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Harvard Divinity School

"Homo Viator": Luther and Late Medieval Theology

Author(s): Steven E. Ozment
Source: The Harvard Theological Review, Vol. 62, No. 3 (Jul., 1969), pp. 275-287
Published by: Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Harvard Divinity School
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DESPITE the persistence of significant differences over the inter-

pretation of humilitas in Luther's early works,' an apparent con-
sensus is afoot on both the nature of the problem which drove him
to his Reformation theology and the nature of the discovery which
forms the heart of this theology. As the picture now comes into
focus in the secondary literature, the problem Luther apparently
confronted so despairingly might be summarized as the viator-
status of Christian life within the traditional medieval ordo salutis.
In the order of salvation to which Luther was heir, the Christian
must, in this life, remain existentially suspended between a future
judgment of God and a past and present exhibition of God's mercy
and goodness. In the past God was merciful to man, sending His
Son to die for sinful mankind. In the present His mercy is no less
evident in the grace of the sacraments. When one looks to the
future, however, the situation is somewhat changed. For this same
Christ who was incarnate for man's salvation in the past and who
is spiritually present to effect this salvation now will come in judg-
ment upon all people in the future.
While the Christian can look to the past and to the present
with joy and security, he can look to the future only with fear and
unrest. As the traditional locus classicus for this existential

I The alternatives are defined by ERNST BIZER and HEINRICH BORNKAMM. S

BIZER'S Fides ex auditu: Eine Untersuchung iiber die Entdeckung der Gerechtig
Gottes durch Martin Luther (Neukirchen, 1961), 29f., 31, 51. BORNKAMM'S rep
Zur Frage der lustitia Dei beim jungen Luther, I, ARG 52 (I96I), 23f.; II, A
53 (1962), 20, 24. Recent contributions to the debate are HEIKO A. OBERMAN, W
sein pettler. Hoc est verum: Bund und Gnade in der Theologie des Mittelalters
und der Reformation, ZKG III/IV (1967), 232-52, esp. 249f., and my own study,
Homo Spiritualis: A Comparative Study of the Anthropology of Johannes Tauler,
Jean Gerson and Martin Luther (50o9-16) in the Context of their Theological
Thought, in Studies in Medieval and Reformation Thought, VI (Leiden, 1969),

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situation put it: "nescit homo an odio vel amore d

9:1). The situation can be summarized graphica
Present misericordia Dei +- --> Future iudicium
a) Christus incarnatus c) Christus ludex
b) Christus in corde (gratia infusa)
<- Christian --
Hope and security Fear and unrest

Luther's resolution of this Anfechtung-producing dichotom

tween divine mercy and judgment is presented in contemp
scholarship as the discovery that, in Christ and in the faith
conforms one to Him, the mercy and the judgment of G
never divided but simultaneously present and reconciled
past, present, and future is the judgment and the mercy o
simultaneously. He is both crucified sinner and resurrected
and the believer who is united with Him in faith is both crucified
sinner and resurrected lord. The viator-status of a Christian who
must live between fear-inspiring judgment and hope-creating
mercy is existentially and theologically overcome. "Judgment
[= iudicium Dei] and righteousness [= misericordia Dei] occur
in the existentiell Now of the Word"; 2 "God sends righteousness
[= iudicium Dei] simultaneously with peace [= misericordia
Dei]"; 3 the gospel is the "Word from Christ" as "judgment" and
"righteousness"; ' there is a "realized eschatology"; I "the heart
of the gospel [as Luther discovered] is that the iustitia Christi
[ = misericordia Dei] and the iustitia Dei [ = iudicium Dei] coin-
cide and are granted simultaneously." "

2 ALBERT BRANDENBURG, Gericht und Evangelium: Zur Worttheologie in Luthers

erster Psalmenvorlesung (Paderborn, 1960), 141.
'REGIN PRENTER, Der barmherzige Richter: lustitia Dei passiva in Luthers
Dictata super psalterium 1513-1515 (Kobenhavn, 1961), 73.
*REINHARD SCHWARZ, Fides, Spes und Caritas beim jungen Luther (Berlin,
1962), 171.
5 B. A. GERRISH, Grace and Reason: A Study in the Theology of Luther (Ox-
ford, 1962), 126. Cf. F. EDWARD CRANZ, Martin Luther, in Reformers in Profile:
Advocates of Reform, 13oo-16oo, ed. B. A. Gerrish (Philadelphia, 1967), 95f.
6 HEIKO A. OBERMAN, "Iustitia Christi" and "Iustitia Dei": Luther and the
Scholastic Doctrines of Justification, HTR 59 (1966), 19. OBERMAN'S article now
appears with other classical statements on the nature of Luther's Reformation dis-
covery in Der Durchbruch der reformatorischen Erkenntnis bei Luther, Wege der
Forschung, CXXIII (Darmstadt, 1967). Included in this collection are statements

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The variations in terminology

above descriptions of Luther's Ref
heir to the research and conclusio
thorough analysis of the scholia
tata super Psalterium (1513-I6
findings in the following way: "G
the past, mercy; once in the futu
eternity to eternity united and u
in the fact that Luther now says
persona sua, i.e., that Christ has
which He now executes upon [th
the heart-beat of Luther's doctrin
ology: two focal points, justificati
iustitia et iudicium, opus proprium
together by Christ as their mid-po
The reconciliation of the misericordia and the iudicium Dei
which is, in Vogelsang's (hermeneutical) terms, accomplished
literaliter or historice in Jesus Christ is now accomplished
moraliter or tropologice in the believer conformed to Him in faith."
Graphically summarized, the situation appears as follows:
Christus incarnatus (praesens, futurus)

Misericordia Dei ludicium Dei

Fides (Conformitas Christi)


Assaults on the viator-status of Christian life are certainly not

without precedent, heretical and orthodox, in the late Middle Ages.


'OBERMAN'S termini technici, iustitia Christi and iustitia Dei, set the discussion
systematically within its late medieval context but do not make a material advance-
ment beyond VOGELSANG in the interpretation of the nature of Luther's Reformation
8 ERICH VOGELSANG, Die An/fnge von Luthers Christologie nach der ersten
Psalmenvorlesung (Berlin, 1929), 64, 103, 119-
9 The importance of this hermeutical combination for Luther's Reformation dis-
covery, especially as interpreted by GERHARD EBELING, is critically assessed by
Harvard church historian JAMES S. PREUS, Old Testament Promissio and Luther's
New Hermeneutic, HTR 6o (1967), 145-61.

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This becomes especially clear when one looks

exegetical and scholastic medieval traditions p
the domain of medieval spirituality and mysticis
the above interpretation of Luther's Reformation
an absolutely definitive interpretation, then it m
only to align this theology more closely than ha
done with late medieval mysticism, but also to a
eval mysticism at a heretofore unemphasized poi
of the viator-status of Christian life. For, alt
momentarily achieved (and therefore someth
sought), the goal of the mystic (if not already
stage to it) intends nothing else than the suspensi
status of the Christian who finds himself between God's fear-
inspiring wrath and judgment and His love-creating mercy and
The communio voluntatum and consensus in charitate, which
mark the mellifluous spirituality of Bernard of Clairvaux
(t I53), are an initial case in point. In his familiar treatise, De
diligendo Deo, Bernard presents an order of salvation which con-
sists of four stages of love. In the first stage, man knows and
loves only himself, and he does so solely for his own sake (diligit
seipsum homo propter se). As he becomes aware of his inability
to persist through himself alone, however, man begins to seek God
through faith. Although, in this second stage, man begins to
know and love God, he does not do so for God's sake, but for what
he can get from God (diligit in secundo gradu Deum, sed propter
se, non propter ipsum). After prolonged worship, meditation,
reading, prayer, and obedience - i.e., full participation in the
life of the Church - familiarity and love of God increase to the
point that God now becomes an object of love for His own sake
(diligit Deum non iam propter se sed propter ipsum). Bernard
is frankly doubtful that man ever progresses further in this life
to the fourth and final stage: the mystical and apparently strictly
eschatological union in which the human spirit, having lost all
awareness of self, knows and loves only God and simply and solely
for God's sake (tantum propter Deum).1o
o0PL, 182, 998 C - 999 A; cf. ibid., 991 A-B for the deificatio effected in the
unio mystica, and PL, 183, 1125 A-B, 1126 A-B.

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Parallel to this presentation, a

on it, is Bernard's distinction in
of a servant, of a mercenary, an
servant loves and obeys because h
mercenary, because he knows
him. The son, however, loves ne
sire for gain; he loves because he
good" (bonus simpliciter).11
For Bernard, then, loving God
His sake (i.e., loving God bec
solutely good) is not the ultim
aspires. Yet, already at this penu
fear of God's power is effectivel
with Him established. In via the viator-status of the Christian
who must live between fear-inspiring power and judgment and
love-inspiring goodness and mercy is existentially overcome: to
the Christian in charitate, God is bonus simpliciter.
A later parallel to Bernard's description is found with the
Chancellor of the University of Paris and mystical theologian,
Jean Gerson (t 1429). Gerson defines the mystical union, which
is in principle democratized and deeschatologized, on the model
of friendship.12 Its chief defining characteristics are quies, satis-
factio, and stabilitas 13 - a state in which the soul, united with
God as with the One who is "most highly its good, center, goal
and complete perfection," is so sated that it neither requires nor
desires anything further.14
Still more relevant are the descriptions of the unio mystica pre-
sented by John Tauler (t 1360) and Nicholas of Cusa (f 1464).
Here we find the neoplatonic concept of the divinity and simplicity

F PL, 182, 995 C-D: "Est qui confitetur Domino quoniam potens est, et est qui
confitetur quoniam sibi bonus est, et item qui confitetur quoniam simpliciter bonus
est. Primus servus est, et timet sibi; secundus, mercenarius, et cupit sibi; tertius,
filius, et defert patri. Itaque qui timet, et cupit, utrique pro se agunt. Sola quae in
filio est charitas, non quaerit quae sua sunt (i Cor. 13:5)."
"1 "Haec vero unio amantis cum amato ab Aristotile in Ethicis tangitur ubi ait:
'Amicus est alter ego,' [Ethica, IX, 91 cuius unionis ratio exprimi videtur cum ab
eodem dicitur: 'Amicorum est idem velle et idem nolle [Ethica, IX, 12; Rhetorica,
II, 4].' " De mystica theologia speculativa, cons. 40, 104.20ff., in loannis Carlerii
de Gerson. De mystica theologia, ed. Andre Combes (Lugano [1958]).
1 bid, cons. 42, 113.5ff.
" Ibid., cons. 42, II3.x4ff.

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(einvaltikeit [Tauler], simplicitas [Cusa]) of in

veloped theocentrically (Tauler) and Christoc
in order to overcome the viator-status of Christi
to Tauler, God is not only the Being which gran
the life of created things, but also the Unity of
multiplicity and opposition is overcome. Taul

Let man behold the character of the pure unity of being. For God is
infinite simplicity and in Him all multiplicity is united and purified
in a simple being. His being is His activity - His knowing, rewarding,
loving, judging - all one, His mercy and His righteousness. Enter
[this pure unity of being] and take your inconceivably great multipli-
city therein so that He can "simplify" it in His simplified being.15

Despite the important terminological differences, the parallel

with Luther is remarkable. In place of Luther's Christus incar-
natus we find the simplicity of God (einvaltikeit gottes), and in
place of Luther's fides we find the unio mystica drawing the Chris-
tian into the simplicity of divine being where all opposition is over-
come. The existential and theological result is identical with
Luther's Reformation discovery as presented above: the in via
suspension of a viator-status which places the Christian between
the judging righteousness and the forgiving mercy of God and
grants him no peace.'" In the mystical union, the mercy of God
and the judging righteousness of God coincide and are granted
simultaneously. Graphically represented, Tauler's position is as

einvaltikeit gottes

barmherzikeit t gerechtekeit
unio mystica

'" "Denne sehe der mensche an die eigenschaft der einiger einikeit
wan Got ist an dem lesten ende der einvaltikeit und in ime wirt alle
geeiniget und einvaltig in dem einigen ein wesende. Sin wesen ist si
bekennen, sin lonen, sin minnen, sin richten alles ein, sin barmherzike
keit; dar in gang und trage din unbegriffelichen grosse manigvaltik
einvaltige in sinem ein valtigen wesende." Die Predigten Taulers,
Vetter (Berlin, 1910), 277.I4ff.
" That significant differences between TAULER and LUTHER still
this parallel is not denied. See Homo Spiritualis, 44f., I97ff.

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An almost identical picture ca

He writes:

For all divine attributes come together in God and the whole of
theology is placed in a circle, so that righteousness (iustitia) in God
is goodness (bonitas) and goodness righteousness . . . All the saints
who have had regard to the infinite simplicity of God agree about

Where Cusa appears to part company with Tauler is in the

Christocentric conclusion which he draws from the theocentric re-
conciliation of the opposition between the righteousness and the
goodness of God. One enters this reconciliation of opposites only
through Christ. For Cusa, to be "in Christ" means to be in the
simplicity of divine being where all contrasts and oppositions -
and that means the opposition between God's judging righteous-
ness and His forgiving goodness - are overcome. The sonship
which one receives through union with Christ is nothing else than
placement within the simplicity of divine being."s
Finally, we call attention to the Christocentric application of
the same neoplatonic motif of the coincidentia oppositorum in
divine being as presented by Bonaventura (t 1274). He writes
that "in Christ," who is our reconciliation with God,
being is united with consummation, God with the man who was formed
on the sixth day [Gen. 1:26], the eternal with temporal man (i.e.,
man who was born in the fullness of time from a Virgin), the simplest
with the most complex, the most impassible with the one who suffered
and died most intensively, the most perfect and immeasurable with
one who is small, the most highly unified and all-embracing with a
composite individual who is distinct from all others, namely, with the
man Jesus Christ.19

And, Bonaventura continues,

he who fully turns his face to Him who is our reconciliation, by be-
"17 Nam omnia attributa divina coincidere in Deo et totam theologiam esse in
circulo positam, sic quod iustitia in Deo est bonitas et e converso . . . et in hoc
concordant omnes sancti, qui ad infinitam Dei simplicitatem respexerunt." From the
Apologia doctae ignorantiae (1449) in Cusanus-Konkordanz, ed. Eduard Zellinger
(Miinchen, i96o), 9i, ? 45.
"Ibid., 147, ? 85: "Filiatio igitur est ablatio omnis alteritatis et diversitatis et
resolutio omnium in unum, quae est transfusio omnium unius in omnia." Cf.
ERNST HOFFMANN, Nikolaus von Kues: Zwei Vortriige (Heidelberg, 1947), 51f.
l Itinerarium mentis in Deum, VI, 5.

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holding Him suspended on the cross through faith,

through devotion, admiration, exaltation, apprec
joy, makes a passover with Him, i.e., a crossing so t
the cross he may pass through the Red Sea [Exo
Egypt, and into the desert, where he may taste
[Apoc. 2:17] and rest with Christ in the tomb a
wardly dead, yet still experiencing to the extent th
this life what was said on the cross to the thief who united himself
with Christ: "today you will be with me in paradise." [Luke
23:43] 20


In the medieval mystical traditions, the ability to overco

theologically and, indeed, Christocentrically the viator-status
the Christian who must live between God's past and present me
and His future judgment is, as we have seen, by no means abse
If there are uncompromising differences between Luther and
medieval theology, they are not to be found at this point.
Where, then, is the point of distinction between Luther and l
medieval theology? This point and the point of perhaps p
manently irreconcilable difference is to be found not in the g
but rather in the way in which both Luther and late medi
theology reach the same goal. The difference lies in the sola fid
And it lies here not because the sola fide denies the necessity
good works for salvation, for this is quite secondary, but rath
because the sola fide suspends the viator-status of Christian lif
while at the same time leaving the Christian sinful in re.22 Thi
a position maintained by no medieval theologian, whether scho
tic or mystic, Dominican or Franciscan, Thomist or nomina
20 Ibid., VII, 2.
21 In the Schmalkaldic Articles, that article over which there can be absolu
no compromise, "es falle Himel und Erden," is the sola fide. Luthers Werk
Auswahl, 4, Schriften von 1529-1545, ed. Otto Clemen (Berlin, I959), 296f.
' The locus classicus in the early LUTHER is the passage in the lectures
Romans: "Nunquid ergo perfecte iustus? Non, sed simul peccator et iustus; p
cator re vera, sed iustus ex reputatione et promissione Dei certa, quod liberet ab
donec perfecte sanet. Ac per hoc sanus perfecte est in spe, in re autem peccat
" WA 56,272.I6ff. Later (Sept., 1538), LUTHER summarizes this situation
follows: "Quomodo concordant sanctum esse et orare pro peccato? Mira profec
res est. Es ist warlich ein fein ding. Reim da, wer reimen kan. Duo contraria
uno subiecto et in eodem puncto temporis." WA 39/1, 507.20ff.

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And it is the point at which th

menist finds he must back away
the medieval theologian, it is ax
Christian life is suspended only
to which the Christian is no long
viator-status can be so comple
mystical traditions is that these
man righteous and, indeed, even
No opponent of Luther recogn
the sola fide as keenly as the
Cologne, Jacob Hochstraten (t
Hochstraten cites and proceeds t
mies, the first of which is them
discussion: it is blasphemous to
the unrighteous." 25 Why, in
blasphemous teaching?
The answer to this question res
tinction between the roles playe
same for Hochstraten, "unforme
love or "faith formed by love"
the order of salvation. For Hoch
faith alone but exclusively of fa
unrighteous. This is because th
sion of Christ to the whole man

' OTTo H. PESCH, Professor of Dogm

Albertus Magnus Academy in Walberb
Gottes Gnade dem Menschen nicht nur
diesen Willen selber wandelt. Wegen d
formuliert: wegen dieses nicht nur begn
Thomas keinen peccator in re zugeben
"Dann steht Thomas nifher bei Paulus al
peccator in re." Die Theologie der Rech
von Aquin, in Walberberger Studien d
1967), 529.
24 For a brief sketch of the main issues raised by LUTHER's early opponents, see
H. JEDIN, Wo sah die vortridentinische Kirche die Lehrdifferenzen mit Luther,
Catholica 2 (1967), 85-100; H. A. OBERMAN, Roms erste Antwort auf Luthers 95
Thesen, Orientierung 20 (1967), 23Iff.
25 lacobi Hoochstrati Disputationes contra Lutheranos, in Primitiae pontificiae
theologorum Neerlandicorum Disputationes contra Lutherum inde ab a. z519
usque ad a. 1526 promulgatae, Bibliotheca reformatoria Neerlandica, III, ed. F.
Pijper (The Hague, I905), 546.
2 Ibid., 566: "Habitat etiam Christus in nobis per charitatem, nam scriptura ait,

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simply the apprehension (assensus) and adherenc

the mind to the articles of faith; it is correct kn
cognitio) of all the good things which are to be
God.27 Hence, faith alone is the foundation, not th
the "prior part of righteousness," to which the mo
charitas, is added.28
This, however, is not the major reason for the in
of faith alone as the agent of justification. This rea
the fact that, in Hochstraten's interpretation of
salvation, the stage of faith is a stage of insufficie
mation. Man is not yet absolutely cleansed from th
fidelity.2" Without the purification of the heart t
there can be neither righteousness, merit, nor etern

Just as love is the gift of God by which one merits the

life (so faith is the gift of God) by which one attains lo
ness. Why, therefore, do we not confess that the gift
love, as love merits eternal life? The reply to this for
not difficult. The man who has received faith but n
love is impious and unrighteous; he is a rebel agai
heart, and hence he is in God's displeasure. Accordingl
to merit anything from God, for he is a debtor to Him
is otherwise when love has been obtained and one is established in
grace as a friend and a son of God. Then, one can, through the good
works which are rewards of God, merit eternal life . . .30

qui manet in charitate in deo manet et deus in eo, et qui non diligit manet in morte
id est non applicatur ei medicina passionis ad vitam, quocirca fides qua nobis
efficaciter passio Christi ad salutem applicatur, est fides quae per charitatem operatur,
ut sic mors Christi nobis applicetur non solum secundum intellectum per fidem,
verum etiam secundum affectum per charitatem."
27 Ibid., 582, 589.
"Ibid., 589: "Perspicuum igitur fit ex omnibus praehabitis, quemadmodum in
construenda domo pars prior tempore antecedens est fundamentum, cui caeterae
partes superadduntur, nobiliores ita in iustificatione hominis. Pars prior iustitiae est
fides: cui altera pars iustitiae nobilior superadditur charitas."
" Ibid., 588: ". .. neque enim ille qui fidem sine charitate accipit simpliciter ab
infidelitate curatur. Remanet nanque culpa praecedentis infidelitatis."
30"bid., 590-91: "Sicut charitas est donum dei, quo quis meretur donum vitae
aeternae (ita fides est donum dei) quo pervenitur ad charitatem seu iustitiam. Cur
ergo non fatemur donum fidei mereri charitatem, sicut charitas meretur vitam
aeternam. Ad hanc instantiam facilis est responsio. Homo enim iam fide donatus,
ante impetrationem seu assequutionem charitatis adhuc impius est et iniustus, deo
rebellis secundum affectum, ac per hoc in displicentia dei. Proinde nihil apud Deum
mereri potest, quod ei debeatur. Secus quando adepta charitate, constitutus est in

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This critique is now applied d

libertate christiana (1520). H
Luther's most "mystical" pas
union of the soul with Christ,
"through the pledge of faith" (p
"sola charitate" against Luther
Luther is summarized as follows:

That rash advocate [Luther] lists no preconditions for the spiritual

marriage of the soul with Christ except only that we believe Christ,
who promises all good things, and trust that He will bestow all the
good things [He has promised]. Not a single word is said about the
mutual love by which the soul loves Christ, who is love, above all
things. Nor do we hear anything about the other divine command-
ments, to the keeper of which eternal life is both promised and owed.
Now what else do those who boast of such a base spectacle [as the
marriage of the soul with Christ by faith alone] do than make of the
soul, which is wedded to Christ in spiritual marriage, a prostitute and
adulteress, who knowingly and wittingly connives to deceive her hus-
band and, daily committing fornication upon fornication and adultery
upon adultery, makes the most chaste of men a pimp and a cowardly
patron of her disgrace? As if Christ does not take the trouble to
distinguish and choose, but simply assumes even the most foul bride
and is unconcerned about her cleanliness to such an extent that He
neither cares nor desires to make her a pure and honorable lover! As
if He requires from her simply those two internal acts of believing
and trusting and does not care about her righteousness and the other
virtues which righteousness produces! As if, with the attainment of
those two acts, He does not at all abhor her involvement in other
vices! As if a certain mingling of righteousness with iniquity and of
Christ with Belial were possible! 33

gratia, tanquam dei amicus, et dei filius. Tunc enim per opera bona, quae sunt dei
munera, potest vitam mereri aeternam .. ."
31Ibid., 607; WA 7, 54f.
32"Charitas, non sola fides est, quae animam sponsi sui Christi, connubio
iungit." HOCHSTRATEN, op. cit., 609; cf. 593f.
' Ibid., 609-Io: "Nullas conditiones in quibus fundetur Spirituale matrimonium
animae cum Christo addit iste audaculus assertor, quam ut tantum credamus Christo
omnia bona promittenti, de eoque confidamus, tanquam omnia bona largituro, de
mutuo vero amore, quo anima super omnia Christum diligat, qui est charitas, de
caeteris divinis praeceptis, quorum observationi promittitur, et debetur vita aeterna,
ne verbum quidem facit. Quid igitur aliud faciunt istiusmodi indignissimi spectaculi
iactores, quam quod in spirituali matrimonio animae ad Christum, animam similem

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Hochstraten's case against Luther is quite forcef

here. Luther permits a foul and dirty bride to
matrimony with Christ. When faith and trust alo
of union, righteousness and iniquity intermin
The man who is still peccator in re becomes one w
Hochstraten's reaction to the sola fide represen
dieval theological thinking. He works with very
logical tools. He understands the order of salva
Thomistic categories; indeed, he follows the lo
order of salvation almost verbatim.

According to Thomas, faith without love (tides informis) is

faith which, although capable of correcting particular intellectual
sins, still retains the guilt of infidelity."3 The faith which is formed
by love, however, is faith which suffers no impurity whatsoever,
for love covers every fault (Prov. I0: 12).36 From within this
traditional framework, Luther's sola fide looks very much like an
effort to harvest the fruits of the tides charitate formata with a
fides informis. Such an effort can be viewed only as logically con-
tradictory and theologically blasphemous by the standards of or-
thodox medieval Catholicism.37

faciunt et conferunt prostitutae et adulterae, quae marito suo scienti et conniventi

illudit, quotidieque fornicationes et adulteria alia super alia committens ex cas-
tissimo viro lenonem, atque suae turpitudinis ignavum patronum facit. Quasi vero
Christus citra delectum, assumat sponsam etiam nephandissimam, usqueadeo de
munditia sponsae suae sit negligens, ut nec eam mundam efficere curet aut cupiat, nec
sui amatricem reddere, sed duos dumtaxat actus internos de ea requirat, credendi
videlicet et confidendi, de iustitia vero, caeterisque iustitiae virtutibus non curet,
sed his duobus actibus habitis, aliorum vitiorum consortium haud abhorreat. Quasi
posset esse quaedam participatio iustitiae cum iniquitate Christi ad Belial."
3"Cf. WA 7,25.26ff.; 54.36ff.; 55.I7ff.
3~Summa Theologiae (Marietti edition), II-IIae, q. 6, art. 2, ad 3: "... Ille
qui accipit a Deo fidem absque caritate non simpliciter sanatur ab infidelitate, quia
non removetur culpa praecedentis infidelitatis .. ."
3 Ibid., II-IIae, q. 7, art. 2, ad 3: ". .. fides etiam informis excludit quandam
impuritatem sibi oppositam, scilicet impuritatem erroris, quae contingit ex hoc quod
intellectus humanus inordinate inhaeret rebus se inferioribus, dum scilicet vult
secundum rationes rerum sensibilium metiri divina. Sed quando per caritatem
formatur, tunc nullam impuritatem secum compatitur: quia 'universa delicta operit
caritas,' ut dicitur Prov. Io [, 12]."
" A. M. LANDGRAF argues that THOMAS summarizes the position of early and
high Scholasticism when he maintains that charitas and not fides is the indispens-
able bond between man and the mystical body of Christ. Grundlagen fiir ein
Verstiindnis der Busslehre der Friih und Hochscholastik, ZkTh 45 (1927), 161-94;
esp. 192-94. In this connection DUNs SCOTUS cites an opinion supporting the

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Although Hochstraten perc

quence of Luther's sola fide,
escapes his grasp and is ser
traditional fides informis, L
embraces and places the who
serve his neighbor unmeritori
fides charitate formata, Luthe
God in Christ while still leav
much to Hochstraten's chagrin
the standards of medieval th
much a viator.
We find ourselves led to the following conclusion. From the
perspective of late medieval theology, the most revolutionary as-
pect of Luther's theology is not the suspension, but rather the re-
tention, of the Christian's viator-status. This is not meant in the
sense that the Christian remains in fear and trembling about a
future judgment. That aspect of the Christian's viator-status is
as effectively overcome by Luther as it was by late medieval
mysticism. It is meant, rather, in the sense that the Christian re-
ceives a full humanity, which he can in no way - substantively,
generically, or accidentally - identify either with God, Christ,
or the Holy Spirit. He may be one with Christ in fide et spe, and he
may join with his neighbor in charitate. Yet he does both while re-
maining simultaneously a confessed peccator in re.

necessity of charitas for meritorious acts: ". .. hoc autem, quo meritorie agit, non
potest esse pura natura, quia tunc ex solis naturalibus posset meritorie agere, quod
videtur error Pelagii; igitur requiritur aliquid supernaturale, non fides vel spes,
patet, quia manent in peccatore, ergo charitas." I Sent., dist. 17, q. 3 in Joannis
Duns Scoti opera omnia, X, ed. Vives (Paris, 1893), 74.
' Cf. GERHARD EBELING, Glaube und Liebe, in Martin Luther: 450 Jahre Re-
formation (Bad Godesberg, 1967), 69ff. On the horizontal, nonmeritorious nature
of Christian charity in LUTHER'S theology, see GUSTAF WINGREN, Luther on
Vocation, trans. C. C. Rasmussen (Philadelphia, 1957), 37-50. It is perhaps perti-
nent to point out that, in his commentary on canon 9 of the decree on justification,
CALVIN opposed Trent's interpretation of the Reformation's sola fides as not being
a viva fides. "This canon is very far from being canonical . . . They imagine that
a man is justified by faith without any movement of his own will, as if it were not
with the heart that a man believeth unto righteousness." Antidote to the Council
of Trent, Calvin's Tracts, III (Edinburgh, I851), I51.

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