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Diploma in Civil Engineering [EC110]

Semester Dec 2015-April 2016


UiTM
Faculty of Civil Engineering

ECS258 - LAB REPORT (CO4: PO4)


LAB : LAB : DATE :
NO. TITLE
LEVEL OF OPENNESS :
GROUP MEMBERS
NO. NAME STUDENT SIGNATURE REMARK
NO.

ASSESSMENT OF THE LAB ACTIVITIES


NO. ELEMENT TO ASSESS STUDENT
1 2 3 4 5
INDIVIDUAL IN-LAB ACTIVITIES
1 PUNCTUALITIY
2 DISCIPLINE (DRESS CODE,SAFETY SHOES,SAFETY
REGULATIONS)
3 KNOWLEDGE ON OPEN ENDED LABORATORY
GROUP IN-LAB ACTIVITIES
4 LEADERSHIP SKILL
5 COMMUNICATION
6 ORGANISATION/TEAMWORK
LAB REPORT
7 INTRODUCTION
8 BASIC CONCEPTS
9 SUMMARY OF PROCEDURES/ METHODS
10 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
11 DISCUSSION OF RESULT
12 CONCLUSION

LECTURERS SIGNATURE:

THE REPORT MUST BE SUBMITTED 1 WEEK AFTER THE COMPLETION OF THE LAB.
Diploma in Civil Engineering [EC110]
Semester Dec 2015-April 2016

1.0 OBJECTIVE
To determine the relationship between the applied torque and the angle of twist and hence
obtain the shear modulus.

2.0 THEORY
In many situations, we need to design members that will subject to rotating and twisting
actions. Twisting moments about the longitudinal axis of a member are termed torque and torsion
members are found in many types of structures. Consider a solid circular rod of diameter D and
length L is fixed at A and free at B. The rod is subjected to a twisting moment or torsion, T at the
free end. This called pure torsion, since no bending or direct stress is involved. A gauge device
attached by bolts gives the angle of twist on the rod as the torque is applied. The torque twist data is
used to compute the shear strain and the stress on the rod. From the shear stress shear strain
relational curve, the shearing modulus of rigidity could be calculated, as well as the proportionality
limit and the yield limit for each applied torques.
Diploma in Civil Engineering [EC110]
Semester Dec 2015-April 2016

The torsion equation is

T/J = max/R = G/L Eq 1

where

T = Torque of twisting moment (Nmm)

J = Polar moment of inertia, (mm4)

= D4/32

max = Maximum shear stress (N/mm2)

R = Radius of the rod or shaft (mm)

G = Shear modulus (N/mm2)

= Angle of twist (radians)

L = Length of the rod (mm)


Diploma in Civil Engineering [EC110]
Semester Dec 2015-April 2016

Take

T/J = G/L

G = GJ/L x . Eq 2

3.0 PROBLEM STATEMENT

In many situations, we need to design members that will subject to rotating and twisting actions.
Twisting moments about the longitudinal axis of a member are termed torques and torsion members
are found in many types of structures. As a group you will be given a solid circular rod and the
appropriate apparatus available in the laboratory to compute the shear modulus of a structural material
such as steel, aluminium and etc.

4.0 APPARATUS

Figure 3.3: Torsion test apparatus


Diploma in Civil Engineering [EC110]
Semester Dec 2015-April 2016

4.0 PROCEDURE
1. Measured the diameter of the rod with a vernier caliper and length with a scale of three
readings.
2. Fixed rod between the fixed end and the head assembly with the clutch torque chuck jaws.
3. Established the deflection angle of the rod, that known as the gage length.
4. Used a clamp fixed in the end, turned chuck to fix the original position after the specimen was
gripped at both ends and the mounting cost to be in place.
5. Set the vernier to zero on a scale of A and B.
6. Used the load (say 3N) to each hanger load and deflection angle of each vernier reading A and
B.
7. Increased the load on each hanger in the corresponding measures and the corresponding note
deflection angle of each vernier A and B at least for 5 times.
8. Scheduled an observation as shown.
9. Plotted a graph of torque 'T' on the y-axis and the angle of twist '' on the x-axis. Noted that
the graph is a straight line through the origin (notice the error, if not to request correction).
10. The slope of the graph T / yielding an average value. Replaced the T / in equation 2 and
calculated the value of 'G'.
11.Repeated the experiment with a rod of various materials. Calculated the 'G' of each material
and tabulate the results.
Diploma in Civil Engineering [EC110]
Semester Dec 2015-April 2016

5.0 DATA COLLECTIONS

Material : Aluminium

Length of rod (mm) : 90

Diameter of rod (mm) : 5.7

Polar moment of inertia, J (4 ) : 103.63

Level arm (mm) : 26

Initial angle of twist (degree) : 0

Final Angle of twist Angle of twist Shear


Load Cell, Applied Torque Angle of experimental experimental Elastic
W (n) (W x Level Arm) twist , f a = l - f a x 2/360 Modulus
(degrees) (degrees) (radian) (kN/ )

1 26 0.4 0.4 0.007 32.26

2 52 1.0 1.0 0.017 26.57

3 78 1.6 1.6 0.028 24.19

4 104 2.1 2.1 0.037 24.41

5 130 2.7 2.7 0.047 24.02

6 156 3.1 3.1 0.054 25.09

7 182 3.8 3.8 0.066 23.95


Diploma in Civil Engineering [EC110]
Semester Dec 2015-April 2016

Material : Brass

Length of rod (mm) : 95

Diameter of rod (mm) : 5.8

Polar moment of inertia, J (4 ) : 111.10

Level arm (mm) : 26

Initial angle of twist (degree) : 0

Final Angle of twist Angle of twist Shear


Load Cell, Applied Torque Angle of experimental experimental Elastic
W (n) (W x Level Arm) twist , f a = l - f a x 2/360 Modulus
(degrees) (degrees) (radian) (kN/ )

1 26 0.9 0.9 0.016 14.16

2 52 1.8 1.8 0.031 14.16

3 78 2.8 2.8 0.049 13.70

4 104 3.8 3.8 0.066 13.47

5 130 4.6 4.6 0.078 14.25

6 156 5.4 5.4 0.094 14.19

7 182 6.3 6.3 0.110 14.15


Diploma in Civil Engineering [EC110]
Semester Dec 2015-April 2016

Material : Steel

Length of rod (mm) : 95

Diameter of rod (mm) : 5.8

Polar moment of inertia, J (4 ) : 111.10

Level arm (mm) : 26

Initial angle of twist (degree) : 0

Final Angle of twist Angle of twist Shear


Load Cell, Applied Torque Angle of experimental experimental Elastic
W (n) (W x Level Arm) twist , f a = l - f a x 2/360 Modulus
(degrees) (degrees) (radian) (kN/ )

1 26 0.0 0.0 0.000 0.00

2 52 0.1 0.1 0.002 247.02

3 78 0.3 0.3 0.005 128.26

4 104 0.4 0.4 0.007 127.04

5 130 0.6 0.6 0.010 111.16

6 156 0.8 0.8 0.014 95.28

7 182 0.9 0.9 0.016 97.27


Diploma in Civil Engineering [EC110]
Semester Dec 2015-April 2016

5.0 DISCUSSION

Torsion test is used for testing brittle materials such as mild steel and brittle materials. Many products
and components are subjected to torsional forces during their operation. Product such as biomedical catheter
tubing, switches, fasteners and automotive steering columns are example a few of device subject to such
torsional stresses. Modulus of a rigidity is a material stiffness properties. The torque is the product of tangential
force multiplied by the radial distance from the angle of twist and the tangent. Abbreviated by G, also known
as shear modulus, shear modulus of elasticity or torsional modulus. From the graph obtain, the angle of twist
for brass is higher compare to other material which is aluminium and steel. The strain hardening for the steel is
highest then the brass and aluminium as it is higher yield point but less in ductile.

6.0 CONCLUSION

From the experiment, the shear elastic modulus G, obtain from the graph have difference increases in
values. This is due of the value of applied torque even the length of specimen, polar moment of inertia are
constant. The error that influenced in getting an accurate result as theoretical is the apparatus used are not
functioning well as it was use more than one time.

7.0 REFERENCES

1. Testing of Polymers (ed J.V Schmitz) 1966 Volumes 1 and 2, Wiley Interscience.
2. Timoshenko, S.P. and Gere, J.M. (1961) Theory of elastic stability, McGraw-Hill.
3. Thompson, W.T. (1983) Theory of Vibrations with Applications, George Allen and Unwin.
4. Ives, G.C., Mead, J.A. Riley M.M. (1971) Handbook of Plastics test methods, The Plastics
Institute and Illfe Books.