Sie sind auf Seite 1von 76

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

in Small and Medium Scale Industries of Asia

S.

Kumar

C.

Visvanathan

Sizhen Peng R. Rudramoorthy Alice B. Herrera Gamini Senanayake Ly Dinh Son

GREENHOUSE GAS MITIGATION

IN SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE INDUSTRIES OF ASIA

PUBLISHED BY School of Environment, Resources and Development Asian Institute of Technology PO Box 4, Klong Luang Pathumthani 12120 Thailand Fax: (66) 2 524 5439 Email: kumar@ait.ac.th or visu@ait.ac.th

DISCLAIMER Neither the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) nor the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) and its partners, the National Research Institutes of the study countries, make any warranty, expressed or implied, or assume any legal liability for the accuracy or completeness of any information, apparatus, products, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any trademark or manufacturers or otherwise does not constitute or imply endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by Sida or AIT.

ISBN 974 8208 59 1

600 copies

Asian Institute of Technology, 2005 Printed in Thailand.

Project Team

Principal Investigators

Dr S. Kumar, Professor, Energy Field of Study, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand (kumar@ait.ac.th)

Dr C. Visvanathan, Professor, Environmental Engineering and Management Field of Study, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand (visu@ait.ac.th)

National Research Institute (NRI) Team Leaders

Dr Sizhen Peng, Director, Center for Environmentally Sound Technology Transfer, Administrative Center for China’s Agenda 21, Beijing, China (pengsz@acca21.org.cn)

Dr R. Rudramoorthy, Professor, Energy Engineering Department, PSG College of Technology and Industrial Institute, Coimbatore, India (rudra@mail.psgtech.ac.in)

Dr Alice B. Herrera, Fuel and Energy Division, Industrial Technology Development Institute, Department of Science and Technology, Metro Manila, The Philippines (aherrera@dost.gov.ph)

Mr Gamini Senanayake, Director, Industrial Services Bureau of North Western Province, Kurunegala, Sri Lanka (gaminisn@isb.lk)

Mr Ly Dinh Son, Director, Consulting Center for Cooperation and Capacity Building, Hanoi, Vietnam (cbcvietnam@hn.vnn.vn)

Research Staff

Mr Aruna Manipura (March 2002 to December 2003)

Ms Priya Ambashankar (December 2003 to August 2004)

Mr Prajapati Shapkota (September 2003 to November 2004)

Mr Prantik Bordoloi (Since May 2004)

Research Fellows

Mr S. Sivasubramaniam (June 2004)

Mr Do Nam Trung (June 2004)

Mr R. Kannan (March to May 2005)

Preface

The Asian Regional Research Programme on Energy, Environment and Climate (ARRPEEC) funded by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) conducts research on energy, environment and climate change relevant to Asia. The Small and Medium Scale Industries in Asia project (SMI in Asia) is one of the projects under ARRPEEC and was aimed at (i) greenhouse gas emission estimation, (ii) review of barriers inhibiting adoption of energy efficient and environmentally sound technologies (E3STs) and (iii) techno- economic assessment of E3STs. The SMI in Asia project is coordinated by the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Thailand and involves the following research institutions:

the Center for Environmentally Sound Technology Transfer, China; PSG College of Technology and Industrial Institute, India; Industrial Services Bureau of North Western Province, Sri Lanka; Industrial Technology Development Institute, Department of Science and Technology, Philippines; and Consulting Center for Cooperation and Capacity Building, Vietnam.

This report highlights the research carried out to estimate Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and present strategies for mitigation in selected sectors of small and medium scale industries (SMIs). It describes in brief the background to GHG emissions in the SMIs with a review of the indicators and reporting systems using Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines. The present policies regarding energy efficiency and GHG mitigations in the study countries are described and the methodology for estimation

and analysis of sector estimation of GHG emissions is presented. It includes significant issues related to energy use and GHG emissions in the current scenario vis-à-vis the move towards reducing emissions in each of these countries as a follow up to the Kyoto Protocol, CDM.

Of the five participating countries, China and India represent the most populous countries in the world with a large number of SMIs dominating the industrial scene. For the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Vietnam, the study focuses on specific SMI sectors which account for the majority of the industrial sector.

This study presents the research findings and discusses sector approaches for GHG emission reductions with sensitivity analysis of stepwise emission reduction scenarios that can be used as mitigation measures for sustainability. Several recommendations are made for continuing the research and implementing the findings for specific countries for the selected sectors. GHG emission reduction and mitigation strategies could be developed for other sectors based on this approach. Recommendations also encompass new directions and strategies that can be adopted to help the study countries attain optimum GHG mitigation and reduction for a sustainable environment and development of the industrial sector.

We express our sincere appreciation to the following experts for critically reviewing this report and for their valuable suggestions prior to publication:

Dr Ajith de Alwis, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka

Dr P. Balachandra, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India

Mr Liu Bin, Beijing Economic and Trading University, China

of

Meteorology and Hydrology, Hanoi, Vietnam

Mr

Le

Nguyen

Tuong,

Institute

Ms Clarissa C. Cabacang, Preferred Energy Inc., Philippines

On behalf of the participating institutions, we take this opportunity to thank the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency for facilitating this phase of an important piece of research and to AIT and the management of the participating national institutions for the congenial atmosphere they provided for carrying out this study. We look forward to the adoption of the methodology for GHG emission reductions in the study countries and in other Asian countries.

S. Kumar

C. Visvanathan

Sizhen Peng

R. Rudramoorthy

Alice B. Herrera Gamini Senanayake Ly Dinh Son

April 2005

Executive Summary

This report presents the results of the study carried out to estimate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from selected small and medium scale industries (SMI) in China, India, Sri Lanka, the Philippines and Vietnam. This is one outcome of the project entitled Small and Medium Scale Industries in Asia: Energy, Environment and Climate Interrelations, under the Asian Regional Research Programme on Energy, Environment and Climate (ARRPEEC) Phase III.

In Asia, SMIs account for over 85% of the total manufacturing establishments and contribute significantly to national economies and industrial development. Due to lack of capital, skilled personnel and awareness about the existing Energy Efficient and Environmentally Sound Technologies (E3STs), the SMI sector consumes excessive energy and generates increasing pollution loads, of which CO 2 emissions is the most significant. This study addresses these issues with the following objectives:

To develop a GHG emission estimation methodology to quantify GHG emissions from SMI sectors

To estimate GHG emissions from selected SMI sectors in the participating countries, specifically: foundries, brick, tiles and ceramic manufacturers, desiccated coconut, tea and textiles

To conduct scenario studies to estimate GHG mitigation potential from the selected SMI sectors

For estimation of SMI emissions by sector, an extrapolation methodology was used based on a weighted average specific emissions factor (SEF) that was established through surveys, energy-environment audits and literature surveys, and SMI sector production figures. This extrapolation methodology aimed for a “ballpark estimate” that is far better than a “guesstimate” of SMI sector emissions at a macro level.

The CO 2 emissions from selected sectors were estimated and each estimate includes a measure of uncertainty. Among the selected SMIs in the study countries, the highest contributors of CO 2 emissions are the brick sector in China and India and the tea sector in Sri Lanka.

To meet the challenge of GHG emissions reduction, four instruments were selected and mitigation scenarios were studied. These were: enhanced operation and maintenance practices, adoption of E3STs, fuel switching and policy intervention.

In the brick and foundry sectors in China, about 4-20% of the sector emissions can be reduced, which is over 10 million tonnes of CO 2 per year. In the brick sector in Vietnam, there is potential for CO 2 emissions reductions of 5-42%. In the brick sector in India, 10-20% of the emissions could be mitigated through adoption of E3STs and switching to cleaner fuels, while the textile sector has potential for about 5-25% reduction. There is potential for a reduction of more than 13 million t-CO 2 emissions from the selected SMI sector in India.

The Philippines metal casting sector has a reduction potential of about 0.13 million t- CO 2 which is about 50% of the total emissions from the sector. Sri Lanka has a potential for of up to 11% in the brick sector and 7.5% in the desiccated coconut sector.

Realising the potential for CO 2 emission reduction requires effective strategies that encourage SMIs to improve their energy and environmental performance. The strategy could initially focus on enhancing O&M practices, also known as “good housekeeping practices”, as the first step for reductions of 5-10%. These initial results would help SMIs gain confidence and consider further options like changes to E3STs and alternative fuels, which enable reductions of up to 50% in selected SMI sectors. Policy options related to incentives can then be implemented while those related to regulations and legislation should be enforced at a later stage to ensure the sustainability of implemented programmes.

Table of Contents

 

Project

Team

III

Preface

IV

Executive Summary

VI

1. Introduction

1

1.1. Energy-Environment Interrelations

1

1.2. Small and Medium Scale Industries in Asia

2

1.3. Overview of GHG Emission Mitigation in SMI Sectors

5

1.4. Objectives of the Study

6

1.5. Organization of the Report

6

2.

GHG Emission Estimation Methodology for SMI

7

2.1. Introduction

7

2.2. GHG Emission Estimation Methodologies

8

2.3. Framework on GHG Emission Estimation Methodology

9

2.3.1. Data collection

10

2.3.2. Planning for a GHG inventory

12

2.3.3. GHG emission estimations

14

2.3.4. Uncertainty

16

2.3.5. Options for GHG emission mitigation

17

3.

GHG Emissions from SMI Sector

19

3.1. Introduction

19

3.2. Data Collection

19

3.3. Emission Boundaries and Assumptions

20

3.4. GHG Emission Estimation

22

3.4.1. SEF at plant level

22

3.4.2. SMI sector GHG emissions

24

3.5. Benchmarking Energy Use and Emissions for SMIs

31

3.6. Uncertainty Analysis

31

3.7. Summary

34

4.

GHG Emission Mitigation Scenarios

37

4.1. Emission Reduction Scenarios

37

4.2. Emission Reduction through Enhanced O&M

37

4.3.

Emission Reduction through Adoption of E3STs

39

4.3.1. Tea sector

39

4.3.2. Textile sector

40

4.3.3. Foundry sector

40

4.3.4. Brick sector

41

4.3.5. Scenario summary

41

4.4.

Emission Reduction from Fuel Switching

41

4.4.1. Natural gas

43

4.4.2. Renewable energy

44

4.5. Emission Reduction through Policy Intervention

44

4.6. Limitations of the Mitigation Scenarios Study

46

4.7. CDM as a Tool to Mitigate GHG Emission in SMIs

48

4.8. Summary

49

5. Conclusions and Recommendations

51

5.1 Conclusions

51

5.2.

Recommendations

53

5.2.1. GHG emission estimations

53

5.2.2. Emission mitigation

53

5.2.3. CDM opportunities in SMI sectors

54

References

55

Appendix A: Net Calorific Value of Fuels

60

Appendix B: Carbon Emission Factor and Carbon Oxidation Factor of Fuels 61

Appendix C: Calculations of SMI Sector CO 2 Emission from Indian Textile Sector

63

Appendix D: National GHG Emission Inventory in 1994

66

List of Abbreviations

CDM

Clean Development Mechanism

CEF

Carbon Emission Factor

CER

Certified Emission Reduction

CH 4

Methane

CO 2

Carbon dioxide

CTC

Cut-tear-curl

DOE

United States Department of Energy

DSM

Demand Side Management

E3ST

Energy Efficient and Environmentally Sound Technology

EEF EIA FBD GEF HFC IEA IPCC IPPC/IPC IREDA JI kg-CO 2 kWh LPG MJ MNES N 2 O NCV NRI PFCs ppm SEC SEF SF 6 SME/SMI TCE t-CO 2 TJ UNFCCC WBCSD

Electricity Emission Factor Environmental Impact Assessment Fluidized Bed Drier Global Environment Facility Hydrofluorocarbons International Energy Agency Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control/Integrated Pollution Control Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Joint Implementation Kilogram of CO 2 Kilowatt-hour Liquefied Petroleum Gas Mega Joule Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources, India Nitrous Oxide Net Calorific Value National Research Institute Perfluoro compounds Parts Per Million Specific Energy Consumption Specific Emission Factor Sulphur Hexaflouride Small and Medium Scale Enterprise or Industry Tonnes of Carbon Equivalent Tonne of CO 2 Terra Joule United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change World Business Council for Sustainable Development

Chapter 1

Introduction

1.1. Energy-Environment Interrelations

Over 85% of the world’s primary energy supply is met from fossil fuels (EIA, 2004). Burning fossil fuels and other human activities are now accepted as the primary cause of changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration and other heat- trapping gases like methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O). An atmospheric concentration of CO 2 of 368 ppm in the year 2000 is a significant increase compared with 280 ppm during the period 1000-1750. This human-

made greenhouse effect has the potential to change the earth’s climate dramatically in a relatively short span of time. There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming has occurred over the last 50 years and is attributable to anthropogenic activities. The global average surface temperature has

increased by 0.6 ± ± 0.2°C ° in the 20 th century. At the current emission rates, global atmospheric CO 2 concentrations are expected to double by the middle of the 21 st century. This will result in the warming of earth’s

°

atmosphere by 1.5-4.5°C and cause global mean sea level to rise by 0.25-0.50 meters (IPCC, 2001). The consequences of these effects will be serious. Currently, climate change is the centrepiece of the world’s environmental agenda. The goal of environmental sustainability is incredibly complex.

Introduction

There is strong growth in energy consumption among the developing nations but the fastest growth is projected for the nations of developing Asia, including China and India (EIA, 2004). The five Asian countries selected for this study, China, India, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Vietnam, account for about 57% of the total CO 2 emissions from Asia and Oceania, of which China and India contribute a major amount (EIA, 2004a). The share of CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel use in the different regions of the world and the participating countries of this study are illustrated in Figure 1.1.

Global warming is expected to worsen unless concrete measures are taken to reduce the trend of increasing emissions. The Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) began to address the issues related to climate change (UNFCCC, 1997). Under the Protocol, industrialized countries agree to

meet quantitative targets for reducing or limiting their GHG emissions. Studies and actions pertaining to GHG emissions are carried out at the national level in many sectors of the economy, including large-scale industries. However, few measures are undertaken in small and medium scale industries even though they form a major share of the manufacturing sector.

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Source: (EIA, 2004a) Figure 1.1 Share of CO 2 emissions by region (left)

Source: (EIA, 2004a)

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Source: (EIA, 2004a) Figure 1.1 Share of CO 2 emissions by region (left)

Figure 1.1 Share of CO 2 emissions by region (left) and in the study countries (2002)

1.2. Small and Medium Scale Industries in Asia

There is a substantial economic growth in the selected five countries (Figure 1.2). Along with economic development, environmental pollution has also increased, especially GHG emissions from industry. The industrial sector accounts for about 27-52% of National Gross

Domestic Product (GDP) in the selected countries (ADB, 2003) and their growth rates are even stronger than the national GDP growth rates shown in Figure 1.2. This rapid industrial growth has led to significant increases in energy use and GHG emissions.

Figure 1.2 National GDP growth rates in the selected countries
Figure 1.2 National GDP growth
rates in the selected countries

The categorisation of small and medium scale industries (SMIs) is based on country-specific criteria (Table 1.1). SMIs account for about 85% of the manufacturing establishments in Asia and play an important role in the national economy in terms of GDP and employment creation (28-30% of the GDP in India, Vietnam and the Philippines and 60% of Gross Industrial Production in China; 13- 75% of total employment; Kumar et al., 2002). Generally, SMIs are found in all ma- jor manufacturing sub-sectors. However, for each country there are characteristic sub- sectors that constitute the major part of the SMI sector. For example, in China, 95% of foundries and 80% of textile and apparel

Introduction

producers belong to the SMI sector. In the Philippines nearly 50% of the SMI sector is food processing. In India, textiles and foundries are important SMI sectors, while in Sri Lanka tea, coconut-based industries and bricks and tiles are the important sectors. Textiles and apparel, tea, desiccated coconut, bricks, wood and wood products constitute more than 80% of SMIs in each of the study countries (AIT, 2002a). The sector distribution of SMIs forms a significant portion of the overall manufacturing industry in the study countries as can be seen from Table 1.2.

portion of the overall manufacturing industry in the study countries as can be seen from Table
portion of the overall manufacturing industry in the study countries as can be seen from Table

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation 4 Chapter 1

1.3. Overview of GHG Emission Mitigation in SMI Sectors

To mitigate GHG emissions, governments have initiated many activities and formulated laws and regulations. These include improving energy efficiency, promoting renewable energy technologies and regulations on emissions and pollutants. These are aimed at reducing energy consumption and pollution from industries in general. A comparison of the energy and environmental policies of the study countries is given in Table 1.3. So far, laws and plans do not specifically target SMIs but cover them under the general category of ‘industry’. Almost all study countries have formulated environmental protection laws, air emission standards, wastewater discharge standards and requirements for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for new industries. However, only a few countries have implemented and carried out efforts to provide financial incentives for pollution

Introduction

prevention, adoption of the polluter pay prin- ciple, and policies covering pollution mitiga- tion in SMIs.

SMIs are profit oriented and not much concerned about the impact of their energy use on local and regional pollution. They face many difficulties such as lack of capital, human resources, support and training, standards and benchmarks, awareness of resource management and access to E3STs. In most SMIs, the technology is old and inefficient. They are less energy efficient and they generate a lot of pollution (Kumar et al., 2002). Considering the potential for economic development and employment creation, it is expected that in the future they will contribute significantly to energy use and GHG emissions.

it is expected that in the future they will contribute significantly to energy use and GHG

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Energy-environment surveys were conducted for SMIs in the selected countries to identify their future significance in GHG emission mitigation measures. The results are presented in Table 1.4. There has been no significant effort to address these issues. Therefore, considering their large numbers, energy inefficiency, and potential for emission reductions, it is important to target the SMI sector for pollution prevention and GHG emission mitigation measures. Earlier SMI in Asia project studies focused on capacity building, analyzing and benchmarking energy- use patterns of selected SMI sectors and identification of E3STs for SMIs (AIT, 2002a; 2002b; 2002c; 2002d).

This study aims to quantify the GHG emissions from SMI sectors to understand their significance in the overall national GHG emissions. Due to lack of participation of SMIs, their large numbers and scattered nature and lack of information on their energy use, quantification of their GHG emissions is fraught with challenges and barriers.

1.4. Objectives of the Study

The study aims to achieve the following four objectives:

To customize a GHG emission

estimation methodology from existing methodologies to quantify emissions;

2. To estimate GHG emissions from the

selected SMI sectors (foundries, brick, tile and ceramic manufacturers, desiccated coconut, tea and textiles) in the participating countries;

3. To compare emission indicators at a

cross-country level; and

1.

4. To conduct scenario studies to estimate GHG mitigation potential through enhanced operation and maintenance (O&M) practices, adoption of E3STs, fuel switching and policy intervention.

1.5. Organization of the Report

The report structure is outlined in Figure 1.3 below.

policy intervention. 1.5. Organization of the Report The report structure is outlined in Figure 1.3 below.
policy intervention. 1.5. Organization of the Report The report structure is outlined in Figure 1.3 below.
policy intervention. 1.5. Organization of the Report The report structure is outlined in Figure 1.3 below.
policy intervention. 1.5. Organization of the Report The report structure is outlined in Figure 1.3 below.
policy intervention. 1.5. Organization of the Report The report structure is outlined in Figure 1.3 below.

Chapter 2

GHG Emission Estimation Methodology for SMI

2.1. Introduction

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (1996) developed guidelines for reporting national GHG emission inventories. National inventory estimates are based on aggregate energy consumption data from various sectors of the economy such as power, transport and industry. Using the same methodology, GHG emissions from the SMI sector can be estimated if the aggregated energy consumption data of a sector is available. Unfortunately, such sector-specific energy consumption data are not commonly available, except in some countries like Indonesia (Priambodo and Kumar, 2001). Therefore, it becomes necessary to seek alternative approaches to estimate emissions.

One such approach is extrapolation of GHG emission data gathered from a sample of SMIs. The basic input data required for such sector estimations are national production data, sector contributions of SMIs in total production and a reliable specific emissions factor (SEF) 1 per unit of product output. The national production data can be obtained or estimated from national statistics, trade

GHG Emission Estimation Methodology for SMI

unions or manufacturers’ associations. The SEF can be established through surveys, energy-environment audits from a sample of SMIs and the existing literature. From the SEF data of sample SMIs, a national weighted average SEF can be established. Using this weighted average SEF and the total production of that sector, the sector emissions can be estimated. The reliability of an extrapolated emission estimate largely depends on the robustness of the weighted average SEF, which depends on sample size. Generally, the higher the sample number, the better the estimate. However, many uncertainties such as fuel mix, technology use and production volume also need to be considered in determining a national weighted average SEF. These factors are highlighted in Box 2.1.

Extrapolation allows the use of inventory data from a particular sector directly and employs transparent data sources for national inventories. Any changes in emissions from

1 SEF is defined in Section 2.3.3.1

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

the target sector inventory can be incorporated in the national inventory (WBCSD, 2001). Although the extrapolation methodology may not lead to precisely accurate emission estimates (see Box 2.1), it helps establish “ballpark” values. Such estimates are far better than the “guesstimates” of sector GHG emission figures at the macro level.

Box 2.1 Reliability of extrapolation of SMI sectoral emissions

It is assumed that emissions from sample SMIs are representative of the whole SMI sector. In some sectors or countries this is not always the case. Many factors affect the robustness of the sample data including:

1. Type of finished product, e.g. different size of bricks, cast iron or steel

2. Variations in production processes; e.g. tea is produced from two production processes, Orthodox and Cut-tear-curl

3. Production volume; typically higher production volume lowers energy use

4. Energy use pattern of the sample SMIs (also depends on technology used in production process)

5. Fuel mix of energy use (depends on fuel availably in the region and type of technology used)

6. With electricity, indirect emission depends on fuel mix used to generate electricity

Although these factors may affect the national weighted average SEF, a range of emissions can be established by categorizing the data qualitatively though inputs from experts and data from the literature.

2.2. GHG Emission Estimation Methodologies

To establish the weighted average SEF, an estimation of SEF from a sample of SMIs is required. Although methodologies are available to estimate GHG emissions from individual and corporate industries and business establishments, compatibility with the IPCC guidelines is important for the use of these results. To estimate the GHG emissions from SMIs, two approaches can be used, namely, direct monitoring and SEF based calculation.

The direct monitoring approach is more common in process industries and electric utilities in the USA. If a direct monitoring system has already been established in a facility, the associated data provides a good estimate of CO 2 emissions.

In the SEF based estimation, source or facility-specific fuel data is used. This approach is more accurate and will also facilitate the identification of emission reduction opportunities. If calculating fuel data at this level is not possible, a corporate- wide approach of calculating total fuel use from fuel purchasing data can be employed.

To meet the special needs of SMIs, the following two GHG emission estimation methodologies have been identified from the literature:

1. GHG Indicator of the United Nations

Environment Programme (see Box 2.2); and

2. Greenhouse Gas Protocol initiative of the

World Resources Institute/World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WRI/ WBCSD) (see Box 2.3).

The UNEP GHG indicator methodology describes a procedure for gathering all the data required to estimate emissions from electricity use and other fuel consumption. The WRI/WBCSD GHG Protocol clearly defines the procedure for determining the

Box 2.2

UNEP GHG Guidelines

UNEP’s Guidelines for Calculating Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Businesses and Non-Commercial Organizations helps organizations in accounting and reporting their emissions. The guidelines provide a method whereby GHG emissions are calculated and combined to give a single GHG Indicator to show an organization’s contribution to climate change. An essential characteristic of the GHG Indicator is that it uses information readily accessible by the industries. This data, expressed in commonly used basic units, can be converted and aggregated to calculate the total contribution to climate change. The indicator is applicable at all levels of a company and regardless of their size. The figure below shows the generic framework of the process and the information needed to derive the GHG Indicator.

generic framework of the process and the information needed to derive the GHG Indicator. Source: Adapted

Source: Adapted from UNEP, 2000

GHG Emission Estimation Methodology for SMI

fuel consumed in each operation. These two methods complement one another and differ only in their magnitude or scope of study.

They are briefly described in Boxes 2.2 and

2.3.

2.3. Framework on GHG Emission Estimation Methodology

As noted in Section 2.1, the extrapolation methodology was used to estimate sector GHG emissions. To establish a national weighted average SEF, energy and environmental audits were carried out in

sample SMIs, which are described in Chapter

3. For the estimation of emissions from the

sample SMIs, also referred to as plant level emissions, the IPCC (1996) guidelines and UNEP (2000) GHG Indicator approaches were used. The former was used to estimate emissions due to primary energy use, i.e. direct fuel consumption, while the latter was used to estimate emissions due to secondary energy use such as electricity. The overall framework of the sector GHG emission estimation and measures for mitigation of GHG emissions is shown in Figure 2.1. It consists of five steps based on the Plan-Do- Check-Act cycle to deal with the dynamic behaviour of GHG emissions in the SMI sector. It is aimed at continual improvement of estimating GHG emissions. The details of each step are described in the following sub-sections.

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Box 2.3

Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative of WRI/WBCSD

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative was developed by the World Resources Institute (WRI) and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) to promote the use of voluntary international accounting and reporting standards for businesses. The inventory has three separate but linked modules: the core inventory, reporting project- based reductions, and accounting for GHGs in the value chain. The first module (core inventory) was published in 2001 while the last two are currently being developed (GHG Protocol Initiative 2004). The first module is aimed at helping companies and organizations develop credible inventory data underpinned by GHG accounting and reporting principles, account and report information from global operations, provide internal management to build an effective strategy to manage and reduce GHG, and provide information that

compliments other climate initiatives, and reporting and financial standards. This Protocol also introduces operational boundaries that account for direct and indirect GHG emissions and allows the treatment of other indirect emissions. It aims to:

account direct GHG emissions from sources that are owned or controlled by the reporting company

account for indirect emissions associated with the generation of imported/purchased electricity, heat or steam

allow treatment of other indirect emissions that are a consequence of the activities of the reporting company, but occur from sources owned or controlled by another entity (e.g. emplemployee business travel, commuting, and outsourced activities).

Source: Adapted from WBCSD/WRI 2004

2.3.1. Data collection

Figure 2.2 illustrates the data collection procedure for a GHG emission estimation. The primary data collection includes energy consumption (both primary and secondary energy sources such as electricity, diesel, fuel oil, coal, coke and firewood) at SMI level, which requires energy and environmental audits at a micro or factory level. These data are used to calculate GHG emissions at plant level and then extrapolated to the SMI sector level. Information on sector production process/flow charts can also be collected to facilitate the next step of planning the inventory.

For the calculation of emissions at plant level, information and data such as fuel type, their heating values and carbon emission factors have to be collected. These data may be available in national databases or from established databases such as IPCC (1996) inventories or the UNEP (2002) Indicator.

The secondary data at macro level are national annual production for the sector, which can be obtained from national statistics. These production data often include production from large industries. In this case it is necessary to identify the share of SMIs in national production. National energy-related data such as annual fuel consumption of the power sector, electricity generation and efficiency of power transmission and distribution are required to calculate the country specific emission factors for electricity.

GHG Emission Estimation Methodology for SMI

GHG Emission Estimation Methodology for SMI Figure 2.1 Framework of SMI sector GHG emission estimation and

Figure 2.1 Framework of SMI sector GHG emission estimation and mitigation measure

of SMI sector GHG emission estimation and mitigation measure Figure 2.2 Data collection procedure Chapter 2

Figure 2.2 Data collection procedure

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

2.3.2. Planning for a GHG inventory

The demarcation of sources of emissions is important in a GHG emission estimation. Figure 2.3 shows typical sources of emissions from SMIs. CO 2 is the main emission and is mainly due to energy use, some of which occurs on the SMI premises. For example, fuel consumption, like coal, oil, firewood and gas cause direct emissions. Other direct emission sources include production processes. Indirect emissions occur outside the SMI premises but these are due to secondary energy use and wastewater treatment. For example, electricity use causes CO 2 emissions depending on the source of power generation but occurs on the utility premises. Other activities such as energy use

for raw material/fuel production and transportation, travel by employees and logistics related to finished products also cause emissions. Therefore, before beginning the estimate, the boundary of an emission source should be clearly defined. To identify the detailed emission sources, each unit operation and production process needs to be studied. An energy balance will clearly show the amount of energy consumption by each category. For this study, CO 2 was considered the only GHG emission. Other gases were ignored because of their uncertainties or their insignificant contribution to the total GHG emission figure.

insignificant contribution to the total GHG emission figure. Figure 2.3 Potential sources of GHG emissions from
insignificant contribution to the total GHG emission figure. Figure 2.3 Potential sources of GHG emissions from
insignificant contribution to the total GHG emission figure. Figure 2.3 Potential sources of GHG emissions from
insignificant contribution to the total GHG emission figure. Figure 2.3 Potential sources of GHG emissions from

Figure 2.3 Potential sources of GHG emissions from an SMI

GHG Emission Estimation Methodology for SMI

GHG Emission Estimation Methodology for SMI Figure 2.4 Procedure for a plant level and SMI sector
GHG Emission Estimation Methodology for SMI Figure 2.4 Procedure for a plant level and SMI sector
GHG Emission Estimation Methodology for SMI Figure 2.4 Procedure for a plant level and SMI sector
GHG Emission Estimation Methodology for SMI Figure 2.4 Procedure for a plant level and SMI sector
GHG Emission Estimation Methodology for SMI Figure 2.4 Procedure for a plant level and SMI sector
GHG Emission Estimation Methodology for SMI Figure 2.4 Procedure for a plant level and SMI sector

Figure 2.4 Procedure for a plant level and SMI sector CO 2 emission estimation

(2.3) (2.4) where F e is annual fuel consumed for electricity generation and E is
(2.3) (2.4) where F e is annual fuel consumed for electricity generation and E is

(2.3)

(2.4)

where F e is annual fuel consumed for electricity generation and E is annual electricity generation in the country.

3. Emissions related to transportation activities can be estimated using Equation 2.5 (IPCC, 1996).

can be estimated using Equation 2.5 (IPCC, 1996). (2.5) where EF a b c is the

(2.5)

where EF abc is the emission factor of transportation for fuel type ‘a’, vehicle type ‘b’ and type of emissions control ‘c’. EF abc values are available in IPCC (1996). Activity abc is the amount of energy consumed or distance travelled for a given mobile source activity.

4. The sum of the emissions from all the above sources i.e. from fuel and electricity use and transportation, is calculated as the total GHG emission of the sample SMI. From the total GHG emissions at the plant level, the following specific emission indicators can be estimated and used to compare the emission intensity among SMIs or at the country or regional level. This can be done in terms of product unit, employee, energy use and product value:

Specific emissions per unit product output (kg-CO 2 /kg of product or kg-CO 2 /piece)

Specific emissions per employee (kg-CO 2 /employee)

GHG Emission Estimation Methodology for SMI

Specific emissions per energy use (kg-CO 2 /kWh or kg-CO 2 /MJ)

Specific emissions per product value (kg-CO 2 /$)

In terms of production value, the plant level SEF can be calculated from the total
In terms of production value, the plant level
SEF can be calculated from the total GHG
emissions and total production, given by
Equation 2.6.
(2.6)
2.3.3.2.
SMIs sector level

The national weighted average SEF is calcu- lated from the sample of audited factories. From the SEF of individual SMIs, i.e. plant level SEF, a weighted average SEF is estab- lished using Equation 2.7.

(2.7)
(2.7)

The weighted average SEF is calculated to avoid any large variation observed among individual SMIs. This aggregate value has to be subjected to an uncertainty analysis so that the tolerance of accuracy can be estimated.

GHG emissions from the SMI sector are extrapolated by multiplying the weighted average SEF, total national production and the share of SMI production, given by Equation 2.8.

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

SMI sector GHG emission =

SEF Average x National total production x Share of SMI’s production

SEF Average x National total production x Share of SMI’s production

(2.8)

A sample calculation of CO 2 emissions from

the sample of SMIs, weighted average SEF and sector CO 2 emissions for the Indian textile sector are shown in Appendix C.

2.3.4. Uncertainty

Calculating the range, confidence interval or other limitations of the estimated emissions are important in assessing their uncertainty levels. However, these statistics are not complete measures of quality because there may be systematic errors (biases) associated with the emissions estimates that are not bounded by the range or confidence intervals. In addition, uncertainty is due to many causes, one of which is the inherent variability in the process or processes that cause the emissions. Even if all other sources of uncertainty are taken into consideration, this variability remains. As some processes are more variable than others, some always have larger error bounds than others. Such estimates are not of lower quality nor do they indicate less confidence in the ability to predict emissions at a particular point in time but do indicate that it is possible to confidently predict a range (EPA, 1996).

The first step towards characterizing

uncertainty associated with emissions data

is to understand and quantify the different

sources of variability and inaccuracies in the data being used. Uncertainty in emission

estimates can be due to systemic errors or inherent errors or a combination of both.

Systemic uncertainty results from choices such as:

Use of factors that are poorly researched and uncertain;

Use of average case factors not perfectly matched to specific and varying circumstances (e.g. average km/litre, average kg CO 2 /MWh generated);

Deliberate estimation to compensate for missing data (e.g. non- reporting facilities, or missing fuel bills); and

Assumptions that simplify calculation of emissions from highly complex processes.

Inherent uncertainty results from random errors such as imprecise measurement of emissions-producing activity, insufficient frequency of measurement, omissions and to errors of calculation.

The process of estimating uncertainties in GHG inventories is based on certain characteristics of the variable of interest (input quantity) as estimated from its corresponding data set. The ideal information includes:

The arithmetic mean (mean) of the data set

The standard deviation of the data set (the square root of the variance)

The standard deviation of the mean (the standard error of the mean)

The probability distribution of the data

Covariance of the input quantity with other quantities used in the inventory calculations

To estimate uncertainty by source categories and gases for sector emission estimations, it is necessary to develop information specific

to the individual industrial sector in a country and the methodology and data sources used. In scientific and process control literature, a

confidence limit of 95% (±2) is often

regarded as appropriate for range definition. Where there is sufficient information to define the underlying probability distribution for conventional statistical analysis, a 95% confidence interval should be calculated as a definition of the range. Uncertainty ranges can be estimated using classical analysis or the Monte Carlo technique. Otherwise the ranges have to be assessed by local experts in the study countries. The following Equation (2.9) shows how to calculate the overall uncertainty (U T ) using the individual uncertainties of emission factors (U E ) and socio-economic activity data (U A ).

±

2 2 = ± (U + U ) ; U T E A so long
2
2
= ±
(U
+
U
) ;
U T
E
A
so long as
U
,
U
< 60%
E
A

(2.9)

For individual uncertainties greater than 60%, the sum of squares procedure is not valid. Therefore, limiting values can be combined to define an overall range, although this leads to upper and lower limiting values which are asymmetrical about the central estimate (IPCC, 1996). A detailed analysis of uncertainties for the selected SMI sector is presented in Chapter 3.

GHG Emission Estimation Methodology for SMI

2.3.5. Options for GHG emission mitigation

After planning, performing and checking the GHG emission estimate, a baseline for each sector is established. The next step is to identify options for GHG emission mitigation

and to estimate its potential. For this study, the following four instruments were selected to perform GHG mitigation scenarios:

1. Enhanced Operation & Maintenance

practices (O&M): SMIs generally lack good

O&M practices. Therefore, improving their O&M could lead to energy savings and emissions reductions.

2. Adoption of E3STs: SMIs are using

outdated technologies, which consume more energy. Implementation of E3STs could

reduce energy use and thereby reduce emissions.

3. Fuel switching: Changing from high

carbon intensive fuel to low carbon fuel or

use of renewable energy sources also reduces

fossil energy use and GHG emissions.

4. Policy intervention: For effective implementation and the success of any emission reduction measure, a supportive policy is crucial. Appropriate policy is an important part of any GHG emission mitigation campaign.

GHG Emissions from SMI Sector

Chapter 3

GHG Emissions from SMI Sector

3.1. Introduction

This chapter describes the estimation of GHG emissions from selected SMI sectors in five countries. The uncertainties involved in the estimations are also discussed. The five SMI sectors selected for the estimation of GHG emissions are shown in Table 3.1.

3.2. Data collection

As described in Section 2.3.1, the primary and secondary level data were collected from various sources. Table 3.2 summarises the annual production and number of employees engaged in the selected manufacturing sectors. Brick production in China is seven fold higher than in India. In the foundry sector, the total production in China is six times higher than that in India, but China employs only half the workforce of India.

in China is six times higher than that in India, but China employs only half the

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

In the tea sector, Sri Lanka produces two- fifths the amount of tea produced in India, but employs nearly as many people.

The share of SMI production in total national production is shown in Table 3.3. In the selected industrial sectors, SMIs account for 85% of manufacturing establishments: about 24,000 foundries and 95,000 brick kilns in China; up to 10,000 foundries in India and nearly 1,300 brick factories in Vietnam. In total national production, SMI production accounts for 60-100% depending on the sector and country. In the tea sector in India and Sri Lanka, almost all tea is produced by SMIs. In the foundry sector in India and the Philippines, over 80-90% of the products are from SMIs, while this figure is about 63% in China. Similarly, in the brick, tile and ceramic sector, over 90% of the products are produced from SMIs.

3.3. Emission Boundaries and Assumptions

To estimate CO 2 emissions, the source of the emission boundary was selected in such a way as to account for all major sources of emissions from an SMI. Figure 3.1 illustrates the boundaries of emission sources. Fuel and electricity use were considered the main sources of emissions and were included in the boundary. CO 2 emissions from biomass, e.g. firewood, raw materials transportation and employee travel, were generally not included. However, in sectors where use of firewood was accounted for it has been specified explicitly. Upstream processes and transportation of fuels were not included in the boundary. Process-related emissions were also ignored due to their insignificant magnitudes. A detailed boundary of

Process-related emissions were also ignored due to their insignificant magnitudes. A detailed boundary of 20 Chapter

GHG Emissions from SMI Sector

GHG Emissions from SMI Sector production processes in the studied SMI sector is illustrated in each

production processes in the studied SMI sector is illustrated in each sector emission estimate.

The following general assumptions are made

in the estimation of sector CO 2 emissions:

emissions are estimated for the year

2000

the SEF was based on the audited sample of SMIs (Table 3.4)

although they are from a small sample of SMIs (3 foundries in the Philippines or 3 brick factories in Vietnam) they are assumed to be representative of the whole sector in the region (see also the sensitivity analysis in Section 3.6)

A few other sector specific assumptions are described in Sections 3.3.1 to 3.3.5.

assumptions are described in Sections 3.3.1 to 3.3.5. Figure 3.1 Boundary of CO 2 emission sources

Figure 3.1 Boundary of CO 2 emission sources considered

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

3.4. GHG Emission Estimation

3.4.1. SEF at plant level

The primary data were collected from samples of SMIs through energy and environment audits. Table 3.4 shows the number of sample SMIs audited in the selected countries. From these audits, the average

converted into their primary energy using the net calorific values of fuels. From the specific fuel and electricity con- sumption data, CO 2 emissions are estimated using the methodology described in Chapter 2 Section 2.3. Country specific emission fac- tors and fuel heating values were employed when available. When not available, default values from IPCC (1996) were used. The

available, default values from IPCC (1996) were used. The specific fuel consumption data were esti- mated

specific fuel consumption data were esti- mated and are summarized in Table 3.5. There is a great diversity in fuel use among the selected countries and this indicates their technology use. For example, coal and coke in the foundry sector in China, India and Philippines account for 60-70% of total energy consumption. This indicates that cupola furnaces are predominantly used in this sector. Similarly, diesel consumption in India and the Philippines indicates the use of diesel rotary furnaces. When comparing the brick and tile sector of Sri Lanka and Vietnam, the differences are wide, as biomass (firewood) is mainly used in Sri Lanka.

Based on the average specific fuel consumption from each country, a range of sector-specific fuel consumption rates were established and are shown in Table 3.6. To calculate the CO 2 emissions, these were

specific CO 2 emission factors were estimated in terms of unit product outputs, number of employees and energy consumption. A cross- country comparison of selected SEFs is sum- marized in Table 3.7.

From Table 3.7, it can be interpreted that:

. The Chinese foundry sector is generating higher specific CO 2 emissions than in India and the Philippines. This is mainly due to the cupola furnaces used in Chinese foundries, which have a lower thermal efficiency compared to electric furnaces, and thus burn more fuel to produce higher amounts of CO 2 . The CO 2 emission estimate is from a relatively large sample of SMIs (see Table 3.4) and more than 80% of products are processed by coal/coke-fired cupola furnaces (Daben, 2002). The other SEFs based on energy use and employees per capita have the

GHG Emissions from SMI Sector

GHG Emissions from SMI Sector same pattern, but are less comparable with India. . In the

same pattern, but are less comparable with India.

. In the brick and tile industry, Sri Lanka’s SEF per unit product output and electricity are significantly high when compared to China and Vietnam. This is probably because more than 95% of

energy use in Sri Lanka’s tile industry is from firewood (see Table 3.5) for which specific CO 2 emissions are high (see Appendix B).

. In the tea sector, India recorded lower specific CO 2 emissions of 2.43 kg-CO 2 / kg of processed tea, which is 14% less

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

than in Sri Lanka. This is principally due to the low specific energy consumption in Indian tea factories. Energy and environmental audit data from tea factories revealed that energy efficiency in the tea industry is generally low mainly because of they use old equipment and outdated technologies. There is wide variation in the specific energy consumption ranging between 4 and 18 kWh/kg of tea. As far as sources of emissions are concerned, fuel wood and coal are the major fuels used in the tea sector. India and Sri Lanka are the two largest tea producers with nearly similar production processes (AIT, 2002c). Therefore, the lower value in India could

be considered a benchmark for energy use and CO 2 emissions in the tea sector.

3.4.2. SMI sector GHG emissions

Using the weighted average SEF (Table 3.7), national total production (Table 3.2) and the share of SMI production (Table 3.3), total SMI sector CO 2 emissions were estimated. Based on the analysis, the sector annual production data are more reliable and therefore, the reliability of the SMI sector emission estimations depends on the weighted average SEF. Estimates are presented in the following sub-sections. A detailed calculation of plant and SMI sector level emissions for the Indian textile sector is in Appendix C.

calculation of plant and SMI sector level emissions for the Indian textile sector is in Appendix

GHG Emissions from SMI Sector

GHG Emissions from SMI Sector 3.4.2.1. Foundry sector Figure 3.2 shows the boundaries of processes included

3.4.2.1. Foundry sector

Figure 3.2 shows the boundaries of processes included in the estimation of energy use in a foundry. For national annual production, cast iron, cast steel and non-ferrous are considered together even though their SEC varies. Using the weighted SEF, the annual CO 2 emissions from the foundry sector is estimated and is shown in Table 3.8.

3.4.2.2. Brick, tile and ceramic sector

Figure 3.3 shows the boundary of the processes included in the estimation of energy use in the brick sector. In Sri Lanka, tiles and bricks are considered similar products and piece-to-weight conversion factors of 1.05-1.25 kg/piece for brick and 2.0-2.2 kg/piece for tile are used. For India, a conversion factor of 2.25-2.5 kg per brick

for brick and 2.0-2.2 kg/piece for tile are used. For India, a conversion factor of 2.25-2.5
Greenhouse Gas Mitigation
Greenhouse Gas Mitigation
Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Figure 3.2 Foundry production processes Finished foundry products, India was used. in these

Figure 3.2 Foundry production processes

Gas Mitigation Figure 3.2 Foundry production processes Finished foundry products, India was used. in these

Finished foundry products, India

was used.

in these countries are given in Table 3.9.

Estimated sector CO 2 emissions

It is difficult to compare the energy efficiency of brick making in the study countries due to the variations in product type and quality. The brick sector is an energy-consuming sector in China, India and Vietnam. In 2000, the total primary energy consumption in this sector was more than 406,835 million kWh in China and about 487.6 million kWh in

GHG Emissions from SMI Sector

GHG Emissions from SMI Sector Vietnam. Thermal and electric energy is used in SMI brick factories

Vietnam. Thermal and electric energy is used in SMI brick factories with coal and coke as the major fuels in the study countries. CO 2 emissions were found to be very high in the brick sector in China and India compared to other countries. Since drying and firing processes are done using annular and tunnel kilns with low fuel efficiencies, CO 2 emissions from this sector are high. For the tile sector in Sri Lanka, firewood is the major source of fuel contributing to direct GHG emissions.

Garg (2002) estimated that total industrial CO 2 emissions in India in 2000 were about 267 million tonnes, of which the brick sector accounted for 6%. This works out to be 16 million tonnes compared to 37 million tonnes estimated in this study. The details of the estimation by Garg (2002) are not available.

3.4.2.3. Desiccated coconut sector

The desiccated coconut sector is an important foreign exchange earner in Sri Lanka and accounts for 40% of all coconut products. This sector mainly uses firewood for boilers which have a specific energy consumption ranging from 3.5-6.5 kWh/kg of desiccated coconut. Figure 3.4 shows the boundary of the processes considered in the desiccated coconut sector. The CO 2 emissions from firewood combustion are higher due to

2 emissions from firewood combustion are higher due to Figure 3.3 Brick making production processes Brick

Figure 3.3 Brick making production processes

firewood combustion are higher due to Figure 3.3 Brick making production processes Brick kiln, Vietnam Chapter

Brick kiln, Vietnam

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

low boiler efficiency and high losses during the drying process. The GHG emission estimation from the Sri Lankan desiccated coconut sector is shown in Table 3.10.

3.4.2.4. Tea sector

Figure 3.5 shows the boundary of the processes considered in the tea sector emission estimation. Tea produced from CTC and Orthodox processes are considered to have similar energy consumption rates although they vary slightly. Emissions from firewood use is included in Sri Lankan estimates. The CO 2 emissions for the tea sector is estimated and shown in Table 3.11. The annual emissions from the Indian tea sector are estimated to be about two million tonnes and 0.85 million tonnes in Sri Lanka.

two million tonnes and 0.85 million tonnes in Sri Lanka. Figure 3.4 Desiccated coconut production process

Figure 3.4 Desiccated coconut production process

3.4.2.5. Textile sector

The textile industry is an energy intensive industry. It accounts for about 9-10% of the industrial energy use in India and for 20% of the total production cost. Figure 3.6 shows the boundary of the processes included in the estimation of CO 2 emissions. CO 2 emissions from biomass (firewood) fuel combustion are included in the emission inventories. The entire output of the textile sector was assumed to be from semi-modern mills. In dyeing and

was assumed to be from semi-modern mills. In dyeing and Deshelling process in a desiccated coconut

Deshelling process in a desiccated coconut mill, Sri Lanka

to be from semi-modern mills. In dyeing and Deshelling process in a desiccated coconut mill, Sri
to be from semi-modern mills. In dyeing and Deshelling process in a desiccated coconut mill, Sri
Figure 3.5 Processes in tea production
Figure 3.5 Processes in tea production

printing, the estimation was done by assum- ing that some percentage of output from knitting and weaving were processed for dye- ing and printing. CO 2 emissions for the In- dian textile sector are presented in Table 3.12. This sector has many sub-sectors such as spinning, weaving and dyeing. Emissions from textile sub-sectors are shown in Figure 3.7. It is estimated that spinning and weav- ing account for about 80% of the total emis- sions.

3.4.2.6. Summary of SMI sector emissions

SMI sector CO 2 emissions are summarized in Table 3.13. Among the selected sectors, the highest contributors are the brick sector in China and India, and the tea sector in Sri Lanka. At the country level, China and India dominate in GHG emissions in foundries, bricks and tea. Total CO 2 emissions from foundries and brick and tile industries in China are many times higher than in other

GHG Emissions from SMI Sector

study countries due to the high production volume.

Sector study countries due to the high production volume. Figure 3.6 Textile processing in India Figure

Figure 3.6 Textile processing in India

production volume. Figure 3.6 Textile processing in India Figure 3.7 CO 2 emissions in Indian textile

Figure 3.7 CO 2 emissions in Indian textile sub-sectors

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation The induction furnace (56%) in India, cupola furnace (80%) in China, traditional brick

The induction furnace (56%) in India, cupola furnace (80%) in China, traditional brick kiln (78.6%) in Vietnam and annular brick kiln (90%) in China are major contributors to the total emission figures.

Although the SEF for the tea sector in India is lower than in Sri Lanka, the Indian total is double because of higher annual production - about 2.7 times higher than Sri Lanka.

The results obtained from this study indicate that efforts to reduce GHG emissions should target the brick sector in China, brick and textile sectors in India, and the tea sector in Sri Lanka.

Appendix D summarise the details of GHG emissions in 1994 from the five countries based on their reports to the UNFCCC. In China, energy related CO 2 emissions in 1994 were 2,795 million tonnes (NATCOM-China,

the UNFCCC. In China, energy related CO 2 emissions in 1994 were 2,795 million tonnes (NATCOM-China,

2004). Emissions from the brick and tile and foundry sectors were estimated in this study at about 214 million tonnes in 2000. In India, CO 2 emissions associated with in- dustrial energy use in 1994 were 149 million tonnes, while those from electricity genera- tion (energy and transformation industries) were 353 million tonnes (NATCOM-India, 2004). For the year 2000, CO 2 emissions from foundries, bricks, tea and textiles were estimated at 57.53 million tonnes.

In the Philippines, emissions from the foundry sector were estimated at 0.24 million t-CO 2 . Philippines total energy related emissions from industrial and power sectors were about 9.5 and 15.5 million t-CO 2 in 1994 (NATCOM-Philippines, 1999).

In Sri Lanka, the energy related CO 2 emissions in 1994 were 5.45 million tonnes (NATCOM-Sri Lanka, 2000). This study estimates CO 2 emissions from the tea, desiccated coconut and brick and tile sectors at 0.9 million tonnes.

In Vietnam, the industrial and construction sectors produced 7.7 million t-CO 2 in 1994, while power generation was 4.4 million t-CO 2 (NATCOM-Vietnam, 2003). This study estimates CO 2 emissions from the brick sector at 1.8 million tonnes for 2000.

3.5. Benchmarking Energy Use and Emissions for SMIs

Benchmarking refers to the collection, analysis and reporting of energy data for assessing comparative energy efficiencies. It helps identify deficiencies and better practices. Therefore, benchmarking energy consumption should be considered the bottom line for any emission reduction

GHG Emissions from SMI Sector

scenario. When there is a benchmark it is always possible to set targets for energy sav- ings and emission reductions.

Based on the energy audits carried out for this study, a range of specific energy consumption (SEC) values have been

identified and compiled as benchmark values. A summary of benchmark values is given in Table 3.14. They are presented in conventional units so that SMI managers and policy makers can quickly compare with their own data and compare their energy performance. From the literature, SEC data for developing and developed countries have also been compiled and presented in Table

3.14.

Table 3.14 shows a gap between the SEC of the study countries and the literature, although the values depend on the production processes, technologies, O&M practices and fuel mix. This gap can be used as a bottom line for setting up emission mitigation targets and possible CO 2 reduction potentials can be estimated.

Table 3.15 compares the ranges of specific CO 2 emissions of selected countries and in the literature. Ranges indicate the emissions are on par with values reported in the literature.

3.6. Uncertainty Analysis

Estimation of CO 2 emissions are fraught with uncertainties due to many factors. These include production processes, variations in the technology used, fuel mix, and measurement of data reliability of sample SEFs. Therefore, an uncertainty analysis of the estimated CO 2 emissions is necessary to ensure reliability. Total uncertainty (U T ) is

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation 32 Chapter 3
Greenhouse Gas Mitigation 32 Chapter 3

estimated using a database on uncertainties of emission factors (U E ) and socio-economic

activity data (U A ), which is judged by national experts. However, since the database is currently not available in the study countries, the range of total uncertainty was assessed beforehand by national experts as indicated in Table 3.15. In China, the total uncertainty

is estimated at ±20% in the foundry sector,

with information from many sample factories.

±

In Sri Lanka, the total uncertainty is set at

±10-20% ± for the three studied SMIs. By

taking into consideration the number of units in each sector, variations in processes, managerial practices, manpower skills and competence levels and, more importantly, the degree of accuracy of record keeping, the uncertainty factor has been estimated as given in Table 3.16.

Some factors are recognized as main causes of uncertainty. These are:

National carbon emission factors (CEF)

and fractions of oxidized (f o ) fuels may be different from the default values of IPCC. This was considered in the study, particularly

for China.

Special energy use, such as renewables,

may not be considered as some factories use hydro, wind or solar energy that does not emit CO 2 . When collecting data at the plant level, these energy forms may not be considered, and thus result in imprecision from factory to sector levels.

Use of special materials such as recyclable materials may not be considered.

For example, resource conservation is highly promoted in the brick sector in China, where sintering gangue and fly ash are reused and

GHG Emissions from SMI Sector

emit CO 2 in the firing process. However, be- cause of differences in carbon content, their net calorific values and carbon emissions fac- tors are not noted in IPCC Guidelines. As a result, the CO 2 emissions resulting from sin- tering gangue and fly ash are not included in the calculations. The type of product can greatly influence the CO 2 emissions if spe-

cific energy consumption rates are different. For example, in the foundry sector, coal con- sumption for cast steel and cast iron are 162 kg/tonnes and 408 kg/tonnes respectively.

Technologies employed in the process also influence the amount of CO 2 emissions, which sometimes depend on the factory. In general, the energy consumption of an electric furnace per tonne of casting (1800- 2350 MJ/tonne) is about two times lower than a conventional cupola furnace (4800 MJ/tonne), but the energy consumption of the modern cokeless cupola (2540 MJ/tonne) can nearly reach the levels of an electric furnace. The capacity of a cupola furnace also influences CO 2 emissions, as a larger cupola emits less CO 2 per product or product value.

Fuel mix, which depends on fuel availability and price, also contributes to variations in emission estimations. For example, in Vietnam, most brick kilns in the north use coke/anthracite as the main fuel, while firewood and biomass are mostly used in the south. In this case, the uncertainty of the emission estimation is evaluated as high and more factories should be surveyed for better results.

Some regions in which the production of electricity is mainly based on hydropower or other forms of energy that do not cause CO 2 emissions can result in overestimations of the sector emissions.

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Thus, uncertainties vary considerably de- pending on the local conditions. One way of reducing uncertainty is by increasing the sample size.

Based on the total uncertainties evaluated by local experts in China, India and Sri Lanka (Table 3.16), the total estimation of CO 2 emissions by some SMIs (Table 3.13) can be

expressed in terms of total emissions ±E,

where E is total uncertainty in emission units

(not a percentage). Figure 3.8 illustrates the uncertainty in CO 2 emissions from the selected SMI sectors.

±

Therefore, estimates of uncertainty in emission factor activity data need to be based on expert judgments when empirical data are lacking. It is important to select appropriate experts with respect to the emissions inventory inputs for which uncertainty estimates are needed.

3.7. Summary

This chapter provided an overview of the sector emissions in the selected countries. Although some estimates are not exact, they provide “ballpark” emission values which can be used in policy and decision-making to decide on future courses of action in GHG mitigation measures. A number of mitigation

scenarios are discussed in the next chapter.

of action in GHG mitigation measures. A number of mitigation scenarios are discussed in the next

GHG Emissions from SMI Sector

GHG Emissions from SMI Sector Figure 3.8 SMI sector CO 2 emissions and their ranges of
GHG Emissions from SMI Sector Figure 3.8 SMI sector CO 2 emissions and their ranges of

Figure 3.8 SMI sector CO 2 emissions and their ranges of uncertainty

Chapter 4

GHG Emission Mitigation Scenarios

This chapter discusses the results obtained from the earlier estimations of GHG emissions from the various SMI sectors through scenario analysis. Four instruments were considered and the mitigation that could result from each of the various scenarios is presented.

4.1. Emission Reduction Scenarios

Several GHG emission reduction scenarios were studied based on the following instruments:

1. Enhanced operation and maintenance

2. Adoption of E3STs

3. Fuel switching

4. Policy intervention

The effectiveness of these instruments will vary within the selected country when

GHG Emission Mitigation Scenarios

implementing a particular measure. Therefore, to assess the results of the scenarios in each country and to quantify the emission reduction options, CO 2 emission reduction potentials were calculated for 10%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 90% implementation for the above four instruments. The following sections describe these scenarios.

4.2. Emission Reduction through Enhanced O&M

In general, SMIs lack good O&M and housekeeping practices. Even when they employ qualified personnel, good O&M and housekeeping practices are not generally implemented due to a number of barriers. Enhancing O&M is one of the important measures that could help reduce energy use and GHG emissions from SMIs. Potential areas to improve O&M and housekeeping

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

practices in the selected SMI sectors include, but are not limited to:

preventive maintenance, e.g. on electrical motors and boilers

improving thermal efficiencies, e.g. in boilers, furnace, driers

retrofitting, e.g. employing better insulation and prevention of leaks of hot air, steam

providing information and awareness to workers and employees

Specific activities for enhanced O&M include cleaning and lubricating electric motors, repair of insulation materials, reducing waste, reuse of materials and waste heat, minimizing leaks, loading ovens and furnaces to their full rated capacity, uniform feeding of firewood, uniform size of firewood, and periodic cleaning of heater tubes. Implementing these O&M options would help reduce fuel and electricity consumption and thereby CO 2 emissions. The reduction could be significant as there is little or no initial investment cost incurred.

From the energy and environment audits and other case studies on energy efficiency, implementation of good housekeeping practices is expected to result in 5-25% reduction in total energy consumption and emissions depending on the current energy consumption in factories. Enhancing awareness of technicians and operators usually leads to a 5-10% reduction in fuel consumption. Box 4.1 shows an example that highlights the potential for energy efficiency improvement in the tea processing sector.

Table 4.1 shows several emission reduction scenarios based on good housekeeping prac- tices. The potential for achieving emission reductions with small investments are shown in bold and are based on inputs from experts.

Box 4.1

Efficiency improvement in air heaters

Tea drying is an energy intensive process. A considerable amount of moisture needs to be removed from freshly harvested leaves using hot air at 100 -120°C. Hot air can be obtained from flue gas or from burning firewood and the efficiency of the air heater and drier has a direct bearing on overall fuel consumption and consequent CO 2 emission rate. The higher the efficiency of the air heater, the less fuel used and hence reduced GHG emissions.

The unit in this example manufactures about 5,000 kg of tea per day. It requires 150 kg/h of firewood to produce air at 100°C at a flow rate of 13,000 cfm.The heat capacity of the heater is 0.6 million kcal/h.

Considerable heat loss from the chimney was observed. CO 2 was found to be 3% in the flue gas indicating excess air of about 500-600%. The furnace was operated by an induced draft fan with full damper opening. Leaks through valves and openings in the heater caused high heat lost. The damper was adjusted to reduce the flow and resulted in a marginal improvement in the amount of CO 2 emitted.

When a forced draft fan was introduced and furnace pressure was adjusted, CO 2 in the flue gas was 18%. This decreased firewood consumption to 100 kg/h. This substantial decrease through controlling the excess air could save 33% on fuel consumption with no additional investment.

substantial decrease through controlling the excess air could save 33% on fuel consumption with no additional
GHG Emission Mitigation Scenarios
GHG Emission Mitigation Scenarios

4.3. Emission Reduction through Adoption of E3STs

Many E3STs have been identified that can be economically implemented to reduce energy use and emissions. Several are discussed in the following sub-sections.

4.3.1. Tea sector

In the tea industry in India and Sri Lanka, many orthodox tea producers still use the conventional dryer because it can be used to dry both CTC and orthodox tea. Replacement of the conventional dryer by energy efficient fluidized bed dryers (FBD) or the combined dryer (tempest) requires a high capital investment. Tempest dryers are used in India and Sri Lanka due to their higher production and energy efficiency. A GHG emission scenario quantified the potential for emission reductions if the conventional driers were replaced with FBDs. The results are shown in Figure 4.1.

Use of direct-fired heater systems in the conventional dryer is also ideal for the FBD dryer. The limitation is that it can use only clean fuels such as low sulphur diesel or LPG. Other technologies, such as design modifications in air heater-cum-dryers, and two stage motors for weathering trough fans would also help reduce GHG emissions.

trough fans would also help reduce GHG emissions. Figure 4.1 Emission reductions using fluidized bed drier

Figure 4.1 Emission reductions using fluidized bed drier

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

4.3.2. Textile sector

In the Indian textile sector the soft-flow dyeing machine is energy efficient and a highly economical method for fabric dyeing. It reduces GHG emissions in a cost effective manner. Soft-flow dyeing and fluidized bed combustion boilers in Tirupur, one of the major textile clusters in South India, could save annually about 0.566 million t-CO 2 which is about 3% of the CO 2 emissions. Another technology option is the installation of photocells for speed frames. Installation of a soft starter-cum-energy saver in the simplex frames and use of energy efficient pneumafil fans in spinning mills requires a small investment. An example of the application of an indigenously developed E3ST implemented in a textile mill in India is given in Box 4.2. Locomotive boilers are also being used in the textile sector with an efficiency of about 20% and can be replaced with energy efficient boilers.

4.3.3. Foundry sector

One technological option is the improvement of energy efficiency in heat treatment systems and electric motors, which would reduce annually about 8,700-51,800 t-CO 2 . The cost of implementing these environmental friendly options ranges from:

a high initial investment cost for the installation of waste heat recovery systems

replacement of main frequency induction furnaces with medium frequency furnaces

replacement of the conventional cupola with a cokeless cupola

use of Automatic Star-Delta converters for lightly loaded motors

variable frequency drives at a low initial investment cost for improving energy efficiency and air-to-fuel ratio

Box 4.2

Energy saver for weaving sector of composite mills by Bombay Textile Research Association (BTRA)

The average electric power consumption in composite mills is around 23 kWh/loom shift. That works out to be Rs 276 (6.27 USD) per day/loom. Of the total power consumed, 22- 25% is used for weaving alone. For economy in weaving, there is an urgent need to reduce the power consumption and hence the cost. It has been observed that at every warp/weft break/mechanical stop, loom oiling and cleaning work, the loom is stopped while the electric motor runs idle.

Considering the average time an automatic shuttle loom is in use is 75%, the remaining 25% of the time attending to faults is wasted energy. Bombay Textile Research Association (BTRA) has developed an ‘Energy Saver’, for shuttle looms that is handy, portable and compact; safe to handle; easy to fix over the loom; and free of maintenance. The techno- economic benefits are as follows:

compact; safe to handle; easy to fix over the loom; and free of maintenance. The techno-

4.3.4. Brick sector

In the brick and tile sector, use of autoclaved aerated concrete blocks for kiln walls, replacement of traditional kilns with vertical continuous kilns, use of kilns with ceramic wool insulation, and introduction of thermometers have shown CO 2 emission reductions. These technologies require a small investment and can result in large economic benefits.

GHG Emission Mitigation Scenarios

4.4. Emission Reduction from Fuel Switching

Fuel switching is another option for reducing CO 2 emissions. In the study countries, high GHG emissions are also due to the use of carbon intensive fuels. The cupola furnace is the most common type of melting furnace used for the production of castings in the foundry sector (Pal et al., 2003). This sector uses coal and coke as the major fuels. In the tea and textile sectors in India, coal and

firewood are the major fuels used in the furnaces and boilers. In the brick sector,

firewood are the major fuels used in the furnaces and boilers. In the brick sector, coal and coke are the major fuels consumed in China and Vietnam. Firewood is mostly used

consumed in China and Vietnam. Firewood is mostly used in tea, desiccated coconut and tile sectors
consumed in China and Vietnam. Firewood is mostly used in tea, desiccated coconut and tile sectors
in tea, desiccated coconut and tile sectors in Sri Lanka. Alternative fuels with a low
in tea, desiccated coconut and tile sectors in Sri Lanka. Alternative fuels with a low
in tea, desiccated coconut and tile sectors in Sri Lanka. Alternative fuels with a low
in tea, desiccated coconut and tile sectors in Sri Lanka. Alternative fuels with a low

in tea, desiccated coconut and tile sectors in Sri Lanka. Alternative fuels with a low

and tile sectors in Sri Lanka. Alternative fuels with a low carbon content would help reduce
and tile sectors in Sri Lanka. Alternative fuels with a low carbon content would help reduce
and tile sectors in Sri Lanka. Alternative fuels with a low carbon content would help reduce
carbon content would help reduce emissions.
carbon content would help reduce emissions.
carbon content would help reduce emissions.
carbon content would help reduce emissions.

carbon content would help reduce emissions.

   
Among all fossil fuels, natural gas has the
Among all fossil fuels, natural gas has the
Among all fossil fuels, natural gas has the
Among all fossil fuels, natural gas has the
Among all fossil fuels, natural gas has the

Among all fossil fuels, natural gas has the

   
lowest CO 2 emission rates per unit energy
lowest CO 2 emission rates per unit energy
lowest CO 2 emission rates per unit energy
lowest CO 2 emission rates per unit energy

lowest CO 2 emission rates per unit energy

   
output (g-C/MJ) as can be seen in Appendix
output (g-C/MJ) as can be seen in Appendix
output (g-C/MJ) as can be seen in Appendix
output (g-C/MJ) as can be seen in Appendix
output (g-C/MJ) as can be seen in Appendix

output (g-C/MJ) as can be seen in Appendix

   
 

B.

Switching to fuels with a lower carbon-

In China, only about 0.6% of brick kiln walls are lined with autoclaved aerated concrete blocks. A reduction scenario considered the increased use of autoclaved aerated concrete blocks with the resulting emission reductions shown in Table 4.2. An annual emissions reduction potential of about one million t- CO 2 could be achieved.

4.3.5. Scenario summary

The GHG emission mitigation scenarios in the selected SMI sectors and CO 2 reduction potentials have been analysed and the results presented in Table 4.3.

to-hydrogen ratio, such as wood/coal to oil/ natural gas or oil to natural gas can reduce GHG emissions in a cost effective manner. An example of fuel switching from coal/ firewood to LPG in a ceramic factory in Vietnam is described in Box 4.3. The opportunities for fuel switching are, however, limited by geographic and market availability of alternative fuels and by cost. Coal is the major source of energy in most of the countries. In India, coal and natural gas are abundantly available but the changeover depends on other factors such as government policy, price advantages and the availability of alternative fuels.

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation 42 Chapter 4
 

Box 4.3

 

Application of fibre lined kiln and LPG in ceramic industry in Bat Trang, Vietnam

Bat Trang ceramic village of Vietnam has more than 1,000 enterprises involved in ceramic production and export. It has more than 1,400 coal-fired ceramic kilns. Introduction of fibre- lined kilns and LPG as fuel in 1999 has revolutionized the energy consumption pattern in the sector.

Comparison of energy consumption and emission in fibre-lined versus traditional kilns:

Energy

Unit

Fibre lined

Coal

Power

KWh/m 3

0.2

0.5

Gas

Kg/m 3

25.7

-

Coal

Kg/m 3

-

560

Firewood

Kg/m 3

-

37

CO 2

Kg/m 3

-

1,168.6

During the baking process, temperatures as high as 1,000°C are produced and in the process of firing the traditional kilns, a large amount of heat dissipates to the baking bags and kiln walls and is lost through the exhaust gases. The space requirement is larger, the working condition is poorer and the volume of product rejects is higher. The large volume emissions from coal and wood have decreased significantly by the use of fibre-lined kilns which reduces the dissipation of heat from the kiln walls and with waste gases. The use of cleaner, more energy efficient fuel would mitigate GHG emissions from the ceramic industry, enable a better working environment, require less space for installation, shorter baking time, uniform heating and lower production costs. The fibre-lined LPG kiln is known to save 30-50% energy and energy costs per batch of firing. It not only increases ceramic production but decreases energy consumption and thereby minimizes the emission. The investment for a 6 m 3 fibre-lined kiln is 1,900 USD with a payback period of 1- 3 years based on savings on energy (coal, firewood and electricity).

GHG Emission Mitigation Scenarios

4.4.1. Natural gas

In Sri Lanka, due to the total reliance on imported fossil fuels, switching to fuels like coal and natural gas may not be feasible. Furthermore, switching to coal would result in other environmental difficulties while for natural gas the required infrastructure does not exist at present. Under these circumstances, there are initiatives to use commercially grown wood as an alternative to jungle, forest and rubber wood and other fossil fuels (Dendro power). In terms of GHG emission reductions, this is considered to be the best option as the net emission effect is zero. However, there are constraints both on the supply and demand side of commercially or sustainably grown wood. Potential growers are worried about the lack of demand from the industry and this could lead to price instabilities. On the other hand, industries are reluctant to invest in the required technology changes due to fear of facing a short supply situation and price escalation in the future due to the anticipated high demand.

In foundries, switching to low carbon fuels such as furnace oil or natural gas can mitigate GHG emissions in a cost effective manner (Box 4.4). However, this may not be possible in cupola furnaces because fuels other than coke cannot be used. A better option is to change from conventional coke-fired cupolas to cokeless cupolas in which oil and gas can be used. If the cokeless cupola operates on cleaner fuel, the flue gas would be fairly clean.

While there are many factors that affect fuel switching options, it remains one of the best options for GHG emission mitigation. The estimated emission reductions due to fuel switching in selected industrial sectors in all

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

the participating countries is given in Table

4.4. Replacing 50% of the coke used in the

Chinese foundry sector with natural gas would reduce annually about two million t- CO 2 . In the Indian tea sector, using fuel oil to replace 30% of the firewood would reduce CO 2 emissions by 0.17 million tonnes. In Sri Lanka, if 50% of the fuel oil were to be replaced with commercially grown fuel wood in 10% of the desiccated coconut factories, this would have an emission reduction potential of about 1,700 t-CO 2 .

4.4.2. Renewable energy

Renewable energy technologies can also be used in SMIs. For example, installation of solar hot water systems in textile factories, solar air dryers for the tea sector, micro-hydro in the tea sector in India and Sri Lanka, and biomass gasifier systems in the brick and tea sector can replace fossil fuel use.

The tea sector in Sri Lanka uses mini-hydro power as a source of electric energy. The disadvantage of these small power systems is the seasonal availability of water, which could override the advantage of a cheaper energy supply with low environmental impact. However, this option for renewable energy generation needs detailed investigation and depends largely on location, resource availability and demand.

4.5. Emission Reduction through Policy Intervention

National governments can build fiscal and policy frameworks that discourage emissions. They can phase out counter-productive subsidies on carbon-intensive activities, and introduce energy-efficiency and other regulatory standards that promote the best current and future technologies (UNEP/

UNFCCC, 2002). Minimizing greenhouse gas emissions will require policymakers to take concrete decisions every time a subsidy is added or removed or a regulation or reform is put in place. Even though the economy as a whole stands to benefit from well-designed, market oriented policies for reducing emissions, action or inaction by government invariably creates winners and losers in the marketplace (UNEP/UNFCCC, 2002).

In this study, a policy scenario for the Philippines metal casting industry switching to cleaner low carbon fuels was considered. Under this policy option, if coal or oil were replaced with natural gas, there would be a potential to reduce annually about 23,000 t- CO 2 . However, this option would face technical and economic barriers such as replacement of burners and the high cost of natural gas. The emission reduction potential of such fuel switching scenarios are shown in Table 4.5. At present, there is no infrastructure for natural gas distribution. Natural gas could either be tapped by the industry directly from installed pipelines or through individual cylinder tanks.

Box 4.4

Fuel Switching in SMIs

Fuel switching to natural gas requires significant investment and could be difficult to implement in the SMI sector. Natural gas is not available as a domestic energy source in most of the study countries. Thus, a shift to natural gas would lead to changes in energy import dependency raising a number of policy issues. Initial investment and administrative costs may be substantial. New transport, distribution and end-use infrastructures would need to be developed. Hence, the achievable reduction potentials may differ significantly among regions, depending on local conditions such as relative fuel prices or gas availability (Watson et al. 1996).

GHG Emission Mitigation Scenarios

GHG Emission Mitigation Scenarios Chapter 4 45

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Similarly, for the other selected countries, CO 2 emission reduction estimates are based

Similarly, for the other selected countries, CO 2 emission reduction estimates are based on the options and the results are presented

Box 4.5

Policy options to meet SMI needs

1. For many SMIs, specific energy consumption is higher than the benchmark values. Policies must take this into consideration to assist the industries to adopt energy efficient technologies.

2. Incentives could be offered to existing industries to motivate them to apply energy conservation techniques. Government agencies should assist them to upgrade technologies and provide financial support for energy conservation.

3. Organizations providing research and development and technology transfer should be encouraged to introduce appropriate information on E3STs to enterprises. For example, SMIs in Vietnam lack information and are weak in accessing information.

4. It is necessary to set up and promulgate official standards for energy consumption in the brick sector. Correct guidance and support should be given to the SMIs during the process of selecting the technology.

5. Motivating energy conservation and pollution reduction could be achieved through setting standards and/or norms. This will guide investors to select the right technology at the initial stage of product development.

in Table 4.6. These are the general options common to most SMI sectors (Box 4.5). Policy options used in the mitigation scenarios take into account the SMI sector introduced constraints on emission levels (Box 4.6). It is possible to achieve a 5-10% GHG emission reduction by adopting policy options for the selected sectors.

4.6. Limitations of the Mitigation Scenarios Study

Implementing emission reduction options does not always require high capital expenditures. Some options incur only marginal costs but can achieve high emission reductions. This is possible by reducing energy consumption using E3STs or adopting alternative resources. Any improvement in energy use and adoption of alternative technologies in the selected SMI sector plays a role at the factory and national level.

Considering the nature of SMIs, implementing emission mitigation measures requires effective strategies that should encourage SMIs to improve energy and environmental performance. The strategy focuses on O&M options, also known as “good housekeeping” practices as the first step to reduce up to 5-10% of the emissions. This first good results can help SMIs gain more confidence and look at further options

Box 4.6

Barrier study and techno-economic analysis of E3ST

To help SMIs identify and implement GHG emission mitigation, studies on techno economic analysis and barriers to E3ST promotion were conducted. Along with the GHG emission estimation, the outcomes of these studies help to prioritize the influencing factors when adopting the E3STs in SMIs and discuss the policy options for overcoming them.

Main barriers to promoting E3ST:

Financial and economic costs are the most significant barriers inhibiting the promotion of E3STs in SMIs.

Policy and market barriers are also significant for the non-adoption of E3STs.

Technical and information, management and organizational weaknesses do not pose a significant barrier for the promotion of E3STs; however they are not insignificant.

Major techno-economic analysis issues:

Policy, technical and management stakeholders were involved in the study.

In China and India, financial viability of E3ST is the major concern, whereas in Sri Lanka, it is technological feasibility because the technology may have to be imported.

Among the study countries, China stresses most the environmental benefits of E3STs whereas Sri Lanka ranks it as the least important.

Foundries in China, textiles in India and the desiccated cocnut industry in Sri Lanka are the prioritized sectors for E3ST promotion.

like adoption of E3STs and fuel switching. Policy options related to incentives can then be implemented while those related to regulation and legislation should be enforced

GHG Emission Mitigation Scenarios

at a later stage to ensure sustainability of the implemented programmes.

The four categories of CO 2 mitigation instruments have substantial potential for CO 2 emission reductions in each sector. The Chinese foundry sector has a potential of between 4-20% depending on the instruments used, whereas it is about 10-49%

on the instruments used, whereas it is about 10-49% Figure 4.2 Effectiveness of four instruments in

Figure 4.2 Effectiveness of four instruments

in the Philippines metal casting sector. The overall mitigation potential considered is summarised in Table 4.7. However, it should be emphasized that all this potential cannot be achieved or implemented together as the four instruments are interdependent (although in this study they were considered independently). For instance, the potential to achieve emission reductions through enhanced O&M practices might not be possible if the existing technology is replaced with E3STs. Similarly, fuel switching depends on technology and national energy policies. Therefore, implementing one measure may have positive as well as negative affects on the other. Thus, CO 2 mitigation potential should be quantified cautiously to minimize over estimation of emission reduction potentials. The qualitative impact of these four instruments in emission mitigation is illustrated in Figure 4.2.

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

4.7. CDM as a Tool to Mitigate GHG Emission in SMIs

The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) provides financial opportunities under the Kyoto Protocol that could be employed to reduce GHGs (see Box 4.7). At present, developing countries do not have any obligatory emission reduction targets under the Protocol but CO 2 mitigating projects can be carried out through the CDM (Wathanyu and Christian, 2003). This is a facility for trading Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) between developing and developed countries, thus saving non-renewable carbon emissions by promoting renewable energy, energy efficiency and carbon sequestration projects in Developing Countries. Now, with the Kyoto Protocol in effect since February 16, 2005, opportunities to introduce CDM initiatives can be considered.

Several approaches may be used to estimate emission reductions for SMIs through an energy efficiency or a fuel switching CDM project. In all cases, the energy savings are estimated first and then translated into emission reductions using fuel or grid electricity emission factors. These emission factors should be the same as the ones used to set the baseline emissions. The GHG estimation based on this study methodology can be used to find baseline emission values.

The main barrier to implementing CDM is the availability of financing and a revenue stream directly proportional to the investments made in E3STs and the relatively high transaction costs for small-scale projects. The procedures are quite complex, hence there is a need for capacity building for project development before CDM initiatives can be considered a source of revenue generation.

Box 4.7

UNFCC, Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) came into force in 1994 followed by the Kyoto Protocol in 1997. The objective of the Convention is “to achieve stabilization of atmospheric concentration of GHGs at levels that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system”.

The Protocol has divided the signatories into two groups – Annex I Parties comprising the developed nations and the non-Annex I (Annex

II and Annex B) countries of the developing

world. To achieve the targets of the Protocol, parties are required to achieve the following targets within 2008-2012:

Enhance energy efficiency

Promote renewable energy

Favour sustainable agriculture

Recover methane emissions through waste management

Encourage reforms in relevant sectors to reduce emissions

Remove subsidies and other market distortions

Protect and enhance GHG sinks

Reduce transport sector emissions

The mechanism used to achieve the these goals

is called the Kyoto Mechanism, which is (i) Joint

Implementation, (ii) Emission Trading, and (iii) Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).

The CDM is anticipated to create development

in the non-Annex I countries through investment

by Annex I Parties and enhance the transfer of environmentally friendly technology and promote sustainable development. The CDM projects must be approved by all parties concerned and should lead to real, measurable and long-term climatic benefits that can be achieved by emission reductions and removals which would be in addition to those that would have occurred without the projects.

Source: UNFCCC 2003; 2004

GHG Emission Mitigation Scenarios

GHG Emission Mitigation Scenarios 4.8. Summary This chapter proposed and discussed four instruments that could be

4.8. Summary

This chapter proposed and discussed four instruments that could be employed in the selected SMI sectors for the reduction of GHG emissions. Table 4.7 summarises the emissions reductions that could be anticipated in the study countries. Further possibilities for emission reductions through CDM have also been considered.

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation 50 Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Conclusions & Recommendations

Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1

Conclusions

A framework on GHG emission estimation methodology for the SMI sector was established by customising the IPCC Guidelines and the UNEP GHG Indicators. This can be a useful tool to estimate GHG emissions from SMIs at the plant and sector levels.

Using this methodology, GHG emissions from selected SMI sectors of the participating countries were estimated and their uncertainties highlighted. The same framework can be used for estimation of emissions from other SMI sectors. A summary of estimated CO 2 emissions from the selected SMI sectors of the study countries is presented in Figure 5.1. Among the selected countries, China has the highest emissions. From the brick sector in China, total emissions are about 190 million t-CO 2 compared to 37 million tonnes in India and

0.03 million tonnes in Sri Lanka. Among the selected sectors, CO 2 emissions are mainly from the brick sector in China and India and the tea sector in Sri Lanka.

GHG emission mitigation options were based on four instruments: enhanced O&M practices, adoption of E3STs, fuel switching and policy intervention. CO 2 emission reduction potentials are summarised in Table

5.1.

In China, reductions of between 4 and 20% could be achieved in the foundry sector. The adoption E3STs has a potential of about 20%, while policy interventions could help to reduce about 4% of the sector emissions. In the textile sector, enhancing O&M practices and effective policies could lead to a 10% reduction.

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

In India, the brick sector has the highest emissions among the selected sectors and about 10-20% could be mitigated. The E3ST option has the highest potential of about 20%, while fuel switching could reduce about 14%. The textile sector has the second highest emissions and has a reduction potential of about 5-25%. Among the selected emission mitigation instruments, fuel switching has the highest potential for reductions in the textile sector while in the other three sectors it is about 5%. In the foundry sector, adoption of E3STs could lead to a emission reductions of 14%.

In the Philippines metal casting sector, adoption of E3STs such as energy efficient motors and efficiency improvements to heat treatment systems could lead to reductions of 0.13 million tonnes. However, it will require effective policies to attain the potential of 23% of the total emissions.

In Sri Lanka, adoption of E3STs in the tea sector could reduce the CO 2 emissions by 1.5% using specific technologies including replacement of conventional driers with fluidised bed driers. In the brick sector, about 11% can be reduced by adoption of E3STs. Firewood is the major source of fuel in the selected SMI sectors. Use of sustainably grown wood could reduce the emissions from the desiccated coconut sector by 7%.

reduce the emissions from the desiccated coconut sector by 7%. Figure 5.1 SMI sector CO 2

Figure 5.1 SMI sector CO 2 emissions

Conclusions & Recommendations

Conclusions & Recommendations 5.2. Recommendations 5.2.1. GHG emission estimations The following recommendations are

5.2. Recommendations

5.2.1. GHG emission estimations

The following recommendations are offered to help ensure the accuracy of data collection and analysis of future studies:

1. Improvements in the reliability of data

by including more factories in the surveys,

particularly in regions where a sector is strongly developed as a cluster so that estimations are more accurate and detailed uncertainty analysis can be carried out.

2. Distributions of SMI production type,

scale of production, their specific energy consumption, etc. should be established so that SMI sector emissions can be estimated with reasonable accuracy. Local associations and experts should be involved in the data gathering exercise.

3. CO 2 emissions from fuel upstream

processes and transportation, and process- related emissions should also be considered for widening the scope of the emission source

boundaries. However, when doing so a proper methodology needs to be adopted to

minimize the risk of high estimate uncertainties. Another option is to consider fuel extraction, transport, waste disposal, agriculture and forestry as separate sectors and make estimates, as national data with reasonable accuracies may be available.

4. Inventories of other GHG gases, such

as CH 4 , N 2 O, SF 6 , HFCs and PFCs from various sectors should be considered even though they may not be significant compared

to the contribution of CO 2 from SMIs.

5.2.2. Emission mitigation

To achieve the goal of environmental sustainability in the SMI sector, the following recommendations are offered:

1. Specific technologies and processes

that help mitigate GHG emissions across multiple industry sectors should be identified.

2. Promotion of energy efficient

technologies and processes through the bottom-up approach should be explored.

3. Cleaner production approaches should

be introduced as a tool for GHG emission

mitigation.

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

4. Benchmarking energy efficiency and

GHG emissions should be further developed

to set a baseline for SMIs.

5. The reliability of potential E3STs

should be demonstrated through projects that enable SMIs to invest in E3STs.

6. Cost of emission reductions should be

estimated for each of the scenarios so they can be prioritised. Implications of climate change policy from the SMI perspective should be studied.

Any course of action for industry and policy makers should be complementary to achieving the desired financial and socio- economic benefits to both parties. Mitigation options should be suggested for financial benefits at plant level, while policy options at the macro and national levels should be suggested to policy makers to make the business environment more conducive for industry to embrace suggestions. Even though the economy as a whole stands to benefit from well-designed, market oriented policies for reducing emissions, action or inaction by government invariably creates winners and losers in the marketplace (UNEP/UNFCCC, 2002).

5.2.3. CDM opportunities in SMI sectors

GHG mitigation through Kyoto Protocol mechanisms such as Carbon Trading and CDM should be explored. Although these mechanisms cannot be implemented by individual SMIs due to their small size and scattered nature, SMIs could be grouped or clustered to explore CDM opportunities.

The capacity of local institutions should be enhanced to more effectively identify potential CDM projects and prepare baseline emission estimates and techno-economic feasibility studies. Therefore, an appropriate mechanism should be developed for capacity building by involving all stakeholders, industry associations and, in particular, policy makers.

References

REFERENCES

ADB (2003). Key Indicators 2003, Asian Development Bank, Philippines, ISSN: 0116 3000 Website: http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/Key_Indicators/2003/default.asp.

AIT (2002a). Policy interventions to Promote Energy Efficient and Environmentally Sound Technologies in SMI, - SMIs in Asia: Energy and Environment, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand. ISBN 974-8209-01-6.

AIT (2002b). Small and Medium Scale Industries in Asia: Energy and Environment – Desiccated Coconut Sector, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand. ISBN 974-8208-47-8.

AIT (2002c). Energy, Environment and Climate Change Issues: A study by the Asian Regional Research Programme in Energy, Environment and Climate - Phase II (ARRPEEC-II): Various country reports [Sri Lanka (ISBN 974-241-662-1), China (ISBN 974-241-571-4); India (ISBN 974- 241-569-2), Vietnam (ISBN 974-241-714-8), Philippines (ISBN 974-241-661-3)], Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand.

AIT (2002d). Small and Medium Scale Industries in Asia: Energy and Environment – Tea Sector, Asian Institute of Technology. ISBN 974-8208-49-4.

BDA - Brick Development Association, UK (2004). Sustainability Strategy for the Brick Industry. Available from www.brick.org.uk/private/PDFs/KPI_update.pdf

China Foundry Association (2000). China Foundry Yearbook, Beijing China.

CIPEC (2004). Guide to Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Canadian Foundries, Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation, Office of Energy Efficiency, Canada. Available from http:// oee.nrcan.gc.ca/cipec/ieep/newscentre/foundry/index.cfm?PrintView=N&Text=N

Daben Z. (2002). Review and Perspective of Technology used in Chinese Foundry, Mechanical Engineering Department, Tsinghua University, China

Das M. C. ( 1999). Environmental issues, Green house gases and the Iron and Steel industry: An overview, J P C Bulletin on Iron and Steel, India. pp 9-16.

DOE (1999). Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Metalcasting Industry, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies (September 1999). Available from http://www.oit.doe.gov/metalcast/tools.shtml

EIA (2004). International Energy Outlook 2004, Energy Information Administration. Available from http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/

EIA (2004a). International Energy Annual 2002, World Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Consumption and Flaring of Fossil Fuels 1980-2002, Energy Information Administration (Table Posted on June 9, 2004). Available from http://www.eia.doe.gov/iea/carbon.html

EPA (1996). Evaluation the uncertainty of emission estimates: Volume IV, Emission Inventory Improvement Program, US Environmental Protection Agency.

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

ET (2003). Surveys of modern brick kilns in Vietnam.

EU (2002). Textiles and Clothing, Working Papers, EU-India Joint Initiative for Enhancing Trade and Investment, Business Forum, Brussels, Sept 26, 2002. Available from http://europa.eu.int/ comm/enterprise/enterprise_policy/business_dialogues/india/textile.pdf

EU (2004). The ATLAS Project – Industry, European Network of Energy Agencies (EnR) Directorate General XVII of the European Commission. Available from http://europa.eu.int/comm/ energy_transport/atlas/htmlu/otherb.html (June 2004).

Garg A. (2002). Climate Change and Indian Industry: Impacts and Opportunities, Conference on Climate Change: Issues and Opportunities, Chennai, 13 July 2002. Available from http://

www.envfor.nic.in/cc/cop8/chennai/agarg.pdf

GHG Protocol Initiative (2004). About the GHG Protocol. Available from http://www.ghgprotocol.org/ about.htm (updated May 29, 2004).

Guo S. (2002). The Development of China and Chinese Foundry Industry after Joining the WTO, China.

IPCC (1996). Guideline for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Volume I: Reporting Instruction, Volume II: Workbook, Volume III: Reference Manual.

IPCC (2001). IPCC Third Assessment Report: Climate Change 2001, National GHG Inventory Programme. http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp (Updated Aug 2004).

Kumar S., Visvanathan C., Kannan R. and Hererra A.B. (2002). Networking to Promote Energy Efficient and Environmentally Sound Technologies (E3ST) in Small and Medium Scale Industries, International Journal of Global Energy Issues, Vol. 17, No. 3, 171-188.

Ministry of Power, India (2001). Annual Report 2000-2001.

Ministry of Textiles, India (2002). Annual Report 2001-2002. Available from http://texmin.nic.in/

annualrep/ar02_c01.pdf

MIRDC - Metal Industry Research and Development Center (2003). Philippine Metal-casting Industry Study Metro Manila Philippines – 2003, Department of Science and Technology, Metro Manila Philippines.

MoSTE - Ministry of Science Technology and Environment (2000). Thailand Energy Situation – 2000, Department of Energy Development and Promotion, ISSN 0857-8486.

NATCOM-China (2004). Executive Summary - Initial National Communication on Climate Change, The People’s Republic of China, October 2004. Available from http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/

natc/chnnc1exsum.pdf

NATCOM-India (2004). India’s Initial National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Ministry of Environment and Forests, India, June 2004).Available from http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/natc/indnc1.pdf

NATCOM-Philippines (1999). Philippines’ Initial National Communication on Climate Change, December 1999. Available from http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/natc/phinc1.pdf

References

NATCOM-Sri Lanka (2000). Final Draft, Initial National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Sri Lanka, 27 October 2000. Available from http://

unfccc.int/resource/docs/natc/srinc1.pdf

NATCOM-Vietnam (2003). Vietnam Initial National Communication under the United nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 2003. Available from http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/natc/

vnmnc01.pdf

Pal P., Bhattacharjee S., Nath A. and Sethi G. 2003. Case Studies on Cupola Energy Improvement and Pollution Reduction, Indian Foundry Journal, Vol. 49, No. 5, May 2003, pp 24-27.

Priambodo A. and Kumar S. (2001). Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emission of Indonesian

Small and Medium Scale Industries, Energy Conversion and Management, Volume 42 (11), 1335-

1348.

REMAS (2003). Benchmarking and environmental performance standards - Sector based environmental performance indicators and benchmarks, 2003. Available from http:// remas.ewindows.eu.org/REMAS/en/project/performance.htm (Sep 2004).

Roy S. and Saxena A .K. (1996). Cleaner production in chemical industry: the Indian perspective, Proceedings of First Asian Conference CP in Chemical Industry, Available from www.nccp.org.tw/

pdf/con199616.pdf

SETC (2002). The Tenth Five-Year Development Plan for the Building Materials Industry, State Economic & Trade Commission of People’s Republic of China. Available from http://www.setc.gov.cn/

gjjmwznzn/kcxswgh/200207310012.htm

SMI Newsletter (2000). Volume 2, No. 4, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand.

Sri Lanka Central Bank (2000). Annual Report.

Sri Lanka Statistics (2002).Tea Research Institute, Coconut Development Authority, Tile Manufacturers’ Association.

TERI (2001). Case study: Resource utilization improvements in brick industry, Tata Energy Research Institute, Energy-Environment Technology Division, India. Updated November 2001. Available from http://www.teriin.org/case/brick.htm (March 2004).

The Institute of Indian Foundrymen (2004). An overview of the foundry clusters in India. Available from http://www.indianfoundry.com (September 2004).

UNEP (2000). The GHG Indicator: UNEP Guidelines for Calculating Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Business and Non-commercial Organizations, C. Thomas, T. Tennant and J. Rolls, UNEP Energy and Ozone Action Unit, Tour Mirabeau, France. Available from http://www.uneptie.org/ energy/publications/files/ghgind.htm

UNEP/UNFCCC (2002). Understanding Climate Change: A Beginner’s Guide to the UN Framework Convention and its Kyoto Protocol, September 2002 Website: http://unfccc.int/resource/

beginner_02_en.pdf

UNFCCC (1997). Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Available from http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/kpeng.pdf

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

UNFCCC (2003). Caring for Climate, A guide to the Climate Change Convention and the Kyoto Protocol Issued by the Climate Change Secretariat (UNFCC), Bonn, Germany.

UNFCCC (2004). Kyoto Protocol to enter into force 16 February 2005, Press Release 18 November.

Vietnam Law (2003). Vietnam Law Database – Newsletter No. 36.2003 (138), 12/9/2003, Hanoi, Vietnam. Available from http://www.vietlaw.gov.vn (Sep 2004)

Vietnam Statistics Yearbook (2002). Vietnam National Publishing House, Vietnam.

Wathanyu A. and Christian A. (2003). Eucalyptus plantations for electricity generation: the cost of carbon dioxide abatement in Thailand, International Journal of Sustainable Development 6 (3), 359-

377.

Watson R.T., Zinyowera M.C., Moss R.H. (1996). Technologies, Policies and Measures for Mitigating Climate Change, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

WBCSD (2001). Working Group Cement, The Cement CO2 Protocol: CO2 Emissions Monitoring

and Reporting Protocol for the Cement Industry - Guide to the Protocol, Version 1.6, October 19,

2001.

WBCSD/WRI (2004).The Greenhouse Gas Protocol - A Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard, revised edition, published on the website by World Business Council on Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and World Resources Institute (WRI). Available from http://www.wbcsd.ch/DocRoot/ AksVXm5UQfesrkxNBX4c/ghg-protocol-revised.pdf (September 2004).

Appendices

Appendix A: Net Calorific Value of Fuels
Appendix A: Net Calorific Value of Fuels
Appendices Appendix A: Net Calorific Value of Fuels Appendixes 59

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Appendix B: Carbon Emission Factor and Carbon Oxidation Factor of Fuels

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Appendix B: Carbon Emission Factor and Carbon Oxidation Factor of Fuels 60 Appendixes

Appendices

Appendices Appendixes 61
Appendices Appendixes 61
Appendices Appendixes 61

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

For factory 3

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation For factory 3 A. CO 2 emission from electricity use = 3,259,100 ×

A. CO 2 emission from electricity use = 3,259,100 × 0.000890/0.75 = 3867.5 t-CO 2

B. CO 2 emission from Diesel use = (365816/1000) × (0.869/1000000) × 43.33 × 20.2 × 0.99 ×

(44/12) t CO 2 = 1010.7 t-CO 2

Total CO 2 emissions = (3867.5 + 1010.7) t-CO 2 = 4878.1 t-CO 2 Specific emission factor (SEF Factory 3 ) = 4878.1/1314 CO 2 = 3.7 kg-CO 2 /kg of yarn

(Summary of SEFs are given in Table C2)

SMI sectoral emissions

From Equation (2.7), weighted average,

sectoral emissions From Equation (2.7), weighted average, SEF Average = SEF F a c t o

SEF Average = SEF Factory1 x[Annual Production Factory1 ]+SEF Factory2 x[Annual Production Factory2 ]+

Total production of all factories

= (2.441×2848) + (4.053×3560) + (3.712×1314) kg-CO 2 /kg of product

(2848 + 3560 + 1314)

= 3.4 kg-CO 2 /kg of year

From Equation (2.8), SMI sector GHG emission =SEF Average x National total production x Share of SMI’s production

Annual cotton yarn production from SMIs in India = 2,204,000 tonnes

SMI sectoral CO 2 emission =

∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ S M I sectoral CO 2 emission = 2,204,000 tonnes × 3.4

2,204,000 tonnes × 3.4 kg-CO 2/ kg

= 7.495 Million t-CO 2 /year

STEP 4: Uncertainty Analysis Total uncertainty is directly estimated by national expert:

U T = ±36%

STEP 5: Identifying CO 2 emission mitigation options and reduction potentials (Table C3)

Appendices

Appendix D: National GHG Emission Inventory in 1994

China

Total GHG emissions in 1994 were 3,650 million tonnes of CO 2 equivalent
Total GHG emissions in 1994 were 3,650 million tonnes of CO 2 equivalent

India

Total GHG emissions in 1994 were 1,228 million tonnes of CO 2 equivalent

in 1994 were 1,228 million tonnes of CO 2 equivalent Philippines Total CO2 emissions in 1994

Philippines

Total CO2 emissions in 1994 were 100.86 million tonnes

million tonnes of CO 2 equivalent Philippines Total CO2 emissions in 1994 were 100.86 million tonnes

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Sri Lanka

Total CO 2 emissions in 1994 were 33.63 million tonnes
Total CO 2 emissions in 1994 were 33.63 million tonnes

Vietnam

Total GHG emissions in 1994 were 25.64 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent

were 33.63 million tonnes Vietnam Total GHG emissions in 1994 were 25.64 million tonnes of CO2