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Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03)

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Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03) Page 010-1 LECTURE 010 – INTRODUCTION TO FREQUENCY

LECTURE 010 – INTRODUCTION TO FREQUENCY SYNTHESIZERS

(References: [1,5,9,10]) What is a Frequency Synthesizer?

A frequency synthesizer is the means by which many discrete frequencies are generated from one or more fixed reference frequencies.

Control

Frequency Synthesizer Fig010-01 f o f 1 f 2 f 3 f N
Frequency
Synthesizer
Fig010-01
f o
f 1
f 2
f 3
f N
Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03) Page 010-1 LECTURE 010 – INTRODUCTION TO FREQUENCY

f o

• The reference frequencies are stable and spectrally pure frequency typically generated from a piezoelectric crystal. • Modern frequency synthesizers must provide many discrete output frequency so that it is impractical to generate the frequencies by having a reference frequency for each desired output frequency. • The control input determines the value of the frequency synthesizer output frequency, f o

ECE 6440 Frequency Synthesizers

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Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03)

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Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03) Page 010-2 Characterization of a Frequency Synthesizer •

Characterization of a Frequency Synthesizer • Output frequency range - f min f o f max

• Frequency accuracy - f o ± f (typically in % or parts per million, ppm)

Tolerance Time Time Fig010-02 Frequency Switching Frequency f o Magnitude • Frequency switching time – •
Tolerance
Time
Time
Fig010-02
Frequency
Switching
Frequency
f o
Magnitude
• Frequency switching time –
• Spectral purity (noise) –
• Frequency resolution (channel spacing)
f 2
f 1
Spectral
impurity

Fig010-03

• Frequency stability as a function of time, temperature and power supply Expressed as parts per million per influence (time, temperature or power supply) Short term (drift)

Long term (aging) • Spurious outputs –

ECE 6440 Frequency Synthesizers

Magnitude Frequency Frequency Fig010-04 Desired Spurs Spurs
Magnitude
Frequency
Frequency
Fig010-04
Desired
Spurs
Spurs

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Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03)

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Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03) Page 010-3 Reference Frequencies Ideally, the reference frequency

Reference Frequencies Ideally, the reference frequency should be a single frequency independent of all possible influences. It is very difficult to achieve an output frequency with better characteristics than the reference frequency. Resonators The reference frequency can be generated using resonators. Resonator technologies include:

• Quarter-wave resonators – lossless 1/4 wave transmission line (at 3 GHz λ/4 = 1 inch) Barium titanate gives Q = 20,000 • Quartz resonators – although the piezoelectric effect is smaller, quartz has exceptional mechanical and electrical stability. Q 10 4 to 10 6 .

Illustration of Bulk Shear Mode f ≈ 1670 t t
Illustration of Bulk Shear Mode
f ≈ 1670
t
t
C o
C o
  • m R S

  • L m

C

5x10 8

f o

or

 

5x10 8

R S

R S

f o

N 2

 

Fig010-05

N = overtones

Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03) Page 010-3 Reference Frequencies Ideally, the reference frequency

Crystal Symbol and Model

C o = parallel plate capacitance, L m and C m = mechanical energy storage, R S = losses

• Surface acoustic wave devices Surface waves avoid the undesired nonlinear behavior of bulk waves (LiNbO 3 )

ECE 6440 Frequency Synthesizers

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Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03)

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Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03) Page 010-4 Frequency Translation – Mixers Mixers require

Frequency Translation – Mixers

Mixers require nonlinear or time-varying elements in order to provide frequency translation. Mixer types:

• Multiplication – the output has only the sum and difference of the two input frequencies. • Modulation – the output not only has the sum and differences of the two input frequencies, but many other frequencies Mixer fundamentals:

Acosω 1 t

Mixer

Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03) Page 010-4 Frequency Translation – Mixers Mixers require

Bcosω 2 t

AB [cos(ω 1 -ω 2 )t + cos(ω 1 +ω 2 )t]

2

Fig010-06

• A lowpass filter is used to obtain the difference frequency and a highpass filter to obtain the sum frequency

• The mixer gain is given as

AB

2

• A mixer is difficult to analyze because the output frequency is different from the input frequency.

Note: The signals into the mixer do not need to be sinusoidal.

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Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03) Page 010-5 Mixer Types 1.) Passive and active
Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03)
Page 010-5
Mixer Types
1.) Passive and active mixers
2.) Mixers are classified as whether the inputs are balanced (differential) or
unbalanced (single-ended)
(1.) Single-ended - both ω 1 and ω 2 are single-ended
(2.) ω 1 -Balanced - ω 1 is balanced and ω 1 is single-ended
(3.) ω 2 -Balanced - ω 2 is balanced and ω 1 is single-ended
(4.) Doubly-Balanced - Both the ω 1 and ω 2 are balanced
Comparison:
ω 1 -
ω 2 -
Mixer Type →
Single-
Doubly-
Ended
Balanced
Balanced
Balanced
Characteristic
ω 1 /ω 2 Isolation
ω 1 /ω 2 Isolation
ω 1 Harmonic Rejection
ω 2 Harmonic Rejection
Poor
Good
Poor
Good
Poor
Poor
Good
Good
None
Even
All
All
None
All
Even
All
Single-tone Spurious Rejection
Two-tone 2nd-order product rejection
None
?
?
?
No
No
Yes
Yes
ECE 6440 Frequency Synthesizers
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Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03)
Page 010-6
Frequency Translation – Frequency Dividers
1.) Flip-Flop Dividers
D
Q
D
Q
f in
FF1
X
FF2
Y
f out =
2
D
Q
D
Q
CLK
f in
CLK
Fig010-10
Quadrature outputs are available at X and Y.
Need to load each flip-flop identically to insure the delays are equal.
2.) Miller Divider
ω
3
1
,
ω 1
ω 1
ω 1
+
2
2
Lowpass
2
x(t)
y(t)
Filter
-
ω 1
2
Fig010-11
If x(t) = A 1 cosω 1 t, then the signal going into the lowpass filter is given as,
ω 1 t
3ω 1 t
ω 1 t
A 2 cos
+ A 2 cos
y(t) = A 2 cos
2
2
2
The filter cutoff frequency, f c , should be 0.5f 1 < f c < 1.5f 1 .
ECE 6440 Frequency Synthesizers
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Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03) Page 010-7 Frequency Translation – Frequency Multipliers 1.)
Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03)
Page 010-7
Frequency Translation – Frequency Multipliers
1.) Full-wave rectifier.
v out
v out
v
in
t
v
in
Fig010-12
2.) Phase locked loop.
Acos(φ 1 -φ 2 )
Voltage-
f 1
Lowpass
f 3 = Nf 1
Controlled
Filter
Oscillator
f 3
f 1 =
N
÷N
Fig010-13
ECE 6440 Frequency Synthesizers
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Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03)
Page 010-8
t
Filters Filters are used to discriminate against certain frequencies and to pass other frequencies. Lowpass: Magnitude
Filters
Filters are used to discriminate against certain frequencies and to pass other frequencies.
Lowpass:
Magnitude
1
T PB
Input
Output
Frequency
f c
Fig010-07
Bandpass:
Magnitude
BW
1
T PB
Input
Output
Frequency
f o
Fig010-08
Highpass:
Magnitude
1
T PB
Input
Output
Frequency
f c
Fig010-09
ECE 6440 Frequency Synthesizers
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Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03)

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Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03) Page 010-9 Techniques for Frequency Synthesis 1.) Incoherent

Techniques for Frequency Synthesis

1.) Incoherent Synthesis – A relatively few reference frequencies are combined to generate many frequencies.

2.) Coherent Synthesis – A single reference frequency is used to generate many output frequencies.

• Coherent Direct Synthesis – Frequency mixers, frequency dividers, and frequency multipliers are used to generate many output frequencies. This method is also called arithmetic synthesis.

• Coherent Direct Digital Synthesis – Digital accumulators, ROMs, and digital-analog converters are used to generate a discrete-time approximation to a sine wave.

• Coherent Indirect Synthesis – Voltage controlled oscillators, mixers, phase locked loops (PLLs), frequency multipliers, and frequency dividers generate an output that has a definite relationship to a reference frequency.

ECE 6440 Frequency Synthesizers © P.E. Allen - 2003 Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers
ECE 6440 Frequency Synthesizers
© P.E. Allen - 2003
Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03)
Page 010-10
Incoherent Synthesis
Example:
Bandpass
Bandpass
f 3
f 2 +f 3 =
12.069 MHz
f 1 +f 2 +f 3 =
62.169 MHz
Filter
Filter
12.0-12.099
62.0-62.999
f 2 = 7.06 MHz
MHz
f 1 = 50.1 MHz
f 3 = 5.009 MHz
MHz
Fig010-14
• This synthesizer covers the frequency range of 62.000 to 62.999 MHz
• Thirty reference frequencies (crystals) are used to generate 1000 frequencies
• Minimizing spurious outputs generated in the mixers is important
• At one time, this synthesizer had the advantage of lowest cost, but now indirect digital
PLL synthesizers are less expensive.
ECE 6440
Frequency Synthesizers
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5.000
MHz
5.001
MHz
5.002
MHz
5.003
MHz
5.004
MHz
5.005
MHz
5.006
MHz
5.007
MHz
5.008
MHz
5.009
MHz
7.00
MHz
7.01
MHz
7.02
MHz
7.03
MHz
7.04
MHz
7.05
MHz
7006 MHz
7.07
MHz
7.08
MHz
7.09
MHz
50.0
MHz
50.1
MHz
50.2
MHz
50.3
MHz
50.4
MHz
50.5
MHz
50.6
MHz
50.7
MHz
50.8
MHz
50.9
MHz

Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03)

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Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03) Page 010-11 Coherent Direct Synthesis Example: MHz 457

Coherent Direct Synthesis

Example:

MHz 457 Fig010-15 458 459 455 456 453 454 451 452 450 MHz MHz MHz MHz
MHz
457
Fig010-15
458
459
455
456
453
454
451
452
450
MHz
MHz
MHz
MHz
MHz
500+(0-9) MHz 50+(0-9)/10 MHz
MHz
MHz
MHz
MHz
÷10
÷10
f out
50MHz
+(0-9)/100 MHz
500+(0-9)+(0-9)/10
500+(0-9)+(0-9)/10 MHz
50+(0-9)/10+(0-9)/100 MHz

Advantages:

• The speed of switching is high, typically 10µs • The frequency resolution can be made very high without affecting switching speed

ECE 6440

Frequency Synthesizers

Disadvantages:

• Complex system is too expensive to build

• Large number of mixers increases the likelihood of spurious outputs

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Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03)

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Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03) Page 010-12 Coherent Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS

Coherent Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS)

DDS generates the signal in the digital domain and utilizes an A/D converter and filtering to reconstruct the waveform in the analog domain.

Illustration of the DDS principle:

Simple digital synthesis of a sine wave using a counter with N counts-

Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03) Page 010-12 Coherent Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS

f out =

f clk

  • 2 N

Increasing the output frequency by sampling fewer points-

Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03) Page 010-12 Coherent Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS

f out (max)

f clk

2.5

ECE 6440 Frequency Synthesizers

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Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03)

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Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03) Page 010-13 DDS – Continued DDS using an

DDS – Continued

DDS using an accumulator to vary the frequency:

Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03) Page 010-13 DDS – Continued DDS using an

Operation:

The counter is implemented as an accumulator where a parallel-in, parallel-out M-bit register drives an adder in a feedback loop. On every clock cycle, X R (k) = Y R (k-1) + P When the register overflows, part of P appears as an increment in the new value of Y R , X R (k) = Y R (k-1) + P modulo 2 M

ECE 6440 Frequency Synthesizers

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Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03)

Page 010-14

Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03) Page 010-14 DDS – Continued Example of the

DDS – Continued Example of the previous DDS using an accumulator (M=3):

Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03) Page 010-14 DDS – Continued Example of the
Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03) Page 010-14 DDS – Continued Example of the
Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03) Page 010-14 DDS – Continued Example of the

For P = 1, the register goes from 000 to 111. Clock period increments the output phase by 2π/8.

For P = 2, the accumulator overflows after 110 and every other sample is read from the ROM causing the output phase to change every 2π/4.

For P = 3, the accumulator output begins at 000 and overflows at 110,11, and 101 in the first, second, and third cycles, respectively.

For P = 4, four cycles of the sinusoid are generated by the Nyquist-rate sampling.

f out = P

f CK

2 M

f CK

f out (min) = P 2 M

and

f out (max) = P

f CK

2

ECE 6440 Frequency Synthesizers

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Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03)

Page 010-15

Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03) Page 010-15 DDS – Continued Comments: • D/A

DDS – Continued

Comments:

• D/A converter will introduce phase noise • The DDS can be FM, PM or AM modulated • The DDS can generate arbitrary waveforms • The DDS is capable of fast switching between frequencies

• The DDS will generate spurs because the quantization error period changes between even and odd values of P. The spurs can be minimized to below 70dBc if the ROM is about 12 bits.

• DDS avoids the use of an analog VCO and achieves low phase noise • DDS provides fine frequency steps (close channel spacing) • DDS can provide continuous-phase channel switching at the output, an important property in some modulation schemes • DDS allows direct modulation of the output signal in the digital domain • DDS is restricted to lower frequencies (100 MHz) to avoid high power consumption

ECE 6440 Frequency Synthesizers

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Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03)

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Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03) Page 010-16 Coherent Indirect Synthesis Function of a

Coherent Indirect Synthesis

Function of a frequency synthesizer is to generate a frequency f o from a reference frequency f ref .

Block diagram:

Components:

Reference

Frequency

Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03) Page 010-16 Coherent Indirect Synthesis Function of a

f ref

Phase Frequency Detector (PFD) f /N
Phase Frequency Detector (PFD)
Phase Frequency
Detector (PFD)
Phase Frequency Detector (PFD) f /N

f o /N

LPF
LPF
VCO
VCO
f o

f o

 
 

Divider

Divider
 

(1/N)

Fig. 010-16

Phase/frequency detector outputs a signal that is proportional to the difference between the frequency/phase of two input periodic signals.

The low-pass filter is use to reduce the phase noise and enhance the spectral purity of the output.

The voltage-controlled oscillator takes the filtered output of the PFD and generates an output frequency which is controlled by the applied voltage.

The divider scales the output frequency by a factor of N. f o

f ref =

N

f o = Nf ref

ECE 6440 Frequency Synthesizers

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Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03)

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Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03) Page 010-17 Coherent Indirect Synthesis – Continued This

Coherent Indirect Synthesis – Continued

This type of frequency synthesizer is probably the most popular approach today and is very compatible with integrated circuit technology.

Comments:

• Frequency step size is equal to f ref . Thus, for small channel spacing, f ref , is small which makes N large.

• Large N results in an increase in the in-band phase noise of the VCO signal by

20log(N).

f o = N·f ref • The loop filter has a significant impact on the performance of the frequency synthesizer-

  • - The bandwidth of the LPF is generally 5-10 larger than the reference frequency

  • - The lower the bandwidth of the LPF, the less the phase noise

  • - The higher the bandwidth of the LPF, the faster the switching time

The components of the above frequency synthesizer will be studied in much more detail in this course. You could say that this is a course on phase-locked loops.

ECE 6440 Frequency Synthesizers © P.E. Allen - 2003 Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers
ECE 6440 Frequency Synthesizers
© P.E. Allen - 2003
Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03)
Page 010-18
Coherent Indirect Synthesis – Continued
A modification of the previous system to enhance tradeoffs.
f ref
Reference
M
Divider
Phase Frequency
LPF
VCO
f o
Frequency
(1/M)
Detector (PFD)
f ref
f o /N
Divider
(1/N)
Fig. 010-17
The output frequency is equal to,
f ref
f o
N
=
f o =
M
N
M
f ref
This gives more flexibility in the choice of f ref and the bandwidth of the LPF.
ECE 6440 Frequency Synthesizers
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Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03)

Page 010-19

Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03) Page 010-19 Combination of Techniques Combining the various

Combination of Techniques

Combining the various approaches offers performance that could not otherwise be achieved by a single approach or technique.

Example of a DDS plus a coherent indirect synthesizer:

Comments:

Clock

÷N LPF PFD VCO f low f ref DAC + LPF Accumulator cosθ ROM DDS PLL
÷N
LPF
PFD
VCO
f low
f ref
DAC + LPF
Accumulator
cosθ ROM
DDS
PLL Synthesizer
Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03) Page 010-19 Combination of Techniques Combining the various

Fig. 010-17

f high

f out = f high +f low

Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03) Page 010-19 Combination of Techniques Combining the various

• The loop bandwidth can be optimized for noise since the output frequency can be changed rapidly and in small intervals by changing the DDS frequency, f low . • The technique suffers from a limited output frequency range due to the low value of

f low .

• If the purity requirements are high, the DAC needs to have a large number of bits and will be power hungry.

ECE 6440

Frequency Synthesizers

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Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03)

Page 010-20

Lecture 010 – Introduction to Frequency Synthesizers (5/5/03) Page 010-20 SUMMARY • This course will focus

SUMMARY

• This course will focus on the analysis and design of frequency synthesizers implemented using both discrete and integrated circuit technology.

• The coherent indirect synthesis method (PLL approach) will be the primary type of frequency synthesizer considered.

• Course outline:

  • - Introduction

  • - Technology

  • - PLLs

° PFDs

° Filters

° VCOs

° Dividers

  • - Frequency synthesizers

  • - Clock and data recovery circuits

  • - Applications of frequency synthesizers

ECE 6440 Frequency Synthesizers

© P.E. Allen - 2003