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UiTM

Faculty of Civil Engineering

LAB : LAB : DATE :

NO. TITLE

LEVEL OF OPENNESS :

GROUP MEMBERS

NO. NAME STUDENT SIGNATURE REMARK

NO.

NO. ELEMENT TO ASSESS STUDENT

1 2 3 4 5

INDIVIDUAL IN-LAB ACTIVITIES

1 PUNCTUALITIY

2 DISCIPLINE (DRESS CODE,SAFETY SHOES,SAFETY

REGULATIONS)

3 KNOWLEDGE ON OPEN ENDED LABORATORY

GROUP IN-LAB ACTIVITIES

4 LEADERSHIP SKILL

5 COMMUNICATION

6 ORGANISATION/TEAMWORK

LAB REPORT

7 INTRODUCTION

8 BASIC CONCEPTS

9 SUMMARY OF PROCEDURES/ METHODS

10 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

11 DISCUSSION OF RESULT

12 CONCLUSION

LECTURERS SIGNATURE:

THE REPORT MUST BE SUBMITTED 1 WEEK AFTER THE COMPLETION OF THE LAB.

Diploma in Civil Engineering [EC110]

Semester Dec 2015-April 2016

1.0 OBJECTIVE

To determine the relationship between the applied torque and the angle of twist and hence

obtain the shear modulus.

2.0 THEORY

In many situations, we need to design members that will subject to rotating and twisting

actions. Twisting moments about the longitudinal axis of a member are termed torque and torsion

members are found in many types of structures. Consider a solid circular rod of diameter D and

length L is fixed at A and free at B. The rod is subjected to a twisting moment or torsion, T at the

free end. This called pure torsion, since no bending or direct stress is involved. A gauge device

attached by bolts gives the angle of twist on the rod as the torque is applied. The torque twist data is

used to compute the shear strain and the stress on the rod. From the shear stress shear strain

relational curve, the shearing modulus of rigidity could be calculated, as well as the proportionality

limit and the yield limit for each applied torques.

Diploma in Civil Engineering [EC110]

Semester Dec 2015-April 2016

where

= D4/32

Diploma in Civil Engineering [EC110]

Semester Dec 2015-April 2016

Take

T/J = G/L

G = GJ/L x . Eq 2

In many situations, we need to design members that will subject to rotating and twisting actions.

Twisting moments about the longitudinal axis of a member are termed torques and torsion members

are found in many types of structures. As a group you will be given a solid circular rod and the

appropriate apparatus available in the laboratory to compute the shear modulus of a structural material

such as steel, aluminium and etc.

4.0 APPARATUS

Diploma in Civil Engineering [EC110]

Semester Dec 2015-April 2016

4.0 PROCEDURE

1. Measured the diameter of the rod with a vernier caliper and length with a scale of three

readings.

2. Fixed rod between the fixed end and the head assembly with the clutch torque chuck jaws.

3. Established the deflection angle of the rod, that known as the gage length.

4. Used a clamp fixed in the end, turned chuck to fix the original position after the specimen was

gripped at both ends and the mounting cost to be in place.

5. Set the vernier to zero on a scale of A and B.

6. Used the load (say 3N) to each hanger load and deflection angle of each vernier reading A and

B.

7. Increased the load on each hanger in the corresponding measures and the corresponding note

deflection angle of each vernier A and B at least for 5 times.

8. Scheduled an observation as shown.

9. Plotted a graph of torque 'T' on the y-axis and the angle of twist '' on the x-axis. Noted that

the graph is a straight line through the origin (notice the error, if not to request correction).

10. The slope of the graph T / yielding an average value. Replaced the T / in equation 2 and

calculated the value of 'G'.

11.Repeated the experiment with a rod of various materials. Calculated the 'G' of each material

and tabulate the results.

Diploma in Civil Engineering [EC110]

Semester Dec 2015-April 2016

Material : Aluminium

Load Cell, Applied Torque Angle of experimental experimental Elastic

W (n) (W x Level Arm) twist , f a = l - f a x 2/360 Modulus

(degrees) (degrees) (radian) (kN/ )

Diploma in Civil Engineering [EC110]

Semester Dec 2015-April 2016

Material : Brass

Load Cell, Applied Torque Angle of experimental experimental Elastic

W (n) (W x Level Arm) twist , f a = l - f a x 2/360 Modulus

(degrees) (degrees) (radian) (kN/ )

Diploma in Civil Engineering [EC110]

Semester Dec 2015-April 2016

Material : Steel

Load Cell, Applied Torque Angle of experimental experimental Elastic

W (n) (W x Level Arm) twist , f a = l - f a x 2/360 Modulus

(degrees) (degrees) (radian) (kN/ )

Diploma in Civil Engineering [EC110]

Semester Dec 2015-April 2016

5.0 DISCUSSION

Torsion test is used for testing brittle materials such as mild steel and brittle materials. Many products

and components are subjected to torsional forces during their operation. Product such as biomedical catheter

tubing, switches, fasteners and automotive steering columns are example a few of device subject to such

torsional stresses. Modulus of a rigidity is a material stiffness properties. The torque is the product of tangential

force multiplied by the radial distance from the angle of twist and the tangent. Abbreviated by G, also known

as shear modulus, shear modulus of elasticity or torsional modulus. From the graph obtain, the angle of twist

for brass is higher compare to other material which is aluminium and steel. The strain hardening for the steel is

highest then the brass and aluminium as it is higher yield point but less in ductile.

6.0 CONCLUSION

From the experiment, the shear elastic modulus G, obtain from the graph have difference increases in

values. This is due of the value of applied torque even the length of specimen, polar moment of inertia are

constant. The error that influenced in getting an accurate result as theoretical is the apparatus used are not

functioning well as it was use more than one time.

7.0 REFERENCES

1. Testing of Polymers (ed J.V Schmitz) 1966 Volumes 1 and 2, Wiley Interscience.

2. Timoshenko, S.P. and Gere, J.M. (1961) Theory of elastic stability, McGraw-Hill.

3. Thompson, W.T. (1983) Theory of Vibrations with Applications, George Allen and Unwin.

4. Ives, G.C., Mead, J.A. Riley M.M. (1971) Handbook of Plastics test methods, The Plastics

Institute and Illfe Books.

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