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AQA Level 1/2 Certificate in Chemistry

Scheme of Work

This scheme of work suggests possible teaching and learning activities for each section of the specification. There are far more activities suggested than it
would be possible to teach. It is intended that teachers should select activities appropriate to their students and the curriculum time available. The first two
columns summarise the specification references, whilst the Learning Outcomes indicate what most students should be able to achieve after the work is
completed. The Resources column indicates resources commonly available to schools, and other references that may be helpful. The timings are only
suggested, as are the Possible Teaching and Learning activities, which include references to experimental work and How Science Works opportunities.
Activities that can contribute to Section 3d: Experimental and investigative skills are shown as [3d: b] etc. Resources are only given in brief and risk
assessments should be carried out.

Most centres will have access to a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE), and Key Stage 4 related science materials. In the resources, reference is made to
VLE and interactive software. Most VLE software providers have similar presentations on the topics. Before using any presentation, teachers are reminded
that they should decide in advance which slides are most suitable to achieve the learning objectives and edit the presentation accordingly before the lesson.

Throughout this specification students will be expected to write word equations and write and balance symbol equations for reactions specified.

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Spec Reference Summary of the Learning Outcomes Possible teaching and Learning Resource Examination

timing (lessons)
Suggested
Specification Content What most students should Activities hints and tips
be able to do Homework Students should:

1 The fundamental ideas in chemistry


1.1 Solids, liquids and gases
1.1a Matter can be Students should be familiar 1 Discuss: Revise states of matter. Ice, beakers,
classified in terms of with the states of matter Activity: Students make chart to show thermometers, stop
the three states of and be able to name each differences in properties and structure watches, stearic acid in
matter, which are inter- inter-conversion process. of solids, liquids and gases boiling tube, heating
convertible. They should be able to equipment, graph paper
Activity: Melt ice to water, or cool
describe and explain their
molten stearic acid back to a solid. Plot
inter-conversion in terms of
a graph of temperature against time.
how the particles are
[3d: g]
arranged and their
movement. Discuss: The plateau of the graph in
Students should terms of energy being absorbed and
understand the energy used to break bonds, or energy being
changes that accompany given out by bonds forming.
changes of state.
1.1b Evidence for the Students should be familiar 1 Demo; Show suitable examples of
existence of particles with simple diffusion diffusion experiments or other
can be obtained from experiments such as Br2 / experiments to show that matter is
simple experiments. air, NH3 / HCl, KMnO4 / made from particles. [3d: m]
water.
1.2 Atoms
1.2a All substances are Know that substances are 2 Activity: Use the periodic table to elicit Periodic table for
made of atoms. A made of atoms. State that answers about: chemistry
substance that is made substances made of only
list of known elements (about 100) Information about the
of only one sort of one sort of atom are called
location of non-metals and metals periodic table can be found
atom is called an elements.
groups and periods on the BBC website at
element. There are Know that elements are

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England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
Summary of the Learning Outcomes Possible teaching and Learning Resource Examination
Spec Reference

timing (lessons)
Suggested
Specification Content What most students should Activities hints and tips
be able to do Homework Students should:

about 100 different found in the periodic idea of atoms. www.bbc.co.uk/learningzo


elements. Elements table and that groups use of symbols and rules for their ne/clips by searching for
are shown in the contain elements with use periodic table.
periodic table. The similar properties. State proton number, mass number.
VLE/Interactive software
groups contain where metals and non- Task: Students make notes on their eg periodic table slides.
elements with similar metals appear in the periodic table, and in books.
properties. periodic table.
1.2b Atoms of each element Know that symbols Be able to use
are represented by a represent atoms of different symbols
chemical symbol, eg O elements. confidently.
represents an atom of
oxygen, Na represents
an atom of sodium.

1.2c Atoms have a small Know the structure of an Task: Students view/draw diagrams of VLE/Interactive software Be able to
central nucleus, which atom. basic atomic structure naming sub- eg The Atom. calculate
is made up of protons atomic particles. numbers of
and neutrons, and protons, neutrons,
around which there are and electrons in
electrons. an atom, using
the periodic table.
1.2d The relative electrical Know the charges on sub- Discuss: charges on sub-atomic View the Atomic structure Know the
charges are as shown: atomic particles. particles, and produce chart in books. PowerPoint presentation at difference
Proton charge of +1 How Science Works: Drawing a table. www.iteachbio.com/Chemi between atomic
Neutron no charge [3d: g] stry/Chemistry/Atomic%20 number and mass
Electron charge of Structure.ppt number.
1

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Summary of the Learning Outcomes Possible teaching and Learning Resource Examination
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timing (lessons)
Suggested
Specification Content What most students should Activities hints and tips
be able to do Homework Students should:

1.2e In an atom, the Task: Work out number of electrons,


number of electrons is protons and neutrons in first ten
equal to the number of elements of periodic table. Results as
protons in the nucleus. diagrams or chart in books.
Atoms have no overall
electrical charge.
1.2k The relative masses of Discuss: Give the students the mass
protons, neutrons and numbers for elements numbers 1-10.
electrons are: Ask them to find the pattern between
Name of particle the mass numbers and sub-atomic
Mass particles. [3d: k]
Proton 1
Neutron 1
Electron Very
small

1.2l The relative atomic Discuss: Why does chlorine have a Ar


mass of an element of 35.5? Introduce idea of average
(Ar) compares the value for mass number, and relate to
mass of atoms of the 12C isotope. [3d: k]
element with the 12C
isotope. It is an
average value for the
isotopes of the
element.
1.2f The number of protons Students will be expected
in an atom of an to calculate the numbers of

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Summary of the Learning Outcomes Possible teaching and Learning Resource Examination
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timing (lessons)
Suggested
Specification Content What most students should Activities hints and tips
be able to do Homework Students should:

element is its atomic each sub-atomic particle in


number. The sum of an atom from its atomic
the protons and number and mass number.
neutrons in an atom is
its mass number
1.2g All atoms of a
particular element
have the same number
of protons. Atoms of
different elements
have different numbers
of protons.
1.2h Atoms of the same Task: Students to complete a chart
element can have showing atoms of same element
different numbers of having different numbers of neutrons,
neutrons; these atoms to develop idea of isotopes.
are called isotopes of
that element.
1.2i Atoms can be Introduce representation of different
represented as shown atoms as:
in this example:
(Mass number) 23 40
Na K
(Atomic number) 11 19
Homework: Students draw structures
of several named atoms using the
periodic table.

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timing (lessons)
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1.2j Electrons occupy Describe electron 1 Review atomic structure, nucleus and Electron shell diagram Note: They do not
particular energy arrangements for elements electron cloud. sheet with elements have full outer
levels. Each electron in up to number 20. placed in same position as shells, except for
Explain: Introduce idea of shells within
an atom is at a Students should be able to periodic table, elements 1 He and Ne. From
the cloud, and filling numbers and
particular energy level represent the electronic 20. Ne onwards they
order. Use electron shell sheet to
(in a particular shell). structure of the first 20 have eight
complete them. Teacher completes VLE/Interactive software
The electrons in an elements of the electrons in their
elements 1,2,3,7 and 11, students eg periodic table slides.
atom occupy the periodic table in the outer shell.
complete others.
lowest available following forms: View the electron shell
energy levels Recommend follow this lesson with PowerPoint presentation at
(innermost available first lesson listed under 4.1 The http://education.jlab.org/jsa
shells). periodic table. You may wish to flag up t/powerpoint/chembond.pp
the electronic structure of the noble t
gases prior to that lesson (continuity
point).

1.3 Chemical reactions and related calculations


1.3h No atoms are lost or Know that all atoms 1 Tasks: Students carry out and report Balances, boiling tubes, Be able to
made during a involved in a reaction must precipitation reaction experiments such 25cm3 measuring calculate the
chemical reaction so be accounted for. as lead nitrate and potassium iodide to cylinders, lead nitrate mass of a
the mass of the Calculate the amount of a observe there is no change in mass on solution 1mol dm-3 reactant or
products equals the product or reactant from forming products. potassium iodide 1 mol product from
mass of the reactants. masses of other products How Science Works: Write dm3 information about
and reactants (the use of method/plan of practical. [3d: a] the masses of the
relative atomic masses and other reactants
relative molecular masses Use word and symbol equations to and products in
is not needed here). describe reactions. the reaction.
Homework: Students do calculations

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England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
Summary of the Learning Outcomes Possible teaching and Learning Resource Examination
Spec Reference

timing (lessons)
Suggested
Specification Content What most students should Activities hints and tips
be able to do Homework Students should:

using mass of reactants and products


to find mass formed of one product or
mass needed of one reactant.
1.3b The relative formula Students are expected to 1 Task: Calculating relative formula Periodic table and list of Note: Students
mass (Mr) of a use relative atomic masses mass (Mr). Chemists need to be sure formulae can choose to
compound is the sum in the calculations specified of the amount of a compound present learn the periodic
VLE / Interactive software,
of the relative atomic in the subject content. in terms of the number of molecules or table in its
atoms. eg quantitative chemistry.
masses of the atoms in Students should be able to entirety; however,
the numbers shown in calculate the relative Explain: Show how to make the the periodic table
the formula. formula mass (Mr) of a calculation for simple, then more is usually given in
compound from its formula. complex formulae. It is a good idea to the exam.
revise what a formula tells you,
especially where brackets are
involved.
Task: Students do examples of
calculations with increasing
complexity.
Explain: that the figure they have
calculated for each compound is
known as 1 mole of that substance,
and that for elements it is the same as
the relative atomic mass.
1.3c The relative formula Understand that the Mr and Understand that the Mr and Ar in grams
mass of a substance, Ar in grams is known as is known as one mole.
in grams, is known as one mole.
Students are expected to use the
one mole of that Students are expected to
relative formula mass of a substance

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Summary of the Learning Outcomes Possible teaching and Learning Resource Examination
Spec Reference

timing (lessons)
Suggested
Specification Content What most students should Activities hints and tips
be able to do Homework Students should:

substance. use the relative formula to calculate the number of moles in a


mass of a substance to given mass of that substance and vice
calculate the number of versa.
moles in a given mass of
that substance and vice
versa.
1.3d The percentage by Be able to calculate 1 Discuss: how to calculate relative Exampro Extra Online
mass of an element in percentage mass of a formula mass. chemistry activity: moles
a compound can be named element in a dominoes
Explain: Show how to calculate
calculated from the formula.
percentage by mass of one element in
relative atomic mass of
the formula. Students provide several
the element in the
examples (they can use the same
formula and the
examples as from the previous
relative formula mass
lesson).
of the compound.

1.3e The empirical formula Calculate empirical 2 Activity: Finding the formula of either Magnesium, crucible and Be able to work
of a compound can be formulae, either from a magnesium oxide or copper oxide. lid, balance, crucible out the formula of
calculated from the graph or from mass data. Students report their experiment. tongs, spills and matches, a compound from
masses or tripod, gauze, and Bunsen the reacting
Explain: Teacher led explanation of
percentages of the burner. masses provided
how to make the calculation using
elements in a either the graph method or from mass See Exampro Extra Online in the question.
compound. readings. Students find the formula Practical Activity for other
using chosen method. details.
How Science Works: You could use Graph paper.
either a graphical method where each

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Summary of the Learning Outcomes Possible teaching and Learning Resource Examination
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timing (lessons)
Suggested
Specification Content What most students should Activities hints and tips
be able to do Homework Students should:

group plots their result on a graph to VLE / Interactive software


establish best fit line to get answer eg quantitative chemistry.
from, or calculate mean for the class to
process using atomic masses. [3d: i, j,
o, p]
You could also use both methods to
see which gives result closest to the
true value. [3d: n]Students make
notes.
Homework: Give a formula
calculation from reacting masses for
another compound. Make sure
students know the method from the
experiment.
1.3f Chemical reactions Write word and balanced 1 Task: Students write one word VLE/Interactive software,
can be represented by symbol equations for equation to show general reaction. eg chemical reactions.
word equations or by reactions in the
Introduce symbol equations
symbol equations. specification.
Explain: Show need for balancing the
equation linked to idea of conservation
of mass.
Task: Students balance several
equations themselves
1.3g Information about the Use the state symbols (g),
states of reactants and (l), (s) and (aq) in equations
products can be where appropriate

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Summary of the Learning Outcomes Possible teaching and Learning Resource Examination
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timing (lessons)
Suggested
Specification Content What most students should Activities hints and tips
be able to do Homework Students should:

included in chemical
reactions
1.3h No atoms are lost or Know that all atoms 1 Task: Students carry out and report Balances, boiling tubes, 25 Be able to
made during a involved in a reaction must precipitation reaction experiments such cm3 measuring cylinders, calculate the
chemical reaction so be accounted for. as lead nitrate and potassium iodide to lead nitrate solution 1 mol mass of a
the mass of the Calculate the amount of a observe there is no change in mass on dm3, potassium iodide 1 reactant or
products equals the product or reactant from forming products. mol dm3. product from
mass of the reactants masses of other products information about
How Science Works: Make and
and reactants (the use of the masses of the
record observations and
relative atomic masses and other reactants
measurements [3d: g]
relative molecular masses and products in
is not needed here). Homework: Students do calculations the reaction.
Understand symbol using mass of reactants and products
equations, balance symbol to find mass formed of one product or
equations. mass needed of one reactant.
1.3j Even though no atoms Know that: 1 Discuss: Class discussion about Calculation worksheets. Be able to
are gained or lost in a result of the experiment from last VLE/Interactive software, evaluate and
the reaction may not go
chemical reaction, it is lessons, and why results are not eg quantitative chemistry. make judgements
to completion because it
not always possible to is reversible always correct. [3d: i, j, o, p] for the data in the
obtain the calculated some of the product question.
Include reference to yield, and
amount of a product may be lost when it is percentage yield. Students make notes
separated from the on yield and percentage yield.
reaction mixture
some of the reactants How Science Works: Could work out
may react in ways the source of errors and type of errors
different from the in the experiment, and make
expected reaction. notes/definitions of these. [3d: j] A

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timing (lessons)
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Specification Content What most students should Activities hints and tips
be able to do Homework Students should:

table might also be useful:

error definition what to


do about
it.

Discuss: Class discussion on


development issues relating to starting
materials, yield, and energy, ie How
long will the reactants be available?
How much of the product do we get,
and how much does it cost? Gold is an
example. It can be obtained from sea
water by electrolysis, but it costs more
in energy than the value of the gold, In
the Amazon rainforest it can be
obtained from ores, using mercury.
Losses of mercury to the environment
means that whilst the process is
economic, the level of pollution is not
sustainable. Students make brief
notes.
1.3k The amount of a Calculate the percentage of
product obtained is an element in a compound,
known as the yield. given its formula.

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When compared with Calculate percentage yields


the maximum of reactions.
theoretical amount as
Calculate empirical
a percentage, it is
formulae.
called the percentage
yield.
1.3i The masses of Calculate the masses of Do calculations on masses of
reactants and products individual products from a reactants and products from balanced
can be calculated from given mass of a reactant symbol equations. Students make
balanced symbol and the balanced symbol notes.
equations. equation.
After several examples could now
Balance symbol equations. calculate their own expected yield for
the copper oxide/magnesium oxide
experiment, and hence the percentage
yield.
1.3l In some chemical Explain what is meant by a 1 Task: Students carry out circus of Test tube, copper sulfate,
reactions, the products reversible reaction, and its reversible reactions: spatulas, stand and clamp,
of the reaction can symbol. pipette and 100cm 3
copper sulfate hydration/
react to produce the beaker.
Name a reversible reaction. dehydration
original reactants.
heating ammonium chloride in a See Exampro Extra Online
Such reactions are
test tube Practical Guide for other
called reversible
adding alkali and acid alternately details.
reactions and are
to bromine water or to
represented: VLE/Interactive software,
potassium chromate solution
eg reversible reactions.
blue bottle reaction (RSC
A+B C+D
Classic Chemistry Experiments

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timing (lessons)
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Specification Content What most students should Activities hints and tips
be able to do Homework Students should:

no. 83)
oscillating reaction (RSC Classic
Chemistry Experiments no.140).
Students make notes on reversible
reactions and the meaning of the
double headed arrow.
2 Bonding and structure
2.1 Bonding and 2.2 Structure and how it influences the properties and uses of substances
2.1c Substances that Recognise that compounds 1 Dry samples of NaCl, Remember
Task: Students should investigate the
consist of simple with low melting and boiling MgSO4, Al2O3, wax and compounds that
melting point, conductivity, solubility
molecules are gases, points are likely to be ethanol, 100 cm 3 beakers, are liquid or gas
and use of hand lens to study crystal
liquids or solids that simple molecules. carbon electrodes, wires, at room
structure of both ionic and covalent
have relatively low power packs, test tubes, temperature will
Know that compounds can compounds such as NaCl, MgSO4,
melting points and spills and matches, hand have low melting
be classified according to Al2O3, wax and ethanol. Students
boiling points. lenses, clamps and and boiling points.
their properties. report their experiment.
stands.
How Science Works: Develop
hypothesis to explain known facts, eg
there are two groups of compounds,
why are they different? [3d: m]
Draw out idea that these compounds
can be put into two groups according
to their properties:
easy to melt and poor electrical
conductors ( non-metal
compounds)

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very hard to melt and good


electrical conductors in solution
(metal-containing compounds)
This activity could be undertaken at
home as Homework.

2.1b Chemical bonding 1


involves either
transferring or sharing
electrons in the highest
occupied energy levels
(shells) of atoms in
order to achieve the
electronic structure of
a noble gas.
2.1c When atoms form Students should know that Ionic bonding Periodic table Know that the
chemical bonds by metals form positive ions, charge on an ion
Activity: draw out ideas of electron View the bonding
transferring electrons, whereas non-metals form is related to its
shells, and noble gas configuration as PowerPoint presentation at
they form ions. Atoms negative ions. group in the
being unreactive. http://education.jlab.org/jsa
that lose electrons Students should be able to t/powerpoint/chembond.pp periodic table.
become positively Task: Students draw diagrams to Use their periodic
represent the electron t
charged ions. Atoms explain how Na donates/transfers table list to check
arrangement of ions in the VLE/Interactive software
that gain electrons electron to Cl, so both achieve noble the charge on
following form: eg bonding part 1.
become negatively gas electronic structure. each ion.
charged ions. Ions Students attempt another single
have the electronic for sodium ion (Na+) electron transfer compound, such as
structure of a noble potassium fluoride, before trying

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timing (lessons)
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Specification Content What most students should Activities hints and tips
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gas (Group 0). magnesium oxide, and calcium


chloride.
Homework: Students could try to
explain in terms of electron transfer
other simple related ionic compounds.

Students should be able to


relate the charge on simple
ions to the group number of
the element in the periodic
table.
Know that noble gas
structure is unreactive.
2.1d The elements in Group Explain the electrical
1 of the periodic table, conductivity of ionic
the alkali metals, all substances.
react with non-metal
elements to form ionic
compounds in which
the metal ion has a
single positive charge.
2.1e The elements in Group
7 of the periodic table,
the halogens, all react
with the alkali metals
to form ionic

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compounds in which
the halide ions have a
single negative charge.
2.2b When melted or Explain: how ionic substances, when
dissolved in water, dissolved in water, can conduct
ionic compounds electricity (and why as solids they
conduct electricity cannot). Students make notes.
because the ions are
free to move and carry
the current.
Use periodic table to write 1 Explain: Teacher to explain method Periodic table Remember the
correct formula for ionic for writing formulae. formula multiplies
VLE/Interactive software
compounds. everything inside
Task: Students work out formulae for eg bonding part 1
the brackets by
named compounds using periodic
the number
table for charges. At first concentrate
outside, when
on simple compounds with only two
dealing with
elements in them. Move on to more
molecular ions.
complex ones (acid radicals/molecular
ions etc) requiring the use of brackets Be careful to use
when Students are confident about only subscript
simple balancing of charges. numbers to avoid
Homework: More examples of confusion with the
formulae. charge. Never
change the
subscript number,
instead they
should bracket

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timing (lessons)
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the polyatomic ion


and put a fresh
subscript outside
the bracket.
2.1f An ionic compound is 1
a giant structure of
ions. Ionic compounds
are held together by
strong electrostatic
forces of attraction
between oppositely
charged ions. These
forces act in all
directions in the lattice
and this is called ionic
bonding.

2.2a Ionic compounds have Describe NaCl crystal Discuss: Why are ionic compounds NaCl lattice model.
regular structures lattice and why it doesnt hard to melt? Relate this to regular
View the bonding
(giant ionic lattices) in conduct electricity and is structure of sodium chloride crystal
PowerPoint presentation at
which there are strong hard to melt. structure, leading to idea of crystal
http://education.jlab.org/jsa
electrostatic forces in formation form solution in regular way.
t/powerpoint/chembond.pp
all directions between Task: Students could make their own t
oppositely charged model from marshmallows and
ions. These VLE/Interactive software,
spaghetti (or similar).
compounds have high eg bonding part 1.
melting points and high Students draw diagrams to explain Marshmallows (breakfast
properties of sodium chloride. size) and spaghetti.

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timing (lessons)
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boiling points because


Explain: consequences of how these
of the large amounts of
lattices result in high melting and
energy needed to boiling points, and inability to conduct
break the many strong electricity. Students make notes.
bonds.
2.1b Chemical bonding 1
involves either
transferring or sharing
electrons in the highest
occupied energy levels
(shells) of atoms in
order to achieve the
electronic structure of
a noble gas.
2.1g When atoms share Covalent bonding View the bonding
pairs of electrons, they PowerPoint presentation at
form covalent bonds. http://education.jlab.org/jsa
These bonds between t/powerpoint/chembond.pp
atoms are strong. t
Some covalently
VLE/Interactive software
bonded substances
eg Bonding part 2.
consist of simple
molecules such as H2, Molymods
Cl2, O2, HCl, H2O, NH3
and CH4.

2.1h Compounds formed Students should be able to Discuss: Bonding in non-metal Remember CH4 is

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timing (lessons)
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from non-metals represent the covalent compounds. Teacher led discussion made up of two
consist of molecules. bonds in molecules such as into properties of non-metal elements and is
In molecules, the water, ammonia, hydrogen, compounds, relating to the electronic not just a single
atoms are held hydrogen chloride, arrangements of non-metals and that element
together by covalent methane and oxygen in the electron shells are nearly full.
bonds. following forms:
Task: Students to show/draw
structures of, H2, Cl2, O2, HCl, H2O,
NH3 and CH4.
Students draw diagrams to explain
covalent bonding. Students should do
some of these themselves as they
demonstrate understanding.
Students should be able to
recognise other simple
molecules and giant
structures from diagrams
that show their bonding.
2.2c Substances that Explain: 1 Explain: Teacher-led explanation that Exampro Extra Online Be able to explain
consist of simple why covalent molecules shared pairs of electrons are covalent Chemistry Activity: that
molecules are gases, have low melting and bonds; why covalent bonds are poor Structure and bonding. intermolecular
liquids or solids that boiling points conductors of electricity; why covalent forces are weak
Exampro Extra Online
have relatively low that there are weak compounds have low melting and
Chemistry Activity:
in comparison
melting points and forces of attraction boiling points, and that there are very with covalent
Bonding snap.
boiling points. between the molecules weak forces between molecules, not bonds.
that need overcoming at strong bonds as in ionic compounds.
melting and boiling. Task: Students make notes, or answer
why covalent molecules questions from DART worksheet,
are unable to conduct

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electricity including questions about unknown


substances and their structures.
Students need to
understand that Homework: Past paper question on
intermolecular forces are compound properties and structures.
weak compared with
covalent bonds
Suggest the type of
structure of a substance
given its properties.
2.2d Substances that
consist of simple
molecules have only
weak forces between
the molecules
(intermolecular forces).
It is these
intermolecular forces
that are overcome, not
the covalent bonds,
when the substance
melts or boils.
2.2e Substances that
consist of simple
molecules do not
conduct electricity
because the molecules

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do not have an overall


electric charge.
2.2f Atoms that share Recognise diamond and 1 Task: Use a DART worksheet with DART worksheet, and Know that
electrons can also graphite from their some teacher input and access to models and diagrams of graphite is similar
form giant structures or structures. models of diamond, graphite and diamond, graphite and to metals in that it
macromolecules. silicon dioxide to allow students to fullerenes. has delocalised
Recognise other examples
Diamond and graphite explore and understand how the electrons.
of giant covalent structures VLE/Interactive software
(forms of carbon) and structure of each substance relates to
from diagrams. eg bonding. Be able to
silicon dioxide (silica) its properties.
recognise other
are examples of giant Explain the differences in
Students annotate diagrams and make giant structures or
covalent structures the properties of diamond
notes to explain structures and macromolecules
(lattices) of atoms. All and graphite.
properties. from diagrams
the atoms in these Know they are examples of showing their
Provide students with diagrams for
structures are linked to the same element carbon. bonding.
labelling, particularly of fullerenes.
other atoms by strong Concentrate on
Relate the properties of
covalent bonds and so the use of
substances to their uses.
they have very high unknown
melting points. substances and
relate it to the
property using
knowledge of
similar structures
and their
properties.
2.2g In diamond, each Know carbon atoms in
carbon atom forms diamond have four covalent
four covalent bonds bonds.

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with other carbon


atoms in a giant
covalent structure, so
diamond is very hard.
2.2h In graphite, each Students should be able to Activity: Investigate the properties of Graphite, apparatus to
carbon atom bonds to explain the properties of graphite, including leaving marks on investigate electrical
three others, forming graphite in terms of weak paper, conduction of electricity, high conductivity, test tubes
layers. The layers are forces between the layers. melting point. and Bunsen burner.
free to slide over each
other because there
are no covalent bonds
between the layers
and so graphite is soft
and slippery.
2.2i In graphite, one Students should realise that
electron from each graphite is similar to metals
carbon atom is in that it has delocalised
delocalised. These electrons.
delocalised electrons
allow graphite to
conduct heat and
electricity.
2.2j Carbon can also form Research fullerenes, Research fullerenes, models of
fullerenes with different models of fullerenes and fullerenes and their uses.
numbers of carbon their uses.
atoms. Fullerenes can
be used for drug

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delivery into the body,


in lubricants, as
catalysts, and in
nanotubes for
reinforcing materials,
eg in tennis racquets.
2.2k Nanoscience refers to Students should know what 1 Task: Students use internet and other View the nanoscience Be able to
structures that are 1 is meant by nanoscience resources to find out about uses PowerPoint describe why a
100 nm in size, of the and nanoparticles and nanoscience, and nanoparticles, and presentation at named and
order of a few hundred should consider some of their current applications. http://nanosense.sri.com/a explained
atoms. Nanoparticles the applications of these ctivities/sizematters/applic nanoparticle
Task: In groups produce mini project/
show different materials, but do not need ations/SM_AppSlides.ppt would be useful in
poster.
properties to the same to know specific examples a particular
materials in bulk and or properties. Alternatively groups give class application.
have a high surface presentation on one use of
Questions may be set on Note: Students
area to volume ratio, nanoparticles they have researched.
information that is provided do not need to
which may lead to the about these materials and Homework: Student to answer know any specific
development of new their uses. question on development and examples.
computers, new application of new materials.
catalysts, new
coatings, highly
selective sensors,
stronger and lighter
construction materials,
and new cosmetics
such as suntan creams
and deodorants.

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3 Air and Water

3.1 Air and oxygen


3.1a Air is a mixture of Students should recall the 1 Demo: on the gases present in the air. VLE/Interactive software,
gases with different approximate composition of Best one is the classic two syringes eg Earth and atmosphere.
boiling points. air in terms of percentages one using copper, followed by burning
RSC Alchemy disc has
of oxygen and nitrogen. magnesium in the nitrogen and making
section on gases from the
ammonia.
air. Further information can
Task: Students draw diagrams and be found at
chart of gases in air today www.rsc.org/Education/Te
achers/Resources/Alchem
y/index.htm
A video on Joseph
Priestley and the discovery
of gases can be found on
the BBC website at
www.bbc.co.uk/learningzo
ne/clips by searching for
clip2078
3.1b Dry air, free from Knowledge of the boiling View: Watch video on fractional
carbon dioxide, can be points of the different gases distillation of air, and make notes as
liquefied and then is not required. flow diagram of the process.
fractionally distilled to
obtain oxygen and
nitrogen.
3.1c Elements can burn in Students should be able to 1 Activity: Students burn elements (Mg,
air to form oxides, describe the burning of Na, Fe, C) in gas jar or boiling tube of air

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which can be classified Mg, Fe, C and S. They containing small quantity of water in it.
as acidic, basic and should know that water- After combustion, add two drops of
amphoteric. soluble oxides of metals universal indicator solution, stopper,
give alkaline solutions and and shake. Observe pH of solution
those of non-metals give made.
acidic solutions.
Demo: Teacher repeats using oxygen
gas and gas jars. Also uses Na and S.
Students make notes about oxides of
elements, and also ideas of oxidation
and reduction.
Symbol equations can be used or
written here.
3.1d When substances burn Students should be able to
in air they are reacting describe a test for oxygen.
with the oxygen.
3.1e Oxidation and
reduction reactions
involve the addition
and removal of oxygen
respectively.
3.2 Water
3.2a Natural waters contain Students should be aware 2 Discuss: clean water (PMI). Note: Clean
dissolved salts, which that pure water can be water is usually
Task: Either class or demo
can be removed to made by distillation and Watch glass, beaker and referring to tap
Evaporate some tap water on a watch
obtain pure water. that desalination is an heating equipment to water or water
glass to dryness to assess how much
important method of evaporate some of the tap safe to drink. It

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obtaining water for dissolved solids it contains. water to dryness. contains other
domestic use in some chemicals that
Discuss: the need for clean water,
countries. are not toxic, so
and what this means. Note: One
that water can be
Students should know the method of getting pure water is
safely drunk.
boiling point of pure water distillation.
Note: Avoid
and a simple chemical test Simple distillation
Demo: Demonstrate distillation of salt confusion with
to show the presence of equipment of salt water.
water and remind students about how pure water, which
water.
it works. Economics in terms of energy contains only
requirements and vast volumes water molecules.
needed means it is not viable to
produce drinking eater from except in
extreme circumstances.
Tests: Demonstrate the tests for a) Boiling tube and
presence of water (cobalt chloride thermometer, cobalt
paper); b) pure water.(b.p. of water) chloride paper
Video: Watch video clip or a video on
water purification and students A video on water
complete a flowchart to explain purification can be found
process. on
www.teachersdomain.org/
asset/ess05_vid_h2otreat
ment
Alternatively, there is a
video on Chemistry in
Action (you may have a
copy lurking somewhere).

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3.2b Drinking water should Students should be aware Emphasise the need to remove some
have sufficiently low that water of the correct dissolved, but not all, substances and
levels of dissolved quality is produced by the need to add chlorine to kill
salts and microbes. passing water from a bacteria, and possibly (controversially)
suitable source through fluoride compounds to improve dental
filter beds to remove solids, health.
and then sterilising with
chlorine.
3.2c Water filters containing Detailed knowledge of Discuss: How water filters and ion
carbon, silver and ion specific water filters is not exchange works.
exchange resins can required. Examination
remove some questions may give
dissolved substances information about water
from tap water to filters so that comparisons
improve the taste and can be made.
quality.
Students should
understand the principles of
how ion exchange resins
work, but do not need
detailed knowledge of the
structure or chemical
nature of specific resins.
3.2d Chlorine may be Students should be aware
added to drinking of the arguments for and
water to reduce against the addition of
microbes and fluoride fluoride to drinking water.
may be added to
improve dental health.

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3.3 Rusting
3.3a Both air and water are Students should know that 2 Students activity: Devise a method Small iron nails, test tubes,
necessary for iron to rusting refers to the to find out if air/oxygen, and/or water vegetable oil, cotton wool,
rust. corrosion of iron. They are necessary for rusting to take place. stoppers, calcium chloride
should be able to describe Carry out the experiment and obtain (dried)
and interpret experiments results next lesson.
to show that both air and
Write up method with risk assessment
water are necessary for
[3d: a), c), d), ]
rusting.
Activity; analyse results to get
conclusion.
Discuss: Suggest the need to see if
results are reproducible or repeatable.
[3d: n]
3.3b There are a number of Students should be able to Activity: Use a DART or similar for
ways in which rusting recall and explain some ideas of rust prevention.
can be prevented, methods of rust prevention,
most of which are eg greasing, painting and
based on the exclusion sacrificial protection.
of air and water.
4 The periodic table

4.1 The periodic table


4.1b Elements in the same Know that elements in the 1 Demo: Li, Na and K with water. Show Large glass trough, Note: Students
group in the periodic same group have similar H2 gas produced and alkali solution as universal indicator, small are not required
table have the same reactions because they well. pieces ( rice grain) of alkali to know of trends
number of electrons in have identical numbers of Task: Students describe tests and metals Li, Na, K, forceps, within each group

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their highest energy outer electrons. write word equations for the reactions. paper towels, scalpel, in the periodic
level (outer electrons) How Science Works: Making a safety screen, glass tube table.
Know that the number of
and this gives them prediction. Ask students what they (8mm wide), splints and
outer electrons determines Be aware of
similar chemical think reaction of Caesium (Cs) would matches.
how an atom reacts. Atoms similarities
properties. be, show video clip of reaction with
with eight electrons in their between the
outer shell are unreactive, water. [3d: f] elements within a
ie the noble gases. Demo: Burning Li, Na and K in air to group.
react with oxygen.
4.1c The elements in Group Know that noble gases
0 of the periodic table have eight outer electrons,
are called the noble except for helium, which
gases. They are has two.
unreactive because
their atoms have
stable arrangements of
electrons.
4.1a The periodic table is 1 Discuss: What is the periodic table? Periodic table cards.
arranged in order of or the five Ws (Why, What, Where, These should be of
atomic (proton) When and Who). Limit answers to just elements 153, excluding
number and so that a list of elements in a funny shape. the noble gases and 32.
elements with similar Group 1 cards should be
Activity: Periodic table card game
properties are in one colour, Group 2 a
columns, known as The object of the game is to see the second colour, Group 5 a
groups. The table is problems and solutions found by both third colour, Group 6 a
called a periodic table Newlands and Mendeleev using only fourth colour and Group 7
because similar the information they had in 1860s. a fifth colour. Each card
properties occur at Each group has 47 cards of elements should only have atomic
regular intervals. known by Newlands and Mendeleev, mass, symbol and name.

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and each card has information on it


VLE / Interactive software,
that they knew.
the periodic table.
Round 1: Working in pairs and not
Exampro Extra Online
using the periodic table sort the cards
Chemistry Activity: The
into a logical order, eg alphabetically or
development of the
numerically. Place on table. Is it a
periodic table.
sensible order, does it tell you anything
about the elements and their
properties?
Round 2 (Newlands): Draw attention
to the cards that are coloured. Remind
them about Groups, refer back to
Group 1 reactions. Sort according to
mass, then place in rows of 8. Note
that at first, you get a regular pattern,
After element with mass 40, the
pattern breaks down. This is where
Newlands failed to gain recognition.
Round 3 (Mendeleev): Take
Newlands order and adjust it. Show
that if H is kept separate, and the third
row is elongated, that the pattern re-
establishes itself, up to Ga. Show
pattern re-establishes under P.
Mendeleev decided that he didnt
know everything and so he left a gap
for an undiscovered element.

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Complete final row, and show that on


Mendeleevs method, I comes before
TE.
Task: Students make notes on
Newlands method, and why it didnt
gain acceptance. Mendeleevs method,
including the key ideas of leaving gaps
for undiscovered elements and also
small adjustments to fit known
properties of the elements.
4.1b Elements in the same
group in the periodic
table have the same
number of electrons in
their highest energy
level (outer electrons)
and this gives them
similar chemical
properties.

4.1c The elements in Group Students should know that


0 of the periodic table the noble gases have eight
are called the noble electrons in their outer
gases. They are energy level, except for
unreactive because helium, which has only two
their atoms have electrons.
stable arrangements of

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electrons.
4.2 Trends within the periodic table
4.2a The elements in Group Describe the reactions of 2 Review metals in the periodic table. Demo: large glass trough,
1 of the periodic table Group 1 metals with water, universal indicator, small
Demo: Place sodium in water, to
(known as the alkali air and chlorine. pieces ( rice grain) of alkali
obtain ideas of density in water,
metals): metals Li, Na, K, forceps,
Know that Group 1 metals release hydrogen and form hydroxides
are metals with low form 1+ ions. (revision from Unit 1). paper towels, scalpel,
density (the first safety screen, glass tube
Know that they form Burn sodium in chlorine gas, show (8mm wide), splints and
three elements in
hydroxides that dissolve in formation of compound, and charges matches.
the group are less
water to give alkaline on both Group 1 metal and also Group
dense than water)
solutions. 7 non-metal.
react with non-
metals to form ionic Task: Students draw diagrams of the
compounds in reaction of Na with Cl.
which the metal ion
carries a charge of
+1. The compounds
are white solids that
dissolve in water to
form colourless
solutions
react with water,
releasing hydrogen
form hydroxides
that dissolve in
water to give
alkaline solutions.

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4.2b In Group 1, the further


down the group an
element is, the more
reactive the element.
4.2c Compared with the Know that transition metals Look at transition metals and their Sealed samples of every
elements in Group 1, typically: compounds. transition metal compound
transition elements: in the chemical store that
form coloured Circus of 15 stages with samples of
is coloured (avoid zinc
have higher melting compounds compounds in sealed bottles, and
compounds). Each sample
points (except for are used as catalysts samples of transition metals, with a
to be labelled and given its
mercury) and are harder and denser beaker of water.
formula.
higher densities than Group 1 metals. Task: Students record each base on a
are stronger and are less reactive with results chart. For compounds they use
Samples of five transition
harder water and oxygen. this chart: metals: Zn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Ag
are much less
reactive and so do name of formula description 5 250cm3 beakers of
not react as
compound water.
vigorously with VLE / Interactive software
water or oxygen. eg transition metals.
For metals they use this chart:
name can it can it description
of be float on
metal bent? water?

4.2d Many transition Discuss: elicit ideas of coloured


elements have ions compounds, different properties and
with different charges; use of transition metals as catalysts(
form coloured they have already met MnO2 as a
compounds and are

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useful as catalysts. catalyst in Unit 2).


Task: Students make notes of
outcomes of transition metals in
comparison to Group 1.
Homework: DART sheet on melting
points of transition metals and Group
1, to show differences in property and
hence uses.
4.2e The elements in Group
7 of the periodic table
(known as the
halogens) react with
metals to form ionic
compounds in which
the halide ion carries a
charge of 1.

4.2f In Group 7, the further Know that the further down 1 Revise Na +Cl2 reaction to get halogen Samples of chlorine, Be able to write
down the group an the group: as elements that form 1- charged ions. bromine and iodine in and balance
element is: sealed containers. symbol equations.
the less reactive the Demo: Students make list of halogens,
the less reactive element is their colours and their state at room Aqueous solutions of
the element the higher its melting temperature. Remind students of chlorine, and bromine, and
the higher its point and boiling point. colour of chlorine (seen with NaCl iodine solution (iodine in
melting point and reaction). Show samples of other potassium iodide).
boiling point halogens if possible, if not use halogen Pipettes, test tubes, test
waters from the class experiment to tube racks, solutions of
show their colour when dissolved in sodium chloride, sodium

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water. iodide, and sodium


bromide (alternatively
these could be potassium
compounds).
4.2g A more reactive Know that a more reactive Activity: Displacement reactions
halogen can displace a halogen can displace a less Students add chlorine water to each of
less reactive halogen reactive halogen from an the three compounds and observe
from an aqueous aqueous solution of its salt. results. Add bromine water to fresh
solution of its salt. samples of the compounds and
observe results. Add iodine solution to
fresh samples of the compounds and
observe results.
Discuss: findings from results chart.
Conclude that halogens higher in the
Group displace halogens that are
lower from their compounds.
Task: Write symbol equations and
balance for one reaction. All reactions
standard.
4.2h The trends in reactivity Explain the reactivity trends Discussion on reactivity in Group 7
within groups in the within both Group 1 and and Group 1. This should be in terms
periodic table can be Group 7 in terms of the of ease of losing/gaining outer
explained because the distance of the outer electrons.
higher the energy level electron from the central,
Metals easier to lose from outside as
of the outer electrons: positively charged nucleus,
less attracted to nucleus further down
and the attraction of the
the more easily the group.

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electrons are lost nucleus to those outer


Non-metals easier to gain up the group
the less easily electrons.
due to stronger attraction from nucleus
electrons are
as less electron shells.
gained.
5. Acids, bases and salts
5.1 Acids, bases and salts
5.1a Metal oxides and Recall the pH scale. 1 Revise pH scale from KS3. NaOH 1 mol dm-3, HCl(aq)
hydroxides are bases. Know how alkalis are Discuss: What makes an acid and an 1 mol dm-3, 100cm3
Soluble hydroxides are different from bases. alkali in terms of ions. List and produce beaker, indicator paper/pH
called alkalis. formulae for acids and alkalis to get meter, evaporating basin
idea that acids have hydrogen (ions), and 25 cm3 measuring
and alkalis have hydroxide (ions). cylinders.
Students make notes. VLE/Interactive software,
eg chemical reactions.
5.1b Acids react with bases Know that acid + alkali Activity: making a salt by
to form salts. These makes salt + water. neutralisation of an alkali. eg NaCl (pH
reactions are called sensors could be used here instead of
neutralisation indicator paper or solution to be able to
reactions. crystallise the salt without the need for
boiling with carbon).
Homework: Students draw diagrams
to explain the method.
5.1h Hydrogen ions, H+ Students should be familiar Use symbol equation with state
(aq), make solutions with the pH scale from 0 to symbols to describe reaction (and
acidic, and hydroxide 14, and know that pH 7 is a should use state symbols hereafter
ions, OH-(aq), make neutral solution. when completing symbol equations).
solutions alkaline. The Students should be able to

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pH scale is a measure describe the use of


of the acidity or universal indicator to
alkalinity of a solution. measure the approximate
pH of a solution.
5.1g In neutralisation Describe neutralisation in
reactions, hydrogen terms of hydrogen ions
ions react with reacting with hydroxide ions
hydroxide ions to to form water.
produce water. This
reaction can be
represented by the
equation:
H+ (aq) + OH- (aq)
H2O (l)
5.1c The particular salt Know which acid makes 1 Revise all reactions to make salts so VLE/Interactive software, Be able to state
produced in any which salt, and which metal far, include writing word and symbol eg chemical reactions. the substances
reaction between an makes which salt. equation (if not already done) for each needed to make
acid and a base or one, including the state symbols. the salt and name
Students should be able to
alkali depends on: the salt, given the
suggest methods to make a Task: Students to come up with rules
the acid used named soluble salt. for making soluble salts, eg nitric acid names of the
(hydrochloric acid makes nitrates etc. Students make metal and acid
produces chlorides, notes. used.
nitric acid produces
Task: Making a salt. Students to be
nitrates, sulfuric
given list of salts to make, and they
acid produces
should state the chemicals needed and
sulfates)
the method to use to make each salt. A
the metal in the card game could be produced with

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base or alkali. names of salts, acids, ions, and


possible ingredients. Students produce
word equation of the reaction needed
to make each salt, add the method of
production, then attempt to write
balanced symbol equation.
Homework: Making soluble salts.
Students complete a worksheet
naming the reactants needed to make
a named soluble salt, and given the
reactants, name the soluble salt
produced. They also state the method
needed to obtain a solid sample of the
salt.
5.1e A solution of calcium Students should be familiar
hydroxide in water with using limewater to test
(limewater) reacts with for carbon dioxide gas.
carbon dioxide to
produce calcium
carbonate. Limewater
is used as a test for
carbon dioxide.
Carbon dioxide turns
limewater cloudy.
5.1d Ammonia dissolves in Activity: ammonia as an alkaline
water to produce an solution in water and how it can
alkaline solution. It is produce salts for fertilisers (and

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used to produce explosives). Students make notes.


ammonium salts.
Ammonium salts are
important as fertilisers.
5.2a Soluble salts can be 2 Demo: How much is in the solution? Burettes, burette funnels, Note: It should be
made from acids by Teacher-led demonstration, followed measuring cylinder / highlighted that
reacting them with: by class titration practical to establish 25cm3 pipette, conical averaging out
alkalis an idea that the volumes of acid and alkali flask, white tile clamp and results can give
indicator can be can be measured using a suitable stand solutions of 0.5mol more reliable
used to show when indicator. Whilst universal indicator will dm-3, hydrochloric acid, results.
the acid and alkali work, better to use phenolphthalein as sodium hydroxide, 250
have completely the indicator as it gives a definite end cm3 beakers and
reacted to produce point. [3d: h ,i] phenolphthalein.
a salt solution.
How Science Works: Titration should
be carried out three times to allow for
calculation of a mean.
Task: Students draw equipment and
record their results. Calculate the
mean for the titration and then
compare their results.
5.1h The volumes of acid Students should be able to
and alkali solutions carry out titrations using
that react with each strong acids and strong
other can be measured alkalis only (sulfuric,
by titration using a hydrochloric and nitric acids
suitable indicator. only).

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5.1i If the concentration of Students should be able to 1 Remind students about relative
one of the reactants is calculate the chemical molecular mass (Mr). Remind them
known, the results of a quantities in titrations that the Mr in grams if dissolved in
titration can be used to involving concentrations (in water provides a concentration unit
find the concentration moles per dm3) and that we can use to compare different
of the other reactant. masses (in grams per dm 3) solutions.
Task: Students make brief notes on
molecules and how dissolving different
proportions of the Mr produces
solutions of different concentrations.
Explain: Using last times results,
show how to work out the
concentration of the sodium hydroxide
assuming 1 mol dm3 hydrochloric acid
was used.
Tell students they need the balanced
equation to work out reacting amounts
and to work out the unknown using the
equation:
Conc of acid x volume used
conc of alkali x volume used

=
no of acid molecules in equation
no of alkali molecules in equation
Give students three other examples to

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calculate the answers for. One should


also involve using grams instead of
moles.
5.2 Making salts
5.2a Soluble salts can be Know how to make a salt 1 Activity: Making a salt by reacting a Magnesium ribbon, 100
made from acids by from a metal + acid and metal with hydrochloric acid. Students cm3 beaker, dilute
reacting them with: that this releases hydrogen crystallise the salt and write symbol hydrochloric acid,
metals not all gas. equation, using state symbols. evaporating basin, test
metals are suitable; Discuss: suitability of metals for this tubes, matches and spills
Write a word equation for
some are too reaction, in terms of reactivity series. and 25 cm3 measuring
the reaction
reactive and others Students make notes. cylinders.
are not reactive Students should know that
VLE/Interactive software,
enough a lighted spill can be used
eg chemical reactions.
to test for hydrogen.
Students should be able to
suggest methods to make a
named soluble salt.
Write symbol equation for
the reaction.
Interpret a symbol equation
containing state symbols.
5.2a Soluble salts can be Describe how to make a 1 Activity: Making a salt by CuO, spatula, dilute
made from acids by soluble salt from an neutralisation of an insoluble base sulfuric acid, stirring rod,
reacting them with: insoluble base. such as copper oxide to make copper 100cm3 beaker, 100cm3
sulfate. Students crystallise the salt, conical flask, filter funnel,
insoluble bases and write symbol equation, using state filter paper, evaporating
the base is added basin, 25cm3 measuring

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to the acid until no symbols. cylinders, matches and


more will react and spills and heating
Homework: Students draw diagrams
the excess solid is apparatus.
to explain the method.
filtered off.
See Exampro Extra Online
Practical guide and
Chemistry Activity.
5.2b Salt solutions can be
crystallised to produce
solid salts.

5.2c Insoluble salts can be Explain what precipitation 1 Task: Students prepare insoluble salt, 1 mol dm3 lead nitrate, 1 Note: All students
made by mixing is, and how it can be used eg lead iodide and/or barium sulphate. mol dm3 potassium iodide need to
appropriate solutions to make insoluble salts. or 0.2 mol dm3 barium remember is
Discuss: How precipitation reactions
of ions so that a hydroxide, 0.2 mol dm3 going to a dance
Know how making insoluble can easily remove unwanted ions from
precipitate is formed. sodium sulphate, 25 cm 3 and swapping
salts can be useful in the drinking water and effluents. Students
Precipitation can be measuring cylinders, 100 partners to get
water industry as a cheap make notes.
used to remove cm3 beakers, filter paper the word
and effective way of
unwanted ions from Homework: Making insoluble salts. and filter funnels. equations right.
removing unwanted ions
solutions: for example, Students complete a worksheet
from water. VLE/Interactive software,
in treating water for naming the reactants needed to make
eg chemical reactions.
drinking or in treating Name the substances a named insoluble salt and, given the
effluent. needed to make a named reactants, name the insoluble salt
insoluble salt. produced.
5.3 Metal carbonates
5.3a The carbonates of Students should be aware 1 Activity: Test each carbonate with Mg, Cu, Zn, Ca, Na,
magnesium, copper, that not all carbonates of acid to see that it evolves carbon carbonates, dilute
zinc, calcium and metals in Group 1 of the dioxide gas, and then dry carbonates hydrochloric acid, test
lithium decompose on periodic table decompose tubes, boiling tubes with
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heating (thermal at the temperatures are heated to decompose. delivery tubes, clamps and
decomposition) in a reached by a Bunsen stands, matches and spills
Use only Mg, Cu, Zn, Ca, and Na
similar way. burner. carbonates. and limewater.

Homework: Tell students they have


five samples of rock ores each
containing different amounts of copper
carbonate. They use todays practical
to help them plan an investigation to
determine which ore is most likely to
contain the most copper carbonate.
[3d: a]
5.3b Metal carbonates react
with acids to produce
carbon dioxide, a salt
and water.
5.1e A solution of calcium
hydroxide in water
(limewater) reacts with
carbon dioxide to
produce calcium
carbonate. Limewater
is used as a test for
carbon dioxide.
Carbon dioxide turns
limewater cloudy
5.3c Limestone, containing Know that limestone is 1 Discussion: Discuss limestone, its VLE/Interactive software

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the compound calcium calcium carbonate and that chemical name, and its uses. eg useful Materials from
carbonate (CaCO3), is it is quarried. rocks.
Activity; Students produce wall chart
quarried and can be about chemistry and uses of cement, Exampro Extra Online
used as a building glass, iron production or soil pH Practical Guide
material, or powdered control. They then present their wall Chemistry of the
and used to control chart to the group. Limestone Cycle.
acidity in the soil. It View the limestone uses
can be used in the Activity: Class make notes on each
PowerPoint presentation at
manufacture of use of limestone.
www.worldofteaching.com/
cement, glass and iron powerpoints/chemistry/Lim
and to produce estone.ppt
calcium oxide (lime).
6 Metals

6.1 The reactivity series


6.1a Metals can be Students should be able to 1 Demo/Starter 1: Heat some Mg ribbon For Demo 1: Mg ribbon,
arranged in an order of recall and describe the and then some Cu foil. Ask Why does copper foil, calcium lumps(
their reactivity from reactions, if any, of one burn with a bright white light, and buy new), iron nails, zinc
their reactions with potassium, sodium, lithium, the other simply go black? Draw out foil or granules, test tubes,
water and dilute acids. calcium, magnesium, zinc, ideas of reactivity of metals. dilute hydrochloric acid
iron and copper with water Activity: Students place small pieces For Demo 2: Piece of
or dilute acids, where of calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and lithium size of a rice grain,
appropriate, to place them copper in different test tubes one-third trough
in order of reactivity. full of water. Observe result. Any
element that is not reacting vigorously
(this should be all of them except
calcium) after three minutes should

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have an equal volume of dilute


hydrochloric acid added.
Activity: Students should now be able
to make a rudimentary reactivity
series, to which they can add further
metals. [3d: m]
Demo 2: Show them the reactions of
lithium and calcium with water. Ask
them to add lithium to their reactivity
series. They can then add in sodium
and potassium from their notes.
You should then tell them where to
position hydrogen and carbon in the
reactivity series.
6.1c The non-metals
hydrogen and carbon
are often included in
the reactivity series
based on the reactions
of metals with dilute
acid, and of metal
oxides with carbon.
6.1b Displacement Students should be able to 1 Discussion: What use is the reactivity 0.2 mol per dm-3 solutions
reactions involving describe displacement series? of magnesium sulphate,
metals and their reactions in terms of copper sulphate, iron(II)
Activity: Students carry out a series of
compounds in oxidation and reduction, sulfate ( freshly made),
reactions between sulfate solutions of
aqueous solution and to write the ionic zinc sulfate, test tubes or

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Specification Content What most students should Activities hints and tips
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establish positions equations. metals and the metals. dropping tiles, foils of Cu,
within the reactivity Zn, and Mg, iron filings.
Students should be aware Students should report their findings
series.
that copper can be and: For the demo . This is a
obtained from solutions of dangerous demo, which
describe the pattern using the you should carry out only if
copper salts by reactivity series from last lesson
displacement using scrap you are confident and
[3d: m] competent to do so.
iron. write ionic equations for the
reactions dry iron(III)oxide,
magnesium , crucible,
Demo: If time (and nerves) permit, bucket of sand
demonstrate a thermite reaction eg
iron oxide with magnesium
6.2 Extracting metals
6.2a Unreactive metals Explain how an ore is 2 Discuss: Teacher discussion on VLE/Interactive software,
such as gold are found different from a rock. making metals, ores, gold and silver eg useful materials from
in the Earth as the etc. Discuss and relate extraction metal ores.
Know that methods may be
metal itself but most methods to limestone quarrying, and
used to concentrate an ore
metals are found as talk about metal recycling to reduce
before extraction.
compounds that impact of quarrying and economic
Know that some metals are
require chemical considerations.
so unreactive they can be
reactions to extract the found as metal in the Demo: Ag, Cu and Au in hydrochloric
metal. Earths surface (crust). The acid to show unreactive nature of
layers of atoms in metals these metals.
are able to slide over each Task: Students make brief notes in
other. This means metals books.
can be bent and shaped.

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Copper carbonate,
Activity: Concentrating an ore heat
matches and splints,
a small quantity of copper carbonate
until it stops bubbling and has turned boiling tubes, boiling tube
black. Students could weigh the holders( or clamp and
sample before and after heating to stand) mineral/glass wool
work out mass loss of carbon dioxide plug for boiling tube.
(refer back to lesson on heating
carbonates and suggested homework
task).
1. Students to compare each
others results.
2. Plot graph of class results of
mass used against mass lost.
3. Mention variables are
continuous.
4. Identify range of data.
5. Describe relationship between
mass used and mass lost.
Students are to keep their copper
oxide for next lesson.
Homework: Explain the benefits a
company can gain by concentrating a
metal ore before refining it.
6.2b Metals that are less Knowledge and 1 How Science Works: The first Periodic table. Details of the
reactive than carbon understanding are limited to samples of copper man made were blast furnace are
VLE /Interactive software,
can be extracted from the reduction of oxides found in camp fires. Thinking about not required, but
eg useful materials from
their oxides by using carbon. what a camp fire has in it, ask students students should

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reduction with carbon: guess what happened, to make a metal ores. know the raw
Knowledge of reduction is
for example, iron oxide hypothesis about the guess, how could materials used
limited to the removal of Copper oxide, carbon, or
is reduced in the blast they test their hypothesis, and predict and explain the
oxygen. wooden spill, matches and
furnace to make iron. what should happen if they test their simple chemistry
spills, boiling tubes, boiling
guess. involved,
tube holders, or clamp and
including the use
Explain: about wood/charcoal/stones stand, mineral/glass wool
of equations.
containing copper ores, and heat. plug for boiling tube and
250 cm3 beaker of cold Knowledge of the
Task: Students then heat their copper
water. details of the
oxide from last lesson with
extraction of other
carbon/charcoal to see if they can See resources on
metals is not
make copper (tip heated mixture into Exampro Extra Online for
required.
cold water to prevent copper re- this.
oxidising back to copper oxide). Examination
questions may
Conclude with idea that the carbon has
provide
removed the oxygen from the metal
information about
oxide and that removal of oxygen is
specific
reduction. This is how iron oxide is
processes for
turned in a blast furnace into iron.
students to
Details are not required, although it
interpret or
may make interesting homework.
evaluate.
Demo: Blast furnace using potassium
permanganate, iron oxide, and carbon
with a mineral wool plug. Test iron
made with a magnet.
Homework: Report the experiment
students did.

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6.2d Copper can be Students should know the 1 Task: Students review/ investigate RSC Alchemy has section Details of the
extracted from copper- electrode material and be how copper is mined, extracted and on Copper refining which industrial smelting
rich ores by heating able to write the ionic half purified by electrolysis. can be found at processes are
the ores in a furnace equations for the reactions www.rsc.org/Education/Te not required but
Students should make brief notes/flow
(smelting). The copper occurring at both achers/Resources/Alchem students should
diagram on basics of extraction, by
can be purified by electrodes. y/index.htm be aware that
copper ore heated in furnace, impure
electrolysis. The chemical
copper dissolved in sulfuric acid, VLE/Interactive software,
supply of copper-rich processes are
followed by electrolysis. eg useful materials from
ores is limited and is involved and that
metal ores.
being depleted. Demo: Electrolysis of copper sulfate examination
solution with copper electrodes (could Copper sulfate solution 0.5 questions may
Traditional mining and
be demonstrated whilst watching a mol dm-3, copper provide further
extraction have major
video on refining copper). electrodes, power pack information for
environmental impacts.
100cm3 beaker, wires and them to interpret
light bulb. or evaluate.
Crucible, carbon
electrodes, power supply,
connecting wires, lamp,
Bunsen burner and fume
cupboard.
6.2c Metals that are more Knowledge of the details of 1 Demo: Demonstration of electrolysis of You can find a variety of Be able to find a
reactive than carbon, industrial methods of molten zinc chloride or lead bromide. resources including video metals position in
such as aluminium, are electrolysis is not required, clips on the RSC website both the periodic
Task: Students investigate how
extracted by other than the detail at table and the
aluminium is mined, extracted and
electrolysis of molten required for aluminium (see www.rsc.org/Education/Te reactivity series,
purified by electrolysis.
compounds. The use Section 13(i)). achers/Resources/Alchem when given a
of large amounts of y/index.htm metal to extract in

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energy in the an examination


RSC Alchemy a has
extraction of these question, and be
section on aluminium at
metals makes them www.rsc.org/Education/Te able to predict the
expensive. achers/Resources/Alchem best method of
y/index2.htm extraction
carbon or
electrolysis.
6.2e New ways of extracting Students should know and 1 Task: Students research the topics of Further background Be able to work
copper from low-grade understand that: phytomining and bioleaching, and information can be found out what is
ores are being produce notes on main features of the at www.copper.org happening when
researched to limit the phytomining uses plants processes. given an
to absorb metal See Exampro Extra Online
environmental impact unfamiliar method
compounds and that the Or Practical Guide.
of traditional mining. of extraction of an
plants are burned to ore or a metal.
Activity: With planning, students could
Copper can be produce ash that grow cabbage plants or other types of
extracted by contains the metal Follow the metal
brassica plants to extract metal from
phytomining, or by compounds through the
contaminated soil, and process to
bioleaching. bioleaching uses obtain the metal. diagram to see
bacteria to produce where it must be
leachate solutions that going in each
contain metal step. Make notes
compounds. on the diagram to
help them.
6.2f Copper can be
obtained from
solutions of copper
salts by electrolysis.

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6.2g Copper can be Students should be able to


obtained from describe this in terms of
solutions of copper oxidation and reduction,
salts by displacement and to write the ionic
using scrap iron. equation.
6.2h We should recycle Students are not required 1 Task: Working in pairs/groups, Use RSC Alchemy disc for
metals because to know details of specific students research/find out the benefits individual metals, or
extracting them uses examples of recycling, but of recycling metals such as iron, internet sites. More
limited resources, and should understand the copper, aluminium, and produce a information can be found
is expensive in terms benefits of recycling in the mini-project on it. on the RSC Alchemy
of energy and in terms general terms specified website at
Or
of effects on the here. www.rsc.org/Education/Te
environment. Give groups of students a metal, and achers/Resources/Alchem
some questions. Students prepare an y/index2.htm
A4 sheet, poster or word document to
Free teaching resources
email to rest of class about their
on recycling of metals can
answers.
be downloaded from the
Questions could be: British Metals Recycling
Association (BMRA)
How is your metal extracted, and website:
why is this method used? http://www.recyclemetals.o
What pollutants are produced in its rg/metals_and_me
extraction?
How much of the metal is re- Access to internet, paper,
cycled? poster paper, glue scissors
How is it recycled? and magazines.
Explain why recycling the metal is
both good for the environment,

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economically sound (saves money),


and saves on limited reserves of
ores.
Students present five minute briefing
on their metal.
6.3 Structure and bonding in metals and alloys
6.3a Metals consist of giant 1 Demo: Show metal lattice structure, View the bonding Students should
structures of atoms demonstrate how atoms can slide over PowerPoint presentation at be familiar with
arranged in a regular each other and relate to properties. http://education.jlab.org/jsa these specified
pattern. t/powerpoint/chembond.pp examples but
t examination
Models of metallic questions may
structure such as layers of contain
closely packed similar- information about
sized spheres fixed alloys other than
together or bubble rafts. those named in
the subject
Model of metal structure
content to enable
with balls to show effect of
students to make
introducing different atom
comparisons.
size to structure.
6.3d The layers of atoms in Use the structure of metals
metals are able to slide to explain their ability to
over each other and so bend and be shaped.
metals can be bent
and shaped.

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6.3e Alloys are usually Describe what alloys are, Demo: Insert a different-sized ball to
made from two or why they are more useful show alloy effects make sliding harder
more metals. The than pure metals, and how to achieve.
different sizes of atoms the metal structure is
Task: Students draw diagrams to
in the metals distort altered by the insertion of
explain metal and alloy structure and
the layers in the different sized atoms.
properties.
structure, making it Demo: Compare samples of pure
more difficult for them metals with alloys, eg copper and
to slide over each brass, iron and steel.
other. This makes
alloys harder than pure
metals.
6.3f Most metals in Know that alloys have
everyday use are improved properties as a
alloys. Pure copper, result of the combination of
gold, iron and metal atoms.
aluminium are too soft
for many uses and so
are mixed with small
amounts of other
metals to make them
harder for everyday
use.
6.3b The electrons in the Represent the bonding in 1 VLE/Interactive software
highest occupied metals in the following eg bonding.
energy levels (outer form:
View the bonding
shell) of metal atoms PowerPoint presentation at

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are delocalised and so http://education.jlab.org/jsa


free to move through t/powerpoint/chembond.pp
the whole structure. t
This corresponds to a
structure of positive
ions with electrons
between the ions
holding them together
by strong electrostatic
attractions.
6.3c Metals conduct heat Explain the flow of an Discuss how atoms in a metal are
and electricity because electric current in terms of really ions in a sea of electrons and
of the delocalised delocalised electrons. this allows electrons to flow (electrical
electrons in their conductivity). Students make notes.
Students should know that
structures. conduction depends on the
ability of electrons to move
throughout the metal.
6.3g Shape memory alloys Know what a memory alloy Demo/Activity: Demonstrate a Memory alloy wire, beaker,
can return to their is, and give an example. memory alloy if possible. Students hot water.
original shape after could try to explain how it happens
being deformed. An using structure ideas.
example is Nitinol, Homework: Think of five examples
which is used in dental where memory alloys would be useful.
braces. Describe how the properties make
each one useful in each application.

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6.4 Properties and uses of metals


6.4a The elements in the Know that the central block 1 Task: Students view metal properties Circus of metals to show Knowledge of the
central block of the of the periodic table is circus, this is KS3 revision. Students to their properties, eg properties of
periodic table are known as the transition make brief notes on properties of bendable, and conductivity specific transition
known as transition metals. metals. of heat and electricity. metals other than
metals. Like other those named in
Many commonly used Activity: Draw attention to copper, Metal samples such as
metals, they are good this specification
metals are in this block. aluminium and titanium as transition iron (thin long nails or
conductors of heat and is not required.
metals and their place on the periodic wire), copper foil,
electricity and can be table as Transition metals. Students aluminium foil, lead foil, Concentrate on
bent or hammered into mark transition metals on their periodic and any others available, matching property
shape. They are useful table. beakers and access to hot to use of metals.
as structural materials water, conductivity testing
Discuss: Teacher-led discussion on Note: Remember
and for making things kit (power pack, wires, and
properties and uses of copper, that some
that must allow heat or bulb).
aluminium and titanium. properties mean
electricity to pass
Task: Students make notes on students shouldnt
through them easily.
properties and uses of these metals. use it for the
Homework: Exam question on using application, eg
metals as structural materials. sodium is not
suitable for
applications
involving water.
6.4d Copper has properties Know and understand that
that make it useful for copper:
electrical wiring and
is a good conductor of
plumbing.
electricity and heat
can be bent but is hard

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enough to be used to
make pipes or tanks
does not react with
water.
6.4b Iron from the blast Know the difference 1 Task: Students complete a project on More information on Iron
furnace contains about between iron from the blast iron, steel and alloys to explain the Section, can be found on
96% iron. The furnace and steel in terms differences. the RSC Alchemy website
impurities make it of less carbon in steel than at
Research: Research the meaning of
brittle and so it has iron from the blast furnace. www.rsc.org/Education/Te
carat in relation to gold, and the
limited uses. achers/Resources/Alchem
reasons for the different proportions of
y/index2.htm
gold in each type of gold.
Homework: Past paper question on
properties of metals and their uses,
from past CHY1 papers, eg Jan 07
CHY1F Q3, Jan 08 CHY1F Q6
6.4c Most iron is converted Know that the many types Knowledge and
into steels. Steels are of steel are really alloys. understanding of
alloys since they are the types of steel
mixtures of iron with and their
carbon. Some steels properties are
contain other metals. limited to those
Low-carbon steels are specified in the
easily shaped, high- subject content.
carbon steels are hard, Information about
and stainless steels the composition
of specific types
are resistant to
of steel may be
corrosion.

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given in
examination
questions so that
students can
evaluate their
uses.
Note: there is no
need for students
to remember
different
combinations of
alloys.
Be able to
interpret
information
provided.
7 Rates of reaction
7a The rate of a chemical Students need to be able to 1 Activity: React marble chips with Marble chips, balance, Knowledge of
reaction can be found interpret graphs showing dilute hydrochloric acid and measure dilute hydrochloric acid, specific reactions
by measuring the the amount of product the volume of carbon dioxide evolved burette/measuring other than those
amount of a reactant formed (or reactant used against time taken. cylinder/gas syringe, in the subject
used or the amount of up) with time, in terms of conical flask with delivery content is not
How Science Works: Record results
product formed over the rate of the reaction. tube, washing-up required, but
in a chart and plot a graph of results of
time: .Calculate rate of reaction bowls/troughs and students will be
volume of gas produced against time.
from given data. stopwatches. Graph paper. expected to have
Analyse the graph to obtain rate of studied examples
See also Exampro Extra

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reaction at one time. [3d: l] Online Chemistry Activity: of chemical


Rate of reaction =
Rates of reactions. reactions and
amount of reactant used Explain clearly what the graph shows
at each part: processes in
time developing their
Initially rate is fast skills during their
Rate of reaction = Slows down study of this
amount of product used Reaction is complete. section.
time Students make notes on a graph.
Homework: Students calculate rate of
reaction at two more times to show
change in rate over the experiment.
Or
How Science Works: Students plan
an investigation using the method from
lesson into how concentration of the
acid would affect the rate of reaction.
[3d: a]
7c Increasing the Know how temperature 2 Activity: Investigate the effect of Marble chips, balance,
temperature increases affects rate of reaction. temperature on the same reaction as dilute hydrochloric acid,
the speed of the last lesson. Students report their burette/measuring
Know that for a reaction to
reacting particles so experiment. cylinder/gas syringe,
that they collide more happen particles have to conical flask with delivery
collide. How Science Works: You can get
frequently and more tube, washing up
different groups to do the experiment
energetically. This bowl/troughs,
using different instruments to measure
increases the rate of stopwatches,
gas volume, eg gas syringe, burette,
reaction. thermometers and hot
measuring cylinder etc to develop
water beakers to heat acid

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ideas of precision. Students plot graph in.


of results.
Graph paper
How Science Works: Compare
results between groups.
7b Chemical reactions Use collision theory to How Science Works: Class
can only occur when explain the change in rate discussion on why increasing
reacting particles in terms of particle temperature might make the reaction
collide with each other behaviour. faster. Develop hypothesis based on
and with sufficient collision theory. Suggest we need to
Know that a hypothesis has
energy. test out theory to see if it explains how
to be successfully tested rates of reaction change.
before it becomes accepted
scientific knowledge. Homework: Explain the difference
between a guess, hypothesis, and
theory.
7b The minimum amount Know how particle size 1 Demo: Use decreasing mass method Large and small marble Note: Allow
of energy particles affects rate of reaction. to investigate reacting equal masses of chips, balance, dilute students to do
must have to react is large chips and small chips of marble hydrochloric acid, 250 cm3 the experiment
called the activation with dilute hydrochloric acid. conical flask, cotton wool, themselves. A
energy. stopwatch. video camera
Students describe the experiment.
Graph paper showing the
Students plot graph of results, and use balance, and stop
the hypothesis of collision theory to VLE/Interactive software watch, connected
explain the results. [3d: l] eg Rates. to a projector
Discuss: Discussion on why every allows students to
particle doesnt react at once to get take
idea of minimum (activation) energy measurements
required for a collision to cause a themselves.

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reaction. Students make notes.


7f Increasing the surface Know that for a reaction to
area of solid reactants happen particles have to
increases the collide with sufficient
frequency of collisions energy to react, and that
and so increases the this amount of energy is
rate of reaction. called the activation
energy.
Use collision theory to
explain the change in rate
in terms of particle
behaviour.
7e Increasing the Know how concentration 1 Activity: Disappearing cross method. See Exampro Extra Online Always remember
concentration of affects rate of reaction. for other details. to mention how
Task: Students investigate sodium
reactants in solutions the particle speed
Use collision theory to thiosulfate solution and dilute
increases the and/or numbers
explain the change in rate hydrochloric acid. Can be done with
frequency of collisions and/or
in terms of particle datalogging or by eye.
and so increases the temperature
behaviour.
rate of reaction. How Science Works: Using different accounts for the
Know that collision theory methods to obtain observed change,
has now been successfully results/instrumentation. Students when asked why
tested. explain the results again in terms of a rate changes.
the hypothesis. Teacher-led
discussion, should we make this a
theory rather than hypothesis?
Homework: Students plot graph of
results and interpret it. [3d: l]

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7d Increasing the Use the collision theory to 1 Consolidation lesson on collision VLE/Interactive software
pressure of reacting explain how the change in theory, rates of reaction and activation eg rates.
gases increases the conditions affects the rate energy.
frequency of collisions of any reaction, in terms of
Task: Students could draw particle
and so increases the particle behaviour.
diagrams to show how each change in
rate of reaction.
Know how gas pressure conditions affects the particle mixture
affects rate of reaction. in the reaction and how this relates to
the theory.
How Science Works: Make a
prediction on the effect of altering the
pressure on a gas reaction.
7g Catalysts change the Know that catalysts change 1 Discuss: Why do cars have catalysts Manganese (IV) oxide Note: In
rate of chemical the rate of a chemical in their exhaust system? What do they /liver/potato spatula, 20 vol questions
reactions but are not reaction. This is important do? hydrogen peroxide, involving industry
used up during the in industry to reduce costs. balance, measuring and catalysts,
Activity: Investigating effect of
reaction. Different cylinder and boiling tube. students should
catalysts. Use one of these catalysts
reactions need be given
on hydrogen peroxide: liver, potato, VLE/Interactive software,
different catalysts. information that
manganese(IV) oxide. Students report eg transition metals.
their experiment. [3d: h] they need to
evaluate eg Why
Explain: Develop idea of catalysts is a catalyst used
helping the reaction to take place. You that reduces the
may wish to mention how catalysts
reacting
work, active sites, forming
temperature?
intermediates etc.
Because reducing
the temperature
will save energy

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and make the


process cheaper.
7h Catalysts are important Describe the benefit of Explain: the value to industry of using
in increasing the rates using a catalyst for a given catalysts in terms of reducing costs
of chemical reactions process to the industry etc. Students make notes.
used in industrial involved. Homework: Past paper question on
processes to reduce
rates.
costs.

8 Crude oil and fuels

8.1 Crude oil and 8.2 Hydrocarbons


8.1a Crude oil is a mixture Know what a mixture is in 1 Recap what a mixture is, and explain Fake crude oil
of a very large number terms of elements and that crude oil is a mixture. (CLEAPSS/Hazcard
of compounds. compounds. recipe), boiling tube with
side arm, bung for boiling
tube with 0 - 360OC
thermometer, side arm,
four test tubes, 250cm 3
beaker, four watch
glasses, heat mat,
matches and spills and
fume cupboard.
Molymods or similar.
8.1b Most of the
compounds in crude oil
are hydrocarbons,

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which are molecules


made up of hydrogen
and carbon atoms
only.
8.1c The many Describe fractional Demo: Experiment of distillation of Information and videos of Students should
hydrocarbons in crude distillation as based on crude oil (CLEAPSS recipe), followed fractional distillation can be know and
oil may be separated each compound having a by analysis and burning of obtained found on BBC GCSE understand the
into fractions, each of different boiling point. fractions. Bitesize at main processes in
which contains www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gc continuous
Know that each compound Task: Students make diagram of
molecules with a sebitesize fractional
vaporises and condenses experiment and chart the results from
similar number of distillation in a
at different temperatures, the demonstration: RSC Alchemy disc has a
carbon atoms, by fractionating
and so they are separated. section on Oil Refining.
evaporating the oil and column.
fraction colour viscosity ease of amount This can also be found at
allowing it to condense ignition of smoke
www.rsc.org/Education/Te Knowledge of the
at a number of
achers/Resources/Alchem names of specific
different temperatures.
Discuss: Discuss how these y/index2.htm fractions or fuels
This process is called
fractional distillation. properties affect how we use is not required.
hydrocarbons as fuels, diesel in winter,
amount of soot etc. Students make
notes.
Discuss: Differences between the
demo and fractional distillation as
continuous process. Use video.
8.2c Some properties of Describe the relationship
hydrocarbons depend between molecule size and
on the size of their boiling point, viscosity,
molecules. These ease of ignition, and

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properties influence flammability.


how hydrocarbons are
Knowledge of trends in
used as fuels. properties of hydrocarbons
is limited to:
boiling points
viscosity
flammability.

8.2a Most of the Students should know that 1 Demo /Activity: Name each formula VLE/Interactive software
hydrocarbons in crude in saturated hydrocarbons and draw methane, ethane and eg organic chemistry and
oil are saturated all the carboncarbon propane as examples of alkanes in useful organic.
hydrocarbons called bonds are single covalent both forms. Show as models.
Molymods or similar.
alkanes. The general bonds. Elicit general formula for alkanes.
formula for the
homologous series of Discuss: the use of a line as
alkanes is CnH2n+2. representing a single covalent bond.
8.2b Alkane molecules can Describe what the Task: Students draw molecular
be represented in the structural formula shows. diagrams adding in notes to the
following forms: diagrams of methane, ethane, and
Know the general formula
propane as alkanes.
C2H6 for alkanes.
or Students should know that
in displayed structures a
represents a covalent bond.
Students should be able to
recognise alkanes from
their formulae in any of the

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forms, but do not need to


know the names of specific
alkanes other than
methane, ethane and
propane.

8.3 Fuels
8.3a Most fuels, including Students should be able to 1 Demo: Burning a candle, and passing Equipment as in diagram. Know that
coal, contain carbon relate products of exhaust gases through anhydrous products of
See AQA website Practical
and/or hydrogen and combustion to the elements copper sulfate/cooling U tube and combustion
Guide
may also contain some present in compounds in cobalt chloride paper, then limewater. depend on the
sulfur. The gases the fuel and to the extent of VLE/Interactive software elements present
released into the combustion (whether eg, useful air and Earth in the fuel (check
atmosphere when a complete or partial). and atmosphere. the formula) and
fuel burns may include how much oxygen
No details of how the Access to internet.
carbon dioxide, water candle here is present.
oxides of nitrogen are
(vapour), carbon Carbon monoxide
formed are required, other
is made if there is
monoxide, sulfur than the fact that they are
not enough
dioxide and oxides of formed at high
How Science Works: Draw attention oxygen present
nitrogen. Solid temperatures.
to need for control experiment to for complete
particles (particulates) compare the results. Students label combustion, but
Solid particles may contain
may also be released. diagram and make results chart. really serious
soot (carbon) and unburnt
fuels. Note: Soot formation by incomplete shortage of
combustion. oxygen makes
soot (carbon).

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8.3b The combustion of


hydrocarbon fuels
releases energy.
During combustion, the
carbon and hydrogen
in the fuels are
oxidised.
8.3c Sulfur dioxide and Students should know at Discuss: candle wax is purified
oxides of nitrogen least one effect of, but are hydrocarbon, and many fuels contain
cause acid rain, an not required to know sulfur compounds which cause acid
increase in carbon details of any other causes rain. Carbon dioxide causes global
dioxide results in of, acid rain or climate warming and soot particles cause
climate change, and change. dimming.
solid particles cause Task: Students make notes on
global dimming. experiment.
8.3d Sulfur can be removed Discuss: Class discussion on Note: Detailed
from fuels before they reducing harmful effects of sulfur in knowledge of the
are burned, eg in fuels. processes is not
vehicles. Sulfur dioxide required.
Research: the methods used,
can be removed from including removing the sulfur from the Be able to explain
the waste gases after fuel before burning, eg low-sulfur fuels, why removing
combustion, eg in or for removal of sulfur dioxide from sulfur from fuels
power stations the waste gases after combustion. is good for the
Students make notes. environment.
Knowledge of the
Homework: Past paper question on
methods of
the uses of fuels.
removing sulfur is

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not required
8.3e Biofuels, including Students should know and 1/2 Activity: Making ethanol with yeast. Sugar, yeast, limewater,
biodiesel and ethanol, understand the benefits (you could start the culture and in the 250 cm3 conical flask and
are produced from and disadvantages of second lesson distil the ethanol ). bung with delivery tube.
plant material, and are biofuels in terms of: test tube, distillation
Students make notes on fermentation
possible alternatives to apparatus
use of renewable and distillation.
hydrocarbon fuels. resources VLE/Interactive software,
their impacts on land eg organic chemistry.
use
their carbon footprint.

9.1f Ethanol can be Students should know that Discuss: Evaluate the advantages
produced by reacting ethanol for use as a biofuel and disadvantages of making ethanol
ethene with steam in is produced from a dilute from renewable and non-renewable
the presence of a solution of ethanol obtained sources.
catalyst. by the fermentation of plant
Homework: Past paper questions/
materials at a temperature
worksheet on advantages and
between 20C and 35 C.
disadvantages of making ethanol from
Detailed knowledge of the renewable and non-renewable
methods used to produce sources.
other biofuels is not
required.
8.3f Hydrogen can be Students should be able to Discuss: Class discussion about fuel
burned as a fuel in compare the advantages cells and burning hydrogen as fuels.
combustion engines or and disadvantages of the
Task: Students produce chart
can be used in fuel combustion of hydrogen
comparing the advantages and
cells that produce with the use of hydrogen
disadvantages of using a fuel cell

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electricity to power fuel cells from information instead of burning hydrogen.


vehicles. that is provided.
Students should know and
understand the benefits
and disadvantages of
hydrogen fuel in terms of:
storage and use
products of combustion.
Knowledge of the details of
the reactions in fuel cells is
not required.
9 Other useful substances from crude oil

9.1 Obtaining useful substances from crude oil


9.1a Hydrocarbons can be Recall that heating large 1 Task: List five products from crude oil, VLE/Interactive software
broken down (cracked) alkanes with a catalyst or and ask how we get enough of each of eg organic chemistry.
to produce smaller, steam and hot temperature them. It is interesting to tell students
You can find a variety of
more useful molecules. decomposes to make the that 100 years ago petrol was a waste
resources including video
This process involves hydrocarbon smaller product, but now we cant get enough
clips on the RSC website
heating the molecules. of it!
at
hydrocarbons to Know that some of these Demo: Demonstrate cracking or use www.rsc.org/Education/Te
vaporise them. The smaller molecules are video to show process of cracking. achers/Resources/Alchem
vapours are either called alkenes. Students make notes. y/index.htm
passed over a hot
Explain: That cracking makes larger See Exampro Extra Online
catalyst or mixed with
molecules into smaller, more useful Practical Guide: Cracking
steam and heated to a

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very high temperature ones, including a group of compounds liquid paraffin.


so that thermal called alkenes. See Exampro Extra Online
decomposition Task: Students draw diagrams to Chemistry Activity: Crude
reactions then occur. explain cracking. oil word puzzles.
9.1b The products of Students should know that Be able to
cracking include in unsaturated recognise n
alkanes and hydrocarbons some of the alkene by the
unsaturated carboncarbon bonds are double bond in its
hydrocarbons called double covalent bonds. structure, or that
alkenes. the name ends in
ene
9.1b The general formula 1 VLE/Interactive software,
for the homologous eg organic chemistry.
series of alkenes is
CnH2n.
9.1c Unsaturated Recognise alkenes from Discuss: Introduce idea of double Molymods Remember that
hydrocarbon their formulae in any of the bond using structural formula of ethane = means a
molecules can be forms. and propene. double covalent
represented in the bond, and that
Know that = represents a
following forms: means a single
double bond in the
C3H6 or structure. covalent bond. A
double bond
means that the
compound is
unsaturated. A
single bond
means that the

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compound is
saturated.
9.1d Alkenes react with Know that the presence of Activity: Class practical testing for Bromine water, test tubes,
bromine water, turning double bonds in a molecule double bonds using bromine water. test tube racks, liquid
it from orange to can be tested for by the Students should test a range of named alkanes, eg pentane,
colourless. decolourisation of bromine alkenes and alkanes. Students make hexane, liquid alkenes, eg
water. notes. hexene, cyclohexene.
Homework: Students predict reactions
of a variety of molecules displaying
single and double bonds with bromine
water.
9.1e Some of the products Know that cracking Explain: Show with models how
of cracking are useful produces more useful breaking large molecules produces not
as fuels. molecules including only alkenes, but also more fuels like
alkenes and fuels. petrol (octane) and diesel
(dodecanes).
Task: Students draw diagrams to
explain the above.
9.2 Polymers
9.2a Alkenes can be used Represent polymerisation 1 Demo: Making Perspex. Exampro Extra Online Note: Although
to make polymers such of ethene like this Practical Guide: see AQA students will
Use molecular models to demonstrate
as poly(ethene) and help notes. probably know
how polymers form. Class make own
poly(propene). In the names of
polymer chain by: Molymods
polymerisation some common
each student making a monomer
reactions, many small Paper chain pieces (use polymers, these
either with model or drawn onto
molecules (monomers) waste paper) and marker are not required
front of paper chain piece.

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join together to form two students joining their monomer pens. knowledge,
Students should be able to
very large molecules together and drawing on back unless they are
recognise the molecules VLE/Interactive software,
(polymers). structure at the joining. included in the
involved in these reactions eg organic chemistry.
groups joining together to make subject content
in the forms shown in the RSC Alchemy disc has
long chain with monomer structure for this section.
subject content. They section on poly(ethene).
on front of each piece of paper and
should be able to represent Further information can be Students only
polymer structure on rear of chain.
the formation of a polymer found at need to learn the
Students draw diagrams to explain
from a given alkene www.rsc.org/Education/Te basic
ethene polymerisation.
monomer. achers/Resources/Alchem polymerisation of
Homework: Students to draw
Further details of diagrams showing propene y/index2.htm ethene, as the
polymerisation are not polymerisation. propene simply
required. changes one H
atom for a CH3
group.
9.2b The properties of Know that: 1 Review ideas of polymers . Show Selection of polymers with Be able to explain
polymers depend on examples of polymers or use circus on different properties why the structure
LD polythene and HD
what they are made properties such as transparency, including LD and HD gives the property
poly(ethene) are made
from and the flexibility, stretching etc. Including LD poly(ethene). or vice versa.
using different catalysts
conditions under which and HD poly(ethene). Ask what causes
and conditions See Exampro Extra Online
they are made. For these differences.
the differences in Practical Guide: Making
example, low density polymers properties Activity: Identifying LD and HD slime.
(LD) and high density depend on the monomer poly(ethene) using 50 parts ethanol
(HD) poly(ethene) are used and also the and 50 parts water mix.
produced using conditions under which
different catalysts and Discuss: a variety of possible
they are made, as these
monomers, and refer to the differences
reaction conditions. influence the type of
as being due to the structure achieved
structure produced.

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when the different monomers


polymerise. Students make notes.
9.2c Thermosoftening Students should be able to 1 Demo: Show that there are two types A video on the properties
polymers consist of explain thermosoftening of polymers, thermosetting and of plastics can be found on
individual, tangled polymers in terms of thermosoftening polymers. Students the BBC website at
polymer chains. intermolecular forces. can see which of a number of common www.bbc.co.uk/learningzo
polymers belong to each group. ne/clips by searching for
Thermosetting
clip 903.
polymers consist of Task: Students report their
polymer chains with experiment. Students suggest possible More information on
cross-links between uses for polymers based on their poly(ethene) can be found
them so that they do properties. on the RSC Alchemy
not melt when they are website
Explain: Develop explanation of the
heated. www.rsc.org/Education/Te
difference in the polymers behaviour
achers/Resources/Alchem
in terms of structure. Students make
y/index2.htm
notes.
9.2d Polymers have many Students should consider 1/2 Activity: Choose from See Exampro Extra Online
useful applications and the ways in which new Practical Guide.
making a polymer from cornstarch
new uses are being materials are being
testing a polymers strength eg
developed, for developed and used, but
plastic carrier bag testing strength
example: new will not need to recall the
to breaking point (not a Hookes
packaging materials, names of specific
Law investigation)
waterproof coatings for examples.
testing waterproofing of different
fabrics, dental Know that we use a wide polymer fabrics
polymers, wound range of polymers investigating the amount of water
dressings, hydrogels, developed for specific absorbed by hydrogels.
smart materials purposes.
How Science Works: Students plan
(including shape

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memory polymers) and report their investigation.


Identify from properties
relevant uses for a polymer.
9.2g Many polymers are not Realise that polymers are Discuss polymer developments, and
biodegradable: so they often hard to dispose of, waste disposal issues.
are not broken down and that biodegradable
Activity: Make notes on need for
by microbes and this ones offer some solutions
disposal of plastics via recycling and
can lead to problems to these problems.
biodegradability rather than landfill.
with waste disposal. Could be and advantages and
disadvantages of each disposal
method.
9.2f Plastic bags are being Knowledge of specific Homework: Recycling plastics give
made from polymers named examples is not two advantages and two
and cornstarch so that required, but students disadvantages of recycling plastics.
they break down more should be aware of the
easily. Biodegradable problems that are caused in
plastics made from landfill sites and in litter.
cornstarch have been
developed.
10 Alcohols, carboxylic acids and esters
10.1a Alcohols contain the Students should be able to 1 Activity: Name these compounds: Molymods
functional group OH. recognise alcohols from
Diagrams of CH4, C2H6, C3H8.
their names or formulae,
Methanol, ethanol and
but do not need to know Produce a blank chart (like the one
propanol are the first
the names of individual below) only showing the headings for
three members of a
alcohols other than each column (shown in bold).
homologous series of
methanol, ethanol and Complete the first three columns with

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alcohols. propanol students. Leave the alcohol name


column until the task listed below.
Alcohols can be
represented in the number of start alkane alcohol
following forms: carbon to name name
atoms in name
CH3CH2OH molecule

1 meth methane methanol


or
2 eth ethane ethanol
3 prop propane propanol

Use molymods to make structures of


each alkane.
Task: Students to draw structural
formulae of methane, ethane and
propane in the left hand side of their
books. Students name the alcohols
(remember they have already used
them, in unit 1 and unit 2) and
complete the rest of the chart.
Explain: Show students molymods of
both methane and methanol. Students
should spot the differences and then
draw methanol structure alongside
methane, and write formula.
Task: Students should draw what they
think ethanol and propanol will look

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like, and write their formulae, again


alongside the alkane.
Review using Molymods to check
answers.
Task: Draw out idea of homologous
series, by using models of all three
alcohols to show that the formulae only
changes by the addition of CH2 to each
successive molecule.
Homework: Predict formulae and
draw structures for alcohols with 5, 6, 7
and 8 carbon atoms (only show
straight chain molecules).
10.1b Methanol, ethanol and Describe key reactions of 1 Discuss: Why are alcohols useful to Exampro Extra Online Note: Students
propanol: alcohols, and why alcohols us? Practical Guide: Alcohols, do not need to
are useful. carboxylic acids and write balanced
dissolve in water to Activity: to show:
form a neutral esters. chemical
reactions of alcohols with water, equations for the
solution
sodium or magnesium produce reactions of
react with sodium
hydrogen gas alcohols other
to produce
that they burn in air than combustion
hydrogen
solvent effect, eg on grass stains.
burn in air reactions.
are used as fuels Demo: Of 50:50 ethanol/water
and solvents and mixtures burning without damaging
ethanol is the main paper. Soak old book/notepad in 50:50
alcohol in alcoholic ethanol water, place in enamel tray,
drinks. and set it alight. Let it burn for two

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minutes so the flames can be seen,


then put heat proof mat over the top to
extinguish fire. Retrieve book/notepad
and show it is damp, but undamaged.
Students report the experiment and
write symbol equation for combustion
of ethanol with air. Mention use of
ethanol as a drink. Mention it is mildly
poisonous and this is why it is
intoxicating, whilst others are highly
poisonous.
Prepare some ethanoic acid for next
lesson.
Homework: Write and balance
equations for the burning of methanol
and propanol in air.

10.1c Ethanol can be Students should be able to 1 Activity: Ask students to safely smell Test tubes, ethanoic acid, Note: Students
oxidised to ethanoic recognise alcohols from some ethanol, and then the flask with pipettes, sodium do not need to
acid, either by their names or formulae, ethanoic acid in from last lesson. Ask hydrogencarbonate, write balanced
chemical oxidising but do not need to know students what has happened, and to spatula, indicator paper chemical
agents or by microbial the names of individual tell you what has been made. and limewater. equations for the
action. Ethanoic acid is alcohols other than reactions of
Discuss: the oxidation of ethanol to
the main acid in methanol, ethanol and carboxylic acids.
ethanoic acid, and use molymods to
vinegar. propanol.
show what has happened to the
Students should be aware molecule of ethanol as it has been

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that vinegar is an aqueous oxidised.


solution that contains
ethanoic acid.
10.2a Ethanoic acid is a Students should be able to Task: Students can now draw the
member of the recognise carboxylic acids structure and formula of ethanoic acid.
carboxylic acids, which from their names or Students name carbon-based
have the functional formulae, but do not need compounds, and then draw or make
group COOH to know the names of methanoic acid and propanoic acid.
individual carboxylic acids
The structures of Students should explain why brewing
other than methanoic acid,
carboxylic acids can wine and beer need to ferment without
ethanoic acid and
be represented in the oxygen present.
propanoic acid.
following forms:
CH3COOH

or

10.2b Carboxylic acids: Students are expected to 1 Demo: To show: Test tubes, dilute ethanoic
write balanced chemical acid, pH indicator (solution
dissolve in water to carboxylic acids dissolve in water to
equations for the reactions or paper), sodium
produce acidic form acidic solutions

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solutions of carboxylic acids. sodium carbonate produces CO2 carbonate crystals,


react with gas. forceps, limewater, beaker.
carbonates to
Discuss: Carboxylic acids react like
produce carbon
acids, but have a higher pH, and so
dioxide do not
are weaker acids. This is why it is safe
ionise completely
to use vinegar in cooking but not
when dissolved in
hydrochloric acid.
water and so are
weak acids Students make notes on these
aqueous solutions reactions, and use equations.
of weak acids have
a higher pH value
than aqueous
solutions of strong
acids with the same
concentration.
10.2b Carboxylic acids: 1 Demo: Mix equal quantities of ethanol Test tubes, ethanoic acid,
and ethanoic acid in test tubes. Add ethanol, concentrated
react with alcohols
three drops of concentrated H2SO4, pipettes, sodium
in the presence of
H2SO4(aq). Leave to stand for 10 hydrogencarbonate,
an acid catalyst to
minutes, add spatula of sodium spatula and indicator
produce esters
hydrogencarbonate to neutralise the paper.
acid, then ask students to safely smell
it. Pour mixture into a beaker of water
and ask students to smell it again, to
show water helps carry the scent.
Whilst waiting, produce molymods of
ethanoic acid and ethanol. Tell

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students that the two react together to


make one molecule of a compound we
call an ester, and a molecule of water.
After smelling the mixture, students
make notes on uses of esters for
perfumes and flavourings. Explain to
students that milk goes slightly fruity
before it goes off because esters are
produced in the milk by bacteria.
Explain properties of esters:
They are not fully ionised so only
make weak acids in water. You
may want to show them how the
molecule dissociates here to
produce H+ ions.
Their pH is higher (less acidic) than
other acids students may be familiar
with.
10.3a Ethyl ethanoate is the Students will not be
ester produced from expected to give the names
ethanol and ethanoic of esters other than ethyl
acid. Esters have the ethanoate, but should be
functional group able to recognise a
COO. compound as an ester from
its name or its structural
The structures of
formula.
esters can be

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represented in the
following forms:

CH3COOCH2CH3 or

10.3b Esters are volatile


compounds with
distinctive smells and
are used as
flavourings and
perfumes.

11 Energy changes in chemical reactions

11.1 Exothermic and endothermic reactions


11.1a When chemical Describe the differences 1 Activity: Circus of reactions. NaOH 1 mol dm-3, HCl(aq) Note: In
reactions occur, between exothermic and 1 mol dm-3, 100 cm3 questions
Students discover what happens to the
energy is transferred to endothermic reactions. beaker, thermometers, involving energy
temperature in each reaction:
or from the balance, 25 cm 3measuring amounts, there is
surroundings. sodium hydroxide solution and cylinders, NaHCO3. citric no need to give
hydrochloric acid acid powder, exothermic
mixture of equal masses of sodium reactions
NH4NO3, zinc granules,
hydrogencarbonate, citric acid and negative numbers
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ammonium nitrate dissolved in CuSO4 solution (1 mol dm- and endothermic


water 3)
reactions positive
zinc in copper sulfate solution. numbers.
Students keep record of results as
equations and changes in temperature.
Discuss: results leading to two types
of reaction exothermic and
endothermic, and energy transfer
ideas. Students make notes.

11.1b An exothermic reaction Name several exothermic


is one that transfers reactions.
energy to the
surroundings.

11.1c An endothermic Knowledge of delta H (H)


reaction is one that conventions and enthalpy
takes in energy from changes, including the use
the surroundings. of positive values for
endothermic reactions and
negative values for
exothermic reactions, is
required.

11.1b Examples of Know several exothermic 1 Demo: Uses of heat changes in Exampro Extra Online
exothermic reactions and endothermic reaction chemical reactions. Practical guide:
include combustion, uses. Exothermic and
Exothermic:
many oxidation endothermic reactions.
Explain self-heating cans /

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reactions and hand warmers, and sports burning fuel ( Bunsen burner) VLE/Interactive software
neutralisation. injury packs in simple concentrated sulfuric acid and eg energy transfer.
terms. (no need to recall sugar
Everyday uses of VLE/Interactive software,
chemicals or equations for a thermite reaction
exothermic reactions eg reversible reactions.
processes). hand warmer ( if available)
include self-heating
cans (eg for coffee) Endothermic:
and hand warmers.
ammonium nitrate and barium
hydroxide
Sports injury pack
Students make brief notes on self-
heating warmers and injury packs.

11.1c Endothermic reactions Evaluate everyday uses of


include thermal exothermic and
decompositions. Some endothermic reactions.
sports injury packs are
based upon
endothermic reactions.

11.1d If a reversible reaction Realise that in a reversible 1 Activity: Students should investigate Copper sulfate, spatula,
is exothermic in one reaction the same energy the temperature changes for the test tubes, pipettes, and
direction, it is change takes place in reversible reaction: 100 cm3 beaker.
endothermic in the either direction.
opposite direction. The
same amount of

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energy is transferred in
each case.

Homework: Students report their


experiment.
11.2 Calculating and explaining energy changes
11.2a The relative amounts Students should be able to 2 Remind students that burning fuels (as Alcohol burners, 250 cm 3 Note: For
of energy released calculate and compare the in distillation last lesson) releases beakers, measuring comparison
when substances burn amount of energy released energy, how can we calculate the cylinders, thermometers, purposes, energy
can be measured by by different fuels given the energy released? balances and samples of values could be
simple calorimetry, eg equation: alcohols for the burners, given in kJ or
How Science Works: What do we
by heating water in a eg methanol, propanol, calories for a
need to know? Students list likely
glass or metal ethanol and butanol. given mass or
Q = mc T variables that will have impact
container. This method amount of
including:
can be used to substance, eg
Exampro Extra Online
compare the amount of mass/ volume of water calories per gram,
Practical guide:
energy produced by temperature rise kJ per mole or kJ
fuels and foods. how much energy it takes to heat Calculating energy from
burning fuels. per gram. If
the water by 10C
students are
Discuss how these link into the required to
equation: convert from
Q=mc T calories to joules,
the conversion
Activity: Find the amount of energy factor should be
produced by different alcohols when given in
burned. Suggest alcohol is burnt for questions.
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five minutes, as a control. Two


practical groups could do each alcohol,
so they can compare their results for
reliability, and analyse errors. Students
describe their method and results.
Students should then use their results
to do the calculation and then compare
their results with the other group using
the same alcohol. Students should
discuss causes of error in their
method, and understand the
importance of control variables. They
should jointly produce a list saying how
they could improve their control of the
variables they identify.
11.2b Energy is normally If students are
measured in joules (J). required to
For comparison convert from
purposes, energy calories to joules,
values could be given the conversion
in kJ or calories for a factor will be
given mass or amount given in the
of substance, eg question
calories per gram, kJ
per mole or kJ per
gram.

11.2c The amount of energy 1 Activity: Measuring energy changes in Expanded polystyrene Be able to

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produced by a other reactions. cup, glass rod, measuring understand


chemical reaction in cylinders, dilute acid and simple energy
Students do neutralisation reaction in
solution can be alkali and a thermometer. level diagrams
expanded polystyrene cup. Measure
calculated from the showing the
temperature rise and calculate using: Exampro Extra Online
measured temperature relative energies
Chemistry Activity: Energy
change of the solution Q = mc T of reactants and
level diagrams.
when the reagents are products, the
Remind students that energy change is
mixed in an insulated activation energy
measured in joules.
container. This method and the overall
can be used for Discuss: Class discussion on how to energy change,
reactions of solids with represent the result in the class with an arrow to
water or for experiment graphically. show the energy
neutralisation as the reaction
reactions. proceeds.
Be able to
calculate the
energy
transferred in
reactions, using
simple energy
level diagrams.
Remember to put
the units in
calculations
where possible.
11.2d Simple energy level Students will be expected Task: Draw energy level diagram for Be able to
diagrams can be used to understand simple combustion. calculate the
to show the relative energy level diagrams energy change

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energies of reactants showing the relative Task: Students draw their own energy from an energy
and products, the energies of reactants and level diagram for their neutralisation level diagram.
activation energy and products, the activation reaction.
Tip: Subtract the
the overall energy energy and the overall
Homework: Students are given five value for the
change of a reaction. energy change, with a
energy level diagrams, and they reactant line from
curved arrow to show the
calculate from the y-axis the energy the value for the
energy as the reaction
change. At least one should be an product line. If the
proceeds. Students should
endothermic reaction. value is negative,
be able to relate these to
then the reaction
exothermic and
is exothermic,
endothermic reactions.
positive and it is
endothermic.

11.2h Catalysts provide a Students should be able to 1 Activity: What happens when we use Test tubes, measuring Understand that
different pathway for a represent the effect of a a catalyst? Using a catalyst, eg MnO2 cylinders, MnO2 powder, lowering the
chemical reaction that catalyst on an energy level with H2O2, simply in terms of rate of spatula and 20 vol H2O2 activation energy
has a lower activation diagram. reaction. reduces costs in
Or
energy. industrial
You could instead demonstrate adding
CuSO4 powder, conical processes.
copper sulfate to already reacting zinc
flask, zinc granules and
granules and hydrochloric acid to see
dilute HCl(aq).
rate increase.
Discuss: the idea of activation energy
as a hurdle of energy that the reacting
particles have to overcome before
collisions become reactions (collision
theory link here).

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Activity: Represent the reaction as an


energy level diagram, showing the
uncatalysed reaction with high
activation energy (hurdle), and the
catalysed reaction having a lower
activation energy (hurdle) to pass.
11.2e During a chemical Students should be able to Why do chemical reactions have Molymods Remember to
1
reaction: calculate the energy energy changes? Use zinc reacting count every bond
CuSO4 powder, conical
transferred in reactions and with hydrochloric acid as example. as the first step in
energy must be flask, zinc granules and
interpret simple energy Make molymods to represent the the calculation.
supplied to break dilute HCl(aq)
level diagrams in terms of atoms and molecules in the balanced Students should
bonds
bond breaking and bond equation (useful to get students to give also remember
energy is released
formation (including the you the equation first). the need to
when bonds are
idea of activation energy multiply bond
formed. Discuss: the need for energy to break
and the effect on this of energies by the
the bonds in hydrochloric acid. Draw
catalysts). number of each
energy level diagram showing the
atoms separated, then ask if energy is type of bond to
needed to break bonds and what is get the right
produced when bonds form? Add answer.
products to the energy level diagram to
show the reaction is exothermic.
Task: Students construct molymods to
show breaking bonds and re-forming
them, then draw energy level diagram.
11.2f In an exothermic
reaction, the energy
released from forming

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new bonds is greater


than the energy
needed to break
existing bonds.

11.2g In an endothermic Students should be able to Task: Students explain how they think
reaction, the energy calculate the energy an endothermic reaction happens, and
needed to break transferred in reactions make notes, and draw energy level
existing bonds is using bond dissociation diagram.
greater than the energies supplied.
Explain: that chemists know how
energy released from
much energy is needed to break a
forming new bonds.
bond between two atoms. Represent
how to use these to work out the
energy transferred in one reaction, eg:
2 H2 + O 2 2H2O
Homework: For four examples or
more, students use bond energies to
calculate energy transfer, and if a
reaction is endothermic or exothermic
(give them the balanced equation).
12 The production of ammonia
12a The raw materials for Evaluate the conditions 1 Activity: Draw chemical bonding of Further resources and a Tip: As a quick
the Haber process are used in industrial processes ammonia on the board, write the video on ammonia can be revision draw a
nitrogen and in terms of energy formula as well. Students should use found on the RSC flow chart of each
hydrogen. Nitrogen is requirements. the five Ws technique for the Alchemy website at starting material,
obtained from the air, compound. www.rsc.org/Education/Te where it comes

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and hydrogen may be Discuss: ammonia as an important achers/Resources/Alchem from and what it
obtained from natural chemical in terms of production of y/index.htm becomes.
gas or other sources. fertilisers and explosives. How is it
made? You could go for a historical
perspective as well. Did you know:
the Navy has the legal right to enter
your bathroom (to collect nitrates
from urine)
explosives and fertilisers were
made from bird droppings from the
Pacific.
Explain: Use resources from Royal
Society of Chemistry (RSC) Alchemy
to explain and provide activities for
students to understand the basics of
the Haber process. Watch video clip.
Task: Students complete flow charts
from RSC Alchemy ammonia to show
process.

12b The purified gases are Evaluate the conditions Discuss: Brief discussion on the need Understand why
passed over a catalyst necessary in an industrial to minimise energy requirements and the temperature
of iron at a high process to maximise yield release of pollutants, students to make and pressure
temperature (about and minimise notes. used are the best
450C) and a high environmental impact. compromise.
pressure (about 200
atmospheres). Some

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of the hydrogen and


nitrogen reacts to form
ammonia. The reaction
is reversible, so
ammonia breaks down
again into nitrogen and
hydrogen:
nitrogen + hydrogen
ammonia
On cooling, the
ammonia liquefies and
is removed. The
remaining hydrogen
and nitrogen are
recycled.
12c When a reversible 1 Demo: show effect of adding acid, Exampro Extra Online
reaction occurs in a then alkali,, to bromine water to Practical guide:
closed system, demonstrate what we mean by an demonstrating an
equilibrium is reached equilibrium. Candidates to make notes equilibrium reaction.
when the reactions on equilibrium and the use of the
VLE / Interactive software
occur at exactly the symbol to represent reversible
reversible reaction
same rate in each reactions.
direction.
Discuss: how equilibrium is only
reached when the products are being
made as quickly as the reactants
12d The relative amounts Describe and evaluate the Demo: model dynamic equilibrium Exampro Extra Online Note: Dynamic

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of all the reacting effect of changing the with two 25 cm3 measuring cylinders, Chemistry Activity: equilibrium is just
substances at conditions of temperature each with an open ended glass tube conditions for equilibrium like the latest ride
equilibrium depend on and pressure on a given but with different diameters. put 25 cm 3 reactions. at a theme park.
the conditions of the reaction or process. of water into one cylinder. Transfer Theres always
reaction. water from one cylinder to the other the same number
using a finger over the end of each on the ride; it is
tube in turn (keep the tubes in the just that at the
same cylinder) until the level in each end of each trip,
cylinder does not change any more. the people on
This is true only under the same board change.
conditions of temperature and gas
pressure.
12e If the temperature is Use slides from a PowerPoint
raised, presentation and/or the RSC Alchemy
website to show how changing each
the yield from the
condition affects the equilibrium.
endothermic
reaction increases
the yield from the
exothermic reaction
decreases.

12f If the temperature is Task: candidates make notes on effect


lowered, of changing temperature for
exothermic and endothermic reactions.
the yield from the
endothermic
reaction decreases

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the yield from the


exothermic reaction
increases.

12g In gaseous reactions, Task: candidates make notes on the


an increase in effect of changing pressure for gas
pressure will favour the reactions to show how gas production
reaction that produces is favoured or inhibited.
the least number of
molecules as shown
by the symbol equation
for that reaction.

12h These factors, together Evaluate the conditions Discuss: how we can make the most RSC Alchemy worksheet
with reaction rates, are used in industrial processes ammonia, as cheaply as possible, and can be found at
important when in terms of energy as environmentally friendly as www.rsc.org/Education/Te
determining the requirements possible> achers/Resources/Alchem
optimum conditions in y/am/question.doc
Video: Show RSC ammonia video
industrial processes,
again to refresh and revise process.
including the Haber
process. Homework: Candidates complete
worksheet from RSC Alchemy about
impact of conditions on proportions
made.

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13 Electrolysis
13b Passing an electric Know that compounds can 2 Discuss: what happens when we pass Carbon electrodes, power
current through ionic be broken down into their an electric current through a solution of pack and wires, 1 mol
substances that are elements by using a salt? dm3 CuSO4 solution,
molten, eg lead electricity. 100cm3 beaker.
Activity: Electrolysis of copper
bromide, or in solution
Know that this process is chloride solution, using carbon You can find a variety of
breaks them down into
called electrolysis. electrodes to obtain copper on the resources including video
elements. This process
cathode and chlorine at the anode. clips on the RSC website
is called electrolysis.
Students draw diagrams to explain. at
www.rsc.org/education/tea
Demo: Electrolysis of molten lead
chers/resources/alchemy/i
bromide.
ndex.htm
Students draw diagrams to explain.
Exampro Extra Online
Chemistry Activity:
Electrolysis human
model.
VLE/Interactive software,
eg useful materials from
rocks.
13a When an ionic Know that in solutions and
substance is melted or when molten, ionic
dissolved in water, the compounds have ions that
ions are free to move are free to move carrying
about within the liquid the electric charge with
or solution. them.

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13c During electrolysis, Know positively charged Discuss: Relating to ions, movement
positively charged ions ions move to the negatively and attraction to the positive and
electrode, and negative negative electrodes. Students draw
move to the negative
ions to the positive diagrams to explain.
electrode, and
electrode.
negatively charged Demo: If there is time, demonstrate
ions move to the Predict the products of movement of ions, eg the electrolysis
positive electrode. electrolysing solutions of of a crystal of KMnO4 on filter paper
ions. dampened with sodium chloride
solution.

13h Electrolysis is used to Know what electroplating is 1 Activity: electroplating copper foil with Copper electrode, nickel
electroplate objects. and how it works. nickel (using nickel sulfate solution). electrode, power pack and
This may be for Students report their experiment. wires, 1 mol dm-3 NiSO4
reasons such as solution and 100 cm 3
Discuss: Uses of electroplating
appearance, durability beaker.
including silver and copper. Explore
and prevention of
what is happening in terms of electrons
corrosion. It includes
at both electrodes. Students draw
copper plating and
diagrams to explain.
silver plating.

13d Oxidation and


reduction can be
defined as the loss
and gain of electrons
respectively.

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13e At the cathode, Explain in terms of


positively charged ions oxidation and reduction the
gain electrons and at changes to ions when
the anode, negatively touching the electrodes.
charged ions lose
electrons.

13f Reactions at Interpret and/or complete Use half equations to show electron Note: Students
electrodes can be half equations. transfers. are not expected
represented by half to write half
equations, for equations in the
example: exam, but should
2Cl- Cl2 + 2e- be able to
complete and
or balance them.
2Cl- - 2e- Cl2

13i Aluminium is Know the ore of aluminium. 1 Task: Explore the extraction of VLE/Interactive software, Remember that
manufactured by the aluminium, as either video or eg Useful materials from the only reason
Describe how aluminium is
electrolysis of a molten worksheet, or use RSC Alchemy, or metal ores. that cryolite is
extracted by electrolysis.
mixture of aluminium mini-project. needed for the
Visit the RSC Alchemy for
oxide and cryolite. Know that cryolite is added process is to
Do students know that in the 1850s more information on
Aluminium forms at the to make the aluminium reduce the
aluminium was the most expensive Aluminium at
negative electrode and oxide melt at a lower melting point of
metal in the world (it was extracted www.rsc.org/Education/Te
oxygen at the positive temperature and reduce aluminium oxide
from its ore by a thermite reaction achers/Resources/Alchem
electrode. The positive energy costs. to less than 1000
using sodium metal)? Now, with y/index.htm
electrode is made of

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carbon, which reacts electrolysis, it is cheap enough to C and save


Students should be aware
with the oxygen to make cans from. money/reduce
that large amounts of
produce carbon energy costs.
energy are needed in the
dioxide.
extraction process.

13j The electrolysis of Know that salt is an 2 Activity: Electrolysis of NaCl solution Petri dish, carbon
sodium chloride important raw material. in Petri dish with universal indicator. To electrodes, power pack
solution produces establish split into chlorine (bleaches and wires and 1 mol dm3
Know that we get sodium,
hydrogen and chlorine. indicator), an alkali ( turns indicator NaCl solution.
hydrogen, chlorine, and
Sodium hydroxide blue/purple) and an unknown gas.
sodium hydroxide from it. Hoffman voltameter, test
solution is also Students draw diagrams to show the
tubes, 1 mol dm3 NaCl
produced. These are Give one industrial use for experiment and the results.
solution, litmus solution,
important reagents for each of the products.
Demo: of Hoffman voltameter to show test tubes, litmus paper
the chemical industry,
products clearly and also to enable and power pack and wires.
eg sodium hydroxide
hydrogen gas to be collected and
for the production of VLE/Interactive software,
tested (use acidified NaCl and litmus
soap and chlorine for eg useful materials from
solution to make demo spectacular
the production of rocks.
and easier to understand the electrode
bleach and plastics.
processes). RSC Alchemy video on
Chemicals from Salt can
Task: Students draw diagrams to
be found at
show the experiment and the results.
www.rsc.org/Education/Te
Discuss: why hydrogen is formed. achers/Resources/Alchem
Relate to reactivity series position of y/index.htm
sodium, and industrial uses of sodium
chloride. Students make notes.

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13g If there is a mixture of Know that in a mixture of


ions: ions, the lowest member of
the reactivity series is the
at the cathode, the
element formed at the
products formed
negative electrode.
depend on the
reactivity of the
elements involved
at the anode, the
products formed
also depend on the
relative
concentrations of
the ions present.
14 Analysis

14.1 Analysing substances


14.1a Flame tests can be Recognise the presence of 1 Discuss: Teacher-led discussion Splints or wires, solid Flame colours of
used to identify metal these ions by this test. about forensic crime and the need for samples of compounds: other metal ions
ions. Lithium, sodium, analytical chemistry to determine what are not required
LiCl
potassium, calcium chemicals are present in a variety of knowledge.
and barium situations. NaCl
compounds produce
Activity: Students carry out flame KCl
distinctive colours in
tests on named metal ions to find out
flame tests: CaCl2
the flame colouration. They then use
lithium compounds the technique to identify two unknown BaCl2
result in a crimson compounds.
flame Task: Prepare results chart and

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sodium compounds complete it. HCl(aq) (to clean wires in)


result in a yellow and matches and splints.
flame
potassium
compounds result
in a lilac flame
calcium compounds
result in a red flame
barium compounds
result in a green
flame.

14.1b Aluminium, calcium Students should be able to 1 Discuss: Teacher-led discussion Test tubes, NaOH (aq),
and magnesium ions recognise the presence of about another method of identifying pipettes, solutions of:
form white precipitates these ions in water by this metal ions, this time using sodium
CuSO4
with sodium hydroxide test. hydroxide.
solution but only the AlCl3
Activity: Adding sodium hydroxide
aluminium hydroxide
solution to solutions of metal ions. FeSO4
precipitate dissolves in
Students should add small amounts of
excess sodium FeCl3
sodium hydroxide and observe what
hydroxide solution.
happens after each addition. Students NB FeSO4 must be freshly
should be warned that adding more to produced.
one solution will produce a further
change.
Task: Students prepare and complete
results chart. Remind them that each
solid that appears is a precipitate.

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14.1c Copper(II), iron(II) and


iron(III) ions form
coloured precipitates
with sodium hydroxide
solution. Copper forms
a blue precipitate,
iron(II) a green
precipitate and iron(III)
a brown precipitate.

14.1d Carbonates react with Recognise the presence of 1 Demo: Teacher-led demonstration of
dilute acids to form these ions in water by this effect on acid on carbonates, and
carbon dioxide. test. limewater test as a revision and
Carbon dioxide introduction to testing halide and
produces a white sulfate ions.
precipitate with
limewater. This turns
limewater cloudy.

14.1e Halide ions in solution Activity: Test halide ions, and then Test tubes and racks,
produce precipitates sulfate ions. silver nitrate solution,
with silver nitrate dilute nitric acid, dilute
Task: Students prepare a results chart
solution in the hydrochloric acid, barium
and complete it:
presence of dilute nitric chloride, solution, solutions

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acid. Silver chloride is of sodium, sulfate, sodium


white, silver bromide is chloride, sodium bromide
cream and silver iodide name of effect of adding and sodium iodide.
is yellow. compound
silver nitrate barium
and nitric chloride and
acid. hydrochloric
acid

Establish reliable tests for each halide


ion and sulfates, using the results of
the experiment. Students make notes
in their books.
Homework: Write word, then symbol
equations for each reaction.

14.1f Sulfate ions in solution


produce a white
precipitate with barium
chloride solution in the
presence of dilute
hydrochloric acid.

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14.2 Analysis of mixtures


14.2a A mixture consists of 1 Discussion: Reminder about
two or more elements mixtures, elements and compounds.
or compounds not Students write definitions out.
chemically combined
together. The chemical
properties of each
substance in the
mixture are
unchanged. It is
possible to separate
the substances in a
mixture by physical
methods, including
distillation, filtration
and crystallisation.
14.2b Paper chromatography Students should be able to Activity: using paper chromatography. Food dyes or inks, filter
can be used to describe how to carry out The Rf value for each of the dyes used paper/chromatography
analyse substances paper chromatography should be calculated. This leads on to paper, pipettes and 250
present in a solution, separations and how the the next lesson and the study of gas cm3 beaker.
eg food colourings and components of a mixture chromatography, which relies on
inks/dyes. can be identified using Rf numerical information to determine the
values. They have to be substance.
aware that solvents other
than water can be used and
that the separation

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depends on the relative


solubilities of the
components.
14.2c Elements and 1
compounds can be
detected and identified
using instrumental
methods. Instrumental
methods are accurate,
sensitive and rapid and
are particularly useful
when the amount of a
sample is very small.

14.2d Gas chromatography Students need only a basic Task: Students prepare flow chart of Big magnet, ball bearings Key points are
linked to mass understanding of how GC- how gas chromatography and mass of different sizes. that it provides a
spectroscopy (GC-MS) MS works, limited to: spectroscopy can help substances to quick and easy to
View the gas
is an example of an be identified quickly and easily, even use tool for small
Different substances, chromatography
instrumental method: with small samples. samples needing
carried by a gas, travel PowerPoint presentation at
Gas through a column You may wish to describe briefly a http://alpha.chem.umb.edu analysis.
chromatography packed with a solid mass spectrometer, so that students /chemistry/ch361/GC%20a
allows the material at different will understand an explanation that it nd%20GC-MS.ppt
separation of a speeds, so that they can measure the mass of a molecular
VLE/Interactive software,
mixture of become separated. ion can be given and understood.
eg the atom - for details of
compounds. The number of peaks on
Demo: Demonstration of mass mass spectrometer.
The time taken for the output of a gas
spectrometer. Use ball bearings of
a substance to chromatograph shows

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travel through the the number of different sizes rolling down a slope
column can be compounds present. past a powerful magnet. Show
used to help The position of the deflection according to mass size of
identify the peaks on the output ball bearing. Ball bearings represent
substance. indicates the retention molecular ions.
The output from the time.
gas A mass spectrometer
chromatography can identify substances
column can be very quickly and
linked to a mass accurately and can
spectrometer, detect very small
which can be used quantities
to identify the the molecular mass is
substances leaving given by the molecular
the end of the ion peak.
column. Knowledge of
The mass fragmentation patterns is
spectrometer can also not required.
give the relative
molecular mass of
each of the substances
separated in the
column.

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