove welds, and the welding technique
Fig. 16-76 Performance qualification test for SMAW in the 6GR is similar to that used in making groove welds in straight
position. pipe sections.

Pipe Welding and Shielded Metal Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 16-J1J17 (Pipe) Chapter 16509
Use the visual inspection techniques de-
scribed previously and strive for welds that meet
these standards. You may also cut out test cou-
pons from the fillet lap and butt sections of the
joints for macro-etching. The specimens must
be ground, polished, and etched with acid. In-
spect them thoroughly for such flaws as lack of
fusion at the root and to the surface of the pipe,
slag inclusions, gas pockets, and undercutting.
Figures 16-77 through 16-82 illustrate some
of the various pipe units that can be fabricated
in a modern pipe-fabricating shop. Fig. 16-79 An example of a laydown yard for storage of completed and painted
pipe spools can be stored until required on the job site. Piping Systems, Inc.

Fig. 16-77 A 45 lateral in 8 inch diameter pipe schedule


80 pipe with a weld ring for reinforcement plus the attached flange. Fig. 16-80 Tacking up a fabricated L. It is 18 inches in diameter
Piping Systems, Inc. and has a wall thickness of 2 inches. Crane Co.

Fig. 16-78 A manifold with two elbows, 3 Tees, and 4 flanges. Fig. 16-81 Cross section of an elbow with an outside diameter
This type pipe spool must accurately bolt into position as specified of 20 inches and a wall thickness of 4116 inches. It was formed from
on the drawings. While meeting all the weld acceptance criteria chrome-molybdenum plate, and 150 passes were required for
per code. Piping Systems, Inc. welding the seam. Crane Co.

510Chapter 16Pipe Welding and Shielded Metal Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 16-J1J17 (Pipe)
Fig. 16-82 A 10 inch diameter schedule 40 special Y, also
know as pant legs with an elbow and two reducers welded to it.
Piping Systems, Inc.

Tools for Pipe Fabrication


Although every effort is made to fabricate as much pipe Fig. 16-83 Cutting a large diameter pipe with the automatic pipe
as possible in the shop, there is still a considerable amount saw. Mathey Dearman
done in the field. The following power and hand tools
speed up this work and improve the accuracy of the work.

Power Tools
Pipe Saws Pipe saws consist of a motor driving e ither a
circular saw blade or a milling cutter through a friction
clutch with a worm and gear train. The motor and gears
of the saw are totally enclosed so that water that usually
collects in a trench does not damage the working of the
machine.
Pipe saws will cut cast iron and steel pipes used for sew-
age, gas, water, and other systems. They can be used for
cutting pipes to length before laying and also for cutting
pipes already laid. The cutting of finished pipe frequently
has to be done under very difficult conditions, and it must
be done as quickly as possible when fractures occur.
Cuts are smooth and clean. The ends of the pipes are Fig. 16-84 A pipe-beveling machine preparing pipe with a heavy
free from flaws and cracks. The cutting tool does not dig wall thickness. Edward R. Bohnart
in, and the saw requires little space in which to operate,
Fig. 16-83.

Pipe-Beveling Machines Pipe ends that are to be welded Figures 16-85 and 16-86, page 512 are photographs of
require a smooth, metallically clean surface that is free of commercial oxyacetylene pipe cutting and beveling ma-
oxide. All types of bevels can be prepared economically chines. These portable machines are built to cut and bevel
so that they are metallically clean with the beveling ma- any size pipe with speed, economy, and accuracy, either
chine, Fig. 16-84. Pipe-beveling machines are available as in the field or in the shop. A welding student is using a
electric or pneumatic tools. commercial pipe-cutting machine in Fig. 16-87, page 512.

Pipe Welding and Shielded Metal Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 16-J1J17 (Pipe) Chapter 16511
Fig. 16-87 Welding apprentice using a commercial pipe-beveling
machine. The short pipe practice coupons can easily be beveled on
both ends with this machine. Location: UA Local 400 McGraw-Hill
Education/Mark A. Dierker, photographer

Fig. 16-85 Cutting and beveling machine that can be


used in both shop and field. An out-of-round attachment
permits the torch carrier to follow the contour of the pipe.
It may be operated manually or motor driven. Mathey
Dearman

Fig. 16-88 A portable power hacksaw has the advantages of being light and
highly portable. This one is shown with 3-inch stainless-steel pipe.

Portable Power Hacksaw Power hacksaws, Fig.16-88, are


highly portable tools that make it possible to cut pipe at any
location. They are electric powered and pneumatic powered
for areas with explosion hazards. Saw blades are made of
high speed steel and super high speed steel for stainless steel
and tough ferrous metals. The machine can be used for bevel-
cutting angles up to 45 on pipe 5 inches and smaller. Straight
cuts can be made on pipe 12 inches in diameter. These ma-
Fig. 16-86 Band-type cutting and beveling machine chines are of particular value when space is limited and when
cuts out-of-round pipe. Mathey Dearman it is difficult to cut materials by hand.

512Chapter 16Pipe Welding and Shielded Metal Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 16-J1J17 (Pipe)
Blade Lowering/Raising Handle Cutter Pipe Saw The cut-
Chain Tensioning Mechanism
ter pipe saw, Fig. 16-89,
travels around the pipe and
is adjustable to all pipe
Chain Machine sizes 6 through 72 inches.
Directional Control The machine is held to the
pipe by a tensioned timing
Machine Speed Control
chain. The chain acts as a
Blade Speed flexible ring gear and pro-
Control vides the guide and feed for
Start/Stop Control the machine. It can cut and
bevel all grades of steel.
Double Mist Lubrication The fact that it is powered
System Angle Head
by air motors makes it pos-
sible to use underwater. It
can both cut and bevel for
weld preparation in only
one trip around the pipe.
Fig. 16-89 Air-operated cutter and pipe saw. This tool cuts and bevels in one o peration. Power Saw The power
Mathey Dearman
saw, Figs. 16-90, 16-91 and
16-92, page 514, can be electric or engine driven. With a
diamond abrasive wheel, Fig. 16-91, it is highly useful in
cutting cement pipe.

Fig. 16-90 A power saw for cutting various diameters and


wall thicknesses of pipe. This is 8 inch schedule 5 stainless-steel
pipe. Location: UA Local 400 McGraw-Hill Education/Mark A. Fig. 16-91 An abrasive power saw with a diamond cutting
Dierker, photographer wheel. E.H. Wachs Co.

Pipe Welding and Shielded Metal Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 16-J1J17 (Pipe) Chapter 16513
Fig. 16-93 A machine cutting tool being used to bevel pipe for
Fig. 16-92 Welding apprentice using a digital control panel to both in the shop and in the field. It is capable of machining square,
cut pipe practice coupons on a power feed vertical band saw. bevel and Js for various types of groove welds. Location: Piping
Location: UA Local 400 McGraw-Hill Education/Mark A. Dierker, System's Inc. McGraw-Hill Education/Mark A. Dierker, photographer
photographer

an ideal tool to take out sections of pipe that must be re-


These types of saws can be used to cut steel, cast iron,
placed. You are again urged to practice hand cutting as
stainless steel, and alloy steel pipe as well as bar stock,
much as possible in order to develop and perfect your
structurals, and rail.
skill, Fig. 16-94.
Bev-L GrinderThe Bev-L Grinder , Fig. 16-93, is
Pipe Layout Tools A number of tools have been devel-
a fast, accurate grinding machine that produces clean-
oped to make the job of laying out and fabricating pipe
faced, uniform weld bevels without causing any change
faster and with a greater degree of accuracy. These tools
in the physical properties of the pipe. It is possible to get
prevent layout mistakes and pipe that is out of alignment.
good line-up and fit in the field. The cutting action is fast,
accurate, and easy to control. The operator simply rotates Contour Marker Figure 16-95 shows the contour marker
the grinder head around the spindle. being used to lay out a section of pipe. The marker prevents
The grinder is available with an electric or pneumatic errors in layout and takes no longer than conventional lay-
motor. It can be used on all steel, stainless steel, high out tools, regardless of the type or size of the pipe joint to
alloy, and aluminum pipe from 3 to 18 inches in diameter. be welded. With an adaptor the four sides of the marker
can be used on pipe up to 30 inches. With it the fabricator
Hand Tools
can work compound angles in one setting of the tool, and
Hand Cutting Torch A great deal of pipe welding is done mark over nipples and old welds without having to break
in maintenance work and in the renewing of piping sys- the wrap far back on wrapped pipe. The contour marker
tems. The standard oxyacetylene hand cutting torch is eliminates cut and try and the need for calculation.

514Chapter 16Pipe Welding and Shielded Metal Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 16-J1J17 (Pipe)