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Part IV

Index - Chapters
A. Conformance
B. Problem Solving
C. Project Integration
D. Product Integration
E. Integration Effectiveness

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Project Closeout
Closeout is the 7th Phase of the Project
Life Cycle. It follows Implementation/
Control Phases. There could be
overlapping between Implementation
and Integration phases.

The order of integration is an important

factor for creating the final product for
the Delivery Phase of the project life
cycle. The skill of the human resource
required for integration can be different
than those of responsible of Planning
phase decomposing a visulised product
/ service to many deliverables.

It is mandatory in the Integration Phase

to establish a fool proof mechanism of
ensuring conformance to the
specifications as outlined in the Plan document and to ensure Quality of the
integrated product as expected.

It is better to have as rigid as possible the correctness of Integration phase as

that alone will save Redo of efforts and later reducing the Customer

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Chapter A: Conformance
Ensuring Conformance
As per Oxford dictionary, Conform is defined as one who confirms to a practice or usage. In Integration
phase of project life cycle, the various work packages which have been completed keeping in view the
quality considerations and performance specifications must be checked for its conformance to the plan.
In the Integration phase, tests must be carried out to ensure that the work packages being integrated
for the delivery or sub-deliveries meet the expectations of a client or sponsor as per the specifications
covering functionalities and quality.

Integration phase of the project life cycle is like a Gate or Valve allowing one side to move into the next
phase of project life cycle i.e. Deliver to a client or go back to Control and / or Implementation phases of
project life cycle to carry out rework to ensure that the defects in quality or short of performance from
specifications viewpoint are met.

It is always advisable to be tough in the Integration phase to not allow any deviations at all from
specifications and quality viewpoint unless it is agreed by all the concerned stakeholders and duly
reflected in the documentation of the project including Project Management Plan.

If any sub-standard work package from specification or quality viewpoint is allowed for delivery phase
of the project life cycle, it is much more painful as a client will not accept and reputation of the project
manager and team members will be affected. The sub-standard work is still to be rectified and will be
sent back to Control or Implementation Phases for necessary rectification. It is time consuming process
to allow sub standard work packages to be integrated into deliverable product or outcome of a project.

Ensuring Conformance therefore assumes quite a significant role in meeting the project success criteria.

Chapter B: Problem Solving

a) Problem Solving
Problem Solving is an art and science of viewing a given doubtful or difficult task for possible remedy or

In management of projects, difficult situations arise all the time where a project manager and his/her
team do not have a solution to overcome the impact of the adversity of the situation.

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If the complete information is available about the difficult task or situation, then it is a relatively easy
task to find the solution. However, generally, a project manager has partial information about a problem
and must use his or her inquest to get more relevant information to make the judgment and own
intuitions based on the past as well as the 6th sense of looking at future.

Information is the basic ingredient for decision-making. Decision-making is a fundamental component of

problem solving. Problem solving is the first step in making progress. Progress is an intermediate step to
successful project completion.

Information gathering must be meaningful and concise and specific to a given problem or a set of

Problem solving process must be well recorded in a formal way so as to ensure that as an organization,
it becomes a part of their asset building. One can draw various lessons from the way problem solving
mechanism was followed. It may be mentioned that while attempting to solve a problem, it is possible
that not only was the problem not solved but many new problems could occur needing solutions as well.
It is a challenge to solve problems without creating new ones. These processes must also be captured as
part of knowledge leverage phase of the project life cycle.

Solving of problems is important and is required in managing the project. Most of the problems that
arise are likely to involve the time-frame, cost, risks or deliverables of the project or an interaction
between all four factors. Options to resolve problems may involve reducing the scope of project
deliverables, increasing its time-frame, or providing more resources.

Problem solving is a tool, a skill and a process. It is a tool because it can help you solve an immediate
problem or to achieve a goal. It is a skill because once you have learnt it you can use it again and again
and it also a process because it involves taking a number of steps.

When you face a barrier you can engage in a problem solving process to overcome the barrier and
achieve your goal. This in turn will improve your problem solving skills.

Possible steps for problem solving are:

Identifying the problem: The first step you need to take is to identify and name the problem so
that you can find an appropriate solution.

Exploring the problem: When you are clear about what the problem is you need to think about it
in different ways. You can ask yourself questions such as:

o How is this problem affecting the project

o Who else experiences this problem and what did they do?

Seeing the problem in different ways is more likely to help you find an effective solution.

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Setting goals: Once you have thought about the problem from different angles identify what you
want to achieve - working out your goals is a vital part of the problem solving process.

Looking at Alternatives

When you have decided what your goal is look for possible solutions. The more possible solutions you
find the more likely it is that you will be able to discover an effective solution. You can brainstorm for
ideas. The purpose of brainstorming is to collect together a long list of possibilities. It does not matter
whether the ideas are useful or practical or manageable: just write down the ideas as they come into
your head. Some of the best solutions arise from creative thinking during brain-storming. Collect as
many alternative solutions as possible.

Selecting a possible solution

From the list of possible solutions you can sort out which are most relevant to your situation and which
are realistic and manageable. You can do this by predicting outcomes for possible solutions and also
checking with other people what they think outcomes might be.

Implementing the possible solution

Once you have selected a possible solution you are ready to put it into action. You will need to have
patience as implementing the solution may take some time and effort.

Evaluate effectiveness of the solution

Evaluating the effectiveness of your solution is very important. You can ask yourself and others
questions like:

o How effective was the solution?

o Did you achieve what you wanted

o Did it have any consequences?

If the solution was successful in helping you solve your problem and reach your goal, then you know that
you have effectively solved your problem. If dissatisfied begin the steps again. Viewing problem solving
as a cycle may help you recognise that problem solving is a way of searching for a solution which will
lead to different possible solutions, which you can evaluate. If you have solved the problem you have
found an effective solution. If you judge the problem has not been solved you can look for, and try,
alternative possibilities by beginning the problem solving cycle again.

Various methods can be used for understanding and solving problems such as Brainstorming, Lateral
Thinking and Thinking Hats.

Before deciding the course of action the Interested Parties should be consulted and required approvals
taken depending on the impact of problem solving and the level of the complexity of the problem.

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Lateral Thinking

This term was a term coined by Edward de Bono, a Maltese psychologist and physician.

Edward De Bono defines Lateral Thinking as methods of thinking concerned with changing concepts and
perception. Lateral thinking is about reasoning that is not immediately obvious and about ideas that
may not be obtainable by using only traditional step-by-step logic.

Lateral thinking is useful in problem solving as it promotes shifting from the routine to using of new or
unexpected ideas for solving problems.

According to De Bono We may need to solve problems not by removing the cause but by designing the
way forward even if the cause remains in place.

Six Thinking Hats

Six Thinking Hats concept has also been pioneered by Edward De Bono. This technique is also used for
identifying and solving of problems using a very comprehensive and all round approach.

Thinking hats is a powerful technique that helps persons to at important decisions from a number of
different perspectives resulting in a better decision. Generally we tend to look at problems from limited
viewpoints. This tool allows the user to move away from their normal mode of thinking and better
understand all the complexities of a decision.

Thinking Hats uses 6 metaphorical hats - white, red, black, yellow, green and blue. Each hat represents a
different mode of thought and are directions to think rather than labels for thinking. Each hat is used

According to De Bono the Six Hats "separates ego from performance". Everyone involved in the
discussion can contribute without denting of egos. The six hats system encourages performance rather
than ego defense. People can contribute under any hat even though they initially support the opposite

The Six Thinking metaphorical Hats are used to:

encourage Parallel Thinking

encourage full-spectrum thinking

Separate ego from performance

Each person must put on / take off one of the hats to indicate the type of thinking they are using. This
putting on and taking off is essential. The hats must never be used to categorize individuals, even
though their behavior may seem to invite this. When done in group, everybody must wear the same hat
at the same time.

The Six Thinking hats are:

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White Hat: Covers facts, figures, information needs and gaps.

Red Hat: This hat is for intuition, feelings and emotions. It allows the thinker to put forward an intuition
without giving justification.

Black Hat: This represents caution and judgment and is a very valuable hat.

Yellow Hat: This is the logical positive hat. Thinking involves why something will work and why it will
offer benefits.

Green Hat: This is the hat of creativity, alternatives, proposals, provocations and changes.

Blue Hat: This is the overview or process control hat. This hat does not look at the subject itself but at
the 'thinking about the subject action.

SWOT analysis

Another simple but powerful tool that can be used by the project manager and the project team is
SWOT Analysis. SWOT stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Strengths and
weaknesses are internal factors and opportunities and threats are external factors.

SWOT analysis provides a framework for analyzing Strengths and Weaknesses, and the Opportunities
and Threats. The project team can better focus on their strengths while minimizing the threats when
looking for ways to resolve problems. The different advantages and disadvantages of a line of action can
be assessed before taking action.

Root Cause analysis

This aims at identifying the root cause of events or problems. Effort is made to remove not just the
symptoms of a problem but also correct the root cause giving rise to the given problem.

This can be done by using different tools and processes such 5 Whys and Cause-and-Effect analysis.

The 5 whys problem solving method was popularized by Toyota Production system in the 70s. Here the
problem is looked into and the questions why and what led to the problem debated. This will give rise
to the next level of queries till the root cause is established.

Every effect or problem will have a cause. The project manager and the project team use their
experience and knowledge to look at and organize the chain causing the problem.

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Chapter C: Project Integration

a) Project Definition
Integration is the phase where different activities are interacting and unifying to meet project objectives
and deliver desired products or services. It includes assembling, articulating, consolidating and executing
activities which are necessary for the project integration.

It is necessary that there must exist a broad level definition and documentation of project which provide
a common understanding, guidance and information to all stakeholders/functional units involved in a

These initial documents should be detailed enough and provide all information related to what, why,
who, how, where, when and how much of the project which are agreed and approved by the key
stakeholders. For example documents should be detailed enough so that cost estimates and decisions
on various aspects of project can be made.

Project definition includes the following:

Project business needs

Project purpose and justification

Project success criteria and key performance indicators

High level project description and functional areas

High level requirement of product, services and results

Risk identified at initial level

Assumptions and constraints of project regarding external, environmental and

organizational factors.

A summary milestone

A summary budget

Various organizations /departments that are involved in projects.

Assigning project manager, who will interact and coordinate among different functional

Project configuration management requirements

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Project approval requirement

Project definitions are well described in the following documents:

Project charter

Preliminary project description

Initial project management plan

Configuration management plan

These documents provide a basic foundation for project integration.

Project definition ensures:

Understanding of roles and responsibilities amongst various functional units in achieving

projects requirements.

A common understanding of project purpose, requirements, business needs, risk and


Conflicts arising due to interaction among various functional units will be minimized.

All functional units/departments will be synchronized to meet project objective.

A contribution to project for successful project delivery.

b) Manage Project Plan

Project management plan and project documents are developed during planning phase (2nd phase of
the life cycle).This explores all aspects of the scope, time, cost, quality, communication, risk and

Project management plan consolidate all subsidiary plans developed in detail by different functional

Developing Project Management plan is an iterative process and it is progressively elaborated

throughout the project life cycle. This progressive elaboration technique to develop project
management is known as Rolling wave technique.

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Besides progressive elaboration of project management plan for detailing and improving, updates are
also arises due to the approved changes, which impact part of the plan significantly. These changes may
impact other related areas of the project.

For example:

A proposed schedule change may affect cost, risk and quality.

A scope change will impact schedule, cost and risk.

Managing project plan includes:

Balancing projects competing constraints: Scope, time, cost, quality and risks.

Reviewing and analyzing impact of the changes when arrived.

Approving changes on time, which are essential. Any delay may create negative impact on
project triple constraints.

Manage to integrate approved changes across the entire project with minimal impact on other
subsidiary plan.

Maintain integrity of baselines by incorporating only the approved changes into the project
management plan.

Minimizing deviation in project.

To achieve timely collaboration of relevant stakeholders throughout the life of the project.

Addressing the various needs, concerns and expectation of the stakeholder as the project is
planned and carried out.

Managing project boundary which involves what is included in the project as well as what
should be excluded.

To avoid any conflict in managing project plan over the entire project life cycle

Project management plan must be created by involving stakeholders at the initial phase.

Expert judgment is utilized to determine

o Resources

o Skills level required for project

o Understand the level of configuration management required

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Organizing change control meetings with change control board for reviewing the change request
and approving or rejecting those.

Project Management Integration:

As explained in Figure 6.1, project management integration is divided into four core management



Time and


Four facilitating management




Human Resource


The four core functions reflect the objectives of the project or explain "what is to be achieved."These
functions required more mathematical precisions as required in scheduling, cost control or statistical
quality control. It is more connected to the "Science" side of the project management.

Where as the four facilitating functions enable us to accomplish the project objectives or explain "How it
is to be achieved." These functions involve interaction among people and functions and thus depend
more on social science of management theory. This is more linked to the "Art" side of the project

In 1992, while opening the UNDP sponsored International Conference, Mr. Adesh Jain, Director, Centre
for Excellence in Project Management, defined project management as "Project management as the Art
and Science of converting vision into reality".

Project management, integrates these functions progressively throughout the life cycle.

The arrows describe an input/output system which can be iterative.

As per diagram priority sequence for planning is clockwise and producing sequence is anticlockwise.

The best practice is first to plan and then to produce.

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c) Manage Project Execution

Manage project execution provides direction and supervision to a project, to perform the work defined
in the project management plan to achieve the project objectives. Managing project execution begins
from project start up until project close out to integrate the project and deliver work products

This involves:

Managing resources to perform activities to complete the project requirements

Ensuring project objectives are correctly understood and correctly interpreted by various
functional units for project delivery.

Directing and guiding the project throughout the project life cycle.

Obtaining and managing resources including materials, tools, equipments and facilities.

Managing sellers and suppliers

Acquiring, training and managing the team members assigned to the project.

Managing stakeholders expectation by communicating and working with them to meet their
needs and addressing issues when occur.

Ensuring that necessary communication mechanisms, both internal and external to the project
team, are in place.

Ensuring that the project and product remain consistent with organizational business plans.

Taking decision on any changes when requested.

Ensuring project documents, project management plan are being updated based on approved

Ensuring planned methods and standards are in place to perform quality assurance.

Updating status and provide forecasting.

Coordinating and generating data on cost, schedule, scope and quality.

Managing the identified risks to the project.

Confirming project close out.

Ensuring any lesson learned that may be benefit to other projects is directed to the relevant
organizational body.

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Direct and manage project execution also required to implement:

Corrective action

Preventive action

Defect repair

Corrective action is documented procedures for executing project work in order to prevent recurrence
and eliminates the cause of nonconformities.

Preventive action is a documented procedure for executing project work which will prevent and
eliminates occurrence of negative consequences associated with project risk.

Defect repairs are formally documented defects identified in project components for repairing them or
replacing those components.

Outcomes of a successful management of project execution are:

A verified product, services and result expected as a delivery from the project.

Implementation of corrective actions, preventive actions and defect repair identified during the
project execution.

Updated project documents for lesson learn and improvement activity.

o Requirement document

o Project logs

o Risk register

o Stakeholders registers

d) Monitoring & Control

Monitoring and control provide an understanding on projects progress so that appropriate actions can
be taken whenever the projects performance deviates significantly from the plan. This is the process of
tracking, reviewing and regulating the progress of the project performance to meet the define objective.

Monitoring is a project management activity performed throughout the project life cycle.

This includes -

Collection of project performance data

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Measurement of performance data

Communicating performance information and project status.

Assessing measurement and trends for process improvements.

Continuous monitoring gives project management team insight into the health of the project and
identify any area of project that may need special attention.

Control is all about regulating the project controlling deviations and problems as detected, controlling
changes and recommending corrective and preventive actions. Influencing the factors that could
circumvent integrated change control to implement only approved changes.

Purpose of monitoring and control is to ensure:

Project plan remains consistent with organizational overall business strategy.

Project is producing required product against the agreed success criteria.

Project is carried out as per schedule and in estimated budget and resources as planned.

Monitoring and control activities are:

Reviewing the progress of the project in the defined interval as mention in the plan.

Measuring the actual schedule for completion, requirements, budget and resources assigned.

Comparing actual parameters against the plan as documented in the project management plan.

Identifying deviation from the actual verses planned.

Controlling changes and deviations.

Recommending corrective and preventive actions as necessary.

Monitoring existing risk response and risk status report and identifying new risk.

Communicating project progress information to support status report, measurement and


Monitoring the implementation of approved changes as they occur

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Chapter D: Product Integration

a) Integration Platform
Note: Here when we mention product or product component that implies for both product and
services aimed by project to create.

Integration platform provides a common environment and interface for product integration and testing.

This includes:

Establishing environment with equipments, software and other resources for testing which can
be acquired by developing, purchasing or reusing.

Ensuring internal and external interfaces of product components are defined and documented.

Ensuring compatibility of interfaces with integration environment and product component.

Maintenance of the integration platform through out the project with the help of change
control and documentation control process.

Requirements for equipment, software and other resources for integration platform are gathered and
planned during the planning phase of the project and mentioned in the

Project management plan

Project scope statement

Interface requirements for product and product components are identified and define in the project
scope statement

Many product integration problems arise from unknown or uncontrolled aspects of both internal and
external interfaces. An effective management of product component interface requirements,
specifications and designs ensure that implemented interfaces will be complete and compatible.

In a project, product Integration and testing are the incremental process. This involves assembling
component, evaluating them and then again assembling more components. There are modifications or
updates identified during assembly and evaluation, which recommends changes.

Hence a change control process ensures any changes related to the testing platform and interface are
properly addressed, implemented and communicated.

A document control ensures documents are updated and approved after any approved change and
correct version of documents are in use.

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The most critical aspect of product integration is management of internal and external product
component interfaces and ensures compatibility among them.

For example, different car manufacturers install identical engines in various car bodies, developed by an
vendor external to the organization. Car manufacturer must have coordinated initially to exchange the
data in form of drawings and diagram, so that the engine must be compatible with the car body. Incase
the supply from fuel tank could not be connected to the fuel pump on the engine block then dimensions
and shapes would have to be changed to ensure the compatibility with this interface. Hence related
documents are being changed, controlled and publish to the concern project team.

Similarly incase the dimension of the car headlight socket is being changed during body design, this must
be communicated the head light supplier, so that during assembly of the car there should not be any
compatibility issue.

b) Sequence for Integration

The sequence for integration provides support in incremental assembly and evaluation of the product
components without compromising the functionality of the components or impacting the delivery

Sequencing of components integration can be decided on the basis of some of the following factors:

Functionality of the components.

Customers need or priority

Components dependencies

Resource availability

Technical complexity

For example:

Sequencing of the components for building a house is based on the functionality and also the
dependencies on other components. Electrical wiring or plumbing can not be done unless the brick
structure will be completed.

Sequence for building a house can be as follows:


o Footing/Foundation

o Soil filling

o Pillars and column till plinth, lintel and then roof

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o Roof Slab

o Brick work

o Duct for electrical wiring and plumbing

o Frames for doors and windows

o Plastering


o Flooring/tiling

o Electrical wiring

o Water supply, sanitary and plumbing

o Doors and windows

o Painting

o Connection for electricity and drainage

o Inside furnishing

For the development of the audio/video player, a customer priority and resource availability can be

Like, assembling and testing of audio component can be done before video component, incase the audio
components are available before the video component based on the schedule.

Or incase customer wants to see the performance of the audio before the complete product.

Also on the basis of technical complexity we can decide which component needs to integrate first. Like
first time introducing HD (High definition) video formats, then there complexity to integrate new
technology which also involved risk.

Sequence for integration helps in:

Planning and organizing project delivery.

Planning product delivery in steps.

Identifying product issues during incremental assembly of the product component.

Avoiding any overlap or conflict in component integration.

Meeting customers need and priority.

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Managing technical risk and complexity.

Managing project cost and schedule efficiently

Based on integration sequence product components are assembled into more complex product
component or a product. Assembling product components into a product is an incremental process.

Before assembling any product component one should

Ensure readiness of product integration environment

Ensure that each component should be confirmed to be compliant with its interface

Ensure that integration sequence is properly defined and reviewed.

Ensure that product components are delivered to the product integration environment
according to the product integration sequence.

Ensure that each received product component meets its specification as described in the scope
statement document.

Ensure that approved changes are being implemented in the product component or integration

Ensure that recommended corrective action has been taken for product component or
integration platform.

Ensure that appropriate action for defect repair has been taken place for product component or
integration platform.

Review any pending issue and impact of that on assembling the components.

c) Evaluate Products
Product evaluation involves examining and testing assembled product components for performance and
functional characteristics, against the acceptance criteria identified and defined during planning phase
of the project.

Evaluation is performed as appropriate after every step of product components assembly, as identified
in the integration sequence. For example, if assembly of components includes two very simple
components, then it is not necessary to evaluate the product after each component assembly. In this
case assembly of two components can be done progressively and evaluation can be done once the
assembly is completed.

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Requirements for evaluation of the product can be derived from the product requirements and
acceptance criteria defined in the scope statement.

Evaluation can be done at two levels:

Verification which ensures that the product meets their specified requirement.

Validation which demonstrates that product is satisfying the requirement when it is being used
in its intended environment.

Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents which define requirements
and specifications. This ensures the assembled product properly reflects the specified requirements.

Verification can be done by:

Structured walkthroughs.

Planned inspection meetings.

Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after or in parallel to verifications.

Product or product components are validated to ensure that they are suitable for use in their intended
environment; hence often the end users are involved in validation activities.

Both verification and validation are concern with acceptance of the deliverables and meeting specified
product requirements.

While quality control is concern with correctness of the deliverables, meeting the quality requirements
specified for the deliverables

Chapter E: Integration Effectiveness

a) Priority Setting
Setting priorities for integration helps to plan and manage multiple tasks and multiple processes of
project and delivering the product on time. Priorities of the activities must be aligned with the
organizational priorities.

Establishing meaningful priorities to guide organization decisions is a complex process. It is not possible
or appropriate to define a single approach for priority setting.

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Priority setting techniques should begin with an understanding of the urgency and importance of the
different activities. Setting priorities under the pressure may complicate the task.

Priority for integration can be set on the basis of following criteria:

Organizational strategic plan

Business impact/importance

Customers needs/urgency

Resource availability

Time available

Risk involved to perform

Project Complexity and size

Impact on the project or organizations other functional groups

Dependencies on activity

Political environment

Cultural environment

Priority can also be set by applying different priority setting techniques like:

Dot Voting:

o The dot voting is a simple method also known as multi voting.

o Each team members are allowed to vote a certain number of times using colored
adhesive dots, stars or showing hands. For example each participant gets a number of
dots equal to 1/4 the number of items.

o Items which get 50% or more votes are considered for the next round for voting.

o For sorting and clarifying the priority, re-voting is done several times.

o Disadvantages are dot voting is based on majority opinion, thus neglecting minority
group may creates issues on future group interaction.

Weighted Voting:

o Participants are allowed to give their votes in the scale of 1 to 5, or 1 to 10, to the items
according to the priority they feel.

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o For example if there are five items, then on the scale of 1-5, 5 votes would be given to
the highest priority, 4 votes to the second highest, 3 votes to the third and so on.

o According to total group score on each item, priority is considered.

o Weighted voting is more accurate method than dot voting.

o For group priority setting weighted voting is the most appropriate technique, hence
important for integration where various functional groups are interrelated.

Consensus decision:

o This is the most time-consuming method, but good for decision making. Hence applied
where ever required to take decision.

Setting priorities will help:

To achieve project deliverables: Project team has been assigned the work and actions on the
basis of priority, which depends on what project has to achieve. Working according to priority
helps in a smooth execution of project and achieve project delivery.

To ensure team members commitment: A clearly prioritized activities and decisions will make
the project objectives easier to undertake as team is involved in deciding the priority, which
results in the team members commitment for effective action.

To plan step-by-step action: Priorities are often dependent on each other, for example before
starting a software testing, design should be completed, followed by software development.

b) Issue Histogram
Adesh Jain, a visionary leader shaping the PM profession globally, was responsible in creating
"Issues based Management System", in 2004 for IT Company in China. This system was online
and had 37 attributes. However, in this section, we are talking only 3 attributes for Issue

Issues Histogram is a tool which provides overall status of the various issues logged during project

Applying Parato rule (80/20) helps to focus on the most critical issues to resolve.

Parato analysis helps to identify about 20% of most critical issue which jeopardized about 80% of the
project work.

Issues are categorized on the basis of:

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Complexity which can be at technical or non technical level. This can be measured with the scale
of 1 to 5 or 1 to 10 or range of High/Medium/Low.

Severity, which gives the impact on the project or product. This is generally measured at the
scale of 1 to 5.

A unique identification number is assigned to each issue on which it can be monitored and tracked.

Some of the criteria on which issues are being tracked and reviewed:

Number of issues logged in the project.

Number of issues assigned to the team members to resolve.

Number of issues resolved.

Number of issues pending (in number of days).This can be either not assigned or not resolved

Example 1: Histogram for Issue status:

Number of total issues = 60

Number of issues assigned = 54

Number of issues not assigned = 6

Number of issues resolved out of 54 = 24

Number of issues pending to resolve = 54-24 = 30

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Example 2: Issue Histogram for analysis of most critical issue applying Parato rule.

Table 6.1: Issue Histogram for Parato Analysis

Above the horizontal red dotted line, about 20% of the issues causing effects on about 80% Tcsp.

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c) Documentation
Project documentation is one of the most important aspects for successful integration. This enables a
formal communication means both internal and external to the project team.

There are three types of project documents mostly needed for integration

Project Initial documents

Documents at different Project phase

Quality documents

Few Project initial documents are

Business case provides information from business standpoint.

Project charter - formally authorizes the project

Project management plan - states what, why, when where, who and how the work will be

Project scope statement- states what work is to be accomplished and what deliverables need to
be produced.

Some of the documents which are produced at different Project phases are

Risk registers

Issue log

Change log

Project performance report

Status report

Test reports

Quality documents are

Project quality plan

Configuration management plan

Acceptance criteria

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Quality audit Checklist

Project initial document helps to create a common understanding about project objectives, purpose,
business needs, requirements and deliverables amongst various interrelated functional group and
ensures these are properly interpreted by them to plan and produce the product. Project plan and
requirements both are getting elaborated progressively in the project. Also these documents are being
updated and modified as per the approved changes.

Besides these initial documents there are various documents generated at different phases which gives
the status of project and product/product components.

The objective of the quality documents is to allow an audit and confirm the work being done is adhere
to the quality standards agreed to follow in the project.

All documents are updated and modified throughout the project life cycle.

Document Management ensures the control on changes and maintains uniformity and integrity of
documents for the project and product delivery process.

Document management is concerned with:

Document control

o All documents should be held under configuration management.

o Documents should be reviewed, updated and approved/re-approved before use.

o Implementation of changes and modifications of documents can be easily identified.

o Prevent the unintended use of obsolete documents.

Document identification

o Documents are identified by a unique number. The identification should make clear the
project or product identification, the type of document and the version.

o Documents identification details must be described in configuration management plan.

Document review

o Document reviews can be conducted by one or more persons. It can also be reviewed in
a single or combination of formal meeting and review reports are generated.

Document approval

o A document is approved by the project review board or it also depends on Project

manager to identify the reviewers and the approvers for the document depending upon
the project and document characteristics.

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Document distribution

o Updated document after approval is published to the stakeholder. Document

distribution ensures relevant versions of applicable documents should be readily
available at the point of use.

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Index - Chapters
A. Contract Administration
B. Close out
C. Project / Product Delivery
D. Post Project Evaluation

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Project Delivery
It is the Last Phase of the Project Life Cycle. In this
phase, we interface with the customer of the projects
outcome i.e. product / service being delivered by the

The customer is the key player in accepting the

deliveries. Depending on the projects requirements the
project delivery could involve just one product or
service or more than one product/service. Whatever
the project requirements, during this phase the total
delivery is made and it is accepted by the customer.

Deliver & Closeout phase brings with it the close out of

the complete project. Many lessons would have been
learnt during the projects life cycle. Lessons learned are
treated as a separate Phase of the project life cycle
under the title of Knowledge Leverage.

It may be mentioned here that it is in the Deliver &

Closeout Phase that maximum conflicts can arise in the
project between those who have worked to deliver the
outcome (contractor) and those who are accepting the
results of the work (buyer).

To minimize/avoid such situations, a formal change control process and proper documentation are both
important to control all changes made in the project plan which contains the original detailed
specifications of the project.

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Chapter A: Contract Administration

a) Contract Administration
Contract administration forms an important part of the Monitoring and Controlling process group in
projects where contracts are involved. Once a contract has been signed and execution of the contract
begins the next step is to ensure that the performance of the seller meets all the contractual

There are many legal implications and requirements of various contractual issues. Both the buyer's and
the seller's project managers must be aware of all the legal implications when contracts are used.

The buyer has to monitor the seller's work. The amount of monitoring required to be done by the buyer
will vary depending on the type of contract used for the procurement.

The seller needs to be aware of all the contract requirements when executing the work to ensure that
they comply with them satisfactorily. All contractual obligations must be met by the seller. Just meeting
the desired cost/time/quality requirements is not adequate. Providing all stipulated reports and
attending obligatory client meetings must also be kept in mind by the project manager and his team.

Even where the buyer organization has a separate procurement department the concerned project
manager is responsible to ensure all requirements are being met by the seller and should keep their
procurement department regularly informed and updated.

If the project is using more than one seller to provide goods and services then the work/outputs of
different sellers must also be monitored and coordinated as the deliverables of one contract will often
impact another contract.

The seller's work and deliverables need to be monitored, reviewed, evaluated, reported and
inspected/audited by the buyer to check whether it meets the contract's required scope, schedule,
finance and quality. All work done is routinely reported to management for reviewing of progress and

Payments are required to be made as per the contract. The seller generally raises seller invoices for
receiving payment.

Changes are common in projects and any change requests made in the contract must be properly
documented to avoid any future disputes at contract closure.

A good contract change control should be kept in place to oversee all contractual changes, as it is the
changes in the contract that leads to maximum disputes and litigation since each party has their own
version. If any changes are required in the contract's terms and conditions they have to go through the
change control process.

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Common aspects to be looked into during contract administration are:

Keeping track of documentation

Review meetings

Performance reviews

Performance reporting

Interpretation of the contract terms

Understanding of the legal impact of actions and decisions taken

Resolving of any disputes

Monitoring of scope, cost, time and quality against the contractual requirements

Making of payments

Claims reviews

Authorizing changes

Identifying and monitoring of risks

Administering Fixed Price contracts

When administering Fixed price contracts emphasis should be placed by buyer in ensuring the scope has
been fully met on time to required quality. Keeping track of costs is the responsibility of the contractor
as this will affect their costs. Seller should also be on the lookout for expensive change orders

Administering Cost Reimbursable contracts

When administering Cost reimbursable contracts the role of the project manager and the project team
is much more. As in fixed price contracts they need to ensure the work is progressing on time, the
quality is being maintained as required and that the scope is being met. Over and above this they must
also make sure that all the costs invoiced for the project have actually been used for the project and are
suitable. Monitoring of the contractors project costs is important to avoid inflated costs.

Administering Time and Material contracts

Here the project manager and the project team will need to monitor the time taken to complete the
work by the contractor as billing is based on the hours/days spent and also keep track of the
consumption of material.

Contract changes

Even when detailed planning has been done we find that projects face changes.

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Due to this the project should have a formal Contract Change Control System.

All changes must be properly and formerly monitored to assess their impact and cost to avoid
misunderstandings and disputes. Monetary aspects related to the change incorporated must be clear to
both parties as this is often a common ground for dispute.

Effective contract administration helps the end users to be satisfied with the product or service being
obtained under the contract.

b) Project/Product Warranties
A warranty can be defined as a statement or representation of goods and services indicating that they
will perform as agreed. The rights are defined in written warranty. The warranty is issued by retailer or
manufacturer. In case of violation, these rights are enforced against them. The types of warranty can be
defined in two ways:

1. Liability exclusion

The warranty provider has the liability when warranties are given on quality for goods and services and
also responsible for ensuring that the goods or services are in the warranted quality.

Example: The garment manufacturer warrants that color of cloth will remain intact for one year but it
vanishes after eight months. The manufacturer is liable.

The contractors must ensure that they should put limit to liability or exclude it. If they have agreed for
penalties, then additional penalty for damages should be avoided. The contractor should try to have
fixed upper limit for damages such as some percent of contract value.

2. Implied warranty

The guaranty which includes the performance of the products is implied warranty e.g. the output of
production unit with respect to time.

Warranty maintenance: The contractor has the responsibility to repair any damage that happens during
the warranty period. The expense incurred is paid by the contractor. It may be a lump sum payment.

The projects or products may or may not be associated with warranties. This information should be
clearly understood by the owner of the project. All the terms and condition of the project should have
clear understanding among both the parties. These understanding should be clearly depicted in the form
of documents. These documents should be handed over to the owners operational team at the time of
closing the project.

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Chapter B: Close out

a) Purchase Order Close out
Purchase order (PO) is a commercial document issued by a buyer to a seller. It highlights the types,
quantities, and agreed prices for products or services the seller will provide to the buyer. The purchase
order is send to supplier along with the legal offer to buy products or services. The acceptance of
purchase order by seller usually forms a one-off contract between the buyer and seller, so there is no
contract till the PO is accepted.

The purchase orders are reviewed. These should be checked against the deliverables whether they have
been received or not. The payments associated with them should be verified. There status on credits
approval, charges has to be checked.

The purchase order raised by customers has to be handled safely. This may be the most sensitive areas
in close out process. If it is not handled properly there is a possibility that the project may breakdown at
the end. There are cases when the relationship with the customers are not cordial, then the close out
becomes very cumbersome and may require extraordinary efforts to deal with such situations. The
acceptance sign off and problem resolution becomes a challenging affair. The important activities in
these cases are:

Collect customer feedback form for satisfaction.

Information regarding the final date of completion of project is to be notified to the customer.

The acceptance tests for customer are to be conducted.

The important documents like warranty, training manual, user guide, source datasets etc are

The quality control and quality assurance documents for quality management plan are to be

Purchase order close out checklist

The followings steps is necessary to close out a purchase order:

Quality: The documental verification is necessary to check the quality of materials. It should be
in strict accordance with the specification, terms and conditions of the purchase order.

Quantities: When the purchase order is closed, there should be a written verification of the
receipt of all the materials included in the purchase order.

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Compliance with delivery terms: The material is delivered in accordance with the terms and
conditions of the purchase order. The penalty adjustment in purchase order should be done for
late deliveries whereas bonuses for early delivery.

Certified Vendor Drawings: All certified vendor drawings listed in the purchase order should
have been received and written acknowledgement made to that effect.

Operating instructions: All copies for operating instructions or statement of procedure should
have been received and copies placed in purchase order file.

Maintenance instructions: The proper number of copies specified by purchase order should
have been received.

Spare parts lists: All the required copies of spare part list should have been received.

Vendors Claims: There should be no vendor claims pending and all claims should be resolved
prior to close out the purchase order.

Changes/Supplements: The changes and supplements in the purchase order should be

processed and approved prior to closing it.

Negotiation: Negotiations are done in case of claims, back charges and variations from
guarantees and warranties. These are resolved prior to purchase order close out and end results
are properly documented and approved.

Verification of Approval Authority: The material manager verifies that all the authorized
documents are signed by proper authority prior to closing out the purchase order.

Verification of final payment: Prior to close out of the purchase order, the final amount of
payment is carefully checked for its accuracy.

b) Legal Close out

During the project life cycle stages, the documents are used for legal purposes. These documents need
to be assembled. They all need to be put in separate storage space and should be retained for the
stipulated statutory period. This process considers reviewing legal project documentation which
identifies confidential corporate information to manage properly. The key documents related to
intellectual property of the organization is also reviewed and is managed as per the intellectual property
directives of the company.

The legal documents typically used in projects are:

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Contract: It is most important legal document used in project. It defines the legal relationship
and responsibility of both the contractor and the client. The core elements of contract are:

1. Statement of work

2. Terms & Conditions

3. Client responsibilities

4. Payment terms

Subcontractor agreement: This agreement defines the legal relationship between contractor
and its subcontractor.

Letter of authorization: It is sometime also called a letter of agreement, a letter of intent (LoI); a
memorandum of understanding (MOU) is a special kind of contract which is used temporarily
until the final, full fledged contract is signed and in place.

Non-disclosure agreement: It is legal document sometimes also called confidentiality agreement

is used to restrict the rights of a party to disclose information. The client often provide sensitive
information to contractor which might be specific to technology, methodology, techniques,
business processes, or plans that client want to keep secret. This information is critical because
if is known to competitors or market place, then client would loose competitive advantage. If
contractor wants to use this secret information in the project, then client has to provide it in
written or verbal form. To reduce the risk that this information is disclosed, client request that
the contractor has to sign non-disclosure agreement. A non-disclosure agreement is a binding
commitment of a contractor that sensitive information received from the client is not
distributed to others and should be used only for project purposes. A breach of this agreement
is usually punished by a penalty payment. Similarly the contractor can sign non-disclosure
agreement with sub-contractor in case it provides sensitive information.

c) Contract Close out

Contract closeout, is a very important part of the projects Closing process and is required to be done in
all projects that have at least one contract.

Closing of a contract is much more than releasing the final payment to the contractor. Contract closeout
entails ensuring that all contract requirements have been met by the contractor. Once the contract work
is completed the contract should be formally closed in writing. All contracts must be properly closed for
the project to be considered complete.

A contract can be considered to be complete once the contractor has provided all the goods and
services as per the contract conditions. A contract can also be terminated by the buyer.

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Contract closure must be done even for those contracts that were terminated before completion.
Contracts can be terminated by the buyer if the seller's work is not up to the required standard.
Compensation to seller for contract termination will depend on the contract terms.

Product Verification

A key feature of contract closeout is to check that all the work of the project has been completed
correctly as per the contractual terms.

All the contract deliverables have to be formally accepted by the buyer through some form of a Letter of
Acceptance. The contract work and deliverables are first verified by the buyer to ensure that they fully
and satisfactorily meet the requirements of the contract and are acceptable. In other words product
verification is done before the deliverables are accepted from the contractor.

In case there are any problems in the product a List of Exceptions may be issued by the client and the
certificate of acceptance would then be conditional and valid only when the required items are met. The
errors/deficiencies which are included in the List of Exceptions have to be attended to by the sellers
project manager and corrected. This may need some rework and testing and in the worst case costly
redesign, redevelopment and testing. Whatever the case the work has to be planned and completed.

The key contractors main contract responsibilities draw to an end.

Where several tiers of the supply chain is involved with many contractors / sub-contractors the close out
and handover process can become complex.

The buyer must formally accept the contract deliverables and should also formally inform the seller that
the contract is accepted and is complete or it is rejected when it fails to meet the stated requirements.

All the contract records and documents must be filed and kept in a contract file by the project team
along with the formal letter of acceptance from the buyer.

Maintaining of contract related records is also an important part of closing the contract. Records
generated for contract closeout will include a formal product handover and acceptance letter, full
project information and updated records relating to the scope, schedule, cost, quality, risk responses
and impacts.

Test data generated by the seller can be gathered by the buyer to inspect, review and verify whether or
not the contractor is meeting their contractual objectives. These can also be used for performance
reporting by the buyer project manager for reporting to their top management.

Each contract must have a separate file which is updated at contract closure. Contract files should
include information such as the contract, financial information, payments made to seller, all contract
changes - proposed and accepted, inspection and audit results etc.

Lessons learned are important for learning and future use and should also be documented.

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Contract claims or disputes most often relate to the monetary compensation to be given to the seller for
incorporating changes. The buyer may think that a change is small and does not merit additional
payment whereas the seller may demand payment for it.

Any disputes that arise and cannot be resolved and settled amicably by the buyer and seller can use an
independent arbitrator for an out of court settlement or if that also does not work then finally through
the court. The contract usually mentions which country's laws are to be followed in case of any disputes.
A separate claims administration based on the contracts claims dispute resolution procedure will be
followed. Having a formal change control procedure to manage contract changes is important to reduce
contract disputes.

Procurement Audits

A procurement audit is a structured review done to assess whether the procurement processes followed
in the project were suitable or not and did they follow the requirements. This audit that may also
involve inputs from the buyer should cover the entire procurement process including contract

Those procurement areas that can be improved are identified and the process can be improved with
lessons learned in future projects.

d) Resource Close out

The resources acquired during the life cycle of the project have to be demobilized at the completion of
the project. These resources can be project team members, vendors, contractors, suppliers and
supporting staff. These may also include temporary offices, equipment, material, stores and spares etc.

One of the important resource close out area which needs to be considered is team close out. The
project managers ensure that efforts of team members are recognized after the work is finished and
their contributions and achievements are highlighted. It is always a good practice to conduct close out
meeting even if the project is terminated early. This will sometimes remove the belief that the project is
not terminated because of negative reasons. The project manager ensures that the team closes out for
successful and unsuccessful projects have following closeout items.

Meeting for close out or celebration to be conducted

The team resources are returned after the completion of project. The notification in this regard
has to be sent to the functional and resources managers.

Recognition of team resources for their performance.

The performance appraisal can be prepared if required.

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The need for training to be looked at if any extra skills are required for the team members.

The lessons learned from the projects could be discussed for both the positive and negative
aspect of the project.

The master skill database is to be updated with the new skills acquired during the project

The project manager ensures that the stakeholders should be made aware of any remaining
work they own.

The resource close out includes also vendors and contractor close out which requires formal procedures.

Vendors/Contractors are ensured to comply with the provisions of the contract. The highlights for these
activities are:

Project manager ensures that the work authorized to vendor/contractor are finished else the
uncompleted tasks are highlighted.

The performance reports for vendor/contractor are prepared. The feedback report is followed

The close out should ensure that the final payments to vendors/contractor are made

e) Project Close out

This report contains list of completed tasks, staffing and worker level information, project time schedule
as per the activities, cost summary along with the problems encountered and method of problem
rectification. This report is important report for future projects. Hence it includes all the major
challenges faced and their resolution methods during different life cycle stages of project. It also
includes recommendation to handle future projects and changes required in organization management.

The project close out ensures that following files/documents are updated at organization level.

Project Files: The project file is the part of organization process where the documents generated during
the project life cycle are stored for future reference. These project files are been updated with the
following documents generated during project life cycle:

Project management plan

Project scope management

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Cost management

Scheduling and project calendars

Risk registers

Change management documentation

Risk response and impact actions

Project Closure Documents: During project closure the project manager reviews prior phase
documentation, customer acceptance documentation and the contract to ensure that all project
requirements are complete prior to finalizing the closure of the project. In case of project terminating
prior to completion, the formal documentation indicates the reason for termination. The following
documents are ensured to be closed.

Project control document or repository

Project change log

Risk management log

Issue logs.

Historical information documents: The historical information and lessons learned information which are
useful for future projects are transferred to the lessons learned knowledge base. This information can
be issues, risks as well as techniques that worked well and can be successfully applied to future projects.

Project Close out Checklist

Comment: The goal of this checklist is to ensure everything has been done to close the project properly.

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Chapter C: Project / Product Delivery

a) Delivery Checklist
The project is delivered step by step. The various steps in project are noted down in the form of
checklist. The checklist contains all the items required for project delivery. The project is considered to
be delivered successfully once all the items in checklists are completed. The checklist usually contains
following items:

List of deliverables

Identification of steps for each part of project delivery

Statement of procedure(SOP) for each step

Prepare time estimates for each step*

Overall project time schedule along with project launch date and completion dates

Cost estimates for each part of project*

Establishing project cash flow and contingency money for risk

Team organization for each part of project*

Description of roles and responsibility for each team member involved in project delivery along
with timelines*

Resource lists for each part of project*

Quality control and monitoring procedures for delivery

Project tracking mechanism for planned v/s actual timelines*

Up to date information mechanism to all the stakeholders

Project launch preparation

Project testing before launch

(*** If it is not a turnkey based project)

The checklist after the project launch is as follows:

Delivery of operations manual

Evaluating project delivery whether aims, objectives and delivery requirement are met.

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Final overview report should be ready

Formal thanksgiving to all stakeholders

Declaration of project completion

Post project communication with satisfied customer to improve prospects for future projects

b) Project Acceptance
It is necessary for a project to implement acceptance criteria to give an understanding that the project is
acceptable to the customer or whether improvements are necessary. The customer has greater scope of
imposing sanctions in external projects regarding demand for outstanding services. For example,
customer can withhold part of contractually-agreed payment until the contractor has performed all his
obligations. This type of situation creates cash flow problem for contractor. Many contractors conclude
projects at a loss due to non receipt of final payment from customer.

To ensure that the project meets the requirement and objectives, project acceptance review meeting is
held. The project acceptance review meeting is a meeting between customer representative(s), the
project management team and the project review authority. Before the project acceptance review
meeting, the reviewers are given review materials. This material includes results of various acceptance
tests and reviews. The attendees of project acceptance meeting group review the results of the product
acceptance reviews and tests using the product acceptance criteria from the product acceptance plan.

The group determines the following:

Physical audit results - has all the project deliverables received by the customer?

Functional audit results - Has the product satisfies its requirements as per the results of the
product acceptance reviews and tests?

Is customer training completed?

Has on-site installation done successfully?

The outcome of the Project Acceptance Review can be one of the following:

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Chapter D: Post Project Evaluation

Project Evaluation
Post project evaluation review is an important review of project performance and lessons that can be
derived from the project. Although often considered only after the completion of the project, in practice
project evaluation can and should be a fully integral part of the project. Similar reviews should therefore
also be carried out periodically during the course of the project.

The post project evaluation review looks into following aspect of project.

Analysis of lessons learnt to benefit future projects

Performance audit of the product

Good and bad part of the project

Comparison of estimated and actual efforts

Overall cost of the project

Reasons for drift from planned effort

The improvements done in the project in communication techniques, project mission, risk
management, planning and control, tools and techniques, project team capability, education
and training.

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Post Project Evaluation Review is done in three ways:

Post Implementation reviews

Health Checks

Project Audits

Post Implementation Review

The post implementation review is conducted after the delivery of the product.

It should preferable be done by an independent body which checks the requirements, objectives and
weakness of the product.

Post implementation review does not convert failed project into success. If the review is done
continually throughout the life cycle, then the project managers could identify areas of concern. These
areas of concerns are critical success factors, tools and techniques used, skills required by team,
communication and inter-personal aspects. The stakeholders different perception of success criteria is
an important factor which often led to project failure.

The review must involve following stakeholders.



Senior Management

Project Management group

Project Health Check

The different stakeholders have different perception of the success criteria. The project manager role to
agree stakeholders on common view point becomes critical. Health check of project addresses this issue
and identifies any misunderstanding or difference of opinion. It helps project manager and other
stakeholder to focus on problems, misunderstanding and identify improvements in the way the project
is progressing.

The project manager pro-actively should make aware of factors such as:

Is the direction of the project clear to all the stakeholders?

Will this direction leads to success.

Do the resources employed fulfill the requirement for success criteria?

Do we have right skills, tools and techniques to deliver results?

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Project Health Check is project management tool to answer these questions. The project managers use
GANTT charts, network diagrams to assess the status of the project. These tools tell the durations, time
schedules but could not address the concern above.
There are various diagnostic tools available to asses the relative success of the projects. They generally
help future projects to learn from failures.

The project health check addresses the fundamental aspects of:

Success Criteria

Success factors

Methods, tools and techniques

Skills required

Project Execution

The start point for the project manger is to define the success criteria and ensures every stakeholder
agrees with it. Health check is to be done at the start of the project and at regular interval throughout.

The main emphasis of the project health check is:

All stakeholders agree on success criteria and are in same direction

Factors need to deliver the success criteria

The tools, techniques and methodologies are applied well

Identification of training needs and additional skills for organizing, planning and controlling the

Project Audits

Project audit is done periodically to incorporeal system of control throughout the project to prevent
undesired outcome or loss in whole project. The controls are:

Deterrence and prevention: This control helps to deter fraudulent activity like financial loss and
prevent erroneous processing in project computer system.

Detection: This control detects the fraud as early as possible to prevent damage at the later
stages of project.

Investigation: This includes both internal and external audits.

The frauds prevented by these project audits are:

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The intentional fraud done by team member by inaccurate data processing to gain some
financial advantage.

Copying of data, programs or software to leak to competitors.

Unauthorized access to computer systems usually by hackers. It has added problem of

potential introduction of virus.

These all threats are controlled by system audits both internal and external.

Post project evaluation is done in following steps:

Preparation for post project evaluation review meeting

Conducting post project evaluation review meeting

Follow up of post project evaluation meeting

Preparation for post project evaluation review meeting

The project information concerning results, expenditures, and performance must be complete, detailed,
and accurate. Team members should prepare for post-project evaluation meeting by collecting
information on following:

Schedule performance

Problems that arose during the project


Changes during the project in objectives, schedules, and budget

Unanticipated occurrences or changes in the environment during the project

Resource expenditure

Customers satisfaction with the project results

Management satisfaction with the project results

Conducting post project evaluation review meeting

The success of the meeting depends on addressing the right topics and sharing of project thoughts and
experiences openly and honestly.

The issues explored in post project evaluation meeting are:

Have you accomplished the project objectives?

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Is project schedule met?

Did you complete the project within budget?

Could you anticipate and planned the budget in advance?

Have you used the organizations project management systems and procedures effectively?

Following action must be taken to get the most accurate information and best recommendation for
future actions:

Invitation to right people: Project manager should invite all the team members who participated at all
points throughout project life cycle and reviews the result with final comments and suggestions.

Learning experience session: All the team members should be made aware before start of the meeting
that it is session for self examination and suggestion for improvement of future projects. It should not
be treated as finger pointing session and criticism for other participants.

Encouraging team member: The meeting should highlight what other people did well.

Follow up of post project evaluation meeting

The project manager prepares minutes of meeting and distribute to team members. He / She ensures
that MOM addresses following concerns:

Incorporating practices in future projects

Steps taken to encourage these practices

Practices to be avoided in future projects

Steps taken to avoid these practices

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